N'Djamena: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

Advertisements

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

N'Djamena
نجامينا Nijāmīnā
Downtown N'Djamena

Coat of arms
N'Djamena is located in Chad
N'Djamena
Location in Chad
Coordinates: 12°6′47″N 15°2′57″E / 12.11306°N 15.04917°E / 12.11306; 15.04917
Country  Chad
Region N'Djamena
Arrondissments
Elevation 978 ft (298 m)
Population (2009)
 - Total 993,492
Time zone +1

N'Djamena (pronounced /ɨndʒəˈmeɪnə/, Arabic نجامينا Nijāmīnā), population 993,492 (2009), is the capital city of Chad. It is also the largest city in the country. A port on the Chari River, near the confluence with the Logone River, it directly faces the Cameroonian town of Kousséri, to which the city is connected by a bridge. It is also a special statute region, divided in 10 arrondissements. It is a regional market for livestock, salt, dates, and grains. Meat, fish and cotton processing are the chief industries, and the city continues to serve as the centre of economic activity in Chad, despite the violent civil conflicts.[1]

Contents

History

N'Djamena was founded as Fort-Lamy by French commander Émile Gentil on May 29, 1900, and named after Amédée-François Lamy, an army officer who had been killed in the Battle of Kousséri a few days earlier.[2] During the Second World War, the French relied heavily upon the airport to move troops and supplies.[1]

Its name was changed to N'Djamena (taken from the Arab name of a nearby village, Niǧāmīnā, meaning "place of rest") by the President François Tombalbaye on April 6, 1973,[2] as part of his authenticité program of Africanization. It was occupied by Libya during the 1980-1 Libyian intervention as part of the Chadian–Libyan conflict,[3] the and associated Transitional Government of National Unity.

Fort Lamy received its first bank branch only in 1950, when the Bank of West Africa (BAO) finally opened a branch there.

The city was partly destroyed during the Chadian Civil War, in 1979 and again in 1980. In these years almost all of the population fled the town, serching refuge on the opposite bank of the Chari river, in Cameroun next to the city of Kousseri. The citizens were to start returning only in 1981-82 after the end of the clashes. Even then, facilities and services were riactivited were subject up to 1984 to strict rationing, and the schools were left closed.[4]

The period of turmoil in the city was started by the abortive coup attempted by the northerner Prime Minister Hissène Habré against the southerner President General Félix Malloum: while Malloum and the national army loyal to him were defeated, the intervention in the battle of other northern factions rival to that of Habré complicated the situation. A temporary truce was reached in 1979 through international mediation, establishing the warlord Goukouni Oueddei as head of a government of national unity with his rival Habré as Defense Minister. The intense rivality between Goukouni and Habré caused the eruption of new clashes in the city in 1980; N'Djamena found itself divided in sectors controlled by the various warlords. The tug-of-war reached a conclusion after many monthes only when Goukouni asked for the intervention of the Libyans, whose tanks overwhelmed Habré's defenses in the capital.[5]

Following differences between Goukouni and Qaddafi and international disapproval of Libyan intervention, the Libyan troops left the capital and Chad in 1981. This opened the door to Habré, who marched on N'Djamena occupying with little resistance the city in 1982 and placing himself as new President.[6] He was eventually dislodged in a similar fashion in 1990 by a former general of his, Idriss Déby, the current head of state of Chad.

The city had only 9,976 inhabitants in 1937, but a decade later, in 1947, the population had almost doubled at 18,435. After independence in 1968 the population reached 126,483. In 1993 it surpassed half a million with 529,555. A good deal of this growth has been down to refugees fleeing into N'Djamena for security, although many people fled N'Djamena also, depending on the political situation.[1]

On April 13, 2006, a rebel United Front for Democratic Change attack on the city was defeated.[7] (See Battle of N'Djamena (2006))

The city was once again attacked on February 2, 2008, by UFDD and RFC rebels.[8] (See Battle of N'Djamena (2008))

Demographics

The population growth is shown below:-

  • 1937: 9,976
  • 1940: 12,552
  • 1947: 18,375
  • 1958: 53,000[1]
  • 1960: 60,000[1]
  • 1970: 130,000[1]
  • 1993: 529,555[1][9]
  • 2000: 728,000[1]
  • 2005: 721,000
  • 2008: 860,000 (est.)
  • 2009: 993,492

A variety of religions are practiced in the city, but with a clear Islamic predominance. The main ethnic groups are Ngambaye (16.41%), [[Arab|Chadian Arabs] (11.08%), Hadjerai (9.15%), Daza (6.97%), Bilala (5.83%), Kanembu (5.80%), Maba (4.84%), Kanuri (4.39%), Gor (3.32%), Kuka (3.20%), Sara (2.24%), and Barma (2.10%).

Geography

The cathedral in N'Djamena, Chad, as it was before it was severely damaged during the civil war.

N'Djamena is located at 12°6'47" N, 15°2'57" E, on the confluence of the Chari and Logone rivers.[1]

While primarily an administrative center, the city includes the Nassara Strip commercial centre and residential areas such as Mbololo, Chagoua, Paris Congo and Moursal. The main commercial avenue of the city is the Avenue Charles de Gaulle.

Tourism and culture

Attractions in the city include the Chad National Museum, a cathedral and several mosques. Views of sunset across the Chari River can also be spectacular. N'Djamena was named Capital of Islamic Culture for 2009.[10] N'Djamena is also home to the Chad National Museum.[10]

Education

N'Djamena have two universities: University of N'Djamena in French as a studying language built 1971[11] and King Faisal University - Chad in Arabic as a studying language[12] built 1991, a number of secondary schools (including the long established Lycée Félix Éboué and Lycée technique commercial), and the American International School of N'Djamena.

Government

N'Djamena is the home of the National Assembly of Chad, along with many political organisations and parties, and every national ministry. The Supreme Court and Court of Appeal are also in N'Djamena, along with every major embassy in Chad, including the French and US.[13] It is sometimes considered within the region of Chari-Bagrimi, although separate.[14]

Transport

The city is the eastern terminus of the Trans-Sahelian Highway, and is linked to East Africa by the Ndjamena-Djibouti Highway. The Tripoli-Cape Town Highway also passes through N'Djamena, making it a key Central African location in the Trans-African Highway network. Ndjamena is linked by road bridge to Kousseri in Cameroon.

N'Djamena International Airport (IATA code NDJ) is located on the outskirts of the city.

Historically, N'Djamena's main link to the exterior was by river boat up the Chari and Logone rivers but these now carry little trade.

The city has no railway links, however railways are proposed in the AfricaRail project.

Climate

N'Djamena features a tropical savanna climate with a wet season and a dry season. The wet season covers from May to October, with the heaviest precipitation occurring in August. The dry season essentially covers the remaining six months. Based on annual temperatures, N'Djamena is one of the hottest major cities on the planet. Only one month of the year (August) do average high temperatures fail to cross the 32°C (90°F) mark. The city's highest temperatures are usually seen between March and June, just before the onset of the heavier rains. However outside of the warmest months of the year, nights in N'Djamena are generally tolerable.

Climate data for N'Djamena
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 42
(108)
43
(109)
44
(111)
46
(115)
44
(111)
43
(109)
41
(106)
36
(97)
37
(99)
39
(102)
40
(104)
38
(100)
46
(115)
Average high °C (°F) 34
(93)
37
(99)
40
(104)
42
(108)
40
(104)
38
(100)
33
(91)
31
(88)
33
(91)
36
(97)
36
(97)
33
(91)
36
(97)
Average low °C (°F) 14
(57)
16
(61)
21
(70)
23
(73)
25
(77)
24
(75)
22
(72)
22
(72)
22
(72)
21
(70)
17
(63)
14
(57)
20
(68)
Record low °C (°F) 8
(46)
11
(52)
13
(55)
16
(61)
17
(63)
18
(64)
18
(64)
19
(66)
19
(66)
14
(57)
11
(52)
8
(46)
8
(46)
Precipitation mm (inches) 0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
3
(0.12)
31
(1.22)
66
(2.6)
170
(6.69)
320
(12.6)
119
(4.69)
36
(1.42)
0
(0)
0
(0)
745
(29.33)
Source: BBC Weather [15] 2009-08-18

Gallery

The following pictures are undated but were all probably taken in the 1960s.

Twin cities

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Zeleza, Tiyambe; Dickson Eyoh. Encyclopedia of twentieth-century African history. p. 379. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=kjUHZrPBPPYC&pg=PA379#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  2. ^ a b Zurocha-Walske, Christine (2009). Chad in Pictures. p. 17. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=kkB1GaR2SXEC&pg=PT19#. 
  3. ^ "N’Djamena (Chad)". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2009. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/407350/NDjamena. Retrieved 29 November 2009. 
  4. ^ Samuel Decalo, Historical Dictionary of Chad, Scarecrow, 1987, pp. 229-230
  5. ^ Robert Buijtenhuijs, Le Frolinat et les guerres civiles du Tchad, Karthala, 1987, pp. 67-175
  6. ^ R. Buijtenhuijs, Le Frolinat et les guerres civiles du Tchad, pp. 177-225
  7. ^ BBC: UN condemns rebel attack in Chad
  8. ^ "Rebels clash with Chadian forces inside capital". February 2, 2008. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/22962528. 
  9. ^ Europa Publications. Africa South of the Sahara. p. 230. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=jj4J-AXGDaQC&pg=PA230#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  10. ^ a b "N’Djamena, Capital of Islamic Culture for 2009". 2009. http://www.isesco.org.ma/english/capitalsIslamic/N%20Djamena2009/index.php. Retrieved 1 December 2009. 
  11. ^ UNDT. "About the University". The University of N'Djamena Website. http://www.undt.info/about.asp. Retrieved 30 November 2009. 
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ Europa Publications (2004). Africa South of the Sahara. pp. 235–6. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=jj4J-AXGDaQC&pg=PA235. 
  14. ^ "N'Djamena, Chari-Baguirmi, Chad". Mbendi Information Services. http://www.mbendi.com/a_sndmsg/place_view.asp?pid=1116. Retrieved 1 December 2009. 
  15. ^ "Average Conditions Ndjamena, Chad". BBC Weather. http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/world/city_guides/results.shtml?tt=TT000130. Retrieved August 18, 2009. 
  16. ^ "Toulouse-N’Djamena: une solidarité durable" (in French). Adequations. 2008. http://www.adequations.org/spip.php?article165. Retrieved 30 November 2009. 
  17. ^ (Russian) "Российско-чадские отношения". Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 16 February 2009. http://www.mid.ru/ns-rafr.nsf/89414576079db559432569d8002421fc/d6d8fcf1a1c7ad25c32571210044bea9?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2009-07-23. 

External links

Coordinates: 12°06′43″N 15°02′06″E / 12.112°N 15.035°E / 12.112; 15.035


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

N'Djamena is the capital of Chad. It is by far the country's largest city, with a population of 721,000 people. It lies directly on the border of Cameroon, and is located on the confluence of the Chari and Logone rivers. The city has been at the center stage of many heated rebellions and revolts, and in February 2008 was entered by rebel troops.

Get in

The only flight from a non-African city is from Paris (by Air France). Destinations in Africa include Johannesburg, Addis Ababa, Tripoli and Khartoum. Historically, the main entry to the city was by boat up the Chari and Logone rivers, but today this is rarely done. The city has no railway links.

See

A muslim city, there are many mosques to see in the city, as well as a cathedral and the presidential palace. There is also the Chad National Museum, although it has lost most of its artifacts from being looted during recent civil unrest. And do not forget the views across the river.

Do

Go shopping in the local markets- even if only for an afternoon snack- that are scattered throughout the city. This lets you experience the everyday life and culture of Chad, and also helps contributes to the country's poor economy.

Drink

Chad is a predominantly Islamic country, so do not expect alcohol to be as widely accepted as in other countries.

  • United States, Avenue Felix Eboue; B.P. 413, (235) 251-62-11 (fax: (235) 251-56-54), [2].  edit

Get out

N'Djamena has the only international airport in Chad. Leaving the main city may be dangerous, as high levels of civil unrest are currently being experienced in the country. Travelling to the Tibesti Mountains is not safe, either, as this is a militarily sensitive zone. As in all third world countries, stay safe and have caution in your actions.

This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

English

Proper noun

N'Djamena

  1. The capital of Chad.

Translations


Simple English

N'Djamena
Coordinates: 12°6′43″N 15°2′6″E / 12.11194°N 15.035°E / 12.11194; 15.035
Country Chad
Region N'Djamena
Founded May 22, 1900
Renamed April 6, 1973
Population (2005)
 - Total 721,000

N'Djamena is the capital of Chad. It is the largest city in the country. The city is a port on the Chari River. N'Djamena is also a special statute region. It is a regional market for livestock, salt, dates, and grains. Meat processing is the main industry. N'Djamena has a population of 721,000 people.

Attractions in the city include the Chad National Museum, a cathedral and several mosques. Religiously the city is very mixed, although many of the people there are Islamic . N'Djamena has a university, schools of administration and veterinary medicine, and the American International School of N'Djamena. N'Djamena International Airport is located just outside the city.

History

N'Djamena was founded as Fort-Lamy by the French commander Émile Gentil on May 29 1900. It was named after Amédée-François Lamy. He was an army officer who had been killed in the Battle of Kousséri a few days earlier. The name was changed to N'Djamena (taken from the Arab name Niǧāmīnā, meaning "place of rest") by the President François Tombalbaye on April 6, 1973. It was changed to make it more African.

The city was badly damaged during the Chadian Civil War, in 1979 and again in 1980. On April 13, 2006, the United Front for Democratic Change attacked the city but the attack failed.[1].

References

  1. Chad confronts rebels in capital BBC.co.uk April 13, 2006

Other websites


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message