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Nodal homolog (mouse)
Symbols NODAL; MGC138230
External IDs OMIM601265 MGI97359 HomoloGene8417 GeneCards: NODAL Gene
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 4838 18119
Ensembl ENSG00000156574 ENSMUSG00000037171
UniProt Q96S42 A0PK81
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_018055 NM_013611
RefSeq (protein) NP_060525 NP_038639
Location (UCSC) Chr 10:
71.86 - 71.87 Mb
Chr 10:
60.81 - 60.82 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Nodal is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NODAL gene.[1][2] It is a member of the TGF beta superfamily. Like many other members of this superfamily, it is involved in cell differentiation. Studies of the mouse counterpart suggested that this gene may be essential for mesoderm formation and subsequent organization of left-right axial structures in early embryonic development.[2] Nodal null mice die shortly after gastrulation.[3]

The left-right asymmetry in the body of vertebrates is established by a process that uses the Nodal and Lefty proteins; Nodal is expressed in the left side of the organism in early development.[4] An ortholog of Nodal was recently found in snails and was shown to be involved in left-right asymmetry as well.[5]


  1. ^ Gebbia M, Ferrero GB, Pilia G, Bassi MT, Aylsworth A, Penman-Splitt M, Bird LM, Bamforth JS, Burn J, Schlessinger D, Nelson DL, Casey B (Dec 1997). "X-linked situs abnormalities result from mutations in ZIC3". Nat Genet 17 (3): 305-8. doi:10.1038/ng1197-305. PMID 9354794.  
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: NODAL nodal homolog (mouse)".  
  3. ^ Reissmann E, Jörnvall H, Blokzijl A, et al. (August 2001). "The orphan receptor ALK7 and the Activin receptor ALK4 mediate signaling by Nodal proteins during vertebrate development". Genes Dev. 15 (15): 2010–22. doi:10.1101/gad.201801. PMID 11485994.  
  4. ^ Hamada H, Meno C, Watanabe D, Saijoh Y (February 2002). "Establishment of vertebrate left-right asymmetry". Nat. Rev. Genet. 3 (2): 103–13. doi:10.1038/nrg732. PMID 11836504.  
  5. ^ Grande C, Patel NH (February 2009). "Nodal signalling is involved in left-right asymmetry in snails". Nature 457 (7232): 1007–11. doi:10.1038/nature07603. PMID 19098895.  

Further reading

  • Postovit LM, Seftor EA, Seftor RE, Hendrix MJ (2007). "Targeting Nodal in malignant melanoma cells.". Expert Opin. Ther. Targets 11 (4): 497–505. doi:10.1517/14728222.11.4.497. PMID 17373879.  
  • Zhou X, Sasaki H, Lowe L, et al. (1993). "Nodal is a novel TGF-beta-like gene expressed in the mouse node during gastrulation.". Nature 361 (6412): 543–7. doi:10.1038/361543a0. PMID 8429908.  
  • Yan YT, Liu JJ, Luo Y, et al. (2002). "Dual roles of Cripto as a ligand and coreceptor in the nodal signaling pathway.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (13): 4439–49. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.13.4439-4449.2002. PMID 12052855.  
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMID 12477932.  
  • Roberts HJ, Hu S, Qiu Q, et al. (2003). "Identification of novel isoforms of activin receptor-like kinase 7 (ALK7) generated by alternative splicing and expression of ALK7 and its ligand, Nodal, in human placenta.". Biol. Reprod. 68 (5): 1719–26. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.102.013045. PMID 12606401.  
  • Munir S, Xu G, Wu Y, et al. (2004). "Nodal and ALK7 inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in human trophoblast cells.". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (30): 31277–86. doi:10.1074/jbc.M400641200. PMID 15150278.  
  • Haffner C, Frauli M, Topp S, et al. (2005). "Nicalin and its binding partner Nomo are novel Nodal signaling antagonists.". Embo J. 23 (15): 3041–50. doi:10.1038/sj.emboj.7600307. PMID 15257293.  
  • Besser D (2004). "Expression of nodal, lefty-a, and lefty-B in undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells requires activation of Smad2/3.". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (43): 45076–84. doi:10.1074/jbc.M404979200. PMID 15308665.  
  • Bamforth SD, Bragança J, Farthing CR, et al. (2004). "Cited2 controls left-right patterning and heart development through a Nodal-Pitx2c pathway.". Nat. Genet. 36 (11): 1189–96. doi:10.1038/ng1446. PMID 15475956.  
  • Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).". Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2121–7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMID 15489334.  
  • Vallier L, Reynolds D, Pedersen RA (2005). "Nodal inhibits differentiation of human embryonic stem cells along the neuroectodermal default pathway.". Dev. Biol. 275 (2): 403–21. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2004.08.031. PMID 15501227.  
  • Hart AH, Willson TA, Wong M, et al. (2005). "Transcriptional regulation of the homeobox gene Mixl1 by TGF-beta and FoxH1.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 333 (4): 1361–9. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.06.044. PMID 15982639.  
  • Vallier L, Alexander M, Pedersen RA (2006). "Activin/Nodal and FGF pathways cooperate to maintain pluripotency of human embryonic stem cells.". J. Cell. Sci. 118 (Pt 19): 4495–509. doi:10.1242/jcs.02553. PMID 16179608.  

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