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Nuclear respiratory factor 1
External IDs OMIM600879 MGI1332235 HomoloGene3674 GeneCards: NRF1 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE NRF1 204651 at tn.png
PBB GE NRF1 204652 s at tn.png
PBB GE NRF1 211279 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 4899 18181
Ensembl ENSG00000106459 ENSMUSG00000058440
UniProt Q16656 Q8BSP8
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001040110 NM_010938
RefSeq (protein) NP_001035199 NP_035068
Location (UCSC) Chr 7:
129.04 - 129.18 Mb
Chr 6:
30.04 - 30.1 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Nuclear respiratory factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NRF1 gene.[1]

This gene encodes a phosphorylated nuclear protein with a bZIP domain. This protein homodimerizes and functions as a transcription factor that activates the expression of some key metabolic genes regulating cellular growth and nuclear genes required for respiration, heme biosynthesis, and mitochondrial DNA transcription and replication. The protein has also been associated with the regulation of neurite outgrowth. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, which encode the same protein, have been characterized. Additional variants encoding different protein isoforms have been described but they have not been fully characterized.[2]



NRF1 has been shown to interact with DYNLL1[3] and PPARGC1A.[4]


  1. ^ Jacob WF, Silverman TA, Cohen RB, Safer B (Jan 1990). "Identification and characterization of a novel transcription factor participating in the expression of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha". J Biol Chem 264 (34): 20372–84. PMID 2584221.  
  2. ^ "Entrez Gene: NRF1 nuclear respiratory factor 1".  
  3. ^ Herzig, R P; Andersson U, Scarpulla R C (Dec. 2000). "Dynein light chain interacts with NRF-1 and EWG, structurally and functionally related transcription factors from humans and drosophila". J. Cell. Sci. (ENGLAND) 113 Pt 23: 4263–73. ISSN 0021-9533. PMID 11069771.  
  4. ^ Wu, Z; Puigserver P, Andersson U, Zhang C, Adelmant G, Mootha V, Troy A, Cinti S, Lowell B, Scarpulla R C, Spiegelman B M (Jul. 1999). "Mechanisms controlling mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration through the thermogenic coactivator PGC-1". Cell (UNITED STATES) 98 (1): 115–24. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80611-X. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 10412986.  

Further reading

  • Tiranti V, Rossi E, Rocchi M, et al. (1995). "The gene (NFE2L1) for human NRF-1, an activator involved in nuclear-mitochondrial interactions, maps to 7q32.". Genomics 27 (3): 555–7. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1094. PMID 7558044.  
  • Gopalakrishnan L, Scarpulla RC (1995). "Structure, expression, and chromosomal assignment of the human gene encoding nuclear respiratory factor 1.". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (30): 18019–25. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.30.18019. PMID 7629110.  
  • Efiok BJ, Chiorini JA, Safer B (1994). "A key transcription factor for eukaryotic initiation factor-2 alpha is strongly homologous to developmental transcription factors and may link metabolic genes to cellular growth and development.". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (29): 18921–30. PMID 8034649.  
  • Virbasius JV, Scarpulla RC (1994). "Activation of the human mitochondrial transcription factor A gene by nuclear respiratory factors: a potential regulatory link between nuclear and mitochondrial gene expression in organelle biogenesis.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91 (4): 1309–13. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.4.1309. PMID 8108407.  
  • Virbasius CA, Virbasius JV, Scarpulla RC (1994). "NRF-1, an activator involved in nuclear-mitochondrial interactions, utilizes a new DNA-binding domain conserved in a family of developmental regulators.". Genes Dev. 7 (12A): 2431–45. doi:10.1101/gad.7.12a.2431. PMID 8253388.  
  • Spelbrink JN, Van den Bogert C (1996). "The pre-mRNA of nuclear respiratory factor 1, a regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, is alternatively spliced in human tissues and cell lines.". Hum. Mol. Genet. 4 (9): 1591–6. doi:10.1093/hmg/4.9.1591. PMID 8541844.  
  • Johnsen O, Skammelsrud N, Luna L, et al. (1996). "Small Maf proteins interact with the human transcription factor TCF11/Nrf1/LCR-F1.". Nucleic Acids Res. 24 (21): 4289–97. doi:10.1093/nar/24.21.4289. PMID 8932385.  
  • Venugopal R, Jaiswal AK (1997). "Nrf1 and Nrf2 positively and c-Fos and Fra1 negatively regulate the human antioxidant response element-mediated expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 gene.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (25): 14960–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.25.14960. PMID 8962164.  
  • Chen S, Nagy PL, Zalkin H (1997). "Role of NRF-1 in bidirectional transcription of the human GPAT-AIRC purine biosynthesis locus.". Nucleic Acids Res. 25 (9): 1809–16. doi:10.1093/nar/25.9.1809. PMID 9108165.  
  • Toki T, Itoh J, Kitazawa J, et al. (1997). "Human small Maf proteins form heterodimers with CNC family transcription factors and recognize the NF-E2 motif.". Oncogene 14 (16): 1901–10. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201024. PMID 9150357.  
  • Marini MG, Chan K, Casula L, et al. (1997). "hMAF, a small human transcription factor that heterodimerizes specifically with Nrf1 and Nrf2.". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (26): 16490–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.26.16490. PMID 9195958.  
  • Gugneja S, Scarpulla RC (1997). "Serine phosphorylation within a concise amino-terminal domain in nuclear respiratory factor 1 enhances DNA binding.". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (30): 18732–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.30.18732. PMID 9228045.  
  • Johnsen O, Murphy P, Prydz H, Kolsto AB (1998). "Interaction of the CNC-bZIP factor TCF11/LCR-F1/Nrf1 with MafG: binding-site selection and regulation of transcription.". Nucleic Acids Res. 26 (2): 512–20. doi:10.1093/nar/26.2.512. PMID 9421508.  
  • Au HC, Scheffler IE (1998). "Promoter analysis of the human succinate dehydrogenase iron-protein gene--both nuclear respiratory factors NRF-1 and NRF-2 are required.". Eur. J. Biochem. 251 (1-2): 164–74. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.1998.2510164.x. PMID 9492280.  
  • Miranda S, Foncea R, Guerrero J, Leighton F (1999). "Oxidative stress and upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis genes in mitochondrial DNA-depleted HeLa cells.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 258 (1): 44–9. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1999.0580. PMID 10222232.  
  • Li B, Holloszy JO, Semenkovich CF (1999). "Respiratory uncoupling induces delta-aminolevulinate synthase expression through a nuclear respiratory factor-1-dependent mechanism in HeLa cells.". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (25): 17534–40. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.25.17534. PMID 10364186.  
  • Wu Z, Puigserver P, Andersson U, et al. (1999). "Mechanisms controlling mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration through the thermogenic coactivator PGC-1.". Cell 98 (1): 115–24. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80611-X. PMID 10412986.  
  • Solecki D, Bernhardt G, Lipp M, Wimmer E (2000). "Identification of a nuclear respiratory factor-1 binding site within the core promoter of the human polio virus receptor/CD155 gene.". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (17): 12453–62. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.17.12453. PMID 10777530.  
  • Kumari D, Usdin K (2001). "Interaction of the transcription factors USF1, USF2, and alpha -Pal/Nrf-1 with the FMR1 promoter. Implications for Fragile X mental retardation syndrome.". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (6): 4357–64. doi:10.1074/jbc.M009629200. PMID 11058604.  

External links

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.



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