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The New York Times
NewYorkTimes.svg
New York Times cover 7-19-09.jpg
The July 19, 2009, front page of
The New York Times
Type Daily newspaper
Format Broadsheet
Owner The New York Times Company
Publisher Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr.
Editor Bill Keller
Staff writers 350
Founded 1851
Headquarters New York Times Building
620 Eighth Avenue
Manhattan, New York
Circulation 928,000 daily
1,451,233 Sunday[1]
ISSN 0362-4331
Official website http://www.nytimes.com

The New York Times is an American daily newspaper founded and continuously published in New York City since 1851. Although it remains both the largest local metropolitan newspaper in the United States as well as third largest overall behind The Wall Street Journal and USA Today, the weekday circulation of the paper has nonetheless fallen precipitously in recent years to fewer than one million copies daily for the first time since the 1980s.[1] Nicknamed "The Gray Lady" and long regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record," the Times is owned by The New York Times Company which also publishes 18 other regional newspapers including the International Herald Tribune and The Boston Globe. The company's chairman is Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. whose family has controlled the paper since 1896.[2]

The paper's motto, as printed in the upper left-hand corner of the front page, is "All the News That's Fit to Print." It is organized into sections: News, Opinions, Business, Arts, Science, Sports, Style and Features. The Times stayed with the eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six columns, and it was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography. The Times has won 101 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of any news organization.[3] Its web site was the most popular American online newspaper Web site as of December 2008, receiving more than 18 million unique visitors in that month.[4]

Contents

History

The Times Square Building, The New York Times' headquarters from 1913 to 2007

The New York Times was founded on September 18, 1851, by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond, the second chairman of the Republican National Committee, and former banker George Jones as the New-York Daily Times. Sold at an original price of one cent per copy, the inaugural edition attempted to address the various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release:[5]

We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good;—and we shall be Radical in everything which may seem to us to require radical treatment and radical reform. We do not believe that everything in Society is either exactly right or exactly wrong;—what is good we desire to preserve and improve;—what is evil, to exterminate, or reform.

The paper changed its name to The New York Times in 1857. The newspaper was originally published every day except Sunday, but on April 21, 1861, due to the demand for daily coverage of the Civil War, The Times, along with other major dailies, started publishing Sunday issues. One of the earliest public controversies in which the paper was involved was the Mortara Affair, an affair that was the object of 20 editorials in The Times alone.[6]

The paper's influence grew during 1870–71 when it published a series of exposés of Boss Tweed that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall.[7] In the 1880s, The Times transitioned from supporting Republican candidates to becoming politically independent; in 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential election. While this move hurt The Times' readership, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years.[8]

The Times was acquired by Adolph Ochs, publisher of the Chattanooga Times, in 1896. The following year, he coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print";[8] this was a jab at competing papers such as the New York World and the New York Journal American which were known for lurid yellow journalism. Under his guidance, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, and reputation. In 1904, The Times received the first on-the-spot wireless transmission from a naval battle, a report of the destruction of the Russian fleet at the Battle of Port Arthur in the Yellow Sea from the press-boat Haimun during the Russo-Japanese war. In 1910, the first air delivery of The Times to Philadelphia began.[8] The Times' first trans-Atlantic delivery to London occurred in 1919. In 1920, a "4 A.M. Airplane Edition" was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening.[9]

The Times newsroom, 1942

In the 1940s, the paper extended its breadth and reach. The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the fashion section in 1946. The Times began an international edition in 1946. The international edition stopped publishing in 1967, when The Times joined the owners of the New York Herald Tribune and the Washington Post to publish the International Herald Tribune in Paris. The paper bought a classical radio station (WQXR) in 1946.[10] In addition to owning WQXR, the newspaper also formerly owned its AM sister, WQEW (1560 AM).[11] The classical music format was simulcast on both frequencies until the early 1990s, when the big-band and standards music format of WNEW-AM (now WBBR) moved from 1130 AM to 1560. The AM station changed its call letters from WQXR to WQEW.[12] By the beginning of the 21st century, The Times was leasing WQEW to ABC Radio for its Radio Disney format, which continues on 1560 AM. Disney became the owner of WQEW in 2007.[11] On July 14, 2009 it was announced that WQXR was to be sold to WNYC, who on October 8, 2009 moved the station to 105.9 FM and began to operate the station as a non-commercial.[13]

The New York Times is third in national circulation, after USA Today and the Wall Street Journal. The newspaper is owned by The New York Times Company, in which descendants of Adolph Ochs, principally the Sulzberger family, maintain a dominant role. In March 2009, the paper reported a circulation of 1,039,031 copies on weekdays and 1,451,233 copies on Sundays.[14] According to a 2009 The New York Times article circulation has dropped 7.3 percent to about 928,000; this is the first time since the 1980s that it has fallen under one million.[15] In the New York City metropolitan area, the paper costs $2 Monday through Saturday and $5 on Sunday. The Times has won 101 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper.[16][17]

In 2009, The Times began production of local inserts in regions outside of the New York area. Beginning October 16, 2009, a two-page "Bay Area" insert was added to copies of the Northern California edition on Fridays and Sundays. The Times commenced production of a similar Friday and Sunday insert to the Chicago edition on November 20, 2009. The inserts consist of local news, policy, sports and culture pieces, usually supported by local advertisements.

In addition to its New York City headquarters, The Times has 16 news bureaus in New York State, 11 national news bureaus and 26 foreign news bureaus.[18] The New York Times reduced its page width to 12 inches (300 mm) from 13.5 inches (340 mm) on August 6, 2007, adopting the width that has become the U.S. newspaper industry standard.[19]

Because of its steadily declining sales in recent decades, The Times has been going through a downsizing for several years, offering buyouts to workers and cutting expenses,[20] in common with a general trend among print newsmedia.

The newspaper's first building was located at 113 Nassau Street in New York City. In 1854, it moved to 138 Nassau Street, and in 1858 it moved to 41 Park Row, making it the first newspaper in New York City housed in a building built specifically for its use.[21] The paper moved its headquarters to 1475 Broadway in 1904, in an area called Long Acre Square, which was renamed to Times Square. The top of the building is the site of the New Year's Eve tradition of lowering a lighted ball, which was started by the paper. The building is also notable for its electronic news ticker, where headlines crawled around the outside of the building. It is still in use, but is not operated by The Times. After nine years in Times Square, an Annex was built at 229 West 43rd Street. After several expansions, it became the company's headquarters in 1913, and the building on Broadway was sold in 1961. Until June 2007, The Times, from which Times Square gets its name, was published at offices at West 43rd Street. It stopped printing papers there on June 15, 1997.[22]

The newspaper remained at that location until June 2007, when it moved three blocks south to 620 Eighth Avenue between West 40th and 41st Streets, in Manhattan. The new headquarters for the newspaper, The New York Times Building, is a skyscraper designed by Renzo Piano.[23][24]

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Times v. Sullivan

The paper's involvement in a 1964 libel case helped bring one of the key United States Supreme Court decisions supporting freedom of the press, New York Times Co. v. Sullivan. In it, the United States Supreme Court established the "actual malice" standard for press reports about public officials or public figures to be considered defamatory or libelous. The malice standard requires the plaintiff in a defamation or libel case prove the publisher of the statement knew the statement was false or acted in reckless disregard of its truth or falsity. Because of the high burden of proof on the plaintiff, and difficulty in proving what is inside a person's head, such cases by public figures rarely succeed.[25]

The Pentagon Papers

In 1971, the Pentagon Papers, a secret United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political and military involvement in the Vietnam War from 1945 to 1971, were given ("leaked") to Neil Sheehan of The New York Times by former State Department official Daniel Ellsberg, with his friend Anthony Russo assisting in copying them. The Times began publishing excerpts as a series of articles on June 13. Controversy and lawsuits followed. The papers revealed, among other things, that the government had deliberately expanded its role in the war by conducting air strikes over Laos, raids along the coast of North Vietnam, and offensive actions taken by U.S. Marines well before the public was told about the actions, and while President Lyndon B. Johnson had been promising not to expand the war. The document increased the credibility gap for the U.S. government, and hurt efforts by the Nixon administration to fight the on-going war.[26]

When The Times began publishing its series, President Richard Nixon became incensed. His words to National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger included "people have gotta be put to the torch for this sort of thing..." and "let's get the son-of-a-bitch in jail."[27] After failing to get The Times to stop publishing, Attorney General John Mitchell and President Nixon obtained a federal court injunction that The Times cease publication of excerpts. The newspaper appealed and the case began working through the court system. On June 18, 1971, the Washington Post began publishing its own series. Ben Bagdikian, a Post editor, had obtained portions of the papers from Ellsberg. That day the Post received a call from the Assistant Attorney General, William Rehnquist, asking them to stop publishing. When the Post refused, the U.S. Justice Department sought another injunction. The U.S. District court judge refused, and the government appealed. On June 26, 1971 the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to take both cases, merging them into New York Times Co. v. United States 403 US 713. On June 30, 1971, the Supreme Court held in a 6–3 decision that the injunctions were unconstitutional prior restraints and that the government had not met the burden of proof required. The justices wrote nine separate opinions, disagreeing on significant substantive issues. While it was generally seen as a victory for those who claim the First Amendment enshrines an absolute right to free speech, many felt it a lukewarm victory, offering little protection for future publishers when claims of national security were at stake.[26]

Ownership

The Ochs-Sulzberger family, one of the United States' newspaper dynasties, has owned The Times since 1896.[8] After the publisher went public in the 1960s, the family continued to exert control through its ownership of the vast majority of Class B voting shares. Class A shareholders cannot vote on many important matters relating to the company, while Class B shareholders can vote on all matters. Dual-class structures caught on in the mid-20th century as families such as the Grahams of the Washington Post Company sought to gain access to public capital without losing control. Dow Jones & Co., publisher of The Wall Street Journal, had a similar structure and was controlled by the Bancroft family; the company was later bought by the News Corporation in 2007.[28]

Turner Catledge, the top editor at The New York Times for almost two decades, wanted to hide the ownership influence. Sulzberger routinely wrote memos to his editor, each containing suggestions, instructions, complaints, and orders. When Catledge would receive these memos he would erase the publisher’s identity before passing them to his subordinates. Catledge thought that if he removed the publisher’s name from the memos it would protect reporters from feeling pressured by the owner.[29]

The Ochs-Sulzberger family trust controls roughly 88 percent of the company's class B shares. Any alteration to the dual-class structure must be ratified by six of eight directors who sit on the board of the Ochs-Sulzberger family trust. The Trust board members are Daniel H. Cohen, James M. Cohen, Lynn G. Dolnick, Susan W. Dryfoos, Michael Golden, Eric M. A. Lax, Arthur O. Sulzberger, Jr. and Cathy J. Sulzberger.[30]

Missed print dates

Due to strikes, the regular edition of The New York Times was not printed during the following periods:[31]

  • December 9, 1962 to March 31, 1963. Only a western edition was printed.
  • September 17, 1965 to October 10, 1965. An international edition was printed, and a weekend edition replaced the Saturday and Sunday papers.
  • August 10, 1978 to November 5, 1978. A multi-union strike shut down the three major New York City newspapers. No editions of The Times were printed. Two months into the strike, a parody of The Times called Not The New York Times was given out in New York, with contributors such as Carl Bernstein, Christopher Cerf, Tony Hendra and George Plimpton.

No editions were printed on January 2 of 1852–1853 and of 1862–1867. No editions were printed on July 5 of 1861–1865.

Content

Sections

This newspaper is organized in three sections, including the magazine.

  1. News: Includes International, National, Washington, Business, Technology, Science, Health, Sports, The Metro Section, Education, Weather, and Obituaries.
  2. Opinion: Includes Editorials, Op-Eds and Letters to the Editor.
  3. Features: Includes Arts, Movies, Theatre, Travel, NYC Guide, Dining & Wine, Home & Garden, Fashion & Style, Crossword, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine, and Week in Review

Some sections, such as Metro, are only found in the editions of the paper distributed in the New York–New Jersey–Connecticut Tri-State Area and not in the national or Washington, D.C. editions. Aside from a weekly roundup of reprints of editorial cartoons from other newspapers, The Times does not have its own staff editorial cartoonist, nor does it feature a comics page or Sunday comics section.[32] In September 2008, The Times announced that it will be combining certain sections effective October 6, 2008, in editions printed in the New York metropolitan area. The changes will fold the Metro Section into the main International / National news section and combine Sports and Business (except Saturday through Monday, when Sports will still be printed as a standalone section). This change also included having the name of the Metro section be called New York outside of the Tri-State Area. The presses used by The Times allow four sections to be printed simultaneously; as the paper had included more than four sections all days except Saturday, the sections had to be printed separately in an early press run and collated together. The changes will allow The Times to print in four sections Monday through Wednesday, in addition to Saturday. The Times' announcement stated that the number of news pages and employee positions will remain unchanged, with the paper realizing cost savings by cutting overtime expenses.[33] According to Russ Stanton, editor of the Los Angeles Times, a competitor, the newsroom of The New York Times is twice the size of the Los Angeles Times, which currently has a newsroom of 600.[34]

Style

When referring to people, The Times generally uses honorifics, rather than unadorned last names (except in the sports pages, Book Review and Magazine). The newspaper's headlines tend to be verbose, and, for major stories, come with subheadings giving further details, although it is moving away from this style. It stayed with an eight-column format until September 1976, years after other papers had switched to six,[35] and it was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography, with the first color photograph on the front page appearing on October 16, 1997.[36] In the absence of a major headline, the day's most important story generally appears in the top-right hand column, on the main page. The typefaces used for the headlines are custom variations of Cheltenham. The running text is set at 8.7 point Imperial.[37]

Joining a roster of other major American newspapers in recent years, including USA Today, the Wall Street Journal and the Washington Post, The New York Times announced on July 18, 2006, that it would be narrowing the size of its paper by one and a half inches. In an era of dwindling circulation and significant advertising revenue losses for most print versions of American newspapers, the move, which was also announced would result in a 5 percent reduction in news coverage, would have a target savings of $12 million a year for the paper.[38] The change from the traditional 54-inches broadsheet style to a more compact 48-inch web width was addressed by both Executive Editor Bill Keller and The New York Times President Scott Heekin-Canedy in memos to the staff. Keller defended the "more reader-friendly" move indicating that in cutting out the "flabby or redundant prose in longer pieces" the reduction would make for a better paper. Similarly, Keller confronted the challenges of covering news with "less room" by proposing more "rigorous editing" and promised an ongoing commitment to "hard-hitting, ground-breaking journalism".[39] The official change went in to effect on August 6, 2007.[40]

The New York Times printed an advertisement on its first page on January 6, 2009, breaking tradition at the paper.[41] The advertisement for CBS was in color and was the entire width of the page.[42] The newspaper promised it would place first-page advertisements on only the lower half of the page.[41]

Web presence

The Times has had a strong presence on the Web since 1996, and has been ranked one of the top Web sites. Accessing some articles requires registration, though this can be bypassed in some cases through Times RSS feeds.[43] The website had 555 million pageviews in March 2005.[44] The domain nytimes.com attracted at least 146 million visitors annually by 2008 according to a Compete.com study. The Times Web site ranks 59th by number of unique visitors, with over 20 million unique visitors in March 2009 making it the most visited newspaper site with more than twice the number of unique visitors as the next most popular site.[45] Also, as of May 2009, nytimes.com produced 22 of the 50 most popular newspaper blogs.[46]

In September 2005, the paper decided to begin subscription-based service for daily columns in a program known as TimesSelect, which encompassed many previously free columns. Until being discontinued two years later, TimesSelect cost $7.95 per month or $49.95 per year,[47] though it was free for print copy subscribers and university students and faculty.[48][49] To work around this, bloggers often reposted TimesSelect material,[50] and at least one site once compiled links of reprinted material.[51] On September 17, 2007, The Times announced that it would stop charging for access to parts of its Web site, effective at midnight the following day, reflecting a growing view in the industry that subscription fees cannot outweigh the potential ad revenue from increased traffic on a free site.[52] In addition to opening almost the entire site to all readers, The Times news archives from 1987 to the present are available at no charge, as well as those from 1851 to 1922, which are in the public domain.[53][54] Access to the Premium Crosswords section continues to require either home delivery or a subscription for $6.95 per month or $39.95 per year. Times columnists including Nicholas Kristof and Thomas Friedman had criticized TimesSelect,[55][56] with Friedman going so far as to say "I hate it. It pains me enormously because it’s cut me off from a lot, a lot of people, especially because I have a lot of people reading me overseas, like in India ... I feel totally cut off from my audience."[57]

The Times is also the first newspaper to offer a video game as part of its editorial content, Food Import Folly by Persuasive Games.[58]

reCAPTCHA is currently helping to digitize old editions of The New York Times.[59]

Mobile presence

The Times Reader is a digital version of The Times. It was created via a collaboration between the newspaper and Microsoft. Times Reader takes the principles of print journalism and applies them to the technique of online reporting. Times Reader uses a series of technologies developed by Microsoft and their Windows Presentation Foundation team. It was announced in Seattle in April 2006 by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr., Bill Gates, and Tom Bodkin.

In 2008, The Times created an app for the iPhone and iPod touch which allowed users to download articles to their mobile device enabling them to read the paper even when they were unable to receive a signal.

The New York Times in Moscow

Communication with its Russian readers is a special project of The New York Times launched at February 2008, guided by Clifford J. Levy. Some Times articles covering the broad spectrum of political and social topics in Russia are being translated into Russian and offered for attention of Russia's bloggers in The Times community blog.[60] After that, selected responses of Russian bloggers are being translated into English and published at The New York Times site among comments from English readers.[61][62]

Controversy and criticism

The paper has often been accused of giving too little or too much coverage to events for reasons not related to objective journalism. Before and during World War II, Laurel Leff, associate professor of journalism at Northeastern University, wrote a book titled "Buried by the Times," in which he accuses the newspaper of downplaying the Third Reich targeting of Jews for genocide. Laurel Leff attributes this dearth to the complex personal and political views of the NYT's founder, Arthur Hays Sulzberger, concerning Jewishness, anti-Semitism, Nazism and Zionism[63].

During the war, Times journalist William L. Laurence was "on the payroll of the War Department".[64][65] Another serious charge is the accusation that The Times, through its coverage of the Soviet Union by correspondent Walter Duranty, failed to expose the Ukrainian famine of the 1930s.[66][67]

In May 2003, Jayson Blair was a Times reporter who was forced to resign from the newspaper after he was caught plagiarizing and fabricating elements of his stories. Some critics contended that Blair's race was a major factor in The Times' initial reluctance to fire him.[68] Reporter Judith Miller retired after criticisms that her reporting of the lead-up to the Iraq war was factually inaccurate and overtly favorable to the Bush administration's position, for which The Times was forced to apologize.[69][70] One of Miller's prime sources was Ahmed Chalabi, who after the U.S. occupation became the interim oil minister of Iraq and is now head of the Iraqi services committee.[71] However, reporter Michael R. Gordon, who shared byline credit with Miller on some of the early Iraq stories, continues to report on military affairs for The Times.[72]

The Times has been variously described as having a liberal bias or described as being a liberal newspaper,[73][74] or of having a conservative bias on certain issues or by some writers:

Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting, a progressive media criticism organization, has accused The New York Times of following the "Reagan administration's PR strategy" in the 1980s by "emphasizing liberal repressive measures in Nicaragua [by the leftist Sandinista government] and downplaying or ignoring more serious human rights abuses elsewhere in Central America" (namely in El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras, countries with governments backed by the Reagan administration).[75]

According to a 2007 survey by Rasmussen Reports of public perceptions of major media outlets, 40% believe The Times has a liberal slant and 11% believe it has a conservative slant.[76] In December 2004 a University of California, Los Angeles study gave The Times a score of 73.7 on a 100 point scale, with 0 being most conservative and 100 being most liberal.[77] The validity of the study has been questioned by various organizations, including the liberal media watchdog group Media Matters for America.[78] In mid-2004, the newspaper's then public editor (ombudsman), Daniel Okrent, wrote a piece in which he concluded that The Times did have a liberal bias in coverage of certain social issues such as gay marriage. He claimed that this bias reflected the paper's cosmopolitanism, which arose naturally from its roots as a hometown paper of New York City. Okrent did not comment at length on the issue of bias in coverage of "hard news", such as fiscal policy, foreign policy, or civil liberties, but did state that the paper's coverage of the Iraq war was insufficiently critical of the George W. Bush administration.[79]

For its coverage of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, some have claimed that the paper is pro-Palestinian; and others have claimed that it is pro-Israel.[80][81][82] . A controversial book, called The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy by Political Science professors John Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt, allege that The New York Times sometimes criticizes Israeli policies, but is not even handed and is generally pro-Israel[83]. On the other hand, the Simon Wiesenthal Center has criticized The Times for printing anti-Semitic cartoons regarding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.[84]

However, as public editor Clark Hoyt concluded in his January 10, 2009 column, "Though the most vociferous supporters of Israel and the Palestinians do not agree, I think The Times, largely barred from the battlefield and reporting amid the chaos of war, has tried its best to do a fair, balanced and complete job — and has largely succeeded." [85]

Critics have also charged that The New York Times is Indophobic, and promotes neocolonialism with its slanted and negative coverage of India[86]. American lawmaker Kumar P. Barve has called a recent NYT editorial on India as full of "blatant and unprofessional factual errors or omissions", and having a "haughty, condescending,arrogant and patronizing" tone that reminded him of the British Raj[87]. Sumit Ganguly, a visiting scholar at the Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law, has similarly criticized the NYT in Forbes, finding anti-India bias in The Times' coverage of the Kashmir Conflict, the Hyde Act, and other India-related matters.[88]

Reprints of film reviews

These are the only English-language periodicals with 10,000 or more film reviews reprinted in book form:

Film reviews in The Times continued after the last reprints.

Prices

The Times prices are: $2.00 Daily, for Metro and National edition. On Sunday, they are $5.00 for the Metro edition and $6.00 or $7.00 for the national edition.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Perez-Peña, Richard "U.S. Newspaper Circulation Falls 10%" The New York Times October 26, 2009
  2. ^ "The New York Times Company (Profile)" MediaOwners.com
  3. ^ "The Times Wins 5 Pulitzer Prizes". The New York Times Company. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/21/business/media/21pulitzer.html?hp. Retrieved April 20, 2009. 
  4. ^ "Web Traffic to Top 10 Online Newspapers Grows 16 Percent Year-Over-Year in December, According to Nielsen Online". Reuters (from Neilsen Wire). January 27, 2009. http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/idUS147719+27-Jan-2009+MW20090127. Retrieved June 29, 2009. 
  5. ^ "A Word about Ourselves". New-York Daily Times. September 18, 1851. http://timesmachine.nytimes.com/browser/1851/09/18/109920974/article-view. Retrieved March 5, 2009. 
  6. ^ Cornwell, 2004, p. 151.
  7. ^ "New York Times Timeline 1851–1880". The New York Times Company. http://www.nytco.com/company/milestones/timeline_1851.html. Retrieved September 15, 2008. 
  8. ^ a b c d "New York Times Timeline 1881–1910". The New York Times Company. http://www.nytco.com/company/milestones/timeline_1881.html. Retrieved September 16, 2008. 
  9. ^ "New York Times Timeline 1911–1940". The New York Times Company. http://www.nytco.com/company/milestones/timeline_1911.html. Retrieved September 16, 2008. 
  10. ^ "New York Times Timeline 1941–1970". The New York Times Company. http://www.nytco.com/company/milestones/timeline_1941.html. Retrieved September 16, 2008. 
  11. ^ a b Blumenthal, Ralph (December 2, 1998). "WQEW-AM: All Kids, All the Time". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9800E5DD153BF931A35751C1A96E958260. Retrieved September 16, 2008. 
  12. ^ Kozinn, Allan (October 21, 1992). "WQXR-AM to Change Its Format, to Popular Music From Classical". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE7D7103CF932A15753C1A964958260. Retrieved September 16, 2008. 
  13. ^ "New York Times to Get $45 Million for Radio Station". Bloomberg News. July 14, 2009. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601103&sid=ao4vtybp2N50. Retrieved July 18, 2009. 
  14. ^ "2007 Advertising, Circulation and Other Revenue". The New York Times Company. http://nytco.com/investors/financials/nyt-circulation.html. Retrieved September 15, 2008. 
  15. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/27/business/media/27audit.html?hp
  16. ^ "Pulitzer Prizes". The New York Times Company. http://www.nytco.com/company/awards/pulitzer_prizes.html. Retrieved September 18, 2008. 
  17. ^ "The New York Times". The New York Times. http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/organizations/n/newyorktimes_the/index.html. Retrieved September 15, 2008. 
  18. ^ "Business Units". The New York Times Company. http://www.nytco.com/company/business_units/index.html. Retrieved September 15, 2008. 
  19. ^ "In Tough Times, a Redesigned Journal". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/04/business/media/04journal.html?ex=1322888400&en=7251774471fc3591&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss. Retrieved September 15, 2008. 
  20. ^ Joyner, James. "New York Times Fires 500 Staffers". Outside the Beltway. http://www.outsidethebeltway.com/archives/2005/09/new_york_times_fires_500_staffers/. Retrieved July 4, 2006. 
  21. ^ Dunlap, David W. "150th Anniversary: 1851–2001; Six Buildings That Share One Story", The New York Times, November 14, 2001. Accessed October 10, 2008. "Surely the most remarkable of these survivors is 113 Nassau Street, where the New-York Daily Times was born in 1851.... After three years at 113 Nassau Street and four years at 138 Nassau Street, the Times moved to a five-story Romanesque headquarters at 41 Park Row, designed by Thomas R. Jackson. For the first time, a New York newspaper occupied a structure built for its own use."
  22. ^ Dunlap, David W. "Copy!’", The New York Times, June 10, 2007. Accessed October 10, 2008. "The sound is muffled by wall-to-wall carpet tiles and fabric-lined cubicles. But it’s still there, embedded in the concrete and steel sinews of the old factory at 229 West 43rd Street, where the The New York Times was written and edited yesterday for the last time."
  23. ^ "Timeline of The New York Times Building" (PDF). The New York Times Company. http://www.nytco.com/pdf/Building_Timeline.pdf. Retrieved September 25, 2008. 
  24. ^ "New York Times Headquarters". SkyscraperPage.com. 2007. http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=916. Retrieved September 16, 2008. 
  25. ^ The New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, 376 U.S. 254 .
  26. ^ a b "Pentagon Papers". The New York Times. http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/p/pentagon_papers/index.html. Retrieved September 18, 2008. 
  27. ^ "Audio Tapes from the Nixon White House". National Security Archive. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB48/nixon.html. Retrieved January 20, 2009. 
  28. ^ "Murdoch clinches deal for publisher of Journal". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/20032918/. Retrieved September 18, 2008. 
  29. ^ Chomsky, Daniel(2006)'“An Interested Reader”: Measuring Ownership Control at the New York Times',Critical Studies in Media Communication,23:1,1 — 18
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