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The "Netziv"

Rabbi Naphtali Tzvi Judah Berlin (in Hebrew, נפתלי צבי יהודה ברלין, also known as Reb Hirsch Leib Berlin, commonly abbreviated as Netziv (נציב, lit. "pillar")) was the Rosh yeshiva of the Volozhin Yeshiva and author of several works of rabbinic literature in Lithuania. He was born in Mir, Russia, in 1816,[1] and died in Warsaw, Poland, on 10 August 1893.[2]



Rabbi Berlin was born into a family of Jewish scholars renowned for its Talmudic scholarship. His father Jacob, while not a rabbi, was a Talmudic scholar; his mother was directly descended from Rabbi Meir Eisenstadt. Although initially a weak student, legend has it that Rabbi Berlin applied himself to his studies after overhearing his parents debating whether he should pursue a trade.

His first wife was the daughter of Rabbi Yitzchok of Volozhin, the son of Rabbi Chaim Volozhin. His second wife was his niece, a daughter of Rabbi Yechiel Michel Epstein, the author of the Aruch haShulchan. A son from his first marriage, Rabbi Chaim Berlin, became the rabbi of Moscow, a daughter married Rabbi Refael Shapiro, and his son from his second marriage was Rabbi Meir Berlin (later Bar-Ilan).

The Volozhin yeshiva

Rabbi Berlin led the yeshiva in Volozhin (in what is presently Belarus), then the largest institution of its kind, from 1854 to its closure in 1892. Despite the destruction (twice) of the town and the yeshiva building in large fires, its enrollment increased steadily under his leadership, and the yeshiva would produce a number of prominent rabbinic figures who led Eastern European Jewry until World War II. Amongst them was Rabbi Shimon Shkop.

In Volozhin, his leadership was contested by the popular Rabbi Joseph Dov (Yoshe Ber) Soloveitchik, whose style of Torah study differed substationally from Rabbi Berlin's. Rabbi J.D. Soloveitchik ultimately became rabbi of Slutsk, Warsaw and Brisk, where he founded the rabbinical dynasty that still carries his name.

In 1892, the Volozhin yeshiva shut down. Russian authorities (influenced by Haskalah elements) sought to introduce secular studies into the yeshiva.[3] Berlin was willing to initially accept some secular studies.[3] However, the requirements became more and more onerous with the government eventually stipulating that "All teachers of all subjects must have college diplomas ... no Judaic subjects may be taught between 9 AM and 3 PM ... no night classes are allowed ... total hours of study per day may not exceed ten." Faced with these restrictions, Berlin choose to close the Yeshiva.[3]

Final months

After the closure, Rabbi Berlin traveled to Vilna and other cities, trying to clear the yeshiva's debt.

In the last few months of Rabbi Berlin's life he suffered from diabetes and the consequences of a stroke. While he intended to travel to the Land of Israel, his medical condition made this impossible. He spent his last weeks in Warsaw, and is interred in a cemetery there.

Views and influence

Rabbi Berlin had a traditionalist approach to Torah study that was at odds with the highly analytical style of lomdus ("learned intellectual analysis") that was pioneered by Soloveitchik.

Politically, he favored Jewish settlement of the Land of Israel (Eretz Yisrael), then under the control of the Ottoman Empire; he was initially a member of the Chovevei Tzion movement (founded by his contemporary Rabbi Zvi Hirsch Kalisher), but later distanced himself from them.


The Netziv’s works include his famed commentary on the Sheiltos of Rabbi Achai Gaon, his Commentary on the Song of Songs and Meishiv Davar, Ha'amek She'elah a commentary on the Talmud, the Ha'amaik Davar a commentary on the Torah and a collection of his responsa. Rabbi Arnold Greenman[4][5] an expert on the Netziv in 2009 has published a translation on the Pilpul style of study in The Path of Torah: The Introduction to Ha'amek She'elah.


  • Ha'emek She'eila ("The Depth [of the] Question"), a commentary on the She'iltoth, a geonic work of halakha by Achai Gaon;
  • Meishiv Davar ("Response [in] Kind"), a collection of his responsa;
  • Ha'emek Davar ("The Depth [of the] Word"), a Torah commentary;
  • A commentary on the Song of Songs.
  • Meromei Sadeh ("Heights [of the] Field", used as a reference to the tribe of Naphtali by Deborah in the Book of Judges), comments and insights on selected volumes of the Talmud.
  • Davar Ha'emek commentary on Nevi'im and Ketuvim.
  • Imrei Shefer commentary on the Haggadah



  1. ^ The year of Netziv’s birth is often mistakenly listed as 1817. According to his son, Meir Bar-Ilan, he was born on the eve of Rosh Chodesh Kislev in the Jewish year of 5577 which is November 20, 1816. See Meir Bar Ilan, Rabban Shel Yisrael (New York: Histadrut ha-Mizrahi ba-Amerikah, 1943), p. 13.
  2. ^ Bar Ilan CD-ROM
  3. ^ a b c
  4. ^ The Universe According to Arnold Greenman
  5. ^ Legacy of the Netziv: "The Path of Torah"


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