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Nagapatnam
Nagapatnam
Location of Nagapatnam
in Tamil Nadu and India
Coordinates 10°46′N 79°50′E / 10.77°N 79.83°E / 10.77; 79.83
Country  India
State Tamil Nadu
District(s) Nagapattinam
Population 92525 (2001)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)

Nagapattinam (Tamil: நாகப்பட்டினம் (nākappaṭṭinam) (previously spelt Nagapatnam or Negapatam) is a coastal city and a municipality in Nagapattinam District in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is the administrative headquarters of Nagapattinam District, it was carved out by bifurcating the composite Thanjavur district on October 18, 1991. Other names of the town are Naganadu, Cholakula Vallippatinam and Shiva Rajadhani. Nagapattinam was the major port for Cholas dynasty. Nearby towns include Tiruvarur, Karaikal and Mayiladuthurai.

Contents

History

Dutch engraving showing Nagapatnam c. 1680

Ptolemy refers to Nagapattinam as Nikam and mentions it as one of the most important trade centres of the ancient Tamil country. Nagapattinam was a Buddhist centre from 8th century CE. In the 11th century CE, Chudamani Vihara, a Buddhist vihara (monastery) was built by Javanese king Sri Vijaya Soolamanivarman with the patronage of Raja Raja Chola.[1] Buddhism flourished until 15th century CE and the buildings of the vihara survived until 18th century. In Chola's Empire, Nagapattinam was the prominent port of Cholas, who used this port not only for trade but also as conquering gateway to the east. This town still has traces of Saiva temples that were built by Cholas.

Permanent Shelter for Tsunami Affected Families in Nagapattinam - meant to be tsunamiproof

Nagapattinam was referred to by early writers and the Portuguese as "the city of Coromandel".[2] In the early 16th century the Portuguese started commercial contacts with the town; in 1554 they establish a commercial centre. In 1657 the Dutch occupied the town, taking it from the Portuguese to become their chief possession in India. In 1676, when the Maratha prince Venkaji had established himself at Tanjore, the grant of Negapatam to the Dutch was confirmed. During the 18th century, two naval battles between British and French fleets were fought off the coast of Negapatam, as it was then known; the first in 1758 as part of the Seven Years War, and the second in 1782 as part of the American Revolutionary War. The town was taken by the British from the Dutch in 1781 (who had been formally brought into the war in 1780). When the Dutch and British reached a peace agreement in 1784, Nagapattinam was formally ceded to the British. From 1799 to 1845 it was the headquarters of Tanjore district.

Nagapattinam was one of the regions severely affected by the tsunami which followed the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake.

Demographics

As of 2001 India census,[3] Nagapattinam had a population of 92,525. Males constitute 50% of the population and females 50%. Nagapattinam has an average literacy rate of 74%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 80%, and female literacy is 69%. In Nagapattinam, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age. The major language spoken in the Nagapattinam District is Tamil spoken as a mother tongue by Hindus, Christians and Muslims alike. The vast majority of the population are Hindu by religion, with a Muslim and Christians, Buddhists, Sikhs and Jains.

Economy

The fishing boats at Nagapattinam.

The main occupation of Nagapattinam is fishing in the waters of Bay of Bengal and selling the catch in the town's fish market. There are a large number of ice factories for preserving the fish caught. Its fishing Industry was severely damaged by the tsunamis that struck its coast on 26 December 2004. Occupation The town brings a daily income of 2crRs.

Away from the coast of Nagapattinam, agriculture, education, food packing, etc are practiced, with agriculture being the most important occupation in the villages surrounding the town. It has vast farmlands where rice is cultivated. These farmlands are irrigated through an extensive network of canals from the tributaries of the river Cauvery. The produce is transported by rail to other parts of the country.

Cauvery Basin Refinery , a subsidiary of CPCL is located near Nagapattinam.

Notable Persons from Nagai

The Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu M. Karunanidhi's birth place, Thirukkuvalai, is situated in Nagapattinam district.

Politics

Nagapattinam assembly constituency is part of Nagapattinam (Lok Sabha constituency).[4]

References

External links

See also

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