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Major General K.P.CandethSir C Sankaran NairChitra
Kris GopalakrishnanSashi TharoorSwami Chinmayananda
Parvathy OmanakuttanSreesanthMohanlal
Total population
5,000,000 (14.41% of Kerala population)[1]
Regions with significant populations




Related ethnic groups

Namboothiri, Bunts, Samanta Kshatriya

Nair (Malayalam: നായര്‍, pronounced [naːjar], also known as Nayar[2] and Malayala Kshatriya[3][4]), is the name of a Hindu forward caste from the Indian state of Kerala. Before the British conquest in 1792, the Kerala region contained small, feudal kingdoms, in each of which the royal and noble lineages, the militia, and most land managers were drawn from the Nairs and related castes.[5] Nairs were prominent in politics, government service, medicine, education, and law.[6] Nairs constituted the rulers, warriors and landed gentry of Kerala (pre indian independence).

Nairs were traditionally matrilineal, which means that the family traces its roots through the women in the family. The children inherited the property of their maternal family. Their family unit, the members of which owned property jointly, included brothers and sisters, the latter's children, and their daughters' children. The oldest man was legal head of the group and he was respected as the Karnavar of the family or Tharavadu. Rules of marriage and residence varied somewhat between kingdoms.[7]

The Nairs are known for their martial history, including their involvement in Kalaripayattu and the role of Nair warriors in the Mamankam ritual. The Nairs were classed as a martial race[8][9][10][11] by the British, but were de-listed after rebelling against them under Velu Thampi Dalawa, and thereafter were recruited in low numbers into the British Indian Army.[12] Only Nairs were recruited into the Thiruvithamkoor Nair Pattalam (Travancore State Nair Army), until 1935 when non-Nairs were admitted.[12] This State Force (known also as the Nair Brigade) was merged into the Indian Army after independence and became the 9th Battalion Madras Regiment, the oldest battalion in the Indian Army.

The Samanta Kshatriya Kolathiri and Travancore kingdoms[13] have Nair heritage[14] The Zamorin Raja was a Samanthan Nair[13] and the Arakkal kingdom of Kannur, which was the only Muslim kingdom in the Kerala region, also had Nair origins[15][16][17]. Nair feudal families such as the Ettuveetil Pillamar of Travancore and Paliath Achan of Kochi were extremely influential in the past and exerted great influence on the ruling clan.



The word Nair lends itself to two etymological interpretations. The first interpretation is that the word Nair is derived from the Sanskrit word Nayaka meaning leader. The Sanskrit word Nayaka appears in various forms in southern India (Nayakan/Naicker in Tamil Nadu, Nayak in Karnataka and Maharashtra, and Nayudu in Andhra Pradesh) and the word Nair has been suggested to be the corruption of Nayak in Malayalam.[18][19][20]

Theories of origin

Nair Lady (Arumana Ammachi Panapillai Amma Shrimathi Lakshmi Pillai Kochamma, consort of Maharajah Visakham Thirunal Sir Rama Varma of Travancore)
Nair feudal chief belonging to the Ettuveetil Pillamar

The earliest known description about Nairs state that Nairs (Nagars) are the descendants of serpent soldiers sent by the Nāga Kingdom for taking part in the battle at Kurukshetra during Mahabharatha (Sources list a total of eight serpents - Vasuki, Ananta, Takshak, Sangapala, Gulika, Mahapadma, Sarkota and Karkotaka. Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple is of special significance to the Nairs as it is believed to be the abode of Ananta and Nairs claim special powers due to the temple[21][22]). After the war, they encountered Parasurama who vowed to exterminate the Nāgas, since they were Kshatriya. The Nāgas transformed transformed themselves to humans, ripped off their sacred chords, and fled the battlefield. After the Saka or Indo-Scythian people invaded India in the second century BC, some Nagas mixed with the Scythians in North India. They adopted the Matriarchy, Polyandry and other Scythian customs.[23] Nāga-Scythian tribe of Ahichatra, in Uttar Pradesh near Nainital was invited by King Mayuravarma of the Kadamba dynasty in 345 AD along with their Brahmin priests to settle down at Shimoga in the North Karnataka.[24][25][26]

They migrated Southwards and reached Malabar, where they fought with the Villavars and defeated them. Later they established their own kingdoms in Malabar and Tulu Nadu[27] The Nāgas finally reached Travancore, the Southern most part of India. There is still a sacred sarpakaavu (serpent grove) in Mannarsala (Travancore), which is owned by a Nayar family whose ancestors are said to be Nāga serpents spared when the Khandava Forest (in present day Punjab) was burnt down by Lord Krishna and Lord Arjuna.[28]

Mythology apart, Nairs are thought to be the descendants of Nagavanshi Kshatriyas, who migrated to Kerala from further North.[29][30] According to Dr K. K. Pillai, the first reference about the Nairs is in an inscription dated to the 9th century A.D.[31]

The Nairs have been described thus:

A race caste who do not owe their origin to function, although, by force of example, their organization is almost equally rigid, and they are generally identified with particular trades or occupations. These race caste communities were originally tribes, but on entering the fold of Hinduism, they imitated the Hindu social organization, and have thus gradually hardened to castes.[32]

A number of sociologists are of the view that the Nairs are not indigenous to Kerala, as many customs and traditions distinguish them from other Keralites. There is a hypothesis on the basis of mythology that the Nairs are Nagas, who were Kshatriyas belonging to the Serpent dynasty (Nagavansham)[33][34] who removed their sacred thread and migrated south to escape the wrath of a vengeful Parashurama. A Naga origin from Rohilkhand has been suggested.[35] The affinity of the Nair community towards serpent worship, their martial past, and the absence of the sacred thread lends support to this theory. In addition, the Travancore State Manual states that there were indeed serpent-worshiping Nagas in Kerala who fought with the Namboothiris till they reached a consensus. The Nairs have also been classified as of Indo-Scythian (Saka) origin as well as being linked to the Nagas.[36][37][38]

According to Chattampi Swamikal, who interpreted old Tamil texts, the Nairs were Naka (Naga or Snake) Lords who ruled as feudal lords in the Chera( chera= snake) kingdom. Therefore this theory proposes Nairs to be descendants of the rulers and martial nobility of pre-Brahmin Kerala. But the most widely accepted theory is that the ethnic group is not native to Kerala and the Nairs of Kerala and the similarly matrilineal Bunts of Tulu Nadu are thought to be descendants of the Kshatriyas who accompanied the Brahmins to Kerala and Tulu Nadu respectively from Ahichatra/Ahikshetra in southern Panchala.[39] One finds mention of the Nairs during the reign of the King Rama Varma Kulashekhara (1020-1102) of the second Chera dynasty, when the Chera Kingdom was attacked by the Cholas. The Nairs fought by forming suicide squads (Chavers) against the invading force.[citation needed] It is not clear whether the Cheras themselves were Nairs, or if the Cheras employed the Nairs as a warrior class.[40]

Connection with Bunts of Tulu Nadu

The 17th century Brahmin-inspired Keralolpathi of Malayali Brahmins and Grama Padhati of Tulu brahmins describes the Nairs of Kerala and the similarly matrilineal Bunts of Tulu Nadu as descendants of the Kshatriyas who accompanied the Brahmins to Kerala and Tulu Nadu respectively from Ahichatra/Ahikshetra in northern Panchala.the remains of this city have been found in Ramnagar village in Aonla tehsil of Bareilly district in current Indian state of Uttar Pradesh[41]

The Manual of Madras Administration Vol II (printed in 1885) notes that the Nadavas are the same people as the Nairs of Malabar and the Bunts of southern Tulu Nadu:

They appear to have entered Malabar from the North rather than the South and to have peopled first the Tulu, and then the Malayalam country. They were probably the off-shoot of some colony in the Konkan or the Deccan. In Malabar and south of Kanara as far as Kasargod, they are called Nayars and their language is Malayalam. From Kasargod to Brahmavar, they are termed as Bunts and speak Tulu. To the north of Brahmavar, they are called Nadavars, and they speak Kanarese.

The Nairs have disappeared as an entity from Tulu Nadu but the inscriptions found in Barkur from the medieval period as well as the Grama Padathi, which gives the history of Brahmin families in Tulu Nadu, have made several references to the Nairs. They seemed to have intimate connections with the Brahmins and acted as their protectors, perhaps brought to Tulu Nadu by the Kadamba kings in the 8th century. Kadamba king Mayuravarma, who is credited with bringing Brahmins from Ahichatra (from the north), also settled Nairs in Tulu Nadu. Yet, there is no written proof for this occurrence and the only mention of the Nairs in the inscriptions comes after the Alupa period (early part of 14th century).Like some of the kings of Malabar some South Kanara princes also have Nair ancestry. For example the last ruler of Kanajar in Karkala Taluk was a Nayar Hegde.The royal house in Kowdoor (adjacent to Kanajar) is known as “Naayara bettu” which still exists. Also "Nayara" is one of the Bunts surname.

It is postulated that the Nairs in Tulunadu were later absorbed into the social stratum of the Bunt/Nadava community. It is also postulated that the Nayars of Malabar originally migrated from the Tulu nadu. It is to be noted that the traditions and cultures of Nairs and Bunts are same to a large extent.[42]

Currently a section of Nairs who trace their descent back to Tulunadu constitute a subcaste of Nairs, but the vast majority of the Malayalam speaking Bunts are assimilated to various Nair groups and no longer speak the present Tulu language. But one can observe that Tulu and Malayalam are closely related languages.[43]


Until a few decades ago, the Nairs were divided into several sub-castes and inter-dining and inter-marriages were practically non-existent amongst them. The 1891 Census of India, undertaken by the British listed a total of 138 Nair subcastes in the Malabar region, 44 in the Travancore region and a total of 55 of them in the Cochin region.[44]


Most Nairs have the name of his maternal Tharavadu affixed to his name. Along with that, surnames are added to the names for further identification of the lineage. Several surnames are found among Nairs. Some surnames were conferred by the Kings for deeds of valour and services. Rajas of Cochin conferred on the Nairs the titles of nobility such as Achan, Kartha, Kaimal and Mannadiar. The title, Menon is used by the Nairs of Malabar and Cochin areas. The southern kingdoms of Venad (later extended as Travancore), Kayamakulam, Thekkumkur and Vadakkumkur conferred the titles such as Asan, Karnavar, Madampi, Pillai, Thampi, Thankal, Unnithan, and Valiathan on distinguished Nair families. Panikkar and Kurup were the titles of Nairs who maintained martial schools known as Kalaries. Surnames like Nambiar, Nayanar, Kitavu, and Menokki are seen only in North Kerala, where as "Nair" is a surname which is ubiquitous through out Kerala.


Kalaripayattu was practised by Nairs

Middle age South Indian history, historians, and foreign travelers referred to the Nairs as a dignified martial nobility. The earliest reference to Nairs comes from the Greek ambassador Megasthenes. In his accounts of ancient India, he refers to the "Nayars of Malabar" and the "Kingdom of Chera".[45].

Irrespective of the different theories that seek to explain the origin of Nairs, it is clear that till the early 20th century, Nairs exerted their influence in medieval Kerala society as feudal lords and owned large estates. The position in society of the Nairs as that of a martial nobility in medieval Kerala has been likened to the position in society of the Samurai in medieval Japan. Nairs dominated the civil, administrative and military elite of the pre-British era in Kerala.[46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53]

Decline of Nair dominance

The decline of Nair dominance came about in multiple stages. During colonial times, the British perceived that Nairs were an inherent threat to their hegemony in the region and therefore outlawed their right to bear weapons and by banning the Kerala martial art of Kalaripayattu.[54][55] Weapons were integral to the Nair psyche and power, and combined with repressive legislation led to a loss of social standing for Nairs, though some of the social legislation was in part inspired by the Nairs themselves, such as changes in inheritance law permitting the Karanavan to pass on some (and later all) of the fruits of his stewardship of the taravad to his own children. During post-colonial years, the Land Reforms Ordinance of 1950's led to massive loss of land-ownership by Nair feudal lords and some Nair gentry were relegated to poverty overnight.

Nair Brigade

Headquarters of the Nair Brigade of Travancore. The building is now the Legislative Museum of Kerala

The Nair Brigade was the army of the erstwhile kingdom of Travancore in India. Nairs were a warrior community in the region which was responsible for the security of Travancore and other local kingdoms. King Marthanda Varma's (1706 - 1758) personal bodyguard was called 'Thiruvithamkoor Nair Pattalam' (Travancore Nair Army). The Travancore army was officially referred as the Travancore Nair Brigade in 1818.

Since independence, Malabar has been the most important recruitment ground for the Madras Regiment and Nairs constitute a huge proportion of the recruits from this area. [56] Although not as famous as Malabar Nayars, Nayars from Travancore and Cochin also constitute a significant portion of the Madras Regiment. Two former Travancore state army divisions, the 1st Travancore Nayar Infantry and the 2nd Travancore Nayar Infantry were converted in to 9th and 16th Battalions of Madras Regiment respectively after the independence. The Nayar army from Cochin was refurbished in to the 17th Battalion.[57]


According to the 1891 Census of India, the total population of Nairs stood at 980,860 (Excluding subcastes like Maarans and Samanthan Nairs). Out of this, 483,725 (49.3%) lived in Travancore, 101,691 (10.4%) in Cochin and 377,828 (38.5%) in Malabar. The reminder were mostly found in Madras Presidency (15,939) and other parts of British India (1,677).[58]

The 1968 Socio-Economic Survey by the Government of Kerala gave the population of the Nair community as 14.41% of the total population of the state, constituting for 89% of the forward caste population in the state.

Customs and traditions


Along with the Namboothiris and Ambalavasis, Nairs formed the backbone for Hinduism in Kerala. Despite being thoroughly influenced by the Aryan traditions, remnants of the Nāga customs can still be found amongst the Nairs, such as Serpent worship. Sacred forests, where Naga Devatas (Serpent gods) are worshipped can be found in many Nair Tharavaads. These sacred forests are known as Sarpa Kavu (meaning Abode of the Snake God). Kavu and Kulam (Water Pond with stone-paved steps and boundary) were the attrributes of any flourishing Nair Tharavadu in the olden days. Nairs insisted on personal hygiene and so ponds were necessary. They performed daily worship by lighting the lamp at the Nagathara inside the Kavu. Reciting the names of gods and hymns in the evening in front of the Nila Vilakku (Sacred lamp) was religiously followed in every Nair Tharavadu. Nairs were the custodians of the temples in the respective Kara (area) and they regularly worshipped at the temples as well.

The staunch adherence to the Hindu faith among Nairs has resulted in a number of Nair - Muslim clashes, mostly in the Malabar region. Most notable among them are the Captivity of Nairs at Seringapatam[59], where thousands of Nairs were slaughtered by Muslims under Tippu Sultan. The defeat of the Nairs in Seringapatam resulted in the destruction of Hinduism in Southern Mysore region. However the Nairs of Travancore, with the help of the British were able to defeat the Muslim forces in 1792 at the Third Anglo-Mysore War[60]. A second conflict which happened during 1920s, known as the Moplah Riots culminated in mass murder of close to 30,000 Nairs[61] by Muslims and resulted in near complete exodus of Hindus from Malabar.[62]

However, due to their numerical superiority, the Nairs were able to hold on to the Hindu dominance in Travancore. Travancore is one of the very few areas in the entire India, where Muslim rule was never established. The opposition by Nairs to the Christian proselytizing activities has resulted in some minor altercations with Evangelical Christians in the Travancore region. Nair activists like Chattampi Swamikal strongly opposed Christian missionary activities and criticized Christianity.[63]


The attire of the Nair community was similar to that of the other forward castes in Kerala.


As is usual with Malayalees, par-boiled rice is the staple food of Nairs. Rice served may be in the form of Choru (boiled with water and drained) or in the form of rice gruel known as kanjee (pronounced /ˈkɒndʒiː/). Coconut, jackfruit, plantain, mango and other fruits and vegetables are widely used. Coconut oil is also used widely. Ghee is used on festive occasions. In earlier times, rice in the form of 'Kanji' or 'Choru' is served thrice a day at meal time along with curries and other additional dishes. Nowadays, breakfast has taken the form of snacks with Idli or Dosa which are actually Off-Kerala South Indian Items or Chapathi with curry which is North Indian or Bread with toast which is European.

Traditionally, the majority of Nairs, especially those belonging to the two largest subdivisions (Kiryathil Nair and Illathu Nair) were not vegetarians, as consumption of fish was permitted. But subcastes like Swaroopathil Nair, Maarar, Akathu Charna Nair, Purathu Charna Nair and Padamangalam Nair are strict vegetarians.[44] Chicken and mutton dishes are also prepared in many Nair homes nowadays, but they were prohibited earlier. Consumption of beef and alcohol is strictly prohibited and doing so often resulted in violence or excommunication during the pre-independence era. Among the vegetarian dishes, Aviyal, Thoran, and Theeyal are particularly Nair dishes. Ceremonial feasts are strictly vegetarian. Sweet dishes like Palpayasam and Ada Prathaman are prepared during ceremonial and festive occasions. Other special dishes included Kozhukkatta, Chivda, Elayappam (sweet), Ottada, Kaliyodakka, etc [64].

Caste system

Nairs ranked just below the Namboothiris (and a few less numerous subcastes and divisions) in the Kerala caste hierarchy and the three or four major Nair subcastes (like Kiryathil, Illathu & Swaroopathil) constituted the martial race in Kerala.

Kerala, referred to as a "lunatic asylum of castes" by Swami Vivekananda, had a system of untouchability and caste discrimination that was prevalent before the mid-20th century. Several social movements in India in the 19th and 20th centuries by Reformers and Spiritual leaders like Swami Vivekananda, Narayana Guru, Chattambi Swamikal etc; dismantled the rigid caste barriers upheld among others, by the Nairs in Kerala.

"A Nair was expected to instantly cut down a Tiar, or Mucua, who presumed to defile him by touching his person; and a similar fate awaited a slave, who did not turn out of the road as a Nair passed"[65]

According to Kerala tradition the Dalits were forced to maintain a distance of 96 feet from Namboothiris, 64 feet from Nairs and 48 feet from other upper castes (like Maarans and Arya Vysyas) as they were thought to pollute them.[66] Other castes like Nayadis, Kanisans and Mukkuvans were forbidden within 72 feet, 32 feet and 24 feet respectively from Nairs.[67]

Socio-political movements

A number of socio-religious reform movements, which were also the earliest democratic mass movements in Kerala, took shape from late 1800s. The Nairs also felt the need for reform in response to such changes. Throughout the medieval period and until well into the 19th century, the Nairs had a pre-eminent role in Kerala. By the middle of the 19th century, however, this dominance started waning. Institutions like the sambandham and the matrilineal joint family system which had ensured the strength of the Nair community earlier, now became productive of many evils in changing socio-political background of Kerala. The impact of the market economy, the disappearance of traditional military training, the absorption of new values through the new system of education, the self-consciousness being generated among the lower castes and their cry for equality and privileges - all these factors brought about a decline of Nair dominance. The sense of decline gave an impetus to the spirit of reform that expressed itself in the work of religious men like Chattambi Swamikal, in literature, on the press and platform and later in legislative enactments in respect of marriage, inheritance, property rights, etc. Ultimately, the movements crystallized in the foundation of the Nair Service Society, in 1914.

The Nair Service Society (NSS) is an organization created to represent the interests of the Nair community. It is headquartered at Perunna in the town of Changanassery in Kottayam District, Kerala State, India. It was established under the leadership of Mannathu Padmanabhan[68]. The NSS is a three tier organisation with Karayogams at the base level, Taluk Unions at the intermediate level and the Headquarters at the apex level.

The Society owns and manages a large number of educational institutions and hospitals. These include the NSS College of Engineering at Palakkad, NSS Hindu College at Changanassery, NSS College at Pandalam, Mahatma Gandhi College at Thiruvananthapuram, SVRVNSS College at Vazhoor, Pazhassi Raja NSS College at Mattanur, Kannur and the Women's College at Niramankara, Thiruvananthapuram. The N.S.S. runs more than 150 schools, 18 Arts and Science colleges, 3 Training colleges, 1 Engineering college, 1 Homoeo Medical College, several Nursing Colleges, Polytechnic college, T.T.C Schools, Working Women Hostels and Technical institutions.

Taking the lead given by Mannathu Padmanabhan, expatriate Nairs both in other states of India as well as in countries other than India have formed Nair Service Societies in their states and countries of domicile. Examples are Karnataka Nair Service Society with 21 karayogams in Bangalore, and the Calcutta Nair Service Society in Kolkata. Efforts are on to bring together all Nair groups the world over under an umbrella " International Federation of Nair Societies".[citation needed]

See also

External links

Notes and references

  1. ^ 1968 Socio-Economic Survey, Govt. of Kerala
  2. ^ Malabar manual By William Logan
  3. ^ Page 5, Line 25
  4. ^ Page 40, Line 16
  5. ^ "Nair." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 5 June 2008
  6. ^ Encyclopedia Britanica
  7. ^ "Nāyar." Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008.
  8. ^ American Asiatic Association (1942). Asia: Asian Quarterly of Culture and Synthesis. Asia Magazine. p. 22. 
  9. ^ Paul Hartmann, B. R. Patil, Anita Dighe (1989). The Mass Media and Village Life: An Indian Study. Sage Publications. p. 224. 
  10. ^ Kumara Padmanabha Sivasankara Menon (1965). Many Worlds: An Autobiography. Oxford University Press. p. 2. 
  11. ^ Hugh Gantzer (April 1975-March 1976). Imprint. Business Press. p. 80. 
  12. ^ a b
  13. ^ a b Nayar History and Cultural Relations
  14. ^ The Eastern Anthropologist, Ethnographic and Folk-Culture Society (Uttar Pradesh, India), Lucknow University Anthropology Laboratory, 1958, p108
  15. ^ A. Sreedhara Menon (1967). A Survey of Kerala History. Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society. p. 204. 
  16. ^ N. S. Mannadiar (1977). Lakshadweep. Administration of the Union Territory of Lakshadweep. p. 52. 
  17. ^ Ke. Si. Māmmanmāppiḷa (1980). Reminiscences. Malayala Manorama Pub. House. p. 75. 
  18. ^ P. V. Balakrishnan (1981). Matrilineal System in Malabar. p. 27. 
  19. ^ Madras (Presidency) (1885). Manual of the Administration of the Madras Presidency. p. 100. 
  20. ^ The cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, Edward Balfour, 1885, p249
  21. ^ Imperial gazetteer of India: provincial series, Volume 18 p.436
  22. ^ Temples of Kerala By S. Jayashanker, India. Directorate of Census Operations, Kerala. p.322
  23. ^ Social History of Kerala: The Dravidians By L. A. Krishna Iyer
  24. ^ The Kadambas By Phanikanta Mishra p.14
  25. ^ Encyclopaedia of Hinduism, Volume 7 By N.K. Singh p.2715
  26. ^ New light thrown on the history of India: the historical Naga kings of India By Narayan Gopal Tavakar
  27. ^ Dr.D.D. Kosambi in An introduction to the Study of Indian History, (Bombay, 1956), p.113 - Nair: 1959: 11
  28. ^ Social History of Kerala: The Dravidians By L. A. Krishna Iyer p.003
  29. ^ Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats, Rohtak, India (1938, 1967)
  30. ^ Kishori Lal Fauzdar: Uttar Pradesh ke Madhyakalin Jatvansh aur Rajya, Jat Samaj, Monthly Magazine, Agra, September-October 1999
  31. ^ K. Balachandran Nair (1974). In Quest of Kerala. Accent Publications. p. 117. 
  32. ^ James Hastings (2003). Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 5. Kessinger Publishing. p. 231. 
  33. ^ Downfall of Hindu India, Chintaman Vinayak Vaidya, 1986, p278
  34. ^ Ramananda Chatterjee (1922). The Modern Review. Prabasi Press Private, Ltd.. p. 675. 
  35. ^ Jervoise Athelstane Baines (1893), General report on the Census of India, 1891, London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, p. 184
  36. ^ Ramananda Chatterjee (1907). The Modern Review. Prabasi Press Private, Ltd. p. 695. 
  37. ^ Raman Menon, K. "The Scythian Origin of the Nairs", Malabar Quarterly Review, Vol. I, No. 2, June 1902
  38. ^ V. Nagam Aiya (1906). The Travancore State Manual. Princely State of Travancore. p. 348. 
  39. ^ Theory of origin
  40. ^ The Nair heritage of Kerala: People and culture,
  41. ^ Lahiri, Bela (1972). Indigenous States of Northern India (Circa 200 B.C. to 320 A.D.), Calcutta: University of Calcutta, pp.170-88
  42. ^ Maclean's Manual of the Administration of the Madras Presidency
  43. ^
  44. ^ a b The Internal Structure of the Nayar Caste, C. J. Fuller
  45. ^ Aiya, V. Nagam: "Travancore State Manual", pages 232, 238
  46. ^ Indian Department of Tourism (1966). Mysore and Kerala. Indian Department of Tourism. p. 4. 
  47. ^ Neither Newton nor Leibniz,
  48. ^ From Vedic Martial Arts to Aikido,
  49. ^ A travel feature on the ancient Kerala art of Kalaripayattu,
  50. ^ Kalaripayattu, the traditional martial art,
  51. ^ John Keay (1999). Into India. University of Michigan Press. p. 75. ISBN 0472086359. 
  52. ^ Praxy Fernandes (1969). Storm Over Seringapatam: The Incredible Story of Hyder Ali & Tippu Sultan. Thackers. p. 35. 
  53. ^ Praxy Fernandes (1991). The Tigers of Mysore: A Biography of Hyder Ali & Tipu Sultan. Viking. p. 29. ISBN 0670839876. 
  54. ^ Ancient martial art fights for survival in India,
  55. ^ Kalari,
  56. ^ The book of Duarte Barbosa: an account of the countries bordering on the ... By Duarte Barbosa, Mansel Longworth Dames p.38
  57. ^ Valour and sacrifice: famous regiments of the Indian Army By Gautam Sharma p.59
  58. ^ The Internal Structure of the Nayar Caste, C. J. Fuller
  59. ^ Prabhu, Alan Machado (1999). Sarasvati's Children: A History of the Mangalorean Christians. I.J.A. Publications. p. 250. ISBN 9788186778258. 
  60. ^
  61. ^ O P Ralhan (1996). Encyclopaedia of Political Parties: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh : National, Regional, Local. Anmol Publications PVT . LTD.. p. 297. 
  62. ^
  63. ^ Chattambi Swamikal, H.H.Vidhyadhiraja Parama Bhattaraka (1890). Kristumata Chedanam. Open Source Books. p. Chapter 1-4. 
  64. ^ Travancore State Manual 1906 by V Nagam Aiya, Vol II page 352
  65. ^ Castes and tribes of Southern India, Volume 7 By Edgar Thurston, K. Rangachari, p.251
  66. ^
  67. ^
  68. ^ V. Balakrishnan & R. Leela Devi, 1982, Mannathu Padmanabhan : and the revival of Nairs in Kerala, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi


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Slogan Product First
Author or Agency Source and notes
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Ivory Soap - 9944/100% Pure. Ivory Soap 1882 Unknown employee of Procter & Gamble Julian Lewis Watkins, The 100 Greatest Advertisements: Who Wrote Them and What They Did‎ (1959), p. 7.
Good to the last drop. Maxwell House coffee 1926 Allegedly coined by Theodore Roosevelt in 1907, although the claim is dubious; adopted as Maxwell House's tagline in 1926. Isaac E. Lambert, The Public Accepts: Stories Behind Famous Trade-marks, Names and Slogans‎ (1941), p. 35.
I'd walk a mile for a Camel. Camel cigarettes 1921 Henry Hobhouse, Seeds of Wealth: Five Plants That Made Men Rich‎ (2006), p. 226.
The pause that refreshes. Coca-Cola 1929 Edward Collins Bursk, The world of business‎ (1962), p. 335.
There is no spit in Cremo! Cremo cigars by American Tobacco 1929 Radio campaign on the new Columbia Broadcasting Service (CBS); cited in Erik Barnouw, The Sponsor: Notes On a Modern Potentate, Oxford University Press, 1978, page 25, ISBN 0-19-502614-4.
Breakfast of Champions Wheaties 1935 Blackett-Sample-Gummert Later "The Breakfast of Champions" into the 1990s; cited by Kurt Vonnegut eponymously in Breakfast of Champions (1973), preface: "The use of the identical expression as the title for this book is not intended to indicate an association with or sponsorship by General Mills, nor is it intended to disparage their fine product."
Melts in your mouth, not in your hands. M&Ms 1954 Joël Glenn Brenner, The Emperors of Chocolate: Inside the Secret World of Hershey and Mars, (1999), p. 172.
It takes a licking and keeps on ticking. Timex Corporation 1956 William Harley Davidson, José R. De la Torre, Managing the Global Corporation: Case Studies in Strategy and Management (1989), p. 21.
We drink all we can. The rest we sell. Utica Club 1965 Doyle Dane Bernbach Art Direction‎ (1967), p. 133.
A mind is a terrible thing to waste. United Negro College Fund 1970s Young & Rubicam George R. Bonner Jr., "Public-service advertising nears No. 1 ad pace in US", Christian Science Monitor (April 26, 1983), Business, p. 10.
It takes a tough man to make a tender chicken. Perdue 1972 Scali, McCabe & Sloves Robert F. Hartley, Marketing Successes, Historical to Present Day: What We Can Learn (1985), p. 171.
Between love and madness lies Obsession. Calvin Klein's Obsession 1985 Robert Jackall and Janice M. Hirota, Image Makers: Advertising, Public Relations, and the Ethos of Advocacy (2003), p. 212.
The lion leaps from strength to strength. Peugeot 1980s J. Jonathan Gabay, Gabay's Copywriters' Compendium: The Definitive Creative Writer's Guide (2006), p. 602.
With a name like Smuckers... it has to be good. Smuckers Cynthia S. Smith, Step-by-step Advertising (1984), p. 74.
Obey your thirst. Sprite Robert Goldman, Stephen Papson, Sign Wars: The Cluttered Landscape of Advertising (1996), p. 263.
Be all that you can be. United States Army 1981-2001 N. W. Ayer Craig C. Pinder, Work Motivation: Theory, Issues, and Applications (1984), p. 50.
Is it live, or is it Memorex? Memorex video cassettes 1970s Richard D. Leppert, Susan McClary, Music and Society: The Politics of Composition, Performance, and Reception (2001), p. 174.
Sometimes you feel like a nut, sometimes you don't. Peter Paul Almond Joy & Peter Paul Mounds 1953 Dancer-Fitzgerald-Sample Linda K. Fuller, Frank Hoffmann, Beulah B Ramirez, Chocolate Fads, Folklore & Fantasies: 1,000+ Chunks of Chocolate Information (1994), p. 60.
So easy a caveman can do it. GEICO Laura Lowell, 42 Rules of Marketing (2007), p. 21.
Put a tiger in your tank. Esso/Exxon Brian Ash, Tiger in Your Tank: The Anatomy of an Advertising Campaign (1969), p. 60.
I want my MTV. MTV Mark Tungate, Media Monoliths: How Great Media Brands Thrive and Survive‎ (2004), p. 41.
Nothing outlasts the Energizer. It keeps going and going and going. Energizer batteries Robert Goldman, Stephen Papson, Sign Wars: The Cluttered Landscape of Advertising‎ (1996), p. 45.
You got peanut butter in my chocolate!
You got chocolate in my peanut butter!
(Voiceover) Two great tastes that taste great together.
Reese's Peanut Butter Cups 1970 Andrew Hargadon, How Breakthroughs Happen: The Surprising Truth about how Companies Innovate‎ (2003), p. 56; reported in part in Andrew F. Smith, Encyclopedia of Junk Food and Fast Food‎ (1006), p. 228 (specifying date and attributing authorship to Ogilvy & Mather).
Just Do It. Nike 1988 Robert Goldman, Stephen Papson, Nike Culture: the Sign of the Swoosh‎ (1998), p. 19; authorship attributed to Wieden & Kennedy in Communication Arts (1988), p. 151.
Like a good neighbor, State Farm is there. State Farm Insurance 1971 DDB Worldwide Richard Jackson Harris, A Cognitive Psychology of Mass Communication‎ (2004), p. 100.
Maybe she's born with it. Maybe it's Maybelline. Maybelline 1991 Robin Andersen, Jonathan Gray, Battleground: The Media‎ (2008), p. 7.

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