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Virus classification
Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA)
Family: Bunyaviridae
Genus: Nairovirus

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV)
Dera Ghazi Khan virus (DGKV)
Dugbe virus (DUGV)
Hughes virus (HUGV)
Qalyub virus (QYBV)
Sakhalin virus (SAKV)
Thiafora virus (TFAV)

Nairovirus is a genus in the family Bunyaviridae that include viruses with circular, negative-sense single stranded RNA. It got its name from the Nairobi sheep disease that affects the gastrointestinal tracts of sheep and goats. Viruses in this genus are tick-borne viruses that can have human or animal hosts.[1] There are seven species in this genus which include: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV); Dugbe virus (DUGV); Qalyub virus (QYBV); Sakhalin virus (SAKV); Dera Ghazi Khan virus (DGKV); Thiafora virus (TFAV); and Hughes virus (HUGV).[1][2]



Nairovirus genomes are monomeric, segmented, circular, negative sense, single-stranded RNA. The complete genome is about 17,100-22,800 nucleotides long and is segmented into three segments: large, medium, and small.[1] The large segment is about 11000-14400 nucleotides long (6.8–12 kb) and it encodes for the nucleocapsid protein.[3][4] The medium segment is about 4,400-6,300 nucleotides long (3.2-4.9kb) and it encodes for glycoproteins G¬n and Gc.[3][4] The small segment is about 1,700-2,100 nucleotides long (1-3kb) and it encodes the viral polymerase.[1][3][4]

The genome has terminally redundant sequences with the sequences being repeated at both ends. The terminal nucleotides are base-paired forming non-covalently closed, circular RNA.[3] Both the 5’ and 3’ end have conserved regions of 9 nucleotides in length. The sequences are 5’end UCUCAAAGA and 3’end AGAGUUUCU.[3]


The virions for viruses in this genus have a spherical shape.[4] They range in size from about 80-120 nm in diameter with 50% of their weight attributed to proteins and 20-30% of their weight attributed to lipids.[3] The virions have 3 non-segmented, circular, symmetric nucleocapsids. The ribonucleocapsid is filamentous and has a length of about 200-300 nm and a width of about 2-2.5 nm.[3]

These nucleocapsids are surrounded by a single envelope that has projections made of glycoproteins protruding from its surface. These projections evenly cover the surface of the virion and are about 5-10 nm long.[3] They aid in attachment to the host receptor in replication.


These viruses are not dependent on a helper virus. They attach to the host receptors by their Gn-Gc glycoprotein dimer.[4] The virus is then endocytosed into the host cell via a vesicle. The ribonucleocapsid segments are released into the cytoplasm commencing transcription.[4] Transcription and replication occur in the cell and the newly synthesized virions are released by budding.

Transmission & Distribution

This virus infects many different vertebrate hosts and is transmitted via insects such as ticks and flies.[3]

There are no geographical localizations of this virus. It is widespread. However, the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus is localized to Africa, Asia and Europe.[4]

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c d Crabtree, Mary B., Rosemary Sang, and Barry R. Miller. "Kupe Virus, a New Virus in the Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Nairovirus, Kenya." Emerging Infectious Diseases 15 (2009): 147-54.
  2. ^ Clerx, John PM, Jordi Casals, and David HL Bishop. "Structural Characteristics of Nairoviruses (Genus Nairovirus, Bunyaviridae)." Journal of General Virology 55 (1981): 165-78.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Büchen-Osmond, Cornelia. " Nairovirus." ICTVdb Virus Descriptions. 25 Apr. 2006. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. 17 Apr. 2009 <>.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Nairovirus." Nairovirus. Viral Zone. <>.

External links



Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies


Main Page
Regnum: Virus
Phylum: not divided
Classis: not divided
Ordo: Unassigned
Familia: Bunyaviridae
Genus: Nairovirus
Species: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus  -   Dera Ghazi Khan virus  -   Dugbe virus  -   Hughes virus  -   Qalyub virus  -   Sakhalin virus  -   Thiafora virus


Catalogue of Life: 2009 Annual Checklist [1]


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