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     North Sudan      Darfur      Eastern Front, area of operations July 2006      South Sudan (to hold referendum in 2011      Abyei (to hold referendum in 2011)      Nuba Mountains and Blue Nile (to hold "popular consultations" in 2011)

The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (or CPA), also known as the Naivasha Agreement, was a set of agreements culminating in January 2005 that were signed between the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the Government of Sudan. The Naivasha Agreement was meant to end the Second Sudanese Civil War, develop democratic governance countrywide and share oil revenues. It further set a timetable by which Southern Sudan would have a referendum on its independence.

The peace process was encouraged by the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), as well as IGAD-Partners, a consortium of donor countries.



The process resulted in the following agreements (also referred to as protocols):

  • The Machakos Protocol (or Chapter I), signed in Machakos, Kenya on July 20, 2002. Agreement on broad principles of government and governance.
  • The Protocol on Power Sharing (or Chapter II), signed in Naivasha, Kenya on May 26, 2004
  • The Agreement on Wealth Sharing (or Chapter III), signed in Naivasha, Kenya on January 7, 2004
  • The Protocol on the Resolution of the Conflict in Abyei Area (or Chapter IV), signed in Naivasha, Kenya on May 26, 2004
  • The Protocol on the Resolution of the Conflict in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile States (or Chapter V), signed in Naivasha, Kenya on May 26, 2004
  • The Agreement on Security Arrangements (or Chapter VI), signed in Naivasha, Kenya on September 25, 2003
  • The Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Modalities and Appendices (or Annexure I), signed in Naivasha, Kenya on October 30, 2004
  • The Implementation Modalities and Global Implementation Matrix and Appendices (or Annexure II), signed in Naivasha, Kenya on December 31, 2004

The final, comprehensive agreement was signed on January 9, 2005 and marked the commencement of implementation activities.

2007 Southern withdrawal

Dancers in Kapoeta at an awareness building rally for the peace agreement, 2006

On 11 October 2007, the SPLM withdrew from the government of national unity (GoNU), accusing the central government of violating the terms of the CPA. In particular, the SPLM states that the Khartoum-based government, which is dominated by the National Congress Party, has failed to withdraw over 15,000 troops from southern oilfields and failed to implement the Protocol on Abyei. The SPLM stated that it was not returning to war, while analysts noted that the agreement had been disintegrating for some time, notably because of international focus on the conflict in nearby Darfur.[1]

The SPLM announced that it was rejoining the government on 13 December 2007, following an agreement. The agreement states that the seat of government will rotate between Juba and Khartoum every three months, though it appears that this will be largely symbolic, as well as funding for a census (vital for the referendum) and a timetable for the withdrawal of troops across the border.[2]

Northern Sudanese troops finally left Southern Sudan on 8 January 2008.[3]

See also

References and notes

External links



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