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Napoleon I
Full length portrait of Napoleon in his forties, in high-ranking white and dark blue military dress uniform. He stands amid rich 18th-century furniture laden with papers, and gazes at the viewer. <a name=.His hair is Brutus style, cropped close but with a short fringe in front, and his right hand is tucked in his waistcoat."^ Any sistah who's 5'8" or taller, has short cropped hair, is an athlete, or full figured and tall with broad shoulders has had that shade thrown at them.

^ Murat, who, said Napoleon, "was superb at Aboukir," with a numerous cavalry and a crops of grenadiers was stationed at St. Cloud, a thunderbolt in Napoleon's right hand.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/01/6/0/0/0538691296879178.jpg" width="200" height="329" />
The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries, by Jacques-Louis David, 1812
Emperor of the French
Reign 18 May 1804 – 11 April 1814
20 March 1815 – 22 June 1815
Coronation 2 December 1804
Predecessor French Consulate
Himself as First Consul of the French First Republic.
Previous ruling monarch was Louis XVI as King of the French (1791–1792)
Successor Louis XVIII (de jure in 1814; as legitimate monarch in 1815)
Napoleon II (according to his father's will of 1815)
King of Italy
Reign 17 March 1805 – 11 April 1814
Coronation 26 May 1805
Predecessor Himself as President of the Italian Republic
Previous ruling monarch was Emperor Charles V, crowned in Bologna in 1530
Successor Kingdom disbanded
Next monarch crowned in Milan was Emperor Ferdinand I, next king of Italy was Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy
Spouse Joséphine de Beauharnais
Marie Louise of Austria
Issue
Napoleon II of France
Full name
Napoleon Bonaparte
House House of Bonaparte
Father Carlo Buonaparte
Mother Letizia Ramolino
Born 15 August 1769(1769-08-15)
Ajaccio, Corsica
Died 5 May 1821 (aged 51)
Longwood, Saint Helena, British Empire
Burial Les Invalides, Paris
.Napoleon Bonaparte (French: Napoléon Bonaparte French pronunciation: [napoleɔ̃ bɔnɑpaʁt], Italian: Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821), was a military and political leader of France and Emperor of the French as Napoleon I, whose actions shaped European politics in the early 19th century.^ Napoleón I, emperor of the French, 1769-1821.

^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, late Emperor of the French &c.

^ First Napoleon; a sketch, political and military.

.Born in Corsica and trained as an artillery officer in mainland France, Bonaparte rose to prominence under the First French Republic and led successful campaigns against the First and Second Coalitions arrayed against France.^ First campaign of Arabian troops led .
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This republic could by no means maintain itself against the monarchies of Europe, unaided by France.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ October Revolution (1917) - The second stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917, led by Leon Trotsky; the first officially communist revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution .
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1799, he staged a coup d'état and installed himself as First Consul; five years later the French Senate proclaimed him Emperor.^ It was time for the First Consul to decide to make himself emperor.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Desaix, upon his arrival in Paris, found letters for him there from the First Consul.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The question was then discussed whether to add ten years to his Consulship, or to make him First Consul for life.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.In the first decade of the nineteenth century, the French Empire under Napoleon engaged in a series of conflicts—the Napoleonic Wars—involving every major European power.^ The early nineteenth century was dominated by the aftermath of the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He led the french through a series of conflicts called " the Napoleonic Wars" which involved every major European power!

^ This expansion helped to cause World War II. The war marked the first major victory of a non-western power over a western power.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.After a streak of victories, France secured a dominant position in continental Europe and Napoleon maintained the French sphere of influence through the formation of extensive alliances and the appointment of friends and family members to rule other European countries as French client states.^ After a winning streak France began dominating all of Europe.

^ The French ultimately triumphed but the margin of superiority was decreasing and all of Napoleons skill and determination was required to achieve a victorious outcome.

^ Although the family ruled over what might be, in theory, considered the most powerful country in Europe, the French monarchs had little control over their vassals, and many parts of France functioned as though they were independent states.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.The French invasion of Russia in 1812 marked a turning point in Napoleon's fortunes.^ Napoleon's invasion of Russia.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Napoleon's invasion of Russia, 1812.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ History of the expedition to Russia undertaken by the emperor Napoleon in the year 1812 / by Philip de Segur.

His Grande Armée was badly damaged in the campaign and never fully recovered. .In 1813, the Sixth Coalition defeated his forces at Leipzig; the following year the Coalition invaded France, forced Napoleon to abdicate and exiled him to the island of Elba.^ Napoleon I of France is exiled to Elba on the same day.

^ Napoleon was forced to abdicate his throne.
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^ Letter expresses appreciation for the Count's services to the exiled Napoleon I and asks him to accept a lock of his hair.
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.Less than a year later, he escaped Elba and returned to power, but was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815. Napoleon spent the last six years of his life under British supervision on the island of Saint Helena.^ Napoleon at St. Helena 1815-1821.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Napoleon; from Tilsit to Waterloo, 1807-1815.

^ Saint Helena, little island.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An autopsy concluded he died of stomach cancer, though Sten Forshufvud and other scientists have since conjectured that he was poisoned with arsenic.^ Since then, heart disease, cancer, AIDS, and other pestilences have killed hundreds of millions."
  • GTJ Brooklyn 1a 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC gtw6437.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1821 he died due to a stomach cancer at age 51.

.Napoleon's campaigns are studied at military academies the world over.^ Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana (1822-1905) graduated the United States Military Academy in 1842.
  • Printable Catalog - Marketplace Auction 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.ha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Napoleon's campaign in Poland 1806-7: a military history of Napoleon's first war with Russia.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gibbs, Montgomery B. Military career of Napoleon the great; an account of the remarkable campaigns of the "man of destiny."
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While considered a tyrant by his opponents, he is also remembered for the establishment of the Napoleonic code, which laid the administrative and judicial foundations for much of Western Europe.^ Napoleonic code - French code of civil law, established by Napoléon on March 21, 1804, to reform the French legal system in accordance with the principles of the French Revolution.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He also rewrote the old French feudal laws, which were confusing, creating a new Napoleonic Code of laws that were much clearer.

^ Napoleon had laid the foundation of his throne deep in the heart of the French nation, and there that foundation still remains unshaken.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Origins and education

.Napoleon Bonaparte was born the second of eight children, in Casa Buonaparte in the town of Ajaccio, Corsica, on 15 August 1769, one year after the island was transferred to France by the Republic of Genoa.^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of France.

^ August 15, 1769 the day Napolian was born!!!

^ Born -15 August 1769 in France.

[1] .He was initially named Napoleone di Buonaparte, acquiring his first name from an uncle who had been killed fighting the French,[2] but later adopted the more French-sounding Napoléon Bonaparte.^ Napoleon Bonaparte dies (b.

^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of the French.

^ Napoleon's christening name was Italian: Napoleone Buonaparte.

[note 1]
Half-length portrait of a wigged middle-aged man with a well-to-do jacket. His left hand is tucked inside his waistcoat.
Napoleon's father Carlo Buonaparte was Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI of France
.The Corsican Buonapartes originated from minor Italian nobility, who had come to Corsica in the 16th century.^ From the early 16th to the early 19th century it was the center of the Bani Muhammad dynasty, which originated in Morocco.

^ Politique - A term used in the 16th century to describe a head of state who put politics and the nation's well being before religion.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Waterloo Letters: a selection from original and hitherto unpublished letters bearing on the operations of the 16th, 17th, and 18th June, 1815, by officers who served in the campaign.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .His father Nobile Carlo Buonaparte, an attorney, was named Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI in 1777. The dominant influence of Napoleon's childhood was his mother, Maria Letizia Ramolino, whose firm discipline restrained a rambunctious child.^ Madame Letizia: a portrait of Napoleon's mother.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Napoleon's christening name was Italian: Napoleone Buonaparte.

^ Sieyes was the only one whose talents and influence Napoleon feared.
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[5] .He had an elder brother, Joseph; and younger siblings Lucien, Elisa, Louis, Pauline, Caroline and Jérôme.^ Josephine, however, had conceived the idea of marrying Hortense to Louis Bonaparte, Napoleon's younger brother.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The gentle Bonaparte; a biography of Joseph, Napoleon's elder brother.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Napoleon was baptised as a Catholic just before his second birthday, on 21 July 1771 at Ajaccio Cathedral.^ One of the neat things about living in Da Ville is that my birthday falls either just before, on or just after Derby Day.

^ He had returned to Malta just days before Napoleon’s fleet arrived, pausing on its way to Egypt and disaster.
  • Europa Universalis Short AAR Contest - The Entries - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

[6]
.Napoleon's noble, moderately affluent background and family connections afforded him greater opportunities to study than were available to a typical Corsican of the time.^ His estimate for the distance to the moon was 67r vs. He estimated the sun to be 37 times farther than the moon and at least 12 times greater in diameter than the Earth.
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^ Such, at this time, was the towering ambition of Napoleon, the most noble and comprehensive which was ever embraced by the conception of man.
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^ And if the Tennessee Republican Party has a problem with Senator Obama, maybe next time they’ll have the courage to address him directly instead of attacking his family."

[7] .In January 1779, Napoleon was enrolled at a religious school in Autun, mainland France, to learn French, and in May he was admitted to a military academy at Brienne-le-Château.^ Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana (1822-1905) graduated the United States Military Academy in 1842.
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^ Religious instruction was to be communicated in all these schools by chaplains, military instruction by old officers who had left the army, and classical and scientific instruction by the most learned men Europe could furnish.
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^ French Academy of Sciences (1666) - Learned society founded by Louis XIV to encourage French scientific research.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[8] He spoke with a marked Corsican accent and never learned to spell properly.[9] .Napoleon was teased by other students for his accent and applied himself to study.^ Napoleon invited the embassador to take a seat at one end of the table, and seated himself at the other.
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^ For many days Napoleon almost entirely secluded himself from observation, affecting a studious avoidance of the public gaze.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[10][note 2] An examiner observed that Napoleon "has always been distinguished for his application in mathematics. He is fairly well acquainted with history and geography... This boy would make an excellent sailor."[12][note .3] On completion of his studies at Brienne in 1784, Napoleon was admitted to the elite École Militaire in Paris; this ended his naval ambition, which had led him to consider an application to the British Royal Navy.^ Sepoy mutiny (1857–1858) - Rebellions against British colonial rule in India; caused the end of the British East India Company's rule in India, and led to a century of direct rule of India by Britain.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gandhi's "civil disobedience" led to an end to British rule, and in 1935 the Government of India Act provided India with an internal self-government.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Appendices give precise details of ship losses by the major navies in the periods 1793-1802 and 1803-1815, a glossary of British naval terminology and a bibliography.

[14] .Instead, he trained to become an artillery officer and, when his father's death reduced his income, was forced to complete the two-year course in one year.^ The dughter of Min Ch'irok, she was raised to the posthumous rank and title of Empress Myongsong two years after her death.

^ Regent Datuk I Pateka Tana of Tanette (Indonesia) After the death of the female ruler, Datuk I Pancaitana, she was for one year until Andi Basso became regent.

^ Perfy feet.Perfy jumped the net and continued on catching butterflys.Perfy got a quick glance at the butterfly."This is going to be hard to catch"Said Perfy."the butterfly has got two heads instead of one.

[10] .He was examined by the famed scientist Pierre-Simon Laplace, whom Napoleon later appointed to the Senate.^ She sold the patent to another Guernsey Andros, Sir Edmund Le Breton, whom Charles II later appointed Governor of New York.

^ Laplace, Pierre Simon, marquis de (1749-1827; GDU ).
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[15]

Early career

Head and shoulders portrait of a white-haired, portly, middle-aged man with a pinkish complexion, blue velvet coat and a ruffle
.
Nationalist Corsican leader Pasquale Paoli.
^ One of the major Corsican leaders, and the principal opponent of Paoli, from 1769 he served the French as an officer in the army.
  • Chateabriand's Memoirs: Index A 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC tkline.pgcc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Portrait by Richard Cosway.
.Upon graduating in September 1785, Bonaparte was commissioned a second lieutenant in La Fère artillery regiment.^ An officer in the Navarre Regiment, he was second lieutenant in 1787, first lieutenant in 1789.
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[8][note .4] He served on garrison duty in Valence, Drôme and Auxonne until after the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, though he took nearly two years of leave in Corsica and Paris during this period.^ The great French revolution, 1789-1793.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The French revolution and Napoleon, 1789-1815.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The French revolution from 1789 to 1815.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A fervent Corsican nationalist, Bonaparte wrote to the Corsican leader Pasquale Paoli in May 1789: "As the nation was perishing I was born. Thirty thousand Frenchmen were vomited on to our shores, drowning the throne of liberty in waves of blood. Such was the odious sight which was the first to strike me."[17]
.He spent the early years of the Revolution in Corsica, fighting in a complex three-way struggle between royalists, revolutionaries, and Corsican nationalists.^ Carbonari ("coal-burners") - groups of secret revolutionary societies founded in early 19th century Italy, and instrumental in organizing revolution in Italy in 1820 and 1848.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Those of us who had spent three years bonding together as 'The Class With Class' were about to go our separate ways and pursue our various dreams.

^ This revolution would be caused by what Marx described as a historic class struggle between these two groups.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.He supported the revolutionary Jacobin faction, gained the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and command over a battalion of volunteers.^ Bolsheviks - A faction of the Russian revolutionary movement formed 1903 by followers of Vladimir Lenin, who believed in a small party of revolutionaries with a large fringe group of supporters.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Richard Johnson (1780-1850), from Beargrass, Kentucky, was commissioned a colonel of Kentucky Volunteers and commanded a regiment in the War of 1812.
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^ During the Spanish-American War he was lieutenant colonel and chief of engineers of United States Volunteers.
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.After he had exceeded his leave of absence and led a riot against a French army in Corsica, he was somehow able to convince military authorities in Paris to promote him to Captain in July 1792.[18] He returned to Corsica once again, and came into conflict with Paoli, who had decided to split with France and sabotage a French assault on the Sardinian island of La Maddalena, where Bonaparte was one of the expedition leaders.^ Corsica : picturesque, historical, and social ; with a sketch of the early life of Napoleon, and an account of the Bonaparte, Paoli, Pozzo di Borgo, and other principal families ; suggested by a tour in the island in 1852 / translated from the German of F .

^ Spanish military leader who came to power after suppressing the army revolt of 7 July, 1822, fought against the French invasion of 1823, and lived abroad after being defeated.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ England and France had secretly agreed to split the Netherlands between themselves, but after defeats at sea, and unable the cross the waterline, the French Army began a slow and cautious retreat out of the Republic.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[19] .Bonaparte and his family had to flee to the French mainland in June 1793 because of the split with Paoli.^ In 1793, Caroline moved with her family to France during the French Revolution.
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^ In 1793 she had to flee the French troops after having initially managed to keep a neutral position.

[20]

Siege of Toulon

.In July 1793, he published a pro-republican pamphlet, Le Souper de Beaucaire (Supper at Beaucaire), which gained him the admiration and support of Augustin Robespierre, younger brother of the Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre.^ Anonymous Portrait of Maximilien de Robespierre c.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Déclaration des droits de l’homme et du citoyen, proposée par Maximilien Robespierre, 24 avril, 1793.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He gained the support of Napoleon III by promising him Savoy and Nice.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.With the help of fellow Corsican Antoine Christophe Saliceti, Bonaparte was appointed artillery commander of the republican forces at the siege of Toulon.^ Life and campaigns of Napoleon Bonaparte : giving an account of all his engagements, from the siege of Toulon to the Battle of Waterloo / Antoine Vincint Arnault.

^ This republiqueta was basically under siege from 1810 until 1825 when other republican armies under Simon Bolivar were able to join her remote forces.

.The city had risen against the republican government and was occupied by British troops.^ The city was, occupied by Imperial Russian troops in 1829, during the war of Greek independence.
  • Chateabriand's Memoirs: Index A 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC tkline.pgcc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With their help the prince lost no time in occupying the Jind fort and established his government after putting the Rani the puppet of the British government to the sword.

^ A.D. -Togon occupied considerable territory, had cities (protected settlements), had organized government, maybe copied .
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[21] .He adopted a plan to capture a hill placing that would allow republican guns to dominate the city's harbour and force the British ships to evacuate.^ A force led by U.S. Marines captured the city of Derna, on the shores of Tripoli.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ The port in north-west Israel , on the Bay of Haifa (an arm of the Mediterranean Sea ), the city was captured (638) by the Arabs, who developed its natural harbour.
  • Chateabriand's Memoirs: Index A 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC tkline.pgcc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Viet Cong forces are suspected of placing a bomb on the ship.

.The assault on the position, during which Bonaparte was wounded in the thigh, led to the capture of the city and his promotion to Brigadier General.^ A force led by U.S. Marines captured the city of Derna, on the shores of Tripoli.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ BkXXI:Chap6:Sec1 The Siege of Amiens April-September 1597 led to the re-capture of the city from the Spanish.
  • Chateabriand's Memoirs: Index A 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC tkline.pgcc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Korean conflict, North Korean and Communist Chinese forces captured the city of Seoul.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

.His actions brought him to the attention of the Committee of Public Safety and he was given command of the artillery arm of France's Army of Italy.^ Robespierre (1758-1794) - One of the best known leaders of the French Revolutions; known as "the Incorruptible"; leader of the Committee of Public Safety.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The leading body of the Convention was the Committee of Public Safety, who worked to suppress dissent and protect the revolution.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During a period known as "The Terror," Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety utilized the newly invented guillotine to kill tens of thousands of counter-revolutionaries.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[22] .He became engaged to Désirée Clary, whose sister, Julie Clary, married Bonaparte's elder brother Joseph in 1794. The Clarys were a wealthy merchant family from Marseilles.^ Two of her sisters; Sophia and Elisabeth, married one of his 11 children by his first wife, and she therby became their mother-in-law.

^ Her daughter Kawalu, married her half-brother, George Kaumu-alii, King of Kauai (1794-1810).

^ Usury was forbidden in the Catholic Church, so Jews became wealthy, successful merchants Utopian Socialism - The socialist ideals of creating a perfect communist society.
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[23]

13 Vendémiaire

Etching of a street, there are a lot pockets of smoke due to a group of republican artillery firing on royalists across the street at the entrance to a building
The Journée of 13 Vendémiaire, Year 4. The Saint-Roch Church, Rue Saint-Honoré, Paris/
.Following the fall of the Robespierres in the July 1794 Thermidorian Reaction, Bonaparte was put under house arrest in August 1794 for his association with the brothers.^ Erzsbet was put under house arrest.

^ After remaining under house arrest for five years, she was sent into exile in Spain in 1981 and did not return until 1993.

^ Although the Church forced him to recant his ideas and spend the rest of his life under house arrest, his works had already been published and could not be disregarded.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[note .5] Although he was released after only ten days, he remained out of favour.^ Barentsz died while studying charts only seven days after starting out, but it took seven more weeks for the boats to reach Kola where they were rescued.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although temporarily out of favour (169294) owing to the political disgrace of her husband, Sarah maintained a close relationship with the Queen.

^ He remained there ten days, busy apparently every hour, by day and by night, in re-organizing the political condition of Italy.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[25] .In April 1795, he was assigned to the Army of the West, which was engaged in the War in the Vendée—a civil war and royalist counter-revolution in France's Vendée region.^ With men such as you, our cause was not lost -- but the war was interminable -- it had become a civil war and France was only becoming most unfortunate.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ History of the war between Germany and France, with biographical sketches of the principal personages engaged in the contest.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They discussed her history, her time in the colonies and her first hand witnessing of the revolution against the British, the civil war, and so much more.
  • Bruce Napoleon, Vampire Veterinarian 9 February 2010 15:30 UTC vampvet.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

As an infantry command, it was a demotion from artillery general, and he pleaded poor health to avoid the posting.[26] .He was moved to the Bureau of Topography of the Committee of Public Safety and sought, unsuccessfully, to be transferred to Constantinople (officially renamed Istanbul on 28 March 1930) in order to offer his services to the Sultan.^ Robespierre (1758-1794) - One of the best known leaders of the French Revolutions; known as "the Incorruptible"; leader of the Committee of Public Safety.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The largest and most intelligent constituencies in the Kingdom should aim at being represented by persons of proved capacity for public service, and of a high order of intellect.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Memoirs of Bertrand Barre, chairman of the Committee of public safety during the revolution.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .During this period he wrote a romantic novella, Clisson et Eugénie, about a soldier and his lover, in a clear parallel to Bonaparte's own relationship with Désirée.^ The king's pride in his accomplishments was about to bring about a period of chastisement during which he would lose his mind and be driven from position of power.
  • GTJ Brooklyn 1a 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC gtw6437.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pauline Bonaparte and her lovers as revealed by contemporary witnesses, by her own love-letters, and by the anti-Napoleonic pamphleteers.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Travels in France during the years 1814-15 comprising a residence at Paris during the stay of the allied armies, and at Aix, at the period of the landing of Bonaparte.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .On 15 September Bonaparte was removed from the list of generals in regular service, with the reason given being his refusal to serve in the Vendée campaign.^ If this is a reasonable and proper provision with regard to legal rights generally, it is so, above all, with respect to the powers which any one is allowed to exercise over the persons of human beings.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

He now faced a difficult financial situation and further reduced career prospects.[29]
.On 3 October, royalists in Paris declared a rebellion against the National Convention after they were excluded from a new government, the Directory.^ She was daughter of a chemist and against the opposition of his mother, Henritte Catharina; they had married in 1798, when he took over the government after his mother's regency, which had lasted from 1683.

^ On 31 Oct., 1870, the Russian government issued a declaration repudiating the neutralization of the Black Sea required by the Treaty of Paris of 1856.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And yet he found time to write daily to Paris, urging forward the majestic enterprises of the new government in France.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[30] .One of the leaders of the Thermidorian Reaction, Paul Barras, knew of Bonaparte's military exploits at Toulon and gave him command of the improvised forces in defence of the Convention in the Tuileries Palace.^ One of the underlying reasons was that Philip wanted to establish an absolute monarchy in the Netherlands and the religious issue gave him a way to put pressure on the parliament.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She followed him to Italy, where he was in command of a battalion, and gave birth to their first son, Christian Danneskiold-Samse.

^ He knew Napolean was a military and political leader of France.

.Bonaparte had witnessed the massacre of the King's Swiss Guard there three years earlier and realised artillery would be the key to its defence.^ AT&T announced that it would eliminate 40,000 jobs over three years.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Part V. Bonaparte, during the first three years of his consulate [microform] / translated from the French manuscript o .

^ His successor Ozuere only reigned for one year and did not appoint his mother Iyoba of Uselu since this traditionally happened after three years of reign by the king.

[8] .He ordered a young cavalry officer, Joachim Murat, to seize large cannons and used them to repel the attackers on 5 October 1795—13 Vendémiaire An IV in the French Republican Calendar.^ He thought of these years as starting in October (using the calendar of the Karaite Jews?
  • GTJ Brooklyn 1a 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC gtw6437.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ IV; 25 Oct., 1795), Bulletin des lois de la république française, 1st ser., VI, 1-13.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

1,400 royalists died and the rest fled.[30] .He had cleared the streets with "a whiff of grapeshot", according to the 19th-century historian Thomas Carlyle in The French Revolution: A History.^ A biographical history of the French revolution.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The French revolution, a history.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ History of the French revolution, 1789-1814.
  • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

[31]
.The defeat of the Royalist insurrection extinguished the threat to the Convention and earned Bonaparte sudden fame, wealth, and the patronage of the new Directory; Murat would become his brother-in-law and one of his generals.^ Thus, if the insurrection were successful, the labouring population of Poland would acquire, without internal conflict or wrong to any one, that proprietorship in the land which the rural population of France gained by the Revolution, and the acquisition of which was an ample return for the sacrifice of a whole generation.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She said, one day, to Bourrienne, "My two brothers-in-law are my determined enemies.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ My brother and I got some input in choosing my baby sister's name, so I should have done the same and allowed sis some input in choosing my new one just to be fair.

.Bonaparte was promoted to Commander of the Interior and given command of the Army of Italy.^ Marengo, or, The campaign of Italy, by the army of reserve, under the command of the Chief Consul Bonaparte [electronic resource] / translated from the French of Joseph Petit ; to which is added, a biographical notice of the life and military actions of G .

^ Copies of original letters from the army of General Bonaparte in Egypt, intercepted by the fleet under the command of Admiral Lord Nelson.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the first interview between these two distinguished men, when Napoleon was in command of the army of Italy, they contemplated each other with mutual dislike.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[20] .Within weeks he was romantically attached to Barras's former mistress, Joséphine de Beauharnais, whom he married on 9 March 1796 after he had broken off his engagement to Désirée Clary.^ Five years later she married Philippe de Bourbon-Busset, seigneur de Chabannes and Busset (1499-1557), with whom she had 6 children.

^ Alexander also mar ried the daughter of Darius, whom he de feated in 333, while staying firmly attached to his comrade, Hephaistion.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gave birth to at least 13 children most of whom died within a few weeks, but her son, Franois-Etienne, was among those who survived.

[32]

First Italian campaign

Three-quarter length depiction of Bonaparte, with black tunic and leather gloves, holding a standard and sword, turning backwards to look at his troops
Bonaparte at the Bridge of the Arcole, by Baron Antoine-Jean Gros, (ca. 1801), Louvre, Paris
.Two days after the marriage, Bonaparte left Paris to take command of the Army of Italy and led it on a successful invasion of Italy.^ If Paris holds only two days we will take them between two fires.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His ill-fated marriage to Hlose , niece of a canon of Paris , led to his castration in 1118.
  • Chateabriand's Memoirs: Index A 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC tkline.pgcc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sky was clear, the weather delightful, and in four days the whole army was reassembled on the plains of Italy.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.At the Battle of Lodi he defeated Austrian forces, then drove them out of Lombardy.^ Taft defeated Roosevelt for the Republican nomination in a bruising battle in 1912 that forced Roosevelt out of the GOP and left Taft people in charge for decades.
  • Printable Catalog - Marketplace Auction 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.ha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Battle of Princeton took place in the War of Independence, in which George Washington defeated the British forces, led by Cornwallis.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ First Coalition : Napoleon I of France wins a decisive victory against Austrian forces at Lodi bridge over the River Adda in Italy .

[20] .He was defeated at Caldiero by Austrian reinforcements, led by József Alvinczi, though Bonaparte regained the initiative at the crucial Battle of the Bridge of Arcole and proceeded to subdue the Papal States.^ B.C. - Sumer regains its independence from Akkadian rule, though it does not revert back to independent city-states.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, even though the English won every major battle and many of the smaller ones, relatively poor England was never able to subdue southern France, by far the wealthiest portion of France, which eventually led to the English losing the war.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Austrian Empire defeated Piedmont-Sardinia's campaign, and Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte sent troops to Rome to protect the Pope.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[33] .Bonaparte argued against the wishes of Directory atheists to march on Rome and dethrone the Pope as he reasoned this would create a power vacuum which would be exploited by the Kingdom of Naples.^ Divide and conquer tactics, pitting white servants against black slaves, systematically created the institution of racism, which could be called on in times of crises of power.
  • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To ensure that one of her own sons would succeed to the throne, she did everything in her power to turn Sleyman against his eldest son and heir Mustafa.

^ The Austrian Empire defeated Piedmont-Sardinia's campaign, and Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte sent troops to Rome to protect the Pope.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Instead, in March 1797, Bonaparte led his army into Austria and forced it to negotiate peace.^ He led his army of 12,000 troops, including 2.000 Amazons into battle.

^ This led to many Europeans feeling that it was a family affair that they had been dragged into and forced to endure.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By his magnanimity he had disarmed Russia, by his armies had humbled Austria, and had compelled continental Europe to accept an honorable peace.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[34] .The Treaty of Leoben gave France control of most of northern Italy and the Low Countries and a secret clause promised the Republic of Venice to Austria.^ France controlled Algeria, and Italy controlled Somalia.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of the German and Italian states are annexed or vassals: the kingdom of Italy is in a personal union with France, and the model state Westphalia and Spain are allies.
  • Europa Universalis Short AAR Contest - The Entries - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the family ruled over what might be, in theory, considered the most powerful country in Europe, the French monarchs had little control over their vassals, and many parts of France functioned as though they were independent states.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Bonaparte marched on Venice and forced its surrender, ending 1,100 years of independence; he also authorised the French to loot treasures such as the Horses of Saint Mark.^ State of the French republic at the end of the year VIII. Translated from the French of Citizen Hauteriv e, Chef De Relations Exterieurs.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "On the other hand, if he had merely read the 'Scripture Studies' with their references, and had not read a page of the Bible, as such, he would be in the light at the end of the two years, because he would have the light of the Scrip- tures."
  • GTJ Brooklyn 1a 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC gtw6437.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Treaty of Amiens was signed on March 25 , 1802 (Germinal 4, year) by Joseph Bonaparte and the Marquis Cornwallis as a Definitive Treaty of Peace between France and the United Kingdom .
  • Chateabriand's Memoirs: Index A 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC tkline.pgcc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35]
.His application of conventional military ideas to real-world situations effected his military triumphs, such as creative use of artillery as a mobile force to support his infantry.^ King Erik liked the idea but As he was forced to abdicate in 1568 he didn't get the chance to realize the extradition.

^ Its final fate has become important to the whole world as scientists are realizing the sustaining effect that the world’s largest forest has on the ecosphere.
  • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After seeing the horrors and atrocities of war during World War I, nations desired to avoid such a situation again in the future.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.He referred to his tactics thus: "I have fought sixty battles and I have learned nothing which I did not know at the beginning.^ A lengthy stalemate thus ensued as both sides resorted to traditional tactics of small scale raiding punctuated by the occasional pitched battle.
  • Europa Universalis Short AAR Contest - The Entries - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of the warriors he had killed did not, knowing nothing of the power he wielded.
  • Europa Universalis Short AAR Contest - The Entries - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

.Look at Caesar; he fought the first like the last."^ B.C. - The Romans under Julius Caesar fought the first skirmishes with the Celts in England.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] .He was adept at espionage and deception and could win battles by concealment of troop deployments and concentration of his forces on the 'hinge' of an enemy's weakened front.^ At this point the enemy could just sit back and keep recruiting regiments and sending them to the front eventually overwhelming me.
  • Europa Universalis Short AAR Contest - The Entries - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He had already won all the laurels he could wish to win on the field of battle.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Out of fear of a two front war, which Germany was nearly certain it could not win, it devised the plan to eliminate one of the fronts of the war before the other side could prepare.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.If he could not use his favourite envelopment strategy, he would take up the central position and attack two cooperating forces at their hinge, swing round to fight one until it fled, then turn to face the other.^ He cursed himself and nodded to Rohault, even as the other two moved to attack in concert.
  • Europa Universalis Short AAR Contest - The Entries - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then Savkville Street) All he could see was the Irish and the English fighting until the enemy was dead.

^ On this point we should not fear to take the opinion of any man who has been minister of England in the last thirty years, could we be sure that he would speak his real sentiments.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[37] .In this Italian campaign, Bonaparte's army captured 150,000 prisoners, 540 cannons and 170 standards.^ Some 20,000 Ro mans under Crassus were killed by the Par thian army and 10,000 were captured.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38] .The French army fought 67 actions and won 18 pitched battles through superior artillery technology and Bonaparte's tactics.^ I guess he has won the battle and this was the best battle he ever fought.

^ A.D. - Dmitrii Donskoi of Moscow and Rus princes in 1380 won a signal victory over Kipchak Army under rebelious general Mamai at Battle of Kulikovo .
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Through the Great Embassy, Peter acquired many important technological skills, especially military technology, such as naval instruments, army tactics, ship building techniques, and naval strategy.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[39]
.During the campaign, Bonaparte became increasingly influential in French politics.^ Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt during the campaigns of General Bonaparte in that country [electronic resource] : and published under his immediate patronage / by Vivant Denon ; translated from the French ; to which is prefixed an historical account of t .

^ Politically Influential Empress Marie-Claire of Hati She was influential during the reign of her husband, Jean Jacques Dessalines.

^ Part V. Bonaparte, during the first three years of his consulate [microform] / translated from the French manuscript o .

.He published two newspapers, ostensibly for the troops in his army, but widely circulated in France as well, and in May 1797, founded a third newspaper, Le Journal de Bonaparte et des hommes vertueux, which was published in Paris.^ Le Journal de Paris.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Le Journal des Débats.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Le Temps, Journal des Progrès.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[40] .Elections in mid-1797 gave the royalist party more power and alarmed the Directory.^ Tomorrow they crown him, he is going to pardon the conspirators, this will ruin the Royalist party and depopularize it more.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After she led her party to victory in the December 1973 elections, she resigned in mid-1974.

^ In 1797, the first free elections were held, and the people of France astonished members of the Directory by electing a majority of royalists to the legislature.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[41] .The royalists attacked Bonaparte for looting Italy and claimed he had overstepped his authority in dealings with the Austrians.^ He ordered one powerful army, under General Brune, to attack the Austrians in Italy, on the banks of Mincio, and to press firmly toward Vienna.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.Bonaparte sent General Pierre Augereau to Paris to lead a coup d'état and purge the royalists on 4 September—18 Fructidor.^ A Marshal of France, he fought in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars and was a principal in the coup of 18 Fructidor ( September 4th, 1797 ).
  • Chateabriand's Memoirs: Index A 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC tkline.pgcc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Turkey , General Cemal Gürsel leads a military coup d'état removing President Celal Bayar and the rest of the democratic government.

^ In an attempt to prevent freely elected royalists from taking control of the Directory in 1799, members of the bourgeois sent Napoleon Bonaparte and his army to defend the Directory and the annulment of the elections.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.This left Barras and his Republican allies in control again, but dependent on Bonaparte who proceeded to peace negotiations with Austria.^ As president he was a "doughface" (a northern Democrat allied with the South) who battled Stephen A. Douglas for control of the Democratic Party; Douglas won.
  • Printable Catalog - Marketplace Auction 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.ha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The peace in 1748 was recognized as temporary by all, and in 1756 Austria and France allied in what was known as the Diplomatic Revolution.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.These negotiations resulted in the Treaty of Campo Formio, and Bonaparte returned to Paris in December as a hero, more popular than the Directors.^ These men that my fortune has raised after it had already more than enough for a marshall's baton.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These changes in Europe resulted in more calls for autonomy in the colonies, and the influence of Woodrow Wilson's proposed "self-determination" of nations grew.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The First Treaty of Paris is signed returning French borders to their 1792 extent.

[42] .He met with Talleyrand, France's new Foreign Minister—who would later serve in the same capacity for Emperor Napoleon—and they began to prepare for an invasion of England.^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of France.

^ Impartial history of the life of Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of France and King of Italy, from his youth to 1808 [microform] / compiled by Hume Robertson.

^ They were sent by a respected minister of that town, who was formerly one of my best students.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]

Egyptian expedition

Person on a horse looks towards a giant statue of a head in the desert, with a blue sky
Bonaparte Before the Sphinx, (ca. 1868) by Jean-Léon Gérôme, Hearst Castle
.After two months of planning, Bonaparte decided France's naval power was not yet strong enough to confront the Royal Navy in the English Channel and proposed a military expedition to seize Egypt and thereby undermine Britain's access to its trade interests in India.^ There were also two military expeditions to the Crimea.

^ Yet, controlling his anger, he consented to treat with England, and with that view proposed a naval armistice , with the mistress of the seas.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ My plan appears to be falling apart before the war is even two months old.
  • Europa Universalis Short AAR Contest - The Entries - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

[20] .Bonaparte wished to establish a French presence in the Middle East, with the ultimate dream of linking with a Muslim enemy of the British in India, Tipu Sultan.^ As a result, trade with Asia and India was made considerably easier because travellers would no longer have to travel through the Middle East.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sepoy mutiny (1857–1858) - Rebellions against British colonial rule in India; caused the end of the British East India Company's rule in India, and led to a century of direct rule of India by Britain.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In Asia, the British, Dutch and French all established or expanded their colonies.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[43] .Napoleon assured the Directory that "as soon as he had conquered Egypt, he will establish relations with the Indian princes and, together with them, attack the English in their possessions."[44] According to a February 1798 report by Talleyrand: "Having occupied and fortified Egypt, we shall send a force of 15,000 men from Suez to India, to join the forces of Tipu-Sahib and drive away the English."[44] The Directory, though troubled by the scope and cost of the enterprise, agreed so the popular general would be absent from the centre of power.^ Austria signed the Declaration of Pillnitz (1791), which stated that if the other powers attack France, so would Austria.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With their help the prince lost no time in occupying the Jind fort and established his government after putting the Rani the puppet of the British government to the sword.

^ Austria, the U.S. and six other countries agreed on the broad outline of a plan that would compensate Nazi-Era forced labor.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

[45]
.In May 1798, Bonaparte was elected a member of the French Academy of Sciences.^ In 1826 he was elected to the Academy of Sciences , and in the following year was deputy for the department of the Aude.
  • Chateabriand's Memoirs: Index A 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC tkline.pgcc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Archduchess was member of a number of Imperial Academies of Art and was interested in science and music.

^ She was Member of the Politburo 1973-89, Minister and Chairperson of the Academy of Science and first Vice-Chairperson of the Council of Ministers and 1979-89.

His Egyptian expedition included a group of 167 scientists: mathematicians, naturalists, chemists and geodesists among them; their discoveries included the Rosetta Stone and their work was published in the Description de l'Égypte in 1809.[46]
.En route to Egypt, Bonaparte reached Malta on 9 June 1798, then controlled by the Knights Hospitaller.^ Journals of Bonaparte in Egypt, 1798-1801 / [compiled by] Saladin Boustany.

^ Kléber en Egypte, 1798-1800 : Kléber et Bonaparte, 1798-1799 / étude historique, présentation et notes par Henry Laurens.

^ He became chef de brigade in December 1796 and general of brigade in 1798, in which year he accompanied Bonaparte to Egypt .
  • Chateabriand's Memoirs: Index A 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC tkline.pgcc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The two hundred Knights of French origin did not support the Grand Master, Prussian Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim, who had succeeded a Frenchman, and made it clear they would not fight against their compatriots.^ They were succeeded by son, Johann Karl, who had two sons.

^ Ferdinand and Isabella came to power because they were able to consolidate the various factions during the long war against the Moors, but they had very little economic power.
  • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To ensure that one of her own sons would succeed to the throne, she did everything in her power to turn Sleyman against his eldest son and heir Mustafa.

.Hompesch surrendered after token resistance and Bonaparte captured a very important naval base with the loss of only three men.^ Well -- but it is impossible that Bonaparte with his 40,000 men can still resist.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Africans were the only group to come to this hemisphere as slaves, and from the very beginning, African and African American resistance was a constant.
  • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If, by the abstraction of eighteen out of thirty, only three superior men should be sacrificed, it would be more than an equivalent for getting rid of fifteen mediocrities.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[47]
Cavalry battlescene with pyramids in background
Battle of the Pyramids, Francois-Louis-Joseph Watteau, 1798–1799
General Bonaparte and his expedition eluded pursuit by the Royal Navy and on 1 July landed at Alexandria.[20] .Bonaparte successfully fought the Battle of Chobrakit against the Mamluks, an old power in the Middle East.^ Napoleon Bonaparte leads his French troops into the Battle of Bautzen in Saxony , Germany , against the combined armies of Russia and Prussia .

^ You will see the famous battle of the pyramids won by General-in-Chief Bonaparte over the ferocious Mourad-Bey, the most powerful leader of the Mameluks.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

.This helped the French plan their attack in the Battle of the Pyramids fought over a week later, about 6 km from the pyramids.^ She stayed in Gottorp for about one year and in 1700 her only child, Karl Friedrich (1700-39), was born, and two years later her husband was killed in battle.

^ German and French forces fought the Battle of Artois.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Joseph Joffre, General (1852-1931) - Catalan French general; helped counter the Schlieffen Plan through retreat and counterattack at the First Battle of the Marne.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.General Bonaparte's forces were greatly outnumbered by the Mamluks' cavalry—20,000 against 60,000—but he formed hollow squares with supplies kept safely inside.^ A.D. - 20,000 horsemen against Byz antium .
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was only in 1735 that she gained political influence, forming a party against the Spanish Council in Vienna, but also her daughter kept her away from the government.

^ That practice, at last, by force of general feeling against the vehement remonstrances of those who had the power of inflicting the brutality, has been almost abolished.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

300 French and approximately 6,000 Egyptians were killed.[48]
.On 1 August, the British fleet under Horatio Nelson captured or destroyed all but two French vessels in the Battle of the Nile and Bonaparte's goal of a strengthened French position in the Mediterranean Sea was frustrated.^ Bonaparte, and the French people under his consulate.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two French vessels and a Neapolitan ship had also been captured and taken to Algiers.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Stretching eastward as far as the Rosetta mouth of the Nile is spacious Abu Qir Bay (Khalīj Abū Qīr), where on 1 August 1798, Horatio Nelson fought the Battle of the Nile, often referred to as the Battle of Aboukir Bay.
  • Chateabriand's Memoirs: Index A 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC tkline.pgcc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49] .His army had nonetheless succeeded in a temporary increase of French power in Egypt, though it faced repeated uprisings.^ Copies of original letters from the French Army in Egypt.

^ Observations upon the introduction to the third part of the copies of original letters from the French Army in Egypt.

^ And though the cares of the busiest life through which a mortal has ever passed soon engrossed his energies, this appreciation and admiration of the gospel of Christ, visibly increased with each succeeding year.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[50] .In early 1799, he moved the army into the Ottoman province of Damascus (Syria and Galilee).^ While rebels were ravaging along the Westphalian homelands, they were moving their armies from province to province.
  • Europa Universalis Short AAR Contest - The Entries - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I sended tha main army into the heart of Austria, to occupy their provinces.
  • Europa Universalis Short AAR Contest - The Entries - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The army that sieged it heads into my unfortified northern provinces.
  • Europa Universalis Short AAR Contest - The Entries - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

.Bonaparte led these 13,000 French soldiers in the conquest of the coastal towns of Arish, Gaza, Jaffa, and Haifa.^ A French soldier, a staunch believer in slavery, would write fifty years later: But what men these blacks are!
  • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Decembrists - Officers of the Russian Army that led 3,000 soldiers in the Decembrist Revolt, an attempted uprising at Senate Square in December, 1825.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[51] .The attack on Jaffa was particularly brutal: Bonaparte, on discovering many of the defenders were former prisoners of war, ostensibly on parole, ordered the garrison and 1,400 prisoners to be executed by bayonet or drowning to save bullets.^ Almost constantly at war with the Europeans, the maroon communities had to be nearly inaccessible in order to survive because their former masters usually hunted for them.
  • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Former U.S. Attorney General John N. Mitchell was released on parole after serving 19 months at a federal prison in Alabama.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ But in order to do that, I needed to go inside the “Belly of the Beast.” Being a former submariner, I was familiar with submarine war tactics, which have helped me as an activist in the past.

[49] .Men, women and children were robbed and murdered for three days.^ White women defy the law, brave lifetime servitude for themselves and slavery for their children in order to marry the men they love.
  • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the death of her last son, Raja Ravi Vama, Raja, she adopted an entire family from the House of Kolatbunad, the Koil Tampurans of Kilimanur - three men and three women.

^ The U.S. Seventh Cavalry massacred over 400 men, women and children at Wounded Knee Creek, SD. This was the last major conflict between Indians and U.S. troops.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

[52]
.With his army weakened by disease—mostly bubonic plague—and poor supplies, Bonaparte was unable to reduce the fortress of Acre, and returned to Egypt in May.^ She also visited Hungary, Italy and Egypt where she embarked on her return journey to a Bhopal struck by plague.

^ "The Austrian armies," said he, "may unmolested return to their homes; but all of Italy must be abandoned."
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ On his return from Egypt, he found the armies of Austria, three hundred thousand strong, in alliance with England, invading the territories of the Republic.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[49] To speed up the retreat, he ordered plague-stricken men to be poisoned.[53] .His supporters have argued this decision was necessary given the continued harassment of stragglers by Ottoman forces, and indeed those left behind alive were tortured and beheaded by the Ottomans.^ His return involved the continuance of the most honorable devotion to those soldiers whom he necessarily left behind him.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ All the complete lines begin, like those already deciphered, on the left, but the first is continued boustrophedon.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Back in Egypt, on 25 July, Bonaparte defeated an Ottoman amphibious invasion at Abukir.[54]

Ruler of France

Cartoon with many men fleeing over upturned tables as Bonaparte stands raising his hand towards them and his soldiers advance with bayonets
"EXIT LIBERTÈ a la FRANCOIS ! or BUONAPARTE closing the Farce of Egalitè, at St. Cloud near Paris Nov. 10th. 1799", British satirical depiction of the 18 Brumaire coup d'état, by James Gillray.
While in Egypt, Bonaparte stayed informed of European affairs through irregular delivery of newspapers and dispatches. .He learned France had suffered a series of defeats in the War of the Second Coalition.^ The War of the Second Coalition 1798 to 1801, a strategic commentary.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, Bismarck required France to hold elections so that he could negotiate a peace.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ War of the Three Henrys (1584-1598) - A series of three civil wars in France, also known as the Huguenot Wars; fought between the Catholic League and the Huguenots.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[55] .On 24 August 1799, he took advantage of the temporary departure of British ships from French coastal ports and set sail for France, despite the fact he had received no explicit orders from Paris.^ French explorer Jacques Cartier sets sail on his second voyage to North America with 3 ships, 110 men, and Chief Donnacona 's 2 sons (who Cartier kidnapped during his first voyage).

^ Japanese retainer and samurai under Oda Nobunaga 1588 - The last ship of the Spanish Armada sets sail from Lisbon heading for the English Channel .

^ Jacques Cartier, a French explorer, set sail from St. Malo to explore the North American coastline.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

[49] .The army was left in the charge of Jean Baptiste Kléber.^ Krosno Odrzańskie (PL) Kléber , Jean-Baptiste, general ...
  • Thomas's Glassware Tour: Index of Names 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.thomasgraz.net [Source type: Academic]

[56] .Unknown to Bonaparte, the Directory had sent him orders to return to ward off possible invasions of French soil but poor lines of communication meant the messages had failed to reach him.^ Of course I have, but I don’t see what possible bearing the Old Testament has on –“ The Old Knight cut him off.
  • Europa Universalis Short AAR Contest - The Entries - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In order to be able to return to Germany and meet him, she became politically active and used her connections to the French government - the Foreign Minister Talleyrand or the Emperor himself.

^ In 1888 she formally petitioned the British to set up a Protectorate to head off what she believed to be imminent invasion by the French.

[55] .By the time he reached Paris in October, France's situation had been improved by a series of victories.^ And yet he found time to write daily to Paris, urging forward the majestic enterprises of the new government in France.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The tidings of the great victories of Aboukir and Mount Tabor, reached Paris with Napoleon.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ In a series of letters from a resident at Paris to a nobleman in London, written during the months of August, September and October, 1805.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Republic was bankrupt, however, and the ineffective Directory was unpopular with the French population.[57] The Directory discussed Bonaparte's "desertion" but was too weak to punish him.[55]
.Bonaparte was approached by one of the Directors, Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, for his support in a coup to overthrow the constitutional government.^ The Italians, all inexperienced in self-government, regarding Napoleon as their benefactor and their sole supporter, looked to him for a constitution.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the Freikorps also sought to overthrow the Weimar Republic's government with a coup of their own in 1920, which failed when German workers responded with a general strike.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Coup d'état - Sudden overthrow of a government, typically done by a small group that only replaces the top power figures.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.The leaders of the plot included his brother Lucien Bonaparte; the speaker of the Council of Five Hundred, Roger Ducos; another Director, Joseph Fouché; and Talleyrand.^ The Council of Five Hundred," exclaimed Lucien, "is dissolved.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Lucien Bonaparte, the brother of Napoleon, was Speaker of the House.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Still it was an enterprise of no small difficulty to thrust the five Directors from their thrones, and to get the control of the Council of Ancients and of The Five Hundred.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.On 9 November—18 Brumaire by the French Republican Calendar—Bonaparte was charged with the safety of the legislative councils, who were persuaded to remove to the Château de Saint-Cloud, to the west of Paris, after a rumour of a Jacobin rebellion was spread by the plotters.^ November a French commissoner took charge.

^ At that moment the Council of Ancients passed the decree, which Napoleon had prepared, that the two legislative bodies should transfer their meeting to St. Cloud, a few miles from Paris; and that Napoleon Bonaparte should be put in command of all the military forces in the city, to secure the public peace.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Hodson, W. The life of Napoleon Bonaparte, once emperor of the French, who died in exile at St. Helena, after a captivity of six years' duration.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58] .By the following day, the deputies had realised they faced an attempted coup.^ The four queens were able rulers and they all survived several coup attempts amid a fluctuating political situation in the region.

^ In 1861 she survived an assassination attempt, but the following year they letf the country after an uprising and spend the rest of their life in exile in Bavaria.

^ In his younger days a duel would have followed such an impertinent attempt to start a conversation.
  • Europa Universalis Short AAR Contest - The Entries - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

.Faced with their remonstrations, Bonaparte led troops to seize control and disperse them, which left a rump legislature to name Bonaparte, Sièyes, and Ducos as provisional Consuls to administer the government.^ A provisional government took control of Hawaii.

^ Napoleon seized control and initially installed an enlightened despotism known as the Consulate .
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While her husband was directing military campaigns in Ireland and on the Continent, Mary administered the government in her own name, but she relied entirely on his advice.

[49]

French Consulate

Portrait painting of a horse rearing-up at a 45-degree angle with a man sitting on it and pointing forwards with his right hand whilst holding onto the reins with his left
Detail from Napoleon Crossing the Alps (1800)
.Though Sieyès expected to dominate the new regime, he was outmanoeuvred by Bonaparte, who drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul.^ The question was then discussed whether to add ten years to his Consulship, or to make him First Consul for life.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ It was 2 kids who attacked me – the first was a 7- or 8-year-old kid who started punching me in the stomach and was yelling at me to let my bicycle go.
  • Divisional Sunday: Cowboys @ Vikings Open Thread - Stampede Blue 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.stampedeblue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Part V. Bonaparte, during the first three years of his consulate [microform] / translated from the French manuscript o .

[59] .This made Bonaparte the most powerful person in France and he took up residence at the Tuileries.^ He hung up, stripped down and took a long shower, washing away the grime, sweat, blood and sex that had accumulated on his person, reflecting that it had been quite a weekend.
  • Bruce Napoleon, Vampire Veterinarian 9 February 2010 15:30 UTC vampvet.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of the German and Italian states are annexed or vassals: the kingdom of Italy is in a personal union with France, and the model state Westphalia and Spain are allies.
  • Europa Universalis Short AAR Contest - The Entries - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most powerful vassals of the French kings were the Plantagenet dynasty of England, who, through their Angevin ancestry, ruled large parts of western France.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[49]
.In 1800, Bonaparte and his troops crossed the Alps into Italy, where French forces had been almost completely driven out by the Austrians whilst he was in Egypt.^ Alps into Italy.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte [electronic resource] : Emperor of the French, King of Italy, and protector of the Rhenish Confederation.

^ Kléber en Egypte, 1798-1800 : Kléber et Bonaparte, 1798-1799 / étude historique, présentation et notes par Henry Laurens.

[note .6] The campaign began badly for the French after Bonaparte made strategic errors; one force was left besieged at Genoa but managed to hold out and thereby occupy Austrian resources.^ Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt during the campaigns of General Bonaparte in that country [electronic resource] : and published under his immediate patronage / by Vivant Denon ; translated from the French ; to which is prefixed an historical account of t .

^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte [electronic resource] : Emperor of the French, King of Italy, and protector of the Rhenish Confederation.

^ British and French forces began a withdrawal from Egypt during the Suez War.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

[61] .This effort, and French general Desaix's timely reinforcements, allowed Bonaparte narrowly to avoid defeat and to triumph over the Austrians in June at the significant Battle of Marengo.^ The battle of Marengo was fought on the 14th of June.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of the French, containing numerous anecdotes of his court and times.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A voice from Waterloo a history of the battle fought on the 18th June 1815, with a selection from the Wellington dispatches, general orders and letters relating to the battle.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bonaparte's brother Joseph led the peace negotiations in Lunéville and reported that Austria, emboldened by British support, would not recognise France's newly gained territory.^ Austria signed the Declaration of Pillnitz (1791), which stated that if the other powers attack France, so would Austria.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At Luneville, Joseph Bonaparte appeared as the embassador of Napoleon, and Count Cobentzel as the plenipotentiary of Austria.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Revolutionary activity among the peasants in Austria and its territories, evident from 1846, came to a head after the February revolution in France deposed Louis Philippe.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.As negotiations became increasingly fractious, Bonaparte gave orders to his general Moreau to strike Austria once more.^ He gave hospitals, socialized medicine, the right to unionize and strike, shorter hours, injured worker homes, a revamped prison system, and more.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I have orders from my government not to leave General Bonaparte from the moment there is fear of -- .
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She thought General Moreau entitled to as much consideration as General Bonaparte.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.Moreau led France to victory at Hohenlinden.^ She explained how she lived in eastern France and how she led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War!

.As a result, the Treaty of Lunéville was signed in February 1801; the French gains of the Treaty of Campo Formio were reaffirmed and increased.^ The treaty of Luneville was signed the 9th of February, 1801.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ I am still ready to make peace upon the fair basis of the treaty of Campo Formio."
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Your majesty may send negotiators whither you will, and we will add to the treaty of Campo Formio stipulations calculated to assure you of the continued existence of the secondary states, of all which the French Republic is accused of having shaken.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[62]

Temporary peace in Europe

.Bonaparte set up a camp at Boulogne-sur-Mer to prepare for an invasion of Britain but both countries had become tired of war and signed the Treaty of Amiens in October 1801 and March 1802; this included the withdrawal of British troops from most colonial territories it had recently occupied.^ With men such as you, our cause was not lost -- but the war was interminable -- it had become a civil war and France was only becoming most unfortunate.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sepoy mutiny (1857–1858) - Rebellions against British colonial rule in India; caused the end of the British East India Company's rule in India, and led to a century of direct rule of India by Britain.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Revolutionary annals, or, History of the French Revolution, from the convocation of the States-General to the Treaty of Amiens, in 1802.

[61] .The peace was uneasy and short-lived; Britain did not evacuate Malta as promised and protested against Bonaparte's annexation of Piedmont and his Act of Mediation, which established a new Swiss Confederation, though neither of these territories were covered by the Treaty.^ And you call a brigand, an ogre, Napoleon, the Great, Emperor of the French and King of Italy, Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine, mediator of the Swiss Federation!
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ New York was a center for vampire activity, and there were a number of places that acted as mixing places for the dead and live citizens of the city.
  • Bruce Napoleon, Vampire Veterinarian 9 February 2010 15:30 UTC vampvet.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you wish for peace, you must evacuate Alexandria and Malta.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[63] .The dispute culminated in a declaration of war by Britain in May 1803, and he reassembled the invasion camp at Boulogne.^ Britain and Canada also declared war on Japan.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Further encouraged by the Allied invasion of Turkey in April 1915, Italy joined the Triple Entente and declared war on Austria-Hungary on May 23.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This precipitated in Great Britain's declaration of war on Germany.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[49]
Bonaparte faced a major setback and eventual defeat in the Haitian Revolution. .By the Law of 20 May 1802 Bonaparte re-established slavery in France's colonial possessions, where it had been banned following the Revolution.^ The British want to re-establish slavery and make them colonies.
  • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He unflinchingly braved the scoffs of infidel Europe, in re-establishing the Christian religion in paganized France.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ He was a proud patrician, and his character may be estimated from the following anecdote, which Napoleon has related respecting him: "The abbe, before the revolution, was chaplain to one of the princesses.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[64] Following a slave revolt, he sent an army to reconquer Saint-Domingue and establish a base. .The force was, however, destroyed by yellow fever and fierce resistance led by Haitian generals Toussaint Louverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines.^ Politically Influential Empress Marie-Claire of Hati She was influential during the reign of her husband, Jean Jacques Dessalines.

^ After two years of war, the Dutch, led by Michiel de Ruyter,destroyed or captured much of the British fleet at Medway, and England was forced to sue for peace.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[note .7] Faced by imminent war against Britain and bankruptcy, he recognised French possessions on the mainland of North America would be indefensible and sold them to the United States—the Louisiana Purchase—for less than three cents per acre ($7.40 per km²).^ The laws of most of the American states are on this point less unjust and irrational than those of England and of other countries of Europe.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ British Prime Minister Neville Chabmerlain responded to the occupation of Czechoslovakia by giving a guarantee to Poland that Britain would go to war against Germany if Germany attacked Poland.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Believing that a French invasion of Ireland was imminent, Irish nationalists rose up against the British occupation.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

[66]

Reforms

.Bonaparte instituted lasting reforms, including centralised administration of the departments, higher education, a tax code, road and sewer systems and the Banque de France—the country's central bank.^ Napoleonic code - French code of civil law, established by Napoléon on March 21, 1804, to reform the French legal system in accordance with the principles of the French Revolution.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Histoire de l'Académie, fondation de l'Institut national, Bonaparte membre de l'Institut national, par Ernest Maindron.

^ Académie des sciences [microform] : histoire de l'Académie, fondation de l'Institut national Bonaparte, membre de l'Institut national / par Ernest Maindron.

He negotiated the Concordat of 1801 with the Catholic Church, which sought to reconcile the mostly Catholic population to his regime. .It was presented alongside the Organic Articles, which regulated public worship in France.^ In 1520, however, the she went to France alongside Henry and was present at the great meeting of the 'Field of the Cloth of Gold'.

.Later that year, Bonaparte became President of the French Academy of Sciences and appointed Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre its Permanent Secretary.^ In 1690 her husband appointed her head of an eventual regency government, but she died three years later.

^ She became extremely rich, and her sisters and her husband's relatives and later their descendants fought over the inheritance, which was not settled for another 100 years.

^ On the strength of his experiences in the French colonies, he became Colonial Secretary (1843).
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[46] .In May 1802, he instituted the Légion d'Honneur, a substitute for the old royalist decorations and orders of chivalry, to encourage civilian and military achievements; the order is still the highest decoration in France.^ Ancien Régime ("Old Order") - the social and political system established in France under the absolute monarchy; removed by the French Revolution.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[67] .His powers were increased by the Constitution of the Year X including: Article 1. The French people name, and the Senate proclaims Napoleon-Bonaparte First Consul for Life.[68] After this he was generally referred to as Napoleon rather than Bonaparte.^ Napoleon Bonaparte, what are the consequences of power?
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bonaparte, and the French people under his consulate.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, late Emperor of the French &c.

[16]
.Napoleon's set of civil laws, the Code Civil—now often known as the Napoleonic code—was prepared by committees of legal experts under the supervision of Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès, the Second Consul.^ Code civil des français.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All those who had manifested any opposition to the measures of Napoleon, in the re-establishment of Christianity, and in the adoption of the new civil code, were left out, and their places supplied by those who approved of the measures of the First Consul.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Cambacérès and the Bonapartes : unpublished papers of Jean-Jacques-Régis Cambacérès, second consul and later arch-chancellor, relating to the Emperor Napoleon and his circle : a calendar / by Richard Boulind.

.Napoleon participated actively in the sessions of the Council of State that revised the drafts.^ The ablest lawyers of Europe were summoned to this enterprise, and the whole work was discussed section by section in the Council of State, over which Napoleon presided.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon in council, or, The opinions delivered by Bonaparte in the Council of state.

.The development of the Code was a fundamental change in the nature of the civil law legal system with its stress on clearly written and accessible law.^ Napoleonic code - French code of civil law, established by Napoléon on March 21, 1804, to reform the French legal system in accordance with the principles of the French Revolution.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sir Thomas Gates institutes "laws divine moral and marshal," a harsh civil code for Jamestown.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Harris, J 1109.13 MAN. Atkinson, H. G. Laws of the nature and development of 137.18 Combe, G. Constitution of.
  • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

.Other codes were commissioned by Napoleon to codify criminal and commerce law; a Code of Criminal Instruction was published, which enacted rules of due process.^ The Code was enacted in a series of laws, dated as above.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Code was enacted in a series of laws (not in this case numbered), dated as above.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He also rewrote the old French feudal laws, which were confusing, creating a new Napoleonic Code of laws that were much clearer.

[69] See Legacy.

French Empire

.
Slim man with brown hair in his mid-thirties sitting on a throne with a very large ermine cloak that has mink trimmings.</span><span class=^ PAEDOE, J. Episodes of French history during the consulate and the first empire.
  • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The French revolution and first empire: an historical sketch.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He holds a long thin staff in his right hand, his left hand rests on his knee and he wears a golden laurel wreath."^ Seated, holding money in right hand, scepter in left.
  • Full text of "Catalog of the Gardiner Greene Hubbard Collection of engravings" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Seated, holding sword with right hand, dagger with left.
  • Full text of "Catalog of the Gardiner Greene Hubbard Collection of engravings" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Perfy whizzed of to the battlefield and met French leader Napolean and they shock with left hand as his right was in his jacket like normal.

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/4/4/7/732429544613130.jpg" width="170" height="275" class="thumbimage" />
.Napoleon faced royalist and Jacobin plots as France's ruler, including the Conspiration des poignards (Daggers conspiracy) in October 1800 and the Plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise two months later.^ Though France, with the most unparalleled unanimity surrounded him with admiration, gratitude, and homage, there were violent men in the two extremes of society, among the Jacobins and the inexorable Royalists, who regarded him as in their way.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ In two months they copied it plank by plank and built 100 like it and eventually the Roman fleet was able to de feat the Carthaginians.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1657 she married Henri II, Duke de Nemours, a near-invalid, who died two years later, leaving her childless.

[70] .In January 1804, his police uncovered an assassination plot against him which involved Moreau and which was ostensibly sponsored by the Bourbon former rulers of France.^ The era of absolutism, exemplified by the "Sun King" Louis XIV Bourbon of France, marks the rise of rulers throughout Europe who had absolute power over their nations.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time they were constantly plotting conspiracies against the life of Napoleon, and sending assassins to shoot him.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

On the advice of Talleyrand, Napoleon ordered the kidnapping of the Duke of Enghien, in violation of neighbouring Baden's sovereignty. After a secret trial the Duke was executed, even though he had not been involved in the plot.[71]
.Napoleon used the plot to justify the re-creation of a hereditary monarchy in France, with himself as Emperor, as a Bourbon restoration would be more difficult if the Bonapartist succession was entrenched in the constitution.^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of France.

^ Restoration of monarchy in France.
  • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Treaty of Vienna saw the Bourbon monarchy restored to France.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[72] .Napoleon crowned himself Emperor Napoleon I on 2 December 1804 at Notre Dame de Paris and then crowned Joséphine Empress.^ Memoirs of Constant : first valet de chambre of the emperor, on the private life of Napoleon, his family and his court / tr.

^ History of the expedition to Russia undertaken by the emperor Napoleon in the year 1812 / by Philip de Segur.

^ Mémorial de Sainte Hélène : Journal of the private life and conversations of the Emperor Napoleon at Saint Helena / by the Count de Las Cases.

.The story that he seized the crown out of the hands of Pope Pius VII during the ceremony—to avoid his subjugation to the authority of the pontiff—is apocryphal; the coronation procedure had been agreed in advance.^ Napoleon I of France orders the annexation of the Papal States to the French Empire Pope Pius VII responded by excommunicating Napoleon.

^ They held both ceremonial and social dances, called areitos, during which their creation stories and other cosmologies were recited.
  • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Concordat of 1801 - Agreement between Napoléon and Pope Pius VII after Napoléon's coup d'etat of France.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[note .8] At Milan Cathedral on 26 May 1805, Napoleon was crowned King of Italy with the Iron Crown of Lombardy.^ Impartial history of the life of Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of France and King of Italy, from his youth to 1808 [microform] / compiled by Hume Robertson.

^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte [electronic resource] : Emperor of the French, King of Italy, and protector of the Rhenish Confederation.

^ Private memoirs of the court of Napoleon and of some publick events of the imperial reign, from 1805 to the first of May 1814, to serve as a contribution to the history of Napoleon.

He created eighteen Marshals of the Empire from amongst his top generals, to secure the allegiance of the army. Ludwig van Beethoven, a long-time admirer, was disappointed at this turn towards imperialism, and scratched his dedication to Napoleon from his 3rd Symphony.[72]

War of the Third Coalition

.By 1805, Britain had convinced Austria and Russia to join a Third Coalition against France.^ Civil war raged in Russia from 1918 until 1922, pitting the Reds (Bolsheviks led by Trotsky) against the Whites, which consisted of czarists, liberals, the bourgeois, Mensheviks, the U.S., Britain, and France.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon was undefeated against his three main continental enemies, defeating Austria, Russia, and Prussia multiple times.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The cruisers of England, Russia, Turkey, of allied Europe in arms against France, thronged the Mediterranean.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.Napoleon knew the French fleet could not defeat the Royal Navy in a head-to-head battle and planned to lure it away from the English Channel.^ Napoleon was now at the head of the French nation.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Japanese retainer and samurai under Oda Nobunaga 1588 - The last ship of the Spanish Armada sets sail from Lisbon heading for the English Channel .

^ This, coupled with the so-called "Protestant Wind" that blew the Spanish ships through the English Channel, resulted in the Spanish defeat.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.The French Navy would escape from the British blockades of Toulon and Brest and threaten to attack the West Indies, thus drawing off the British defence of the Western Approaches, in the hope a Franco-Spanish fleet could take control of the Channel long enough for French armies to cross from Boulogne and invade England.^ Despite the fact that the Dahomey army was armed only with rifles while the French had machine guns and cannons, the Amazons attacked when the French troops attempted a river crossing, inflicting heavy casualties.

^ On this point we should not fear to take the opinion of any man who has been minister of England in the last thirty years, could we be sure that he would speak his real sentiments.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A.D. - Ruler of Western Empire Stilihon allied with Huns and Alans, who help Stili hon to fight off attack of German tribes.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73] .However, after defeat at the naval Battle of Cape Finisterre in July 1805 and Admiral Villeneuve's retreat to Cadiz, invasion was never again a realistic option for Napoleon.^ However, Napoleon quickly raised a new army, but this army was crushed by the Quadruple Alliance of England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia at the Battle of Nations/Leipzig in 1813.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Franco-Prussian war lasted from 1870-1871, and resulted in the defeat of Emperor Napoleon III. He was captured on September 2, 1870 at the Battle of Sedan.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Napoleon failed to subdue England, and was defeated in his attempt to crush the English Navy at the Battle of Trafalgar by Admiral Nelson.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[74]
.Instead, he ordered the army stationed at Boulogne, his Grande Armée, to march to Germany secretly in a turning movement—the Ulm Campaign.^ Austria, believing that no sane man would march an army into Germany in the dead of winter, and that she should have abundant time to prepare for a spring campaign, refused.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.This encircled the Austrian forces about to attack France and severed their lines of communication.^ This force, descending, like an apparition from the clouds, in the rear of the Austrian army, headed by Napoleon, and cutting off all communication with Austria, might indeed strike a panic into the hearts of the assailants of France.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Profiting by the disorder which such an event never failed to occasion in their whole line, I repeated the attack, with similar success, in another quarter, still with my whole force.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ First Coalition : Napoleon I of France wins a decisive victory against Austrian forces at Lodi bridge over the River Adda in Italy .

.On 20 October 1805, the French captured 30,000 prisoners at Ulm, though the next day Britain's victory at the Battle of Trafalgar meant the Royal Navy gained control of the seas.^ The German submarine U-110 was captured at sea by Britain's Royal navy.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ But a few days later, two powerful Sandhanvalia Sardars, Atar Singh and Ajit Singh, collaterals of the royal contenders for the throne, arrived in Lahore and took over control.

^ Some 20,000 Ro mans under Crassus were killed by the Par thian army and 10,000 were captured.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Six weeks later, on the first anniversary of his coronation, Napoleon defeated Austria and Russia at Austerlitz.^ However, Napoleon quickly raised a new army, but this army was crushed by the Quadruple Alliance of England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia at the Battle of Nations/Leipzig in 1813.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon's campaign in Poland 1806-7: a military history of Napoleon's first war with Russia.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It seems like during that first six weeks I had more honest one on one or group conversations with people than I'd had with folks in the previous six years I'd been employed there..

This ended the Third Coalition and he commissioned the Arc de Triomphe to commemorate the victory. .Austria had to concede territory; the Peace of Pressburg led to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire and creation of the Confederation of the Rhine with Napoleon named as its Protector.^ Napoleon eliminated the Holy Roman Empire, and in 1806 consolidated it into 40 states and named it the Confederation of the Rhine.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Holy Roman Empire 90 , 114 .
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And you call a brigand, an ogre, Napoleon, the Great, Emperor of the French and King of Italy, Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine, mediator of the Swiss Federation!
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

[75]
.Napoleon would go on to say, "The battle of Austerlitz is the finest of all I have fought."^ The calculations that Perfy made was meant to go to the past when Albert Einstein was alive.Perfy loved Albert Einstein with all of the inventions she was sure she would meet him.

^ "Ah," Napoleon rejoined, "you wish to say that without the revolution you would not have had me.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The fellow, on being remanded for a week, threatened that he would do worse when he went home, or would not go home at all.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[76] Frank McLynn suggests Napoleon was so successful at Austerlitz he lost touch with reality, and what used to be French foreign policy became a "personal Napoleonic one".[77] Vincent Cronin disagrees, stating Napoleon was not overly ambitious for himself, that "he embodied the ambitions of thirty million Frenchmen".[78]

Middle-Eastern alliances

A group of men, some wearing beards and turbans, are in a room with a large painting on the wall, they look towards a doorway wear a man in military uniform including white johphurs (Napoleon) looks back at them and has his right hand in his waistcoat.
The Persian Envoy Mirza Mohammed Reza-Qazvini meets with Napoleon I at the Finkenstein castle, 27 April 1807, by François Mulard
.Even after the failed campaign in Egypt, Napoleon continued to entertain a grand scheme to establish a French presence in the Middle East.^ Napoleonic code - French code of civil law, established by Napoléon on March 21, 1804, to reform the French legal system in accordance with the principles of the French Revolution.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the evening the rumor reached Paris that Napoleon had failed in his enterprise.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ But for the disastrous destruction of the French fleet the plans of Napoleon, in reference to the East, would probably have been triumphantly successful.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[43] .An alliance with Middle-Eastern powers would have the strategic advantage of pressuring Russia on its southern border.^ Treaties of Tilsit (1807) - Treaties ending war between Russia and France; began a powerful secret alliance between the two countries.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.From 1803, Napoleon went to considerable lengths to try to convince the Ottoman Empire to fight against Russia in the Balkans and join his anti-Russian coalition.^ Perfy left Miss Pinky on his adventure first he went to Napoleon and fort in a war against England!.

^ After the third partition of Poland in 1795 she contacted with Central Assembly, patriotic organisation, who prepared the military fight against Russian domination in Poland.

^ They remained in Westphalia, fighting against rebels, and trying to occupy the provinces!
  • Europa Universalis Short AAR Contest - The Entries - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

[79] .Napoleon sent General Horace Sebastiani as envoy extraordinary, promising to help the Ottoman Empire recover lost territories.^ The Austrian Empire defeated Piedmont-Sardinia's campaign, and Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte sent troops to Rome to protect the Pope.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Consequently extensive territories were lost to Ottomans, including most of Azerbaijan, with Tabriz, and Georgia.

^ During the Napoleonic Wars the family lost much of their territories.

[79] .In February 1806, following Napoleon's victory at Austerlitz and the ensuing dismemberment of the Habsburg Empire, the Ottoman Emperor Selim III finally recognized Napoleon as Emperor, formally opting for an alliance with France "our sincere and natural ally", and war with Russia and England.^ Napoleon III: the modern emperor.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They had been the allies with England in the long war against France.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of France.

[80] .A Franco-Persian alliance was also formed, from 1807 to 1809, between Napoleon and the Persian Empire of Fath Ali Shah, against Russia and Great Britain.^ Napoleon was undefeated against his three main continental enemies, defeating Austria, Russia, and Prussia multiple times.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She was grand-daughter of Fath 'Ali Shah, who was shah (1797-1834), and married to her cousin Mohammad Shah (1834-48), and lived (1805-73).

^ Napoleon then proposed that the Island of Malta should be placed in the hands of the Emperor of Russia; leaving it with him in trust, till the discussions between France and England were decided.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.The alliance ended when France allied with Russia and turned its focus to European campaigns.^ Although Germany had originally allied itself with the empires of Austria and Russia at this time, by the beginning of the twentieth century alliances had shifted.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The cruisers of England, Russia, Turkey, of allied Europe in arms against France, thronged the Mediterranean.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Surgical memoirs of the campaigns of Russia, Germany, and France.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43]

War of the Fourth Coalition

Napoleon, on a horse, looks across a line of bearskinned-hatted troops, one of the soldiers is breaking ranks and holding his hat up gesturing towards Napoleon
Napoleon reviews his troops shortly before the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt (14 October 1806), as painted by Horace Vernet
.The Fourth Coalition was assembled in 1806, and Napoleon defeated Prussia at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt in October.^ Napoleon's conquest of Prussia - 1806.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Napoleon quickly raised a new army, but this army was crushed by the Quadruple Alliance of England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia at the Battle of Nations/Leipzig in 1813.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1918, the Austro-Hungarians failed to break through, in a series of battles on the Asiago Plateau, finally being decisively defeated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto in October of that year.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[81] He marched against advancing Russian armies through Poland, and was involved in the bloody stalemate of the Battle of Eylau on 6 February 1807.[82]
.After a decisive victory at Friedland, he signed the Treaties of Tilsit; one with Tsar Alexander I of Russia which divided the continent between the two powers; the other with Prussia which stripped that country of half its territory.^ If it is, there are not two powers, but only one.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Treaties of Tilsit (1807) - Treaties ending war between Russia and France; began a powerful secret alliance between the two countries.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cobden Chevalier Treaty (1860) - Treaty substantially lowering duties between the Britain and France, marking increasing cooperation between the two nations.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Napoleon placed puppet rulers on the thrones of German states, including his brother Jérôme as king of the new Kingdom of Westphalia.^ He saw Napoleon, a king and ruler.

^ Jovial king, Napoleon's youngest brother.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Russia gave Napoleon some area's, and Napoleon guarenteed some small German states with relatives of the tsar.
  • Europa Universalis Short AAR Contest - The Entries - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the French-controlled part of Poland, he established the Duchy of Warsaw with King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony as ruler.^ He tried to rule Sweden from Poland but his uncle (duke Charles, later king Charles IX) took full control of Sweden.

^ Schleswig and Holstein were German duchies whose ruler was also the Danish king, Frederick VII. Frederick's death in 1863 caused consternation amongst German nationalists as his successor, Christian IX, decided to annex Schleswig and Holstein, and make the German duchies into part of the Danish state.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The most powerful vassals of the French kings were the Plantagenet dynasty of England, who, through their Angevin ancestry, ruled large parts of western France.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[83]
.With his Milan and Berlin Decrees, Napoleon attempted to enforce a Europe-wide commercial boycott of Britain called the Continental System.^ Napoleon had secretly and suddenly called into being an army, and by its apparently miraculous creation had astounded Europe.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Industry of Britain, western Europe, and the United States developed within the system of capitalism .
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Continental System - Foreign economic warfare policy of Napoléon, consisting of an embargo against Great Britain, which failed.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.This act of economic warfare did not succeed, as it encouraged British merchants to smuggle into continental Europe and Napoleon's exclusively land-based customs enforcers could not stop them.^ As a result, Napoleon employed the Continental System, a method of economic warfare.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time the political winds in Northern Europe were changing as a host of new political and economic factors came into play.
  • Europa Universalis Short AAR Contest - The Entries - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From there, merchants spread the disease to Constantinople, where it propagated throughout Europe, first by ship to Mediterranean ports such as Messina and Genoa, and then by land in all directions.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[84]

Peninsular War

.Portugal did not comply with the Continental System so, in 1807, Napoleon invaded with the support of Spain.^ Napoleon's navigation system; a study of trade control during the continental blockade, by Frank Edgar Melvin, PH.D. .

^ In 1801 the Spanish dictator Manuel de Godoy invaded Portugal with backing from Napoleon, but was forced to abandon the campaign in the same year.

^ As a result, Napoleon employed the Continental System, a method of economic warfare.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Under the pretext of a reinforcement of the Franco-Spanish army occupying Portugal, Napoleon invaded Spain as well, replaced Charles IV with his brother Joseph and placed his brother-in-law Joachim Murat in Joseph's stead at Naples.^ The Spanish mousetrap; Napoleon and the court of Spain.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spanish mousetrap; Napoleon and the Court of Spain.

^ In 1806 Naples was captured by Napoleon, and he installed his brother, Joseph, as King.

.This led to resistance from the Spanish army and civilians in the Dos de Mayo Uprising.^ In 1854 the British invaded the state, and she led the resistance against the British in the 1857-uprising.

^ Decembrists - Officers of the Russian Army that led 3,000 soldiers in the Decembrist Revolt, an attempted uprising at Senate Square in December, 1825.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ French-Mexican War : The Mexican army defeats the French army in the Battle of Puebla (on May 9 this day was made into the Cinco de mayo holiday).

[85] .Following a French retreat from much of the country, Napoleon took command and defeated the Spanish Army.^ They engaged in hand to hand combat with the survivors eventually forcing the French army to retreat, but was later defeated, and the Amazons burned fields, villages and cities rather than let them fall to the French.

^ "True," replied Napoleon, "it is always, the greater number which beats the less" "And yet," said Gohier, "with small armies you have frequently defeated large ones."
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ After both her father and husband was killed and the Indonesian forces defeated by the Dutch, Dien took over both her late husbands and fathers army commands and led them in guerilla warfare Her second husband was Teuku Umar, who was another relative.

.He retook Madrid, then outmanoeuvred a British army sent to support the Spanish and drove it to the coast.^ In 1581, the Spanish army was sent to retake the United Provinces of the Netherlands, or the Dutch Republic, who had just declared their independence.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[86] .Before the Spanish population had been fully subdued, Austria again threatened war and Napoleon returned to France.^ The Napoleonic wars and German nationalism in Austria.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ France declared war on Austria.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Returning to France for a brief period of time before being forced to leave by Napoleon who said “She was the only man in her family” when Marie Therese gathered an army and refused to leave France.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[87]
Head and shoulders portrait of middle-aged man looking towards the viewer. He wears a red tunic with gold braid finishing.
The Duke of Wellington in 1814 by Sir Thomas Lawrence
.The costly and often brutal Peninsular War continued in Napoleon's absence; in the second Siege of Saragossa most of the city was destroyed and over 50,000 people perished.^ She was leader in the Young Socialists prior to and during the war, member of the Provisoric People's Chamber 1949-50 and of the People's Chamber 1950-53 and 1967-90.

^ Napoleon lamenting, the continued hostility of England, in announcing this peace to the people of France, remarked, "Why is not this treaty the treaty of a general peace?
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ In Martinique , Mount Pelée erupts, destroying the town of St. Pierre and killing over 30,000 people.

[88] .Although Napoleon left 300,000 of his finest troops to battle Spanish guerrillas as well as British and Portuguese forces commanded by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, French control over the peninsula again deteriorated.^ Arthur Wellesley, 1st duke of Wellington was born in Dublin.

^ Napoleon was defeated at the Battle of Toulouse by the British and the Spanish.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ An historical account of the battle of Waterloo, fought on the 18th of June, 1815, between the Anglo-Allied army, under the command of the Duke of Wellington, supported by a part of t he Prussian army commanded by Prince Blucher of Wahlstadt, and the French army, under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[89] .Following several allied victories, the war concluded after Napoleon's abdication in 1814.[90] Napoleon later described the Peninsular War as central to his final defeat, writing in his memoirs That unfortunate war destroyed me...^ Napoleon's victories; from the personal memoirs of Capt.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Napoleonic Wars 90 .
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Napoleon's victories : from the personal memoirs of Capt.

All... my disasters are bound up in that fatal knot.
[91]

War of the Fifth Coalition and remarriage

.In April 1809, Austria abruptly broke its alliance with France and Napoleon was forced to assume command of forces on the Danube and German fronts.^ However, Napoleon quickly raised a new army, but this army was crushed by the Quadruple Alliance of England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia at the Battle of Nations/Leipzig in 1813.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She made a truce with the emperor but formed an alliance with France and became a leading force in the Protestant Group during the warfare.

^ She urged the appointment of the duc de Choiseul and other Ministers and encouraged the French alliance with Austria, which involved France in the Seven Years War.

.After early successes, the French faced difficulties in crossing the Danube and suffered a defeat in May at the Battle of Aspern-Essling near Vienna.^ Austria suffered many defeats in the Napoleonic Wars of the late 1700 s and early 1800 s.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ War of Austrian Succession : Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy , French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army.

^ Battle of Ackia : British and Chickasaw Native Americans defeat French troops.

.The Austrians failed to capitalise on the situation and allowed Napoleon's forces to regroup.^ First Coalition : Napoleon I of France wins a decisive victory against Austrian forces at Lodi bridge over the River Adda in Italy .

.He defeated the Austrians again at Wagram and a new peace, the Treaty of Schönbrunn, was signed between Austria and France.^ Austrian Independence Treaty signed.

^ Peace treaty between Russia and Prussia .

^ On May 1871, the Treaty of Frankfurt was signed, and France ceded Alsace-Lorraine and 5 billion gold francs to Germany.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[92]
.Britain was the other member of the coalition.^ The British government announced that seven Iraqi diplomats, another embassy staff member and 67 other Iraqis were being expelled from Britain.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

.In addition to the Iberian Peninsula, the British planned to open another front in mainland Europe.^ It was the front desk inquring if he was planning on staying another night.
  • Bruce Napoleon, Vampire Veterinarian 9 February 2010 15:30 UTC vampvet.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

However, Napoleon was able to rush reinforcements to Antwerp, owing to Britain's inadequately organised Walcheren Campaign.[93] .He concurrently annexed the Papal States because of the Church's refusal to support the Continental System; Pope Pius VII responded by excommunicating the emperor.^ Napoleon I of France orders the annexation of the Papal States to the French Empire Pope Pius VII responded by excommunicating Napoleon.

^ Anna's government was supported by the States and favoured a bi-confessional co-existance system.

^ A state system as such is not apparent, although their ceremonial and trade linkages could have supported some sort of state structure.
  • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Pope was then abducted by Napoleon's officers, and though Napoleon had not ordered his abduction, he did not order Pius' release.^ Napoleon I of France orders the annexation of the Papal States to the French Empire Pope Pius VII responded by excommunicating Napoleon.

^ Though Napoleon did not credit these charges in full, he cherished not a little of the pride, which led the Roman monarch to exclaim, "Caesar's wife must not be suspected."
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Emperor Napoleon III also did so, widening the streets of Paris during his reconstruction of Paris in order to prevent barricading in the case of revolution.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Pope was moved throughout Napoleon's territories, sometimes while ill, and Napoleon sent delegations to pressure him on issues including agreement to a new concordat with France, which Pius refused.^ Life of Napoleon I : including new materials from the British official records / by John Holland Rose ...

^ Napoleon I of France orders the annexation of the Papal States to the French Empire Pope Pius VII responded by excommunicating Napoleon.

^ The Austrian Empire defeated Piedmont-Sardinia's campaign, and Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte sent troops to Rome to protect the Pope.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1810 Napoleon married the Austrian Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, following his divorce of Joséphine; this further strained his relations with the Church and thirteen cardinals were imprisoned for non-attendance at the marriage ceremony.^ The Austrian alliance, including the marriage of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette is commonly considered one of the central causes of the French Revolution.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To consummate the marriage, Louis XVI married Marie Antionette.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon's letters to Marie Louise / with a foreword and commentary by Charles de La Ronciere.

[94] The Pope remained confined for 5 years, and did not return to Rome until May 1814.[95]
Map of Europe. <a name=.French Empire shown as bigger than present day France as it included parts of present-day Netherlands and Italy."^ Napoleon I of France orders the annexation of the Papal States to the French Empire Pope Pius VII responded by excommunicating Napoleon.

^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte [electronic resource] : Emperor of the French, King of Italy, and protector of the Rhenish Confederation : from his birth to the present time.

^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte [microform] : Emperor of the French, King of Italy and protector of the Rhenish Confederation : from his birth to the present time.

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/00/2/5/6/3457904171353072.png" width="220" height="224" class="thumbimage" />
First French Empire at its greatest extent in 1811     French Empire     French satellite states     Allied states
.Napoleon consented to the ascent to the Swedish throne of Bernadotte, one of his marshals and a long-term rival of Napoleon's, in November 1810. Napoleon had indulged Bernadotte's indiscretions because he was married to Désirée Clary, but came to regret sparing his life when Bernadotte later allied Sweden with France's enemies.^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of France.

^ Daily life in France under Napoleon.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Impartial history of the life of Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of France and King of Italy, from his youth to 1808 [microform] / compiled by Hume Robertson.

[96]

Invasion of Russia

Gold 20 Franc Coin of Napoleon I, struck 1808
Photos of front and back of gold coin.
.Known as Napoleon Gold, the French began to simply call these coins, "Napoleons."^ And you call a brigand, an ogre, Napoleon, the Great, Emperor of the French and King of Italy, Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine, mediator of the Swiss Federation!
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In these intense studies Napoleon first began to appreciate the beauty and the sublimity of Christianity.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ He led the french through a series of conflicts called " the Napoleonic Wars" which involved every major European power!

Obverse: (French) NAPOLEON EMPERERUR, or in English, "Napoleon, Emperor""
Reverse: (French) REPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE, 1808, 20 FRANCS, or in English, "French Republic, 1808, 20 Francs."
.The Congress of Erfurt sought to preserve the Russo-French alliance and the leaders had a friendly personal relationship after their first meeting at Tilsit in 1807.[97] By 1811, however, tensions between the two nations had increased and Alexander was under pressure from the Russian nobility to break off the alliance.^ Cobden Chevalier Treaty (1860) - Treaty substantially lowering duties between the Britain and France, marking increasing cooperation between the two nations.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The increasing centralisation under the Rana regime after 1846, together with mounting tensions between Nepal and Tibet, meant that the central government took increasing interest in exercising control.

^ However, some suggest that the war was brought about by poor leadership at the time, others argue that the war was brought about by accident - that Europe stumbled into war due to tension between alliance systems.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.The first clear sign the alliance had deteriorated was the relaxation of the Continental System in Russia, which angered Napoleon.^ However, Napoleon quickly raised a new army, but this army was crushed by the Quadruple Alliance of England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia at the Battle of Nations/Leipzig in 1813.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon's navigation system; a study of trade control during the continental blockade, by Frank Edgar Melvin, PH.D. .

^ Napoleon's campaign in Poland 1806-7: a military history of Napoleon's first war with Russia.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[98] By 1812, advisers to Alexander suggested the possibility of an invasion of the French Empire and the recapture of Poland. .On receipt of intelligence reports on Russia's war preparations, Napoleon expanded his Grande Armée to more than 450,000 men.^ Napoleon's campaign in Poland 1806-7: a military history of Napoleon's first war with Russia.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The insurgent armies of La Vendee, numbering more than one hundred thousand men, and filled with adventurers and desperadoes of every kind, were disbanded when their chiefs yielded homage to Napoleon.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ But even the present capricious distribution of the franchise has more semblance of justice and rationality than a rule admitting all men to the suffrage and denying it to all women.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.He ignored repeated advice against an invasion of the vast Russian heartland and prepared for an offensive campaign; on 23 June 1812, his invasion of Russia commenced.^ Napoleon's invasion of Russia, 1812.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Franklin Subject Browse Demo 9 February 2010 15:30 UTC devplw.library.upenn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Russian campaign, 1812.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In protest against the Russian invasion of 1968, Czech student Jan Palach set himself on fire in Prague's Wenceslas Square.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

[99]
.In an attempt to gain increased support from Polish nationalists and patriots, Napoleon termed the war the Second Polish War—the First Polish War had been the Bar Confederation uprising by Polish nobles against Russia in 1768. Polish patriots wanted the Russian part of Poland to be joined with the Duchy of Warsaw and an independent Poland created.^ The physiology of war: Napoleon and the Russian campaign.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First sketches of the second and third parts.
  • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Napoleon's campaign in Poland 1806-7: a military history of Napoleon's first war with Russia.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was rejected by Napoleon, who stated he had promised his ally Austria this would not happen.^ Here's what happened, Perfy was bored and was wondering what it would be like to travel back in time and who she would like to meet.

^ Armageddon may happen anytime, yet people who reject the JWs leaders' idea of Jesus invisibly returning in 1914 will be rejected by God.
  • GTJ Brooklyn 1a 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC gtw6437.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They only desired a ruler who would take care of them, govern them, protect them from the power of allied despotism, and give them equal rights.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.Napoleon refused to manumit the Russian serfs, because of concerns this might provoke a reaction in his army's rear.^ He saw Napoleon and his army fleeing from the Russian army.

^ Russian army of the Napoleonic wars.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So although Napoleon's military skills were good, the Russians had hometeam advantage because they didn't have to travel and were used to the climate.

.The serfs would later commit atrocities against French soldiers during France's retreat.^ Charles DeGaulle, who led the Free French Resistance movement against the Nazis during their occupation of France in World War II, was elected but refused to participate and thus resigned.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some states, such as Russia and Austria, failed to industrialize significantly in this period, a factor that would lead to later difficulties during the First World War.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She explained how she lived in eastern France and how she led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War!

[100]
.The Russians avoided Napoleon's objective of a decisive engagement and instead retreated deeper into Russia.^ Napoleon Bonaparte leads his French troops into the Battle of Bautzen in Saxony , Germany , against the combined armies of Russia and Prussia .

^ A Russian Antonov 124 military transport crashed into a residential area in Irkutsk, Russia, shortly after takeoff.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Under Napoleon the country had been forced into the Confederation of the Rhine, compelling it to send troops into the Wars at Colberg, in Tirol, Spain and Russia.

.A brief attempt at resistance was made at Smolensk in August; the Russians were defeated in a series of battles and Napoleon resumed his advance.^ Russians defeated the Poles at battle of Ostrolenska.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1918, the Austro-Hungarians failed to break through, in a series of battles on the Asiago Plateau, finally being decisively defeated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto in October of that year.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hindenburg took command and defeated the Russians at the Battle of Tannenberg, ending the hope of a Russian advance to Berlin.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Russians again avoided battle, although in a few cases this was only achieved because Napoleon uncharacteristically hesitated to attack when the opportunity arose.^ Without delay he crossed the Alps, and arrived at the head-quarters of Napoleon but a few days before the battle of Marengo.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Their hostility was so inveterate, and, from the very nature of the case, so inevitable, that Napoleon thought that France should ever be prepared for an attack, and that the military spirit should be carefully fostered.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The only real scriptural case to make is to only worship God--avoiding idolatry is avoiding misdirected worship, not a taboo of things.
  • GTJ Brooklyn 1a 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC gtw6437.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

.Owing to the Russian army's scorched earth tactics, the French found it increasingly difficult to forage food for themselves and their horses.^ For the first time, Napoleon failed, as the Russian army employed scorched earth tactics to defeat Napoleon's army.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[101]
Map with a band getting thinner showing route of army. Graph at bottom notes temperature at different points on the route.
Charles Joseph Minard's graph shows the decreasing size of the Grande Armée as it marched to Moscow and back
.The Russians eventually offered battle outside Moscow on 7 September: the Battle of Borodino resulted in approximately 44,000 Russian and 35,000 French, dead, wounded or captured, and may have been the bloodiest day of battle in history up to that point in time.^ On this day in History - May 19 .

^ On this day in History - May 16 .

^ On this day in History - May 29 .

[102] .Although the French had won, the Russian army had accepted, and withstood, the major battle Napoleon had hoped would be decisive.^ Russian army of the Napoleonic wars.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He saw Napoleon and his army fleeing from the Russian army.

^ However, Napoleon quickly raised a new army, but this army was crushed by the Quadruple Alliance of England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia at the Battle of Nations/Leipzig in 1813.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Napoleon's own account was: "The most terrible of all my battles was the one before Moscow.^ At St. Helena Napoleon said, "Of all the general I ever had under my command Desaix and Kleber possessed the greatest talent.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Gloria ended up being one of the first people I told about my own transition in 1994.

^ His own mind was most thoroughly stored with all the treasures of Greek and Roman story.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

The French showed themselves to be worthy of victory, but the Russians showed themselves worthy of being invincible."[103]
The Russian army withdrew and retreated past Moscow. .Napoleon entered the city, assuming its fall would end the war and Alexander would negotiate peace.^ U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt became the first American to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, for helping mediate an end to the Russo-Japanese War.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Napoleon would, however, have been one or two days in Paris before Josephine could, by any possibility, re-enter the city.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Peace of Westphalia (1648) - A series of treaties ending the Thirty Years' War.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, on orders of the city's governor Fyodor Rostopchin, rather than capitulation, Moscow was ordered burned.^ They engaged in hand to hand combat with the survivors eventually forcing the French army to retreat, but was later defeated, and the Amazons burned fields, villages and cities rather than let them fall to the French.

^ Neoclassicism was influenced by the Enlightenment, emphasizing reason and order rather than the emotion of Baroque or Rococo.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Templars were suppressed, the Portuguese Templars, rather than being tortured and burned, were instead transferred into the Order of Christ.
  • Europa Universalis Short AAR Contest - The Entries - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

.After a month, concerned about loss of control back in France, Napoleon and his army left.^ The resulting "Thermidorian Reaction" was a response to France's swing to the left, during which the government briefly went to the right, and finally back to the center.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In four months Napoleon had raised France from an abyss of ruin to the highest pinnacle of prosperity and renown.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The very day Napoleon left Paris, Desaix arrived in France from Egypt.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[104]
The French suffered greatly in the course of a ruinous retreat, including from the harshness of the Russian Winter. The Armée had begun as over 400,000 frontline troops, but in the end fewer than 40,000 crossed the Berezina River in November 1812, to escape.[105] .The Russians had lost 150,000 in battle and hundreds of thousands of civilians.^ American Civil War : Battle of Ware Bottom Church - In the Virginia Bermuda Hundred Campaign , 10,000 troops fight in this Confederate victory.

^ "One Hundred Fifty Thousand rifles and 30,000 sabers not later than fifteen days from today."
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "I will give Moreau," said he by this act, "one hundred and fifty thousand of the most brave and disciplined soldiers of France, the victors of a hundred battles.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[106]

War of the Sixth Coalition

Cartoon of Napoleon sitting back to front on a donkey with a broken sword and two soldiers in the background drumming
British etching from 1814 in celebration of Napoleon's first exile to Elba at the close of the War of the Sixth Coalition
.There was a lull in fighting over the winter of 1812–13 while both the Russians and the French rebuilt their forces; Napoleon was then able to field 350,000 troops.^ Wherever Napoleon made his appearance in the field, his presence alone was considered equivalent to that force.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Once in Dagestan, the Russians occupied immediatly, as there were no enemy forces.
  • Europa Universalis Short AAR Contest - The Entries - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Her subjects launched an armed rebellion against the French troops, who surrounded her Papeete palace and forced her to retreat to Raiatea.

[107] .Heartened by France's loss in Russia, Prussia joined with Austria, Sweden, Russia, Great Britain, Spain, and Portugal in a new coalition.^ The traditional alliances of France and Prussia against Great Britain and Austria changed to France and Austria against Great Britain and Prussia.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Napoleon quickly raised a new army, but this army was crushed by the Quadruple Alliance of England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia at the Battle of Nations/Leipzig in 1813.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Spain and Portugal joined the European Community (EC).
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

.Napoleon assumed command in Germany and inflicted a series of defeats on the Coalition culminating in the Battle of Dresden in August 1813.[108] Despite these successes, the numbers continued to mount against Napoleon and the French army was pinned down by a force twice its size and lost at the Battle of Leipzig.^ Napoleon's last campaign in Germany 1813.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Napoleon's last campaign in Germany-1813.

^ War of Austrian Succession : Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy , French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army.

.This was by far the largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars and cost more than 90,000 casualties in total.^ We are more than 10,000 armies.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One thing my biosisters have told me over the years is that we transwomen and they have far more in common with each other than the things that separate us.

^ (World War I) Battle of Jutland (1916) - Largest naval battle of World War I; fought in the North Sea between British and German fleets.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[109]
.Napoleon withdrew back into France, his army reduced to 70,000 soldiers and 40,000 stragglers, against more than three times as many Allied troops.^ He doubled the army to 80,000 soldiers.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ POOF! He was gone back into time.

^ He married six more times, and treated his wives cruelly: one was drowned, three were imprisoned, and two were sent to a nunnery.

[110] .The French were surrounded: British armies pressed from the south, and other Coalition forces positioned to attack from the German states.^ The British attack the American forces at Ft.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ The U.S. government released a video tape that showed Osama bin Laden and others discussing their knowledge of the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Austria signed the Declaration of Pillnitz (1791), which stated that if the other powers attack France, so would Austria.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

Napoleon won a series of victories in the Six Days Campaign, though these were not significant enough to turn the tide and Paris was captured by the Coalition in March 1814.[111]
.When Napoleon proposed the army march on the capital, his marshals decided to mutiny.^ Through storms and freezing gales and drifting snows the armies of Napoleon marched painfully to Hohenlinden.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon then proposed that the Island of Malta should be placed in the hands of the Emperor of Russia; leaving it with him in trust, till the discussions between France and England were decided.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The march of Napoleon's armies upon Vienna was an evil more to be dreaded than even the consolidation of Napoleon's power in France.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[112] On 4 April, led by Ney, they confronted Napoleon. .Napoleon asserted the army would follow him and Ney replied the army would follow its generals.^ "True," replied Napoleon, "it is always, the greater number which beats the less" "And yet," said Gohier, "with small armies you have frequently defeated large ones."
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Josephine cherished the hope that could she succeed in uniting Hortense with Louis Bonaparte, should Hortense give birth to a son, Napoleon would regard him as his heir.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon, by those fascinations of mind and manner, which enabled him to win to him whom he would, soon gained an ascendency over Moreau.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

Napoleon had no choice but to abdicate. .He did so in favour of his son; however, the Allies refused to accept this and Napoleon was forced to abdicate unconditionally on 11 April.^ Napoleon was forced to abdicate his throne.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Two years later her husband abdicated in favour of his younger brother, she moved to her son-in-law in Modena, where she died.

^ She abdicated in favour of her son, I Jonjo Karaeng Limbangparang , who ruled until 1955).

Photo of a coastline with the sea, greyish cliffs, vegetation and beige buildings
.
Napoleon's Villa Mulini on Elba
The Allied Powers having declared that Emperor Napoleon was the sole obstacle to the restoration of peace in Europe, Emperor Napoleon, faithful to his oath, declares that he renounces, for himself and his heirs, the thrones of France and Italy, and that there is no personal sacrifice, even that of his life, which he is not ready to do in the interests of France.^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of France.

^ Napoleon declared himself French Emperor and became a military dictator.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No peace with Napoleon!


Done in the palace of Fontainebleau, 11 April 1814.
—Act of abdication of Napoleon[113]
.In the Treaty of Fontainebleau the victors exiled him to Elba, an island of 12,000 inhabitants in the Mediterranean, 20 km off the Tuscan coast.^ Aspects of Elba and the other islands of the Tuscan Archipelago.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Napoleon Bonaparte disembarked at Portoferraio on the island of Elba in the Mediterranean.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ In the end the Queen Yaa Asantewaa was captured and sent to Seychelles islands off Africa's east coast, while most of the captured chiefs became prisoners-of-war.

.They gave him sovereignty over the island and allowed him to retain his title of Emperor.^ He was allowed to keep the title of emperor.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ After his return they married and in 1594 Philip II appointed him as governor of the island of San Cristobal in the Solomons, and gave orders to found a colony there.

^ Napoleon then proposed that the Island of Malta should be placed in the hands of the Emperor of Russia; leaving it with him in trust, till the discussions between France and England were decided.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.Napoleon attempted suicide with a pill he had carried since a near-capture by Russians on the retreat from Moscow.^ Napoleon's campaign of 1812 and the retreat from Moscow.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1605 the False Dmitri I, Russian pretender, married her, in a failed attempt to establish a firm foothold in Moscow.

.Its potency had weakened with age and he survived to be exiled, while his wife and son took refuge in Vienna.^ Her son Jan IV van Glymes took over as regent in 1550 at the age of 22.

[114] .In the first few months on Elba he created a small navy and army, developed the iron mines, and issued decrees on modern agricultural methods.^ Cartographer Abraham Ortelius issues the first modern atlas.

^ They also create a constantly increasing demand for coal, iron, and all the other produce of mining industry.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For a few months there was a status quo: these armies laid siege on these provinces.
  • Europa Universalis Short AAR Contest - The Entries - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

[115]

Hundred Days

.Separated from his wife and son, who had come under Austrian control, cut off from the allowance guaranteed to him by the Treaty of Fontainebleau, and aware of rumours he was about to be banished to a remote island in the Atlantic Ocean, Napoleon escaped from Elba on 26 February 1815. He landed at Golfe-Juan on the French mainland, two days later.^ He was banished to the island of Elba.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Among them was the first African American maroon, who escaped to the Indians soon after coming ashore.
  • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Said an Austrian veteran, who had before encountered Napoleon at Arcola and Rivoli, "Melas is too sanguine.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[116] .The 5th Regiment was sent to intercept him and made contact just south of Grenoble on 7 March 1815. Napoleon approached the regiment alone, dismounted his horse and, when he was within gunshot range, shouted, "Here I am.^ The army had not made contact with the Prussian main army, and had marched to Memel and back.
  • Europa Universalis Short AAR Contest - The Entries - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wherever Napoleon made his appearance in the field, his presence alone was considered equivalent to that force.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Before Napoleon Marched for Italy, he had made every effort in his power for the attainment of peace.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.Kill your Emperor, if you wish."^ Also, your Emperor loves you soldiers.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Yeah, that's what Mick was pissed about, said Margie killed him, that it was your fault he was dying and that I was to kill all of you, Genia too, where is that Bitch?"
  • Bruce Napoleon, Vampire Veterinarian 9 February 2010 15:30 UTC vampvet.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We do not wish to destroy your religion, or take it from you.
  • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

[117] The soldiers responded with, "Vive L'Empereur!" and marched with .Napoleon to Paris; Louis XVIII fled.^ This Berthier had with the utmost meanness, abandoned his benefactor, and took his place in front of the carriage of Louis XVIII. as he rode triumphantly into Paris.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ President Louis Napoleon Bonaparte rebuilt central Paris, installing new apartments, straight, long, and wide streets, sewage, and sanitation.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the abdication of Napoleon and the restoration of the monarchy under his cousin King Louis XVIII, Louis-Philippe returned to live in France, claiming sympathy with the citizens of the country.
  • Printable Catalog - Marketplace Auction 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.ha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 13 March, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared Napoleon an outlaw and four days later Great Britain, the Netherlands, Russia, Austria and Prussia bound themselves to put 150,000 men into the field to end his rule.^ Britain's direct rule was ended.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Congress of Vienna after the Napoleonic wars.

^ The cabinet in Vienna, angry with their embassador for not protracting the discussion, refused to ratify the treaty, recalled Count Julien, sent him into exile, informed the First Consul of the treat which bound Austria not to make peace without the concurrence of Great Britain, assured France of the readiness of the English Cabinet to enter into negotiations, and urged the immediate opening of a Congress at Luneville, to which plenipotentiaries should be sent from each of the three great contending powers.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[118]
Battlefield with infantry and cavalry, lot of blue smoke in the centre
Battle of Waterloo, painted by William Sadler (1782–1839)
.Napoleon arrived in Paris on 20 March and governed for a period now called the Hundred Days.^ Napoleon arrived in Paris on the 31st of January.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Without delay he crossed the Alps, and arrived at the head-quarters of Napoleon but a few days before the battle of Marengo.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The response of the Dutch government came in August 1831, when the Dutch Army set off on a so called "Ten Days Campaign".
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.By the start of June the armed forces available to him had reached 200,000 and he decided to go on the offensive to attempt to drive a wedge between the oncoming British and Prussian armies.^ He established much better education, and he also established the first modern Russian army with 200,000 men.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An historical account of the battle of Waterloo, fought on the 18th of June, 1815, between the Anglo-Allied army, under the command of the Duke of Wellington, supported by a part of t he Prussian army commanded by Prince Blucher of Wahlstadt, and the French army, under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British and American armies linked up between Wadi Akarit and El Guettar in North Africa to form a solid line against the German army.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

.The French Army of the North crossed the frontier into the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, in modern-day Belgium.^ The Entente Cordiale between France and the United Kingdom gave the British a free hand in Egypt in exchange for a French free hand in Morocco.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Anyway, tha army was split into a few divisions: one was coming from Poland, one from our just freed Ratibor and one was our cavalry coming form the high north.
  • Europa Universalis Short AAR Contest - The Entries - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The four components of this plan were to bring a large army into the Netherlands under the lead of the Duke of Parma and get them prepared to invade England.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[119]
.Napoleon's forces fought the allies, led by Wellington and Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, at the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June 1815. Wellington's army withstood repeated attacks by the French and drove them from the field while the Prussians arrived in force and broke through Napoleon's right flank.^ Napoleon, from Tilsit to Waterloo - 1807-1815.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The battle of Marengo was fought on the 14th of June.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ German and French forces fought the Battle of Artois.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

.The French army left the battlefield in disorder, which allowed Coalition forces to enter France and restore Louis XVIII to the French throne.^ It simply restored the old boundaries and restored Louis XVIII to the throne.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pressure by King Louis XIV of France, then an ally, forced the Bishop of Mnster to withdraw.

^ Perfy whizzed of to the battlefield and met French leader Napolean and they shock with left hand as his right was in his jacket like normal.

Off the port of Rochefort, Charente-Maritime, after consideration of an escape to the United States, Napoleon formally demanded political asylum from the British Captain Frederick Maitland on HMS Bellerophon on 15 July 1815.[120]

Exile on Saint Helena

Sea with coast in the background and large grey clouds. <a name=.There are four ships with several smaller ones and rowing boats."^ This one was very much below the surface of a mound on which there grew a pine tree over four hundred years old.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This afternoon the people of San Salvador came swimming to our ships and in boats made from one log.
  • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gauss: Yes, but then the Danish magically summoned also two threedeckers, along with four smaller ships.
  • Europa Universalis Short AAR Contest - The Entries - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/07/3/5/5/19021351471850923.jpg" width="220" height="140" class="thumbimage" />
Scene in Plymouth Sound in August 1815, by John James Chalon. .Pictured is HMS Bellerophon with Napoleon aboard, shortly before his transferral to HMS Northumberland for delivery to Saint Helena
Photo of a front garden and large brown building.</span><span class=^ Letters written on board his Majesty's ship the Northumberland, and Saint Helena; in which the conduct and conversations of Napoleon Buonaparte, and his suite, during the voyage, and the first months of his residence in that island, are faithfully described and related.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Napoleon in exile; Saint Helena (1815-1821).
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Journal of the private life and conversations of the Emperor Napoleon at Saint Helena.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.French flag on a flagpole next to a small cannon."^ A small ink pot sat next to hi, and the teacher boomed like a cannon: "One farthing=..."

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/01/2/8/4/31919333083942812.jpg" width="220" height="125" class="thumbimage" />
Longwood House, Saint Helena: site of Napoleon's captivity
.Napoleon was imprisoned and then exiled to the island of Saint Helena in the Atlantic Ocean, 2,000 km from any major landmass.^ Napoleon was then exiled to the island of Saint Helena where he died in 1821.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Saint Helena, little island.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The last years of Napoleon, his captivity on Saint Helena.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In his first two months there, he lived in a pavilion on the Briars estate, which belonged to a William Balcombe.^ She lived there with her two sisters, Margaretha and Helena.

^ Mother of seven children with her two first husbands, and lived (1912-2003).

^ After having given birth to two daughters she died two months after the birth of her only son, who only lived a few days.

Napoleon became friendly with his family, especially his younger daughter Lucia Elizabeth who later wrote .Recollections of the Emperor Napoleon.^ Recollections of the Emperor Napoleon during the first three years of his captivity on the island of St. Helena, including the time of his residence at her father's house, "The Briars."
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It said "Recollections of the Emperor Napoleon".

[121] .This friendship ended in 1818 when British authorities became suspicious that Balcombe had acted as an intermediary between Napoleon and Paris, and dismissed him from the island.^ Napoleon then proposed that the Island of Malta should be placed in the hands of the Emperor of Russia; leaving it with him in trust, till the discussions between France and England were decided.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon, already assuming the authority of an emperor, and speaking as if France were his patrimony, came down upon him with a torrent of invective.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The City of Indore became the capital of the Indore princely state in 1818 after the British forces under Sir John Malcolm defeated the Holkar forces under her command.

[122]
Napoleon moved to Longwood House in December 1815; it had fallen into disrepair, and the location was damp, windswept and unhealthy. .The Times published articles insinuating the British government was trying to hasten his death and he often complained of the living conditions in letters to the governor and his custodian, Hudson Lowe.^ Shahjehans husbandbecame titular Nawab, and she tried to leave as much as the governing to him as possible, but he came at odds with the British, and was stripped of his title and position.

^ The Wafd continued to organize resistance to the British and the British-backed government, and he was soon exiled again, this time in the Seychelles.

^ With their help the prince lost no time in occupying the Jind fort and established his government after putting the Rani the puppet of the British government to the sword.

[123] .With a small cadre of followers, Napoleon dictated his memoirs and criticised his captors—particularly Lowe.^ Memoirs of the history of France during the reign of Napoleon: dictated by the emperor at St. Helena to the generals who shared his captivity.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lowe's treatment of Napoleon is regarded as poor by historians such as Frank McLynn.^ Napoleon : a biography / Frank McLynn.

[124] .Lowe exacerbated a difficult situation through measures including a reduction in Napoleon's expenditure, a rule that no gifts could be delivered to him if they mentioned his imperial status, and a document his supporters had to sign that guaranteed they would stay with the prisoner indefinitely.^ I would make him a prince if I could.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ If they could redden the earth, the would do it.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The "new management" sign had been up for as long as Bruce could remember, but they served a decent omelette, which was just what he was looking forward to.
  • Bruce Napoleon, Vampire Veterinarian 9 February 2010 15:30 UTC vampvet.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

[124]
.In 1818, The Times reported a false rumour of Napoleon's escape and said the news had been greeted by spontaneous illuminations in London.^ Bible Ex- aminer, published in Brooklyn, New York, which said on page 27 of its October issue, 'The seven times will end in A.D. 1914.'
  • GTJ Brooklyn 1a 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC gtw6437.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In his speech of 24 July, at an election meeting in the Pimlico Rooms, Warwick Street, Mill is reported to have said “that he had been in favour of the ballot, but was not in favour of it now” ( The Times, 25 July, p.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "The only revenge I wish on this poor Berthier," said Napoleon at the time, "would be to see him in his costume of captain of the body-guard of Louis."
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[note .9] There was sympathy for him in the British Parliament: Lord Holland gave a speech which demanded the prisoner be treated with no unnecessary harshness.^ There's no use waiting for him.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After his return they married and in 1594 Philip II appointed him as governor of the island of San Cristobal in the Solomons, and gave orders to found a colony there.

^ At length the twilight gradually disappears, and as the shades of the evening come on, lights glimmer in the solitary villages that he passes on his way; but there is no welcome for him in their beaming.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[126] .Napoleon kept himself informed of the events through The Times and hoped for release in the event that Holland became Prime Minister.^ She surrounded the Duke with her protgs and confidants, became the center of a court party and sold court offices, and had her brother, Wilhelm Friederich, appointed as Prime Minister.

^ In order to be able to return to Germany and meet him, she became politically active and used her connections to the French government - the Foreign Minister Talleyrand or the Emperor himself.

^ Winston Churchill became Prime Minister of Britain in May 1940.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.He also enjoyed the support of Lord Cochrane, who was involved in Chile's and Brazil's struggle for independence and wanted to rescue Napoleon and help him set up a new empire in South America, a scheme frustrated by Napoleon's death in 1821.[127] There were other plots to rescue Napoleon from captivity including one from Texas, where exiled soldiers from the Grande Armée wanted a resurrection of the Napoleonic Empire in America.^ There have been other instances lately of this, but none hitherto that comes up to what we extract from a Southwark police report of Friday last: .
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There were now two Americas, one white, the other black—separate and unequal.
  • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon invited the embassador to take a seat at one end of the table, and seated himself at the other.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.There was even a plan to rescue him with a primitive submarine.^ At length the twilight gradually disappears, and as the shades of the evening come on, lights glimmer in the solitary villages that he passes on his way; but there is no welcome for him in their beaming.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[128] .For Lord Byron, Napoleon was the epitome of the Romantic hero, the persecuted, lonely and flawed genius.^ Lord Byron und Napoleon, von Gerhard Eggert.

.The news that Napoleon had taken up gardening at Longwood also appealed to more domestic British sensibilities.^ A.It was very hard yes if you were not here to help me it would of taken me alot more time to round the animals up.

^ The life of Napoleon I: including new materials from the British official records.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Life of Napoleon I, including new materials from the British official records, by John Holland Rose.

[129]

Death

A large ship in docks with two smaller boats, lots of French flags on all of the vessels' rigging.
.
Frigate Belle-Poule returns Napoleon's remains to France
Photo of a large, shiny burgundy cuboid-shaped vessel raised on a dark green plinth.</span><span class=^ After the abdication of Napoleon and the restoration of the monarchy under his cousin King Louis XVIII, Louis-Philippe returned to live in France, claiming sympathy with the citizens of the country.
  • Printable Catalog - Marketplace Auction 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.ha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Napoleon could do for his troops in Egypt was to return to France, and exert his personal influence in sending them succor.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ It was ten o'clock at night, the 22d of August, 1799, when Napoleon ascended the sides of the frigate Muiron, to France.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

There are two female statues in the background either side of the vessel." src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/08/2/1/8/5468544583212231.jpg" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" />
Napoleon's tomb at Les Invalides
.In February 1821, his health began to fail rapidly and, on 3 May, two British physicians who had recently arrived attended him and could only recommend palliatives.^ It was just another inch until he grabbed Perfy but he could not reach him with his two tiny arms.

^ Perfy began running until he could reach him but he was so exhausted carring his time machine and hold the box at the same time.

^ Those only attended who were friendly to his cause.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[130] .He died two days later, after confession, Extreme Unction and Viaticum at the hands of Father Ange Vignali.^ Two years later her husband abdicated in favour of his younger brother, she moved to her son-in-law in Modena, where she died.

^ Rain Queen Makobo Modjadji VI of Balobedu (South Afcica) Elected to succeed her grandmother because her mother, Princess Makhaele' Maria Modjadji, died two days later than her mother, Rain Queen Mokope Modjadji V (1937-81-2001).

^ White, a young boy with AIDS, died later the same day.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

[130] His last words were, "France, armée, tête d'armée, Joséphine."("France, army, head of the army, Joséphine.")[130] .Napoleon's original death mask was created around 6 May, though it is not clear which doctor created it.^ Later information indicated that the death toll may have been 3 to 4 times the original estimate.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ NAPOLEON I. (death mask) ANTOMARCHI, FRANCESCO .
  • Full text of "Catalog of the Gardiner Greene Hubbard Collection of engravings" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

[131][note 10] In his will, he had asked to be buried on the banks of the Seine, but the British governor said he should be buried on St. Helena, in the Valley of the Willows. .Hudson Lowe insisted the inscription should read 'Napoleon Bonaparte', Montholon and Bertrand wanted the Imperial title 'Napoleon' as royalty were signed by their first names only.^ Napoleon Bonaparte's first campaign: with comments.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For not only does it give the title of each book once with considerable fulness under the name of its author, if known, or, if not known, under its first leading word, but the same book will be found more briefly indicated again under its subject : and, if need be, yet again under one or more of the principal words in its title.
  • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ History of the captivity of Napoleon at St. Helena; from the letters and journals of the late Lieut.-Gen Sir Hudson Lowe, and official documents not before made public.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As a result the tomb was left nameless.[130]
.In 1840, Louis-Philippe, King of the French obtained permission from the British to return Napoleon's remains to France.^ King Louis XV of France dies (b.

^ Louis XVI becomes King of France .

^ And you call a brigand, an ogre, Napoleon, the Great, Emperor of the French and King of Italy, Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine, mediator of the Swiss Federation!
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

The remains were transported aboard the frigate Belle-Poule, which had been painted black for the occasion and on 29 November she arrived in Cherbourg. .The remains were transferred to the steamship Normandie, which transported them to Le Havre, up the Seine to Rouen and on to Paris.^ Projet de loi sur le conseil-général et les conseils d’arrondissement du département de la Seine, et sur la municipalité de la ville de Paris (8 Dec.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

On 15 December, a state funeral was held. .The hearse proceeded from the Arc de Triomphe down the Champs-Élysées, across the Place de la Concorde to the Esplanade des Invalides and then to the cupola in St Jérôme's Chapel, where it stayed until the tomb designed by Louis Visconti was completed.^ On the accession of Louis XVI, Madame du Barry was banished to a nunnery; from 1776 until the outbreak of the Revolution she lived on her estates with the Duke de Brissac.

^ Until 1561 Sovereign Countess Jacqueline-Marguerite de Longwy of Bar-sur-Seine (France) She was the first wife of Louis de Bourbon, Duc de Montpensier, Prince de La Roche-sur-Yon and Dauphin d'Auvergne.

^ She had no children in her marriage with Prince Louis-Armand I de Bourbon-Conti, prince de la Roche-sur-Yon (1661-85).

.In 1861, Napoleon's remains were entombed in a porphyry sarcophagus in the crypt under the dome at Les Invalides.^ Napoleon Bonapart's remains were interred in Les Invalides in Paris, having been brought from St. Helena, where he died in exile.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

[133]

Cause of death

.Napoleon's physician, Francesco Antommarchi, led the autopsy which found the cause of death to be stomach cancer, though he did not sign the official report, stating, "What had I to do with...^ I found the cause of death in the head.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the m-state materials (found to be naturally occurring) in wine and the M-sate materials (found to be naturally occurring) in ocean water are combined in the stomach (as a PPT condensate), will they all have an effect on one another?
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That would just be a prediction of a population increase, though, and should a period characterized by things that cause death be a time for that?
  • GTJ Brooklyn 1a 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC gtw6437.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

English reports?"[134] .Napoleon's father had died of stomach cancer though this was seemingly unknown at the time of the autopsy.^ Napoleon Bonaparte's death was by stomach cancer.

^ In 1821 he died due to a stomach cancer at age 51.

^ Napoleone di Buonaparte!” Perfy yelled “I am Perf-“ but before he could finish he accidently pressed on a time-travel button to the 1420’s.

[135] .Antommarchi found evidence of a stomach ulcer and it was the most convenient explanation for the British who wanted to avoid criticism over their care of the Emperor.^ She criticized the plans of her cousin, Jean Bedel Bokassa, chief of state since 1966, who wanted to become emperor, and in effect he sacked her.

^ The imperial captive, or, The unexampled career of the ex-emperor, Napoleon: from the period of his quitting Elba to that of his surrender to the British nation, circumstantially developed.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[130]
Gold-framed portrait painting of a gaunt middle-aged man with receding hair and laurel wreath, lying eyes-closed on white pillow with a white blanket covering to his neck and a gold Jesus cross resting on his chest
Napoléon sur son lit de mort [Napoleon on his death bed], by Horace Vernet, 1826
In 1955, the diaries of Napoleon's valet, Louis Marchand, appeared in print. .His description of Napoleon in the months before his death led Sten Forshufvud to put forward other causes for his death, including deliberate arsenic poisoning, in a 1961 paper in Nature.^ As with other indigenous cultures, the sophistication and sustainability of agricultural and natural harvesting systems was an important value and possibly the most grievous loss caused by the conquest of the Americas.
  • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mill’s letter of thanks appeared in other papers on 22 July, including the Daily News.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It would be enough that they did wound him, that no other cause of death appeared, and that he died.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[136] .Arsenic was used as a poison during the era because it was undetectable when administered over a long period.^ Ferdinand and Isabella came to power because they were able to consolidate the various factions during the long war against the Moors, but they had very little economic power.
  • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

.Forshufvud, in a 1978 book with Ben Weider, noted the emperor's body was found to be remarkably well-preserved when moved in 1840. Arsenic is a strong preservative and therefore this supported the poisoning hypothesis.^ As to the prior knowledge of the Essenes in modern times, some translations of The Essene Way of Life in Slavic text * have been found, well preserved, in the possession of the Habsburgs in Austria.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If perchance a journal of his life has been preserved and it falls into fitting hands, it will be a remarkable book—a record of the old changing into the new.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Well its time to move on to see the emperor of france and one of the best militray leaders ever.

.Forshufvud and Weider observed that Napoleon had attempted to quench abnormal thirst by drinking high levels of orgeat syrup that contained cyanide compounds in the almonds used for flavouring.^ Moreover, a high level of nationalism was at the time being experienced across Europe, particularly as a result of Napoleon's Empire.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

They maintained that the potassium tartrate used in his treatment prevented his stomach from expellation of these compounds and that the thirst was a symptom of poisoning. .Their hypothesis was that the calomel given to Napoleon became an overdose, which killed him and left behind extensive tissue damage.^ His return involved the continuance of the most honorable devotion to those soldiers whom he necessarily left behind him.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon was standing near Josephine, with his hands clasped behind him, engaged in conversation with his wife and her lovely daughter.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ When the guide returned, and presented the note, he found, to his unbounded surprise and delight, that he had conducted Napoleon over the mountains; and that Napoleon had given him a field and a house.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[136] .A 2007 article stated that the type of arsenic found in Napoleon's hair shafts was mineral type, the most toxic, and according to toxicologist Dr Patrick Kintz, this supported the conclusion that his death was murder.^ The articles at the next links explain a bit about most of the Watch Tower money going into the United States Investment Co.
  • GTJ Brooklyn 1a 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC gtw6437.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then, after stating that he observed congestion of the membranes of the brain, and at the base of the brain extravasation of blood, and that he “found the cause of death in the head,” Mr. Turner continued: .
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[137]
The wallpaper used in Longwood contained a high level of arsenic compound used for colouring by British manufacturers. The adhesive, which in the cooler British environment was innocuous, may have grown mold in the more humid climate and emitted the poisonous gas arsine. .This theory has been ruled out as it does not explain the arsenic absorption patterns found in other analyses.^ Perfy then found out that the boy was none other than Alexander the Great.

^ Who discovered the theory of relativity.However he didn't bring it into the world whitch Perfy must have found out.

[136] .A 2004 group of researchers claimed treatments imposed on the emperor accidentally caused death by Torsades de pointes—a condition in which the heart ceases to function properly.^ The question in law was not whether she had premeditated their death: it was enough in law and justice that she had carried diabolical cruelty to the point which caused it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1740, after the sudden death of Emperor Karl VI, both her sons-in-law decided to claim the Imperial office.

^ On her death in 1679 she was buried with great splendour by her brother Conde, and her heart, as she had directed, was sent to the nuns of the Port Royal des Champs.

[138]
There have been modern studies which have supported the original autopsy finding.[137] .Researchers, in a 2008 study, analysed samples of Napoleon's hair from throughout his life, and from his family and other contemporaries.^ Corsica : picturesque, historical, and social ; with a sketch of the early life of Napoleon, and an account of the Bonaparte, Paoli, Pozzo di Borgo, and other principal families ; suggested by a tour in the island in 1852 / translated from the German of F .

^ Memoirs of Constant : first valet de chambre of the emperor, on the private life of Napoleon, his family and his court / tr.

^ The conspirators were perfectly reckless of the lives of others, if they could only destroy the life of Napoleon.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.All samples had high levels of arsenic, approximately 100 times higher than the current average.^ This was the first time that all parties were brought together at once rather than two or three at a time.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Probably in all France, there was not, at that time, a more unhappy woman than Josephine.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ But they obtain, on the average, a higher remuneration for their labour than they could obtain if they had no such chances to sell.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.According to these researchers, Napoleon's body was already heavily contaminated with arsenic as a boy, and the high arsenic concentration in his hair was not due to intentional poisoning; people were constantly exposed to arsenic from glues and dyes, throughout their lives.^ Other people are but occasionally and rarely liable to ill-treatment; but these are exposed to it at every hour and every moment of their lives.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Arsenic contents of Napoleon I's hair probably taken immediately after his death."
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These national upheavals were accompanied by a heightened sense of nationalism amongst the population of many states, which had been encouraged by Enlightenment ideas, spread throughout Europe by the Napoleonic conquests.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[note .11] A 2007 study found no evidence of arsenic poisoning in the relevant organs and stated that stomach cancer was the cause of death.^ I found the cause of death in the head.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon Bonaparte's death was by stomach cancer.

^ When the m-state materials (found to be naturally occurring) in wine and the M-sate materials (found to be naturally occurring) in ocean water are combined in the stomach (as a PPT condensate), will they all have an effect on one another?
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[140]

Marriages and children

Woman with brown hair, in a white dress and tiara, sitting on a plush orange sofa
Napoleon's first wife, Joséphine, Empress of the French, painted by François Gérard, 1801
.Napoleon married Joséphine de Beauharnais in 1796, when he was twenty-six; she was a thirty-two-year-old widow whose first husband had been executed during the Revolution.^ Napoleon and Paris, thirty years of history.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Franklin Subject Browse Demo 9 February 2010 15:30 UTC devplw.library.upenn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Napoleon was then but thirty-three years of age.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon's viceroy, Eugne de Beauharnais.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Until she met Bonaparte, she had been known as 'Rose', a name which he disliked. He called her 'Joséphine' instead, and she went by this name henceforth. .Bonaparte often sent her love letters while on his campaigns.^ The Austrian Empire defeated Piedmont-Sardinia's campaign, and Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte sent troops to Rome to protect the Pope.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pauline Bonaparte and her lovers as revealed by contemporary witnesses, by her own love-letters, and by the anti-Napoleonic pamphleteers.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[141] .He formally adopted her son Eugène and cousin Stéphanie, and arranged dynastic marriages for them.^ A.D. -Khazars ally with Alans who adopt Judaism, and arrange a dynastic mar riage .
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Married to a second cousin and the mother of 4 daughters and an adopted son.

.Joséphine had her daughter Hortense marry Napoleon's brother, Louis.^ Hortense, who subsequently became the wife of Louis Bonaparte, and the mother of Louis Napoleon, who, at the moment of this present writing, is at the head of the government of France, was then seventeen years of age.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Josephine, however, had conceived the idea of marrying Hortense to Louis Bonaparte, Napoleon's younger brother.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Josephine cherished the hope that could she succeed in uniting Hortense with Louis Bonaparte, should Hortense give birth to a son, Napoleon would regard him as his heir.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[142]
.Joséphine had lovers, including a Hussar lieutenant, Hippolyte Charles, during Napoleon's Italian campaign.^ Italy, during the Consulate and Empire of Napoleon Buonaparte / translated from the Italian of Carlo Botta, by the author of "The life of Joanna, queen of Naples."

^ During this campaign there was presented a very interesting illustration of Napoleon's wonderful power of anticipating the progress of coming events.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Josephine had purchased the peaceful, rural retreat at Napoleon's request during his first Italian campaign.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[143] .Napoleon learnt the full extent of her affair with Charles while in Egypt, and a letter he wrote to his brother Joseph regarding the subject was intercepted by the British.^ Confidential correspondence of Napoleon Bonaparte with his brother Joseph ...

^ Confidential correspondence of Napoleon Bonaparte with his brother Joseph, sometime King of Spain : selected and translated, with explanatory notes, from the Memoires du Roi Joseph.

^ Napoleon's letters to Marie Louise / with a foreword and commentary by Charles de La Ronciere.

.The letter appeared in the London and Paris presses, much to Napoleon's embarrassment.^ Secret memoirs of the court of St. Cloud : in a series of letters / from a gentleman at Paris to a nobleman in London.

^ Letters from Paris, written during the period of the late accession and abdication of Napoleon [electronic resource] / by a Representative in the Congress of the United States.

^ Letters from Paris, written during the period of the late accession and abdication of Napoleon [microform] / by a Representative in the Congress of the United States.

.Napoleon had his own affairs too: during the Egyptian campaign he took Pauline Bellisle Foures, the wife of a junior officer, as his mistress.^ The ordeal of Captain Roeder, from the diary of an officer in the First Battalion of Hessian Lifeguards during the Moscow campaign of 1812-13.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this campaign there was presented a very interesting illustration of Napoleon's wonderful power of anticipating the progress of coming events.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Josephine had purchased the peaceful, rural retreat at Napoleon's request during his first Italian campaign.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.She became known as Cleopatra after the Ancient Egyptian ruler.^ During the unrest she became known as "Mother of the Egyptians" (Umm al-Misriyyin).

^ She was one of the Sikh female rulers, who became well known for their administrative acumen, grasp of political situations, and dexterity in handling arms and organizing defence.

[144][note 12]
.While Napoleon's mistresses had children by him, Joséphine did not produce an heir, possibly because of either the stresses of her imprisonment during the Terror or an abortion she may have had in her twenties.^ Because of the upheavels during the Thirty Years War she had to leave Zerbst and seek refuge with her children in Wittenberg until she moved to Oldenburg with her children in 1633 and lived by her brother, Anton Gnther, and they did not move back until Zerbst until 1642.

^ This attempt at reconciliation failed, largely because Menelik recognized that he needed an heir, and that Bafena was too old to produce more offspring.

^ Josephine cherished the hope that could she succeed in uniting Hortense with Louis Bonaparte, should Hortense give birth to a son, Napoleon would regard him as his heir.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[146] .Napoleon ultimately chose divorce so he could remarry in search of an heir.^ She could not be blind to the apparent importance, as a matter of state policy that Napoleon should possess an heir.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Josephine cherished the hope that could she succeed in uniting Hortense with Louis Bonaparte, should Hortense give birth to a son, Napoleon would regard him as his heir.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.In March 1810, he married by proxy Marie Louise, Archduchess of Austria, and a great niece of Marie Antoinette; thus he had married into a German royal and imperial family.^ She was born Marie Louise Leopoldine Franziska Theresia Josepha Lucia, Princess Imperial and Archduchess of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary and Bohemia as the daughter of Emperor Franz I of Austria and his second wife, Maria Theresa of the Two Sicilies, and lived (1791-1847).

^ Head of the Royal Family Princess Gowramma of Coorg (India) Her father Maharajah Virarakendra Wodeyar was deposed and sent into exile by the British in 1834.

^ Cuthell, Edith E., Mrs. An imperial victim: Marie Louise, archduchess of Austria, empress of the French, duchess of Parma.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They remained married until his death, though she did not join him in exile on Elba and thereafter never saw her husband again.^ After her death, her husband married Antionia of Lorraine (d.

^ She went in exile in Switzerland followed by the Duke until they both returned in 1710 after she had been married to the Landhofmeister Graf von Wrben.

^ She did not abdicate the regency until her son was 23, even though decrees, laws and coins were issued in his name from the time he turned 18, but he seems to have been happy with the arrangement and even after she took over the government in her dowry, she remained influential in the Landgravate.

.The couple had one child, Napoleon Francis Joseph Charles (1811–1832), known from birth as the King of Rome.^ King Charles Albert of Piedmont-Sardinia led a military campaign against Austria, while Garibaldi attempted to organize a republic in Rome.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1806 Naples was captured by Napoleon, and he installed his brother, Joseph, as King.

^ Napoleon II (of France) (François Joseph Charles Napoléon Bonaparte, duc de Reichstadt) (1811-32; GDU ).
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.He became Napoleon II in 1814 and reigned for only two weeks.^ Private memoirs of the court of Napoleon and of some publick events of the imperial reign, from 1805 to the first of May 1814, to serve as a contribution to the history of Napoleon.

^ The last of those, Otumfuo Nana Osei Agyeman Prempeh II, began his reign in 1931, became Asantehene in 1935, and ruled until 1970.

^ Memorandum of two conversations between Emperor Napoleon and Viscount Ebrington, at Porto Ferrajo, on the 6th and 8th of December, 1814.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was awarded the title of the Duke of Reichstadt in 1818 and died of tuberculosis aged 21, with no children.^ In 1818 she married Carl Rudolf Graf von der Schulenburg, but had no children and was succeeded by sister, Pauline.

^ They had no children and when her husband died in 1861, Wilhelm became king.

^ She had no children of her own but became the foster-mother Abdlhamid II (1876-1909) whose mother had died of tubercolosis when he was a child.

[147]
Woman in a white satin dress and tiara sitting on a plush rougey sofa, looking down at a baby lying on the sofa with its eyes closed
Empress Marie-Louise and the King of Rome, by Joseph Franque, 1812. Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma with Napoleon II
Napoleon acknowledged two illegitimate children:
He may have had further unacknowledged illegitimate offspring as well:
.

Image

Cartoon of a tall man and a short man sitting at either side of a table carving up a large pinkish globe with their swords.
In The Plumb-pudding in danger (1805), James Gillray caricatured a diminutive Napoleon
.Napoleon has become a worldwide cultural icon who symbolises military genius and political power.^ The first Napoleon; a sketch, political and military.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were many large landowners and professional military pushed from power by Chinese landowners who took power.
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^ She managed to have Cardinal Wolsey, who opposed their marriage, removed from power in 1529, and she became the most powerful person at Court where she had a great say over appointments and political matters.

.Since his death, many towns, streets, ships, and even cartoon characters have been named after him.^ She acted as regent during his absence from the state and after his death, she reigned in the name of her son, Frdric-Maurice (1605-52) and continued to act as temporary regent for him after he came of age.

^ In wealth and in family, he ranked among the first class of Athenians: in political character, Aristotle placed him, together with Thucydides son of Melesias and Theramenes, above all other names in Athenian history—seemingly even above Perikles.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Her sister was another of Pedro's many mistresses, she was named Baroness of Sorocaba and had a child with him.

He has been portrayed in hundreds of films and discussed in hundreds of thousands of books and articles.[151]
.During the Napoleonic Wars he was taken seriously by the British press as a dangerous tyrant, poised to invade.^ Then she met the warmen of world war 1 , man they are serious!She left quite soon there because she would have got hurt , and that would of not been good.Napoleon was the best!

^ British Type 42 destroyer HMS Sheffield (D80) is hit by an Argentinian Exocet missile during the Falklands War.

^ American Revolutionary War : Charleston, South Carolina is taken by British forces.

.A nursery rhyme warned children that Bonaparte ravenously ate naughty people; the 'bogeyman'.[152] The British Tory press sometimes depicted Napoleon as much smaller than average height and this image persists.^ After much deliberation, it was resolved, by an immense majority, that the following preposition should be submitted to the people: "Shall Napoleon Bonaparte be the First Consul for life?
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^ Napoleon Bonaparte was a man with a height that was average which amazed Perfy of the stories that said Napoleon was short but really good at dominating and that reminded Perfy of him self although he was 2 feet taller.

^ How much greater intelligence and consistency has been indicated by what might be called the British public—the real English people—upon the corn question, than by those .
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Confusion about his height also results from the difference between the French pouce and British inch—2.71 and 2.54 cm respectively; he was about 1.7 metres (5 ft 7 in) tall, average height for the period.^ The Entente Cordiale between France and the United Kingdom gave the British a free hand in Egypt in exchange for a French free hand in Morocco.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She had the misfortune to be caught up in the endgame of the maneuvering that had been going on between the British and French since the beginning of the century.

^ He was taking a test about how a vet could tell the difference between an undead and live organism.
  • Bruce Napoleon, Vampire Veterinarian 9 February 2010 15:30 UTC vampvet.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

[note 13][154]
In 1908 psychologist Alfred Adler cited Napoleon to describe an inferiority complex in which short people adopt an overaggressive behavior to compensate for lack of height; this inspired the term Napoleon complex.[155] The stock character of Napoleon is a comically short "petty tyrant" and this has become a cliché in popular culture. .He is often portrayed wearing a comically large bicorne and a hand-in-waistcoat gesture—a reference to the 1812 painting by Jacques-Louis David.^ DAVID, Jacques Louis (1748-1825) NAPOLEON LE GRAND [1812] P Stipple engraving.
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^ DAVID, Jacques Louis (1748-1825) [MADAME RECAMIER] f Line engraving.
  • Full text of "Catalog of the Gardiner Greene Hubbard Collection of engravings" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ GARNERAY, Jean Francois (1755-1837) (After DAVID, Jacques Louis) (1748-1825) JEAN SILVAIN BAILLY. p Colored aquatint.
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[156]

Legacy

Warfare

.
Photo of a grey and phosphorous-coloured equestrian statue.</span><span class=^ Gibbs, Montgomery B. Military career of Napoleon the great; an account of the remarkable campaigns of the "man of destiny."
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The military and political life, character, and anecdotes of Napoleon Bonaparte, from his origin to his death on the rock of St. Helena.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Napoleon: his army and his generals: their unexampled military career: with a sketch of the French revolution.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Napoleon is seated on the horse, which is rearing up, he looks forward with his right hand raised and pointing forward; his left hand holds the reins."^ Seated, holding money in right hand, scepter in left.
  • Full text of "Catalog of the Gardiner Greene Hubbard Collection of engravings" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Seated, holding a sword with right land and pointing to it with left.
  • Full text of "Catalog of the Gardiner Greene Hubbard Collection of engravings" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Seated, holding sword with right hand, dagger with left.
  • Full text of "Catalog of the Gardiner Greene Hubbard Collection of engravings" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/02/8/0/0/6176223042760987.jpg" width="170" height="227" class="thumbimage" />
Statue in Cherbourg-Octeville unveiled by Napoleon III in 1858. Napoleon I strengthened the town's defences to prevent British naval incursions.
.In the field of military organisation, Napoleon borrowed from previous theorists such as Jacques Antoine Hippolyte, Comte de Guibert, and from the reforms of preceding French governments, and then developed much of what was already in place.^ Actor 1959 - Charles de Gaulle forms French government 1961 - Melissa Etheridge was born.

^ Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) - Swiss-French philosopher and political theorist; "noble savage" idea that man is good by nature but corrupted by society.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Its industrialization was facilitated by a large skilled labor force, strong governments, and no need to develop new ideas as Britain had already set a precedent for other nations to follow.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

He continued the policy, which emerged from the Revolution, of promotion based primarily on merit.[157] .Corps replaced divisions as the largest army units, mobile artillery was integrated into reserve batteries, the staff system became more fluid and cavalry returned as an important formation in French military doctrine—these methods are now referred to as essential features of Napoleonic warfare.^ Napoleon declared himself French Emperor and became a military dictator.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result, Napoleon employed the Continental System, a method of economic warfare.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Peasants suffering from constant encroachment by marauders entered into arrangements with more powerful lords, giving them their land and their service (including military service) in return for protection.
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[157] .Though he consolidated the practice of modern conscription introduced by the Directory, one of the restored monarchy's first acts was to end it.^ Gloria ended up being one of the first people I told about my own transition in 1994.

^ Aug.22, 1984, p.28) 1985 "(Our) beliefs and practices are not new but are a restoration of first- century Christianity."
  • GTJ Brooklyn 1a 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC gtw6437.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Crimean War is considered one of the first "modern" wars and it introduced a number of "firsts" to warfare.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[158]
.Weapons and other kinds of military technology remained largely static through the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras, but 18th century operational mobility underwent significant change.^ The revolutionary and Napoleonic era, 1789-1815.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Europe: the revolutionary and Napoleonic eras.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Napoleon, warrior and ruler and the military supremacy of revolutionary France.
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[159] Napoleon's biggest influence was in the conduct of warfare. .Napoleon was regarded by the influential military theorist Carl von Clausewitz as a genius in the operational art of war and historians rank him as a great military commander.^ Napoleon was fully conscious of his military genius.
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^ The Italians, all inexperienced in self-government, regarding Napoleon as their benefactor and their sole supporter, looked to him for a constitution.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Scholars consistently rank him as one of the two or three worst American presidents; although he claimed secession was illegal, he claimed going to war to stop it was also illegal.
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[160] .Wellington, when asked who was the greatest general of the day, answered: "In this age, in past ages, in any age, Napoleon."^ At St. Helena Napoleon said, "Of all the general I ever had under my command Desaix and Kleber possessed the greatest talent.
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^ Hortense, who subsequently became the wife of Louis Bonaparte, and the mother of Louis Napoleon, who, at the moment of this present writing, is at the head of the government of France, was then seventeen years of age.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The earthquake claim was dropped, and the top age was increased for JWs of 1914 who could be around for Armageddon--"this generation..."
  • GTJ Brooklyn 1a 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC gtw6437.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

[161]
A new emphasis towards the destruction, not just outmanoeuvring, of enemy armies emerged. Invasions of enemy territory occurred over broader fronts which made wars costlier and more decisive. .The political impact of war increased significantly; defeat for a European power now meant more than the loss of isolated enclaves.^ Indeed I am more grieved than any of the honorable friends and colleagues of Mr. Pitt, at the growing greatness of France, which is daily extending her power in Europe and in America.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Major conflicts between powerful kingdoms, such as the Hundred Years' War between England and France, became more frequent, and the Christian church, previously secure in its spiritual authority, was racked by schisms and increasing financial corruption.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Popes and bishops were more political than ecclesiastical figures, provided with legal exemptions from taxes and criminal charges, and using graft and bribery to gain and exploit power.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Near-Carthaginian peaces intertwined whole national efforts, intensifying the Revolutionary phenomenon of total war.^ The invaders were driven from France, the hostile alliance broken, and the blessings of peace were now promised to the war-harassed nation.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The Guatemalan government and leaders of the leftist Guatemalan National Revolutionary Union signed a peace accord in Guatemala City, ending a civil war that had lasted 36 years.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

[162]

Metric system

.The official introduction of the metric system in September 1799 was unpopular in large sections of French society, and Napoleon's rule greatly aided adoption of the new standard across not only France but the French sphere of influence.^ By 1554, with French aid, Marie de Guise had replaced the ineffectual Arran as regent, and she made no secret of her desire to bring France and Scotland together.

^ Their lives were saved only through the intercession of the French minister Napoleon then performed one of the most gracious acts of courtesy toward the Pope.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Poland was reconstituted, albeit with large territorial changes and placement in the Soviet sphere of influence.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Napoleon ultimately took a retrograde step in 1812, as he passed legislation to return France to its traditional units of measurement, but these were decimalised and the foundations were laid for the definitive introduction of the metric system across Europe in the middle of the 19th century.^ Over the next 11 years, she moved across Europe with her daughter, her sister, and her daughter- and son-in-law, traveling from Antwerp through France, Italy, and Turkey.

^ Perfy took a picture with Charles and went to 1815 where he found Napoleon I of France being proclaimed the Emperor of France.

^ "Medicine and the natural sciences in France during the Napoleonic Era", "The Emperor's personal physicians", "Hygienic problems of the Napoleonic armies", Napoleon's maladies and death", Napoleon's medical legislation."
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[163]

Jewish emancipation

.Napoleon emancipated Jews from laws which restricted them to ghettos, and expanded their rights to property, worship, and careers.^ The most important of these is his Napoleonic Code, which provided freedom of religion, a uniform law code, social and legal equality, property rights, and ended feudal dues.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Despite the anti-semitic reaction to Napoleon's policies from foreign governments and within France, he believed emancipation would benefit France by attracting Jews to the country given the restrictions they faced elsewhere.^ The resulting "Thermidorian Reaction" was a response to France's swing to the left, during which the government briefly went to the right, and finally back to the center.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The revolutionaries in France established a new government in order to accomplish what they desired.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the abdication of Napoleon and the restoration of the monarchy under his cousin King Louis XVIII, Louis-Philippe returned to live in France, claiming sympathy with the citizens of the country.
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[164] .He stated that, "I will never accept any proposals that will obligate the Jewish people to leave France, because to me the Jews are the same as any other citizen in our country.^ The laws of most of the American states are on this point less unjust and irrational than those of England and of other countries of Europe.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A distinctive feature was the manner in which waves of revolutions could sweep through Europe, most notably in 1830 and 1848, when popular revolt in France influenced the people of other states to rebel against their rulers.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the rich are ennuyés it is not because they are “above the fear of want,” it is generally because they are not “above the fear” of other people’s opinions.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

It takes weakness to chase them out of the country, but it takes strength to assimilate them."[165] He was seen as so favourable to the Jews that the Russian Orthodox Church formally condemned him as "Antichrist and the Enemy of God".[166]

Napoleonic Code

Page of French writing
First page of the 1804 original edition of the Code Civil
.The Napoleonic code was adopted throughout much of Europe, though only in the lands he conquered, and remained in force after Napoleon's defeat.^ Catholic general Albert Wallenstein was hired to defeat Protestant forces and restore Catholic land lost.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ God,” King of the Huns and conqueror of much of Europe, in 447 reached the walls of Constantinople, where he forced Theodosius II to accept a tripling of the yearly tribute.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He also rewrote the old French feudal laws, which were confusing, creating a new Napoleonic Code of laws that were much clearer.

.Napoleon said: "My true glory is not to have won 40 battles...Waterloo will erase the memory of so many victories. ...^ Get out of my way” Napoleon said.

^ At St. Helena Napoleon said, "Of all the general I ever had under my command Desaix and Kleber possessed the greatest talent.
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^ "True," replied Napoleon, "it is always, the greater number which beats the less" "And yet," said Gohier, "with small armies you have frequently defeated large ones."
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

But...what will live forever, is my Civil Code."[167] .The Code still has importance today in a quarter of the world's jurisdictions including in Europe, the Americas and Africa.^ These explorations increased European knowledge of the wider world, particularly in relation to sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas .
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He introduced Spanish trade with the Americas which allowed for an exchange of cultures, diseases and trade goods, known as The Grand Exchange , whose consequences, good and bad, are still being experienced today.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[168] .Dieter Langewiesche described the code as a "revolutionary project" which spurred the development of bourgeois society in Germany by the extension of the right to own property and an acceleration towards the end of feudalism.^ They have the same right, in their own opinion, over their human as over their inanimate property.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The most important of these is his Napoleonic Code, which provided freedom of religion, a uniform law code, social and legal equality, property rights, and ended feudal dues.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He abolished slavery, liberalized the family code, child marriage was limited, women got right to choose their own husband, etc.

.Napoleon reorganised what had been the Holy Roman Empire, made up of more than a thousand entities, into a more streamlined forty-state Confederation of the Rhine; this provided the basis for the German Confederation and the unification of Germany in 1871.[169] The movement toward national unification in Italy was similarly precipitated by Napoleonic rule.^ The state is more important than the church .
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon eliminated the Holy Roman Empire, and in 1806 consolidated it into 40 states and named it the Confederation of the Rhine.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Holy Roman Empire 90 , 114 .
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[170] .These changes contributed to the development of nationalism and the Nation state.^ These changes in Europe resulted in more calls for autonomy in the colonies, and the influence of Woodrow Wilson's proposed "self-determination" of nations grew.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These national upheavals were accompanied by a heightened sense of nationalism amongst the population of many states, which had been encouraged by Enlightenment ideas, spread throughout Europe by the Napoleonic conquests.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[171]

Bonapartism

.In French political history, Bonapartism has two meanings.^ Former French Foreign Minister Roland Dumas is sentenced to six months in prison over the country's biggest political scandal in recent history.

.The term can refer to people who restored the French Empire under the House of Bonaparte including Napoleon's Corsican family and his nephew Louis.^ Bonaparte, and the French people under his consulate.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Napoleon dynasty; or The history of the Bonaparte family.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Napoleon, and the French people under his empire.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Napoleon left a Bonapartist dynasty which ruled France again; Louis became Napoleon III of France, Emperor of the Second French Empire and was the first President of France.^ Paul Kruger became its first president.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Napoleon III: the modern emperor.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second empire, Bonapartism, the prince, the president, the emperor.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a wider sense, Bonapartism refers to a broad centrist or center-right political movement that advocates the idea of a strong and centralized state, based on popular support.^ Classical liberalism - A political and economic philosophy, originally founded on the Enlightenment tradition that tries to circumscribe the limits of political power and to define and support individual rights.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this sense he curbed repression, and he advocated "Socialism with a Human Face" in what has become known as the " Prague Spring " - that is, more rights, more consumer goods, and more freedom.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These states functioned in a confederacy similar to that of the Iroquois, with decision making based on popular consensus.
  • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

[172]

Admirers and critics

Napoleon ended lawlessness and disorder in post-Revolutionary France.[173] He was, however, considered a tyrant and usurper by his opponents.[174] .His critics charge that he was not significantly troubled when faced with the prospect of war and death for thousands, turned his search for undisputed rule into a series of conflicts throughout Europe and ignored treaties and conventions alike.^ The civil war was concluded shortly after Marie's death by the Treaty of Edinburgh (1560), which ended the French domination of Scotland and opened the way for the establishment of the Protestant church.

^ C. Asian T"rks turned into holy war.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hence we have the Quest for the Holy Grail and The Search for the Lost Ark (Ark of the Covenant) and stories concerning a Philosophers  Stone (turning lead into gold).
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Napoleon institutionalised plunder of conquered territories: French museums contain art stolen by Napoleon's forces from across Europe.^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of the French, containing numerous anecdotes of his court and times.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, a high level of nationalism was at the time being experienced across Europe, particularly as a result of Napoleon's Empire.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Still, he attended the Paris Military Academy, and became a French lieutenant at age 16.By 1812, Napoleon had wiped out the last traces of the Holy Roman Empire and conquered most of Europe.

.Artefacts were brought to the Louvre for a grand central Museum; his example would later serve as inspiration for more notorious imitators.^ The first time she refused totally to go.Later she would be more indulgent.

[175] He was compared to Hitler most famously by the historian Pieter Geyl in 1947.[176] David G. Chandler, historian of Napoleonic warfare, wrote that "nothing could be more degrading to the former and more flattering to the latter."[177]
A painting, set at nighttime, of a firing squad, about to fire at a group of men. One of the men about to be shot has his hands outstretched in the air and is illuminated by a lamp making him the focal point of the painting
.
Goya's The Third of May 1808, painted in 1814, depicts the civilian executions that occurred following the Dos de Mayo Uprising.
^ In the May Revolution , armed citizens of Buenos Aires , Argentina expel the Viceroy during the Semana de Mayo.

^ Maio de 1962) in A Circulatura do Quadrado Alguns dos Mais Belos Sonetos de Poetas cuja Mátria é a Língua Portuguesa - Edições Unicepe 2004 .

^ Correspondance politique et administrative commencée au mois de mai 1814, et dédiée à M. le Comte de Blacas d’Aulps.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Five thousand defenders of Madrid were executed in two days.^ The Third of May 1808: The Execution of the Defenders of Madrid .
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[178]
.Napoleon's role in the Haitian Revolution and his decision to re-instate slavery in France's oversea colonies are highly controversial to his reputation.^ The British want to re-establish slavery and make them colonies.
  • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Journals and periodicals published in France and other countries during the revolution and Napoleonic period 1789 - 1815.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "France," said Napoleon, "must also have her colonies and her fleets."
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[179]
Critics argue Napoleon's true legacy must reflect the loss of status for France and needless deaths brought by his rule: historian Victor Davis Hanson writes, "After all, the military record is unquestioned—17 years of wars, perhaps six million Europeans dead, France bankrupt, her overseas colonies lost."[180] McLynn notes that, "He can be viewed as the man who set back European economic life for a generation by the dislocating impact of his wars.[174] .Vincent Cronin replies that such criticism relies on the flawed premise that Napoleon was responsible for the wars which bear his name, when in fact France was the victim of a series of coalitions which aimed to destroy the ideals of the Revolution.^ "I was not aware," another replied, "that you considered the French Revolution such an unmixed evil."
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Such a criticism, from Aristotle, deserves respectful attention, though the facts before us completely belie so lofty an estimate.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ First Coalition : Napoleon I of France wins a decisive victory against Austrian forces at Lodi bridge over the River Adda in Italy .

[181]
.Some occultists consider Napoleon one of the antichrists prophecized by Nostradamus.^ Napoleon had hardly descended the outer steps ere some one informed him that his brother Lucien was surrounded by the infuriated deputies, and that his life was in imminent jeopardy.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon one occasion he invited Napoleon, and all the inmates of Malmaison, to attend some private theatricals at his dwelling.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ "No one," said Napoleon, "can surrender himself to the dominion of love, without the forfeiture of some palms of glory."
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[182]
.International Napoleonic Congresses are held regularly and include participation by members of the French and American military, French politicians and scholars from different countries.^ War criminals were tried at Nuremburg, marking the first time that members of an army were held to international standards.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon was one of the greatest military commanders in history and also Napoleon decided on a military career when he was a child, winning a scholarship to a French military academy at age 14.

^ Napoleon: his army and his generals: their unexampled military career: with a sketch of the French revolution.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[183]

Titles

Emperor Napoleon I of France
Political offices
Preceded by
French Directory
Provisional Consul of France
11 November – 12 December 1799
Served alongside:
Roger Ducos and Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès
became Consul
New title
First Consul of France
12 December 1799 – 18 May 1804
Served alongside:
Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès (Second Consul)
Charles-François Lebrun, duc de Plaisance (Third Consul)
became Emperor
Regnal titles
Vacant
Title last held by
Louis XVI of France
as King of the French
Emperor of the French
18 May 1804 – 11 April 1814
Succeeded by
Louis XVIII of France
as King of France and Navarre
Vacant
Title last held by
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
as last crowned monarch, 1530
King of Italy
17 March 1805 – 11 April 1814
Vacant
Title next held by
Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy
Preceded by
Louis XVIII of France
as King of France and Navarre
Emperor of the French
20 March – 22 June 1815
Succeeded by
Louis XVIII of France
as King of France and Navarre
(Napoleon II
according to his will only)
New title
State created
Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine
12 July 1806 – 19 October 1813
Rhine Confederation dissolved
successive ruler:
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
as President of the German Confederation
Titles in pretence
New title — TITULAR —
Emperor of the French
11 April 1814 – 20 March 1815
Vacant
Title next held by
Napoleon II of France

Notes

  1. ^ He was called Nabolione in Corsican.[3]
  2. ^ At Brienne, Napoleon first met the champagne-maker Jean-Rémy Moët. They became friends, and Napoleon later frequently stayed at Moët's estate. Victorious French armies were known for their indulgence in sabrage: opening a champagne bottle with a saber.[11]
  3. ^ Aside from his name, there does not appear to a connection between him and Napoleon's theorem.[13]
  4. ^ He was mainly referred to as Bonaparte until he became First Consul for life.[16]
  5. ^ Some histories state he was imprisoned at the Fort Carré in Antibes but there does not appear to be evidence for this.[24]
  6. ^ This is depicted in Bonaparte Crossing the Alps by Hippolyte Delaroche and in Jacques-Louis David's imperial Napoleon Crossing the Alps, he is less realistically portrayed on a charger in the latter work.[60]
  7. ^ Claude Ribbe advances the thesis that the French used gas chambers.[65]
  8. ^ Napoleon gave the pope a tiara following the ceremony, now referred to as the Napoleon Tiara.
  9. ^ A custom in which householders place candles in street-facing windows to herald good news.[125]
  10. ^ It was customary to cast a death mask or mold of a leader. Four genuine death masks of Napoleon are known to exist: one in The Cabildo, a state museum located in New Orleans, one in a Liverpool museum, another in Havana and one in the library of the University of North Carolina.[132]
  11. ^ The body can tolerate large doses of arsenic if ingested regularly, and arsenic was a fashionable cure-all.[139]
  12. ^ One night, during an illicit liaison with the actress Marguerite George, Napoleon had a major fit. This and other more minor attacks have led historians to debate whether he had epilepsy and, if so, to what extent.[145]
  13. ^ Napoleon's height was 5 ft 2 French inches according to Antommarchi at Napoleon's autopsy and British sources put his height at 5 ft 7 British inches: both equivalent to 1.7 m.[153] Napoleon surrounded himself with tall bodyguards and had a nickname of le petit caporal which was an affectionate term that reflected his reported camaraderie with his soldiers rather than his height.

Citations

  1. ^ McLynn 1998, p.6
  2. ^ Bresler 1999, p.15–16
  3. ^ Asprey 2000, p.4
  4. ^ McLynn 1998, p.2
  5. ^ Cronin 1994, p.20–21
  6. ^ "Cathedral—Ajaccio". La Fondation Napoléon. http://www.napoleon.org/en/magazine/museums/files/Cathedral-Ajaccio.asp. Retrieved 2008-05-31. 
  7. ^ Cronin 1994, p.27
  8. ^ a b c Roberts 2001, p.xvi
  9. ^ McLynn 1998, p.18
  10. ^ a b Hibbert 1998, p.21–2
  11. ^ Kladstrup 2005, p.61–8
  12. ^ Asprey 2000, p.13
  13. ^ Wells 1992, p.74
  14. ^ McLynn 1998, p.23
  15. ^ McLynn 1998, p.26
  16. ^ a b McLynn 1998, p.290
  17. ^ McLynn 1998, p.37
  18. ^ McLynn 1998, p.55
  19. ^ McLynn 1998, p.61
  20. ^ a b c d e f Roberts 2001, p.xviii
  21. ^ Schom 1998, p.16
  22. ^ Schama 1989, p.688
  23. ^ McLynn 1998, p.103
  24. ^ Dwyer 2008, p.155
  25. ^ Schom 1998, p.25
  26. ^ McLynn 1998, p.92
  27. ^ Schom 1998, p.26
  28. ^ Dwyer 2008, p.164
  29. ^ McLynn 1998, p.93
  30. ^ a b McLynn 1998, p.96
  31. ^ Johnson 2002, p.27
  32. ^ McLynn 1998, p.102
  33. ^ McLynn 1998, p.129
  34. ^ Schama 1989, p.738
  35. ^ McLynn 1998, p.132
  36. ^ McLynn 1998, p.145
  37. ^ McLynn 1998, p.142
  38. ^ Harvey 2006, p.179
  39. ^ McLynn 1998, p.135
  40. ^ Hanley 2005, Chapter 3
  41. ^ Schom 1998, pp.69–70
  42. ^ Schom 1998, p.87
  43. ^ a b c Watson 2003, p.13-14
  44. ^ a b Amini 2000, p.12
  45. ^ Schom 1998, pp.72–73
  46. ^ a b Alder 2002
  47. ^ McLynn 1998, p.175
  48. ^ Smith 1998, p.140
  49. ^ a b c d e f g Roberts 2001, p.xx
  50. ^ Schom 1998, pp.139–144
  51. ^ Roberts 1995, p.147–160
  52. ^ McLynn 1998, p.189
  53. ^ McLynn 1998, p.193
  54. ^ Schom 1998, pp.176–179
  55. ^ a b c Connelly 2006, p.57
  56. ^ Schom 1998, pp.186–188
  57. ^ Schom 1998, p.194
  58. ^ McLynn 1998, p.215
  59. ^ McLynn 1998, p.224
  60. ^ Chandler 2002, p.51
  61. ^ a b McLynn 1998, p.235
  62. ^ Schom 1997, p.302
  63. ^ McLynn 1998, p.265
  64. ^ Jackson 2004, p.33
  65. ^ Ribbe 2007
  66. ^ Connelly 2006, p.70
  67. ^ Blaufarb 2007, p.101–2
  68. ^ Edwards 1999, p.55
  69. ^ McLynn 1998, 255
  70. ^ Bruce 1995, p.321–3
  71. ^ McLynn 1998, p.296
  72. ^ a b McLynn 1998, p.297
  73. ^ McLynn 1998, p.321
  74. ^ McLynn 1998, p.332
  75. ^ Goetz 2005, p.301
  76. ^ Schom 1997, p.414
  77. ^ McLynn 1998, p.350
  78. ^ Cronin 1994, p.344
  79. ^ a b Karsh 2001, p.11
  80. ^ Karsh 2001, p.12
  81. ^ McLynn 1998, p.356
  82. ^ McLynn 1998, p.370
  83. ^ McLynn 1998, p.426
  84. ^ McLynn 1998, p.497
  85. ^ Gates 2001, p.20
  86. ^ Chandler 1995, p.631
  87. ^ McLynn 1998, p.408
  88. ^ Harvey 2006, p.631
  89. ^ Gates 2001, p.177
  90. ^ Gates 2001, p.467
  91. ^ Napoleon Bonaparte, Memorial de Sainte-Helene, Vol 1 (Paris: Garnier fretes, 1961 (1823), pp. 609–610
  92. ^ Castle 1994, p.90
  93. ^ McLynn 1998, p.422
  94. ^ McLynn 1998, p.470
  95. ^ McLynn 1998, p.433–5
  96. ^ McLynn 1998, p.472
  97. ^ McLynn 1998, p.378
  98. ^ Riehn 1991, p.24
  99. ^ Riehn 1991, p.81
  100. ^ McLynn 1998, p.504—505
  101. ^ Harvey 2006, p.773
  102. ^ McLynn 1998, p.518
  103. ^ Markham 1988, p.194
  104. ^ McLynn 1998, p.522
  105. ^ Markham 1988, p.190 and 199
  106. ^ McLynn 1998, p.541
  107. ^ McLynn 1998, p.549
  108. ^ McLynn 1998, p.565
  109. ^ Chandler 1995, p.1020
  110. ^ Fremont-Barnes 2004, p.14
  111. ^ McLynn 1998, p.585
  112. ^ Gates 2003, p.259
  113. ^ "Napoleon's act of abdication". Bulletin des lois de la Republique Francaise. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k4861135.pleinepage.f57.langFR. Retrieved 2009-08-28. 
  114. ^ Schom 1998, p.702
  115. ^ McLynn 1998, p.597
  116. ^ McLynn 1998, p.604
  117. ^ McLynn 1998, p.605
  118. ^ Hibbert 1998, p.403
  119. ^ Chesney 2006, p.35
  120. ^ Cordingly 2004, p.254
  121. ^ Balcombe 1845
  122. ^ Thomson 1969, p.77–9
  123. ^ Schom 1997, p.769–770
  124. ^ a b McLynn 1998, p.642
  125. ^ Woodward 2005, p.51–9
  126. ^ McLynn 1998, p.644
  127. ^ Macaulay 1986, p.141
  128. ^ Wilkins 1972
  129. ^ McLynn 1998, p.651
  130. ^ a b c d e McLynn 1998, p.655
  131. ^ Wilson 1975, p.293–5
  132. ^ Fulghum 2007
  133. ^ Driskel 1993, p.168
  134. ^ McLynn 1998, p.656
  135. ^ Johnson 2002, p.180–1
  136. ^ a b c Cullen 2008, p.146–48
  137. ^ a b Cullen 2008, p.156
  138. ^ Mari 2004
  139. ^ Cullen 2008, p.50
  140. ^ Cullen 2008, p.161
  141. ^ McLynn 1998, p.117
  142. ^ McLynn 1998, p.271
  143. ^ McLynn 1998, p.118
  144. ^ McLynn 1998, p.188
  145. ^ McLynn 1998, p.284
  146. ^ McLynn 1998, p.100
  147. ^ McLynn 1998, p.663
  148. ^ a b McLynn 1998, p.630
  149. ^ McLynn 1998, p.423
  150. ^ Lowndes 1943
  151. ^ "Napoleon Bonaparte (Character)". IMDB. http://www.imdb.com/character/ch0027456/. Retrieved 2008-10-12.  and Bell 2007, p.13
  152. ^ Roberts 2004, p.93
  153. ^ Dunan 1963
  154. ^ "Sarkozy height row grips France". BBC. 8 September 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8243486.stm. Retrieved 2009-09-13. 
  155. ^ Hall 2006, p.181
  156. ^ Bordes 2007, p.118
  157. ^ a b Archer 2002, p.397
  158. ^ Flynn 2001, p.16
  159. ^ Archer 2002, p.383
  160. ^ Archer 2002, p.380
  161. ^ Roberts 2001, p.272
  162. ^ Archer 2002, p.404
  163. ^ O'Connor 2003
  164. ^ McLynn 1998, p.436
  165. ^ Schwarzfuchs 1979, p.50
  166. ^ Cronin 1994, p.315
  167. ^ Wanniski 1998, p.184
  168. ^ Wood 2007, p.55
  169. ^ Scheck 2008, Chapter: The Road to National Unification
  170. ^ Astarita 2005, p.264
  171. ^ Alter 2006, p.61–76
  172. ^ Outhwaite 2003 p.50
  173. ^ Abbott 2005,p.3
  174. ^ a b McLynn 1998, p.666
  175. ^ Poulos 2000
  176. ^ Geyl 1947
  177. ^ Chandler, p. xliii
  178. ^ Bertman 2002
  179. ^ Furore over Austerlitz ceremony, BBC News, Friday, 2 December 2005.
  180. ^ Hanson 2003
  181. ^ Cronin 1994, pp.342–3
  182. ^ "Napoleon prophesied". Napoleon Series. http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/miscellaneous/c_prophesy.html. Retrieved 2009-11-01. 
  183. ^ "Call for Papers: International Napoleonic Society, Fourth International Napoleonic Congress". La Fondation Napoléon. http://www.napoleon.org/en/magazine/presse_review/files/dinard_callforpapers.asp. Retrieved 2008-06-27. 

References

  • Abbott, John (2005). .Life of Napoleon Bonaparte.^ Jerome Bonaparte: the burlesque Napoleon: being the story of the life and the kingship of the youngest brother of Napoleon the Great.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of the French, containing numerous anecdotes of his court and times.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1417970634.
     
  • Alder, Ken (2002). .The Measure of All Things—The Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World.^ This was the kind of thing the young ones wanted, but it took years before you could do it on demand, and the ones who were sired early just didn't have the basis for it at all.
    • Bruce Napoleon, Vampire Veterinarian 9 February 2010 15:30 UTC vampvet.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "I have seen a man," said Bernadotte, "of twenty-six or seven years of age, who assumes the air of one of fifty; and he presages any thing but good to the Republic."
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    Free Press. ISBN 074321675X.
     
  • Alter, Peter (2006). Tim Blanning and Hagen Schulze. ed. Unity and Diversity in European Culture c. 1800. .Oxford University Press.^ London, Oxford University Press, 1947.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York, Oxford University Press, 1952.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The armies of the first French Republic and the rise of the marshals of Napoleon I. London, Oxford university press, 1926, 3v.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0197263828.
     
  • Amini, Iradj (2000). Napoleon and Persia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0934211582. http://books.google.com/books?id=n5IOAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA12. 
  • Archer, Christon I.; John R. Ferris, Holger H. Herwig (2002). World History of Warfare. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0803244231. 
  • Asprey, Robert (2000). .The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte.^ Napoleon Bonaparte and the Rise of Nationalism .
    • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    Basic Books. ISBN 0465048811.
     
  • Astarita, Tommaso (2005). Between Salt Water And Holy Water: A History Of Southern Italy. W. W. Norton & Company. .ISBN 0393058646. 
  • Balcombe Abell, Lucia Elizabeth (1845).^ Abell, Mrs. Elizabeth Lucia Balcombe.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Recollections of the Emperor Napoleon.^ Recollections of the Emperor Napoleon during the first three years of his captivity on the island of St. Helena, including the time of his residence at her father's house, "The Briars."
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It said "Recollections of the Emperor Napoleon".

    J. Murray. OCLC 9123757. 
  • Bell, David (2007). The First Total War. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 0618349650. .http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Pw5jup_LyHAC&pg=PA212&dq=%22total+war%22+napoleon&lr=&as_brr=3&client=firefox-a#PPA13,M1. 
  • Bertman, Sandra (2002).^ Eschatology_of_Jehovah%27s_Witnesses#_note-16 http://www.quotes-watchtower.co.uk/pyramid.html John Greaves went to Giza, Egypt, in 1638.
    • GTJ Brooklyn 1a 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC gtw6437.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

    ."Execution of the Defenders of Madrid, 3rd May 1808".^ Perhaps his most famous work was The Third of May 1808: The Execution of the Defenders of Madrid , which portrays the Napoleonic Wars in Spain, with a faceless French firing squad murdering members of the Spanish resistance.
    • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Third of May 1808: The Execution of the Defenders of Madrid .
    • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    .New York University.^ New York University defeated Notre Dame 25-18.
    • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The ball was yellow and was used between Columbia and Fordham Universities in New York City.
    • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

    http://litmed.med.nyu.edu/Annotation?action=view&annid=10375
    . Retrieved 2008-11-18. 
  • Blaufarb, Rafe (2007). .Napoleon: Symbol for an Age, A Brief History with Documents.^ History of the captivity of Napoleon at St. Helena; from the letters and journals of the late Lieut.-Gen Sir Hudson Lowe, and official documents not before made public.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Napoleon was one of the greatest military commanders in history and also Napoleon decided on a military career when he was a child, winning a scholarship to a French military academy at age 14.

    ^ The age of Napoleon: a history of European civilization from 1789 to 1815.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Bedford. ISBN 0312431104.
     
  • Bordes, Philippe (2007). .Jacques-Louis David.^ DAVID, Jacques Louis (1748-1825) NAPOLEON LE GRAND [1812] P Stipple engraving.
    • Full text of "Catalog of the Gardiner Greene Hubbard Collection of engravings" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ NORTHCOTE, JAMES, after GIUSEPPE CERACCHI. C o o N i E T, LEON DAVID, JACQUES Louis ....
    • Full text of "Catalog of the Gardiner Greene Hubbard Collection of engravings" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ DAVID, Jacques Louis (1748-1825) [MADAME RECAMIER] f Line engraving.
    • Full text of "Catalog of the Gardiner Greene Hubbard Collection of engravings" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

    Yale University Press. ISBN 0300123469.
     
  • Bresler, Fenton (1999). Napoleon III: A Life. London: Harper Collins. ISBN 0002557878. 
  • Bruce, Evangeline (1995). .Napoleon & Josephine, An Improbable Marriage.^ Napoleon and Josephine; the biography of a marriage.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Scribners. ISBN 0806522615.
     
  • Castle, Ian (1994). Aspern & Wagram 1809: Mighty Clash Of Empires. Osprey. ISBN 1855323664. 
  • Chandler, David (1995). The Campaigns of Napoleon. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0025236601. 
  • Chandler, David (2002). Napoleon. Leo Cooper. ISBN 0850527503. 
  • Cherfils, Christian (1914). .Bonaparte et l'Islam d'après les documents français & arabes.^ De l’agriculture en France, d’après les documents officiels, avec des remarques par M. Rubichon.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    Pedone. OCLC 253080866.
     
  • Chesney, Charles (2006). .Waterloo Lectures:A Study Of The Campaign Of 1815.^ Quatre Bras Ligny and Waterloo: a narrative of the campaign of Belgium 1815.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A guide to the study of military history exemplified by studies of the campaigns of Austerlitz, Jena, Vimiero, Corunna, Salamanca, Waterloo, and the Shenandoah Valley.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Waterloo lectures: a study of the campaign of 1815.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1428649883.
     
  • Connelly, Owen (2006). .Blundering to Glory: Napoleon's Military Campaigns.^ The campaigns of Napoleon Buonaparte, embracing the events of his unexampled military career, from the siege of Toulon, to the battle of Waterloo.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Napoleon's campaign in Poland 1806-7: a military history of Napoleon's first war with Russia.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Gibbs, Montgomery B. Military career of Napoleon the great; an account of the remarkable campaigns of the "man of destiny."
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0742553183.
     
  • Cordingly, David (2004). The Billy Ruffian: The Bellerophon and the Downfall of Napoleon. Bloomsbury. ISBN 158234468X. 
  • Cronin, Vincent (1994). Napoleon. HarperCollins. ISBN 0006375219. 
  • Cullen, William (2008). Is Arsenic an Aphrodisiac?. Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 0854043632. 
  • Driskel, Paul (1993). As Befits a Legend. .Kent State University Press.^ Trinidadian cricketer 1970 - The Ohio National Guard arrives at Kent State University in response to arson on an ROC building.

    ^ Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1950.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Students at Kent State University riot in downtown Kent, OH, in protest of the American invasion of Cambodia.
    • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

    ISBN 0873384849.
     
  • Dunan, Marcel (1963). "Napoleon's height" (in French). La Fondation Napoléon. .http://www.napoleon.org/fr/salle_lecture/articles/files/Taillenapo_RIN_89_oct1963_2006.asp.^ John Britten, Sheridan and Kotzebue, 6-7 http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/hernando-cortes.htm .
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Vincent Harding, There is a River, 12-13 http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ad45 .
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ H.H. Bancroft, Collected works in 1492: Discovery/Invasion/Encounter, 72 http://www.1st-hand-history.org/Hhb/HHBindex.htm .
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Retrieved 2009-01-11.
     
  • Dwyer, Philip (2008).^ Dragonlady 01-11-2009, 07:36 PM Oh my, I remember watching Seahunt.
    • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Posted by danaeb on November 11, 2009 at 03:01 PM GMT+00:00 # .

    ^ BERT 01-11-2009, 05:58 PM Jan.
    • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

    Napoleon:The Path to Power 1769–1799. Bloomsbury. ISBN 9780747566779. 
  • Edwards, Catharine (1999). Roman Presences. .Cambridge University Press.^ London: Heinemann; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1950, 2-307.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ London: Heinemann; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1946.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Cambridge, University Press, 1929.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 052159197X.
     
  • Flynn, George Q. (2001). .Conscription and democracy: The Draft in France, Great Britain, and the United States.^ On February 4, 1915, Germany declared a submarine blockade of Great Britain, stating that any ship approaching England was a legitimate target.
    • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Temporary Counsellor of State HRH The Princess Royal, Princess Anne of United Kingdom and Great Britain and Northern Ireland Acted as ruling Counsellor about once a year until her nephew, Prince William of Wales, turned 21.

    ^ In addition, France and Britain owed war debts to the United States, and in order to pay them demanded reparation from Germany.
    • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 031331912X.
     
  • Fremont-Barnes, Gregory; Todd Fisher (2004). .The Napoleonic Wars: The Rise and Fall of an Empire.^ Napoleon and Marie Louise; the fall of the empire.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Napoleon and Josephine, the rise of the empire.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Napoleonic empire in southern Italy and the rise of the secret societies.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Osprey. ISBN 1841768316.
     
  • Fulghum, Neil (2007). ."Death Mask of Napoleon".^ The story of Napoleon's death-mask: told from the original documents.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    University of North Carolina. .http://www.lib.unc.edu/ncc/gallery/napo.html.^ Eschatology_of_Jehovah%27s_Witnesses#_note-16 http://www.quotes-watchtower.co.uk/pyramid.html John Greaves went to Giza, Egypt, in 1638.
    • GTJ Brooklyn 1a 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC gtw6437.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Pastoral_Bible_Institute http://www.pastor-russell.com/misc/bio.html 1877 The Gospel era will be closed and the saints will be raptured to heaven in 1878.
    • GTJ Brooklyn 1a 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC gtw6437.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "The Watchtower," Feb.15, 1969, p.113) http://www.escapefromwatchtower.com/chubby.html "The Twist" (Hank Ballard), 1960, by Chubby Checker.
    • GTJ Brooklyn 1a 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC gtw6437.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

    Retrieved 2008-08-04
    .
     
  • Gates, David (2001). The Spanish Ulcer: A History of the Peninsular War. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0306810832. 
  • Gates, David (2003). The Napoleonic Wars, 1803–1815. Pimlico. ISBN 0712607196. 
  • Geyl, Pieter (1982) [1947]. Napoleon For and Against. Penguin Books. ISBN 0452000572. 
  • Goetz, Robert (2005). 1805: Austerlitz: Napoleon and the Destruction of the Third Coalition. Greenhill Books. ISBN 1853676446. 
  • Hall, Stephen (2006). Size Matters. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 0618470409. http://books.google.com/books?id=FUaIGHxCIEwC&pg=PA181&dq=napoleon+height#PPA181,M1. 
  • Hanley, Wayne (2005). The Genesis of Napoleonic Propaganda, 1796–1799. .Columbia University Press.^ New York, Columbia University Press, 1955.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York, Columbia University Press, 1952.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York, Columbia University Press, 1941.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0231124562.
     
  • Hanson, Victor Davis (2003). "The Claremont Institute: The Little Tyrant, A review of Napoleon: A Penguin Life". The Claremont Institute. .http://www.claremont.org/publications/crb/id.1038/article_detail.asp.^ John Britten, Sheridan and Kotzebue, 6-7 http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/hernando-cortes.htm .
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ America-Before-Columbus&id=1730020 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_history_of_American_indigenous_p...
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Vincent Harding, There is a River, 12-13 http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ad45 .
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Retrieved 2008-05-30.
     
  • Harvey, Robert (2006).^ BERT 12-30-2008, 05:43 PM Dec.
    • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

    The War of Wars. Robinson. ISBN 9781845296353. 
  • Hibbert, Christopher (1998). .Waterloo: Napoleon's last campaign.^ Napoleon's last campaign in Germany 1813.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Waterloo: Napoleon's last campaign.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Notes and reminiscences of a staff officer, chiefly relating to the Waterloo campaign and to St. Helena matters during the captivity of Napoleon.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Wordsworth Editions. ISBN 1853266876.
     
  • Jackson, John (2004). Race, Racism, and Science. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1851094482. 
  • Johnson, P. (2002). Napoleon: A life. Penguin Books. ISBN 0670030783. 
  • Karsh, Inari (2001). .Empires of the Sand: The Struggle for Mastery in the Middle East, 1789–1923.^ A.D. -Kazakh Empire divides into three hordes: Great Horde (east), Middle Horde (center), and Lesser Horde(west).
    • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa) Mother of Osman III (1754-57).

    .Harvard University Press.^ London: Heinemann; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1950, 2-307.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ London: Heinemann; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1946.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ London: Heinemann; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1952, 8-180.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 0674005414. http://books.google.com/books?id=UBilxxaKRKkC&pg=PA11.
     
  • Kladstrup, Don; Petie Kladstrup (2005). .Champagne: How the World's Most Glamorous Wine Triumphed Over War and Hard Times.^ He stopped World War 1, and brought peace to their lands, And he met Martin Luther king Jr. Perfy had the most amazing time of his life.

    ^ The meeting was used to discuss the reconstruction of Europe after World War I. 1925 - F. Scott Fitzgerald published "The Great Gatsby" for the first time.
    • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

    ^ World War One is one of the most hotly contested issues in history; the complexity and number of theorized causes can be a major cause for confusion.
    • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    William Morrow. ISBN 0060737921.
     
  • Lowndes, Marie Adelaide Belloc (1943). Where Love And Friendship Dwelt. Macmillan. OCLC 67554055. 
  • Macaulay, Neill (1986). .Dom Pedro: The Struggle for Liberty in Brazil and Portugal, 1798–1834.^ Regent Empress Leopoldine of Habsburg of Brazil She was regent during her husband, Dom Pedro de Braganza's, stay in Portugal and presided over the Council of Ministers, which declared the country independent, and her husband became Emperor Pedro I of Brazil.

    ^ In Brazil she was leader of the absolutist opposition together with son, Dom Miguel, during her husband, Emperor Joo VIs stay in Portugal.

    ^ Politically Influential Domitlia de Castro Couto e Mello in Brazil Very influential during the reign of her lover, Emperor Pedro I (1798-1834).

    Duke University Press. ISBN 0822306816.
     
  • Mari, Francesco; Elisabetta Bertol, Vittorio Fineschi and Steven B Karch (2004-08-01). "Channelling the Emperor: what really killed Napoleon?". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine (The Royal Society of Medicine Press). http://jrsm.rsmjournals.com/cgi/reprint/97/8/397.pdf. .Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  • Markham, Felix (1988).^ Posted by clubhsm on November 15, 2009 at 06:02 PM GMT+00:00 # .

    ^ Posted by pinkyafiqah on November 15, 2009 at 02:33 PM GMT+00:00 # .

    ^ Posted by candy9417 on November 15, 2009 at 02:11 PM GMT+00:00 # .

    Napoleon. Mass Market Paperback. ISBN 0451627989. 
  • McLynn, Frank (1998). Napoleon. Pimlico. ISBN 0712662472. 
  • O'Connor, J; E F Robertson (2003). "The history of measurement". St Andrew's University. .http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Measurement.html.^ Howard Zinn, A People’s History of the United States , 179 http://www.history.rochester.edu/class/douglass/home.html http://www.frederickdouglass.org/douglass_bio.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mb_sqh577Zw .
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ C.L. R. James, The Black Jacobins , 25 http://www.nathanielturner.com/abberaynalonblackleadership.htm http://www.wmich.edu/dialogues/texts/blackjacobins.html .
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Francis Gardner Davenport, ed., European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and its Dependencies to 1648, 76-78 http://www.thenagain.info/WebChron/Americas/Tordesillas.html http://www.kwabs.com/tordesillas_treaty.html .
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    Retrieved 2008-07-18
    .
     
  • Outhwaite, William (2003). The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought. Blackwell. ISBN 0631221646. 
  • Peterson, Robert (1995). ."Insects, Disease, and Military History: The Napoleonic Campaigns and Historical Perception".^ Napoleon was one of the greatest military commanders in history and also Napoleon decided on a military career when he was a child, winning a scholarship to a French military academy at age 14.

    ^ I. Political life ; Political reveries; Ideas of a new constitution; Switzerland, political and military; Ideas of Napoleonism; Historical frag- ments; The revolutions of 16S8 and 1830.
    • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Historic doubts relative to Napoleon Buona- parte, and historic certainties respecting the early history of America.
    • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

    American Entomologist (Entomological Society of America) (vol.41). .http://entomology.montana.edu/historybug/napoleon/plague_syria.htm. 
  • Poulos, Anthi (2000).^ C.L. R. James, The Black Jacobins , 25 http://www.nathanielturner.com/abberaynalonblackleadership.htm http://www.wmich.edu/dialogues/texts/blackjacobins.html .
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ DIASPORA/REBEL.HTM http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/aaslavry.htm .
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Spanish_conquest_of_the_Aztec_Empire http://www.epcc.edu/nwlibrary/borderlands/17_cortez_created_new_order.htm .
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    "1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict". International Journal of Legal Information (HeinOnline). .http://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?collection=journals&handle=hein.journals/ijli28&div=12&id=&page=. 
  • Ribbe, Claude (2007).^ America-Before-Columbus&id=1730020 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_history_of_American_indigenous_p...
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ H.H. Bancroft, Collected works in 1492: Discovery/Invasion/Encounter, 72 http://www.1st-hand-history.org/Hhb/HHBindex.htm .
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    Napoleon's Crimes: A Blueprint for Hitler. Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1851685332. 
  • Riehn, Richard (1991). .1812 Napoleon's Russian Campaign.^ The Russian campaign, 1812.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Napoleon's Russian campaign.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The physiology of war: Napoleon and the Russian campaign.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Wiley. ISBN 0471543020.
     
  • Roberts, Andrew (2001). Napoleon and Wellington. Weidenfeld and Nicholson. ISBN 0297646079. 
  • Roberts, Chris (2004). Heavy Words Lightly Thrown. Granta. ISBN 1862077657. .http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=MdMZqhMzfpYC&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=bogeyman+napoleon+nursery+%22bonaparte+will+pass%22&ots=5OUuZqIWvn&sig=jGSTwn18a56GlBJfTDElVyIMRJo#PPA93,M1. 
  • Schama, Simon (2004).^ Eschatology_of_Jehovah%27s_Witnesses#_note-16 http://www.quotes-watchtower.co.uk/pyramid.html John Greaves went to Giza, Egypt, in 1638.
    • GTJ Brooklyn 1a 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC gtw6437.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ America-Before-Columbus&id=1730020 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_history_of_American_indigenous_p...
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ UN/article_2519.jsp http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millenarianism http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declaration_by_United_Nations http://user.tninet.se/~oof408u/fkf/english/un.htm http://books.google.com/books?id=kSZL8BWc9KcC&pg=PA266&lpg=PA266&dq=%22Declaration+by+United+Nations%22+carl+olof+jonnson&source=bl&ots=FV9C3RqIWu&sig=KrMX_tnvPwcdsDYnRJvF69_5-w0&hl=en&ei=HAtmSsKhGYTWtgPgw-DrDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1 1943 LAWYER: At any rate, Jehovah God is now the editor of the paper, is that right?
    • GTJ Brooklyn 1a 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC gtw6437.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

    Citizens. Penguin. ISBN 0141017279. 
  • Scheck, Raffael (2008). Germany, 1871–1945: A Concise History. Berg. ISBN 184520817X. 
  • Schom, Alan (1998). .Napoleon Bonaparte: A Life.^ Jerome Bonaparte: the burlesque Napoleon: being the story of the life and the kingship of the youngest brother of Napoleon the Great.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of the French, containing numerous anecdotes of his court and times.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Harper Perennial. ISBN 0060929588.
     
  • Schwarzfuchs, Simon (1979). Napoleon, the Jews and the Sanhedrin. Routledge. ISBN 0197100236. 
  • Smith, Digby (1998). The Greenhill Napoleonic Wars Data Book. Greenhill Books. ISBN 1853672769. 
  • Thomson, Kathleen (1969). "Balcombe, Alexander Beatson (1811–77)". Australian Dictionary of Biography Online. .http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A030078b.htm.^ John Britten, Sheridan and Kotzebue, 6-7 http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/hernando-cortes.htm .
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Roger Moody, ed., The Indigenous Voice , 1:247 http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/seneca/senecachiefs.htm .
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Navajo_people http://impurplehawk.com/apache.html http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/apache/apachehist.htm http://home.netcom.com/~wandaron/pueblos.html .
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    Retrieved 2008-05-27
    .
     
  • Wanniski, Jude (1998). .The Way the World Works.^ Haley, W. D 137.27 WORKING man, Memoirs of a 840.45 WORKING man's way in the world.
    • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

    Regnery Gateway. ISBN 0895263440.
     
  • Watson, William (2003). Tricolor and crescent. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0275974707. http://books.google.com/books?id=o4vrUbMK5eEC&pg=PA13. .Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  • Wells, David (1992).^ Posted by khajiit036988 on November 06, 2009 at 05:12 PM GMT+00:00 # .

    ^ Posted by Samsoma on November 12, 2009 at 06:32 PM GMT+00:00 # .

    ^ Posted by kimmidoll10 on November 06, 2009 at 05:12 PM GMT+00:00 # .

    The Penguin Dictionary of Curious and Interesting Geometry. Penguin Books. ISBN 0140118136. 
  • Wilkins, William (1972) [1944]. Napoleon's Submarine. New English Library. ISBN 0450010287. 
  • Wilson, J (2 August 1975). Dr. Archibald Arnott: Surgeon to the 20th Foot and Physician to Napoleon. British Medical Journal. PMC 1674241. .http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1674241&blobtype=pdf.^ Eugene Genovese, From Rebellion to Revolution , 63 http://www.diaspora.uiuc.edu/news0307/news0307-5.pdf .
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Diego_Dur%C3%A1n http://www.ejournal.unam.mx/rmf/no505/RMF50509.pdf .
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Eduardo Galeano, Open Veins of Latin America, 75 http://www.cdc.gov/NCIDOD/EID/vol9no8/03-0033.htm .
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    Retrieved 2008-06-07
    .
     
  • Wood, Philip (2007). The Law and Practice of International Finance Series. Sweet & Maxwell. ISBN 1847032109. 
  • Woodward, Chris (July 2005). ."Napoleon's Last Journey".^ Napoleon's last journey.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    History Today. .http://www.historytoday.com/MainArticle.aspx?m=31103&amid=30222626.^ Roger Moody, ed., The Indigenous Voice , 1:247 http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/seneca/senecachiefs.htm .
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Milton Meltzer, Columbia and the World around Him , 31 http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/h14eu2.htm End of the World .
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Mavis C. Campbell, The Maroons of Jamaica 1655-1796 , 4, 11, 50-51 http://www.jamaicans.com/articles/primearticles/queennanny.shtml .
    • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    Retrieved 2008-07-12
    .
     

Further reading

Biographies
  • Englund, S. (2004). .Napoleon: a Political Life.^ I. Political life ; Political reveries; Ideas of a new constitution; Switzerland, political and military; Ideas of Napoleonism; Historical frag- ments; The revolutions of 16S8 and 1830.
    • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The military and political life, character, and anecdotes of Napoleon Bonaparte, from his origin to his death on the rock of St. Helena.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Harvard University Press.^ London: Heinemann; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1950, 2-307.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ London: Heinemann; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1946.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ London: Heinemann; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1952, 8-180.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 0674018036.
     
  • Markham, J. David (2003). Napoleon's Road to Glory. London: Brassey's UK. ISBN 1857533275. 
  • Markham, J. David (2005). Napoleon For Dummies. Hoboken: For Dummies. ISBN 0764597981. 
Related history
  • Broers, Michael (2002). .The Politics of Religion in Napoleonic Italy: The war against God, 1801–1814.^ The fall of the Napoleonic kingdom of Italy (1814).
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Perfy left Miss Pinky on his adventure first he went to Napoleon and fort in a war against England!.

    ^ Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) - a conference held in Vienna, Austria, to redraw Europe's political map after the defeat of Napoleonic France.
    • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    Routledge. ISBN 9780415266703.
     
  • Connelly, Owen (1990). .Napoleon’s Satellite Kingdoms: Managing Conquered Peoples.^ Napoleon's satellite kingdoms.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Malabar: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company. ISBN 9780894644160.
     
  • Conner, Susan P. (2004). The Age of Napoleon. Westport: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0313320144. 
  • Dean, Rodney J. (2004) (in French). .L’Église Constitutionnelle, Napoléon et le Concordat de 1801.^ De la restauration et de la monarchie élective, ou Réponse à l’interpellation de quelques journaux sur mon refus de servir le nouveau gouvernement.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Ordonnance du roi qui réforme, selon les principes de la charte constitutionnelle, les règles d’élection, et prescrit l’exécution de l’article 46 de la charte, Bull.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Discours sur l’origine et les fondements de l’inégalité parmi les hommes.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    Paris: Rodney J. Dean. ISBN 2708407198.
     
  • Fregosi, Paul (1990). .Dreams of Empire: Napoleon and the First World War, 1792–1815.^ Goodrich, Frank B. The court of Napoleon; or, Society under the first empire; with portraits of its beauties, wits and heroines.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This expansion helped to cause World War II. The war marked the first major victory of a non-western power over a western power.
    • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Finally, the Ottoman Empire was kept intact, and it would continue to decline until World War I. .
    • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    .New York: Carol Publishing Group.^ The Petula Clark TV special "Petula" aired on NBC. 1971 - Chicago became the first rock group to play Carnegie Hall in New York City.
    • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Damned became the first British punk group to perform at New York's club CBGB. 1979 - Van Halen began their first world tour.
    • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Carole King performed in New York's Central Park.
    • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

    .ISBN 9780091739263. 
  • Hall, Henry Foljambe (1905).^ Hall, Henry Foljambe.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Napoleon's Notes on English History Made on the Eve of the French Revolution.^ Napoleon and the end of the French revolution.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The early nineteenth century was dominated by the aftermath of the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars.
    • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Life of Napoleon, with view of the French revolution.
    • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

    .New York: E. P. Dutton & Co.. 
  • Holtman, Robert B. (1967).^ New York, D. Appleton & Co., 1866.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York, E.P. Dutton, 1924.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York, E.P. Dutton, 1905, 375p.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The Napoleonic Revolution. .Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.^ U.S. federal troops occupy Baton Rouge, Louisiana .

    ISBN 0807104876. 
  • Kagan, Frederick W. (2006). The End of the Old Order: Napoleon and Europe, 1801–1805. Cambridge: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0306811375. 
  • Prendergast, Christopher (1997). .Napoleon and History Painting: Antoine-Jean Gros's La Bataille d'Eylau.^ GERARD, BARON FRANCOIS PASCAL SIMOX GROS, BARON ANTOINE JEAN Gu ERIN, JEAN I s A B E Y, JEAN BAPTISTS I s A B E Y, JEAN BAPTISTS M A SQUERIER, JOHN JAMES PHILLIPS, THOMAS ....
    • Full text of "Catalog of the Gardiner Greene Hubbard Collection of engravings" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ G R S, Baron Antoine Jean (1771-1835) [LA BATAILLE D'EYLAU] [1833] Etching and line engraving.
    • Full text of "Catalog of the Gardiner Greene Hubbard Collection of engravings" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Hill, G. A. The war in La Vendee and the little Chouanncrie 1008.13 History of Napoleon .and Fr.
    • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Oxford: Clarendon Press.^ Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1916.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1765-69.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sylburg (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1810).
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 0198174225.
     
  • Semmel, Stuart (2004). Napoleon and the British. .New Haven: Yale University Press.^ New Haven, Yale University, 1949.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New Haven, Yale University, [n.d.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York, Columbia University Press, 1955.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 978-0300090017.
     
  • Woloch, Isser (2001). Napoleon and his Collaborators: The Making of a Dictatorship. .New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc..^ (New York: The John Day Company, 1933), first printing, 279 pages, 12mo (5.5" x 7.75").
    • Printable Catalog - Marketplace Auction 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.ha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Longines Watch Company signed for the first FM radio advertising contract with experimental station W2XOR in New York City.
    • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Washington Company; New York."
    • Printable Catalog - Marketplace Auction 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.ha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 9780393050097.
     

External links

.


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Napoleon I of France article)

From Wikiquote

The true character of man ever displays itself in great events.
.Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 17695 May 1821) was a Corsican-born military general who rose to prominence in the French Revolution, becoming the ruler of France as First Consul of the French Republic (11 November 1799 - 18 May 1804), and then Emperor of the French and King of Italy under the name Napoleon I (18 May 1804 - 6 April 1814, and again briefly from 20 March - 22 June 1815).^ Napoleon declared himself French Emperor and became a military dictator.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis XVI becomes King of France .

^ August 15, 1769 the day Napolian was born!!!

Everything tells me I shall succeed.

Contents

Sourced

My waking thoughts are all of thee...
.
The barbarous custom of having men beaten who are suspected of having important secrets to reveal must be abolished.
  • Send me 300 francs; that sum will enable me to go to Paris.^ This calumny must be classed among those which malice delights to take in the character of men who become celebrated, calumnies which are adopted lightly and without reflection.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Directory - A group of five men who held the executive power in France, according to the French Revolution constitution of 1795.
    • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    .There, at least, one can cut a figure and surmount obstacles.^ No doubt, there is at least one party of this sort in France; but the republican party must be mad if they compromised a cause of which the success is infallible, by ineffectual attempts.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    Everything tells me I shall succeed. .Will you prevent me from doing so for the want of 100 crowns?
    • Letter to his uncle, Joseph Fesch (June 1791), as quoted in A Selection from the Letters and Despatches of the First Napoleon.^ A selection from letters and dispatches of the first Napoleon with explanatory notes.
      • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ A voice from Waterloo a history of the battle fought on the 18th June 1815, with a selection from the Wellington dispatches, general orders and letters relating to the battle.
      • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ England and Napoleon in 1803; being the despatches of Lord Whitworth and others, now first printed from the originals in the Record office.
      • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .With Explanatory Notes
      (1884) edited by D. A. Bingham, Vol.^ Edited, with explanatory notes, by Major-General H. T. Siborne.
      • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      I, p. .24
  • My waking thoughts are all of thee. Your portrait and the remembrance of last night's delirium have robbed my senses of repose.^ Listen, listen all to my last legacy.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The victory is wholly yours, not mine, since I only appeared among you in the last stage of the contest to meet the desire expressed for a fuller explanation of my opinions.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "At least two nights, I'll let you know my plans as they develop here in your fine city."
    • Bruce Napoleon, Vampire Veterinarian 9 February 2010 15:30 UTC vampvet.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Sweet and incomparable Josephine, what an extraordinary influence you have over my heart.^ Napoleon smiled upon her kindly, and said, "Why, my poor Josephine, you are mad.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Well, then, madame," responded Lucien, "all that I can say is, that from my heart I pity you."
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    Are you vexed? .Do I see you sad?^ ''You make a perfect friend, I will be sad to see you go.''

    Are you ill at ease? .My soul is broken with grief, and there is no rest for your lover.^ When Joan got injured and commanded: "take my banner, and there will be no more difficulty".

    ^ "No im sorry theres not much room cause of all my things im bringing" all of a sudden there was a huge falsh of light and boom purfy was gone.

    ^ "NO! YOU'RE NOT TELLING ME! IM TELLING YOU! SO THERE! IM LEAVING!" I storm, and climb into my time machine.

    • Letter to Joséphine de Beauharnais (February 1796), as translated in Napoleon's Letters to Josephine 1796-1812 (1901) edited by Henry Foljambe Hall
From the sublime to the ridiculous is but a step.
What is a throne? — a bit of wood gilded and covered in velvet. I am the state...
.
France is invaded; I am leaving to take command of my troops, and, with God's help and their valor, I hope soon to drive the enemy beyond the frontier.
  • All great events hang by a hair.^ At St. Helena Napoleon said, "Of all the general I ever had under my command Desaix and Kleber possessed the greatest talent.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Moreover, the areas that Germany initially invaded were all of German heritage, and the leaders of the nations wondered if perhaps Germany should be allowed to take those territories.
    • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Bruce, Here is all we could find on Lindsey, I hope it helps.
    • Bruce Napoleon, Vampire Veterinarian 9 February 2010 15:30 UTC vampvet.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The man of ability takes advantage of everything and neglects nothing that can give him a chance of success; whilst the less able man sometimes loses everything by neglecting a single one of those chances.
    • Letter to Minister of Foreign Affairs, Passariano (26 September 1797), as quoted in Napoleon as a General (1902) by Maximilian Yorck von Wartenburg, p.^ Married to a former Minister of Foreign Affairs.

      ^ Those cases, however, are the exception, not the rule: and when they occur, what is lost in one quarter is gained in another, and there is the general gain due to the prosperity of the country besides.
      • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Government, in dealing with any proprietor, whether for waste or cultivated land, is bound to satisfy him before taking any part of his land to give to others.
      • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

      .269
  • From the heights of these pyramids, forty centuries look down on us.
    • Speech to his troops in Egypt (21 July 1798) Variant translation: "Soldiers, from the summit of yonder pyramids forty centuries look down upon you...". Published in the autobiography of French general Eugène de Beauharnais.
  • What I have done up to this is nothing.^ Forty centuries look down; a biographical novel of Napoleon.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ State of the French republic at the end of the year VIII. Translated from the French of Citizen Hauteriv e, Chef De Relations Exterieurs.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.
    • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    .I am only at the beginning of the course I must run.
    Do you imagine that I triumph in Italy in order to aggrandise the pack of lawyers who form the Directory, and men like Carnot and Barras?^ 'Of course I will your my bestie'!!So he grabbed all of his luggage and before you could say Moshi Monsters, he shot out the door like a jet.

    ^ She might be a Pict or Celt SPY!" The man who spoke first turned to his men and said "Well you know what this means...

    ^ In the rapid course into which society has been projected, men and systems succeed one another to conduct it to its destination: the last relay is the one which will arrive, and that one is you.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    What an idea! .
    • As quoted in Memoirs of Count Miot de Melito (1788 - 1815) as translated by Frances Cashel Hoey and John Lillie (1881), Vol.^ Memoirs of Count Miot de Melito, minister, ambassador, councillor of state and member of the Institute of France, between the years 1788 and 1815.
      • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Memoirs and recollections of count Segur, ambassador from France to the courts of Russia and Prussia etc., etc.
      • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ She succeeded her relative, king Franois of France, and married to Charles de Cotivy, Count de Tailleburg, and lived (1462-1520).

      II, p. .94
  • I do not care to play the part of Monk; I will not play it myself, and I do not choose that others shall do so. But those Paris lawyers who have got into the Directory understand nothing of government.^ In addition to nationalizing church property, the Civil Constitution also abolished religious vows and turned all Church clerics (including monks and nuns) into civil servants who received their pay and assignments not from Rome, but from Paris.
    • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Part of Paris Charles De Gaulle International Airport Terminal 2E collapses, killing five people and injuring three others.

    ^ For wealth he cared nothing Millions had been at his disposal, and he had emptied them all into the treasury of France.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    They are poor creatures. .I am going to see what they want to do at Rastadt; but I doubt much that we shall understand each other, or long agree together.^ We are going to find each other much changed.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Yeah, now and then, Stuart and I gave a socialite a double treatment together the other day, so you can see….", Mick looked crestfallen.
    • Bruce Napoleon, Vampire Veterinarian 9 February 2010 15:30 UTC vampvet.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I have to go back!’’So he went back to see Miss Pinky,and they all lived happily ever after.

    .They are jealous of me, I know, and notwithstanding all their flattery, I am not their dupe; they fear more than they love me.^ The English are in the wrong; more so than they will ever be again.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If they do, they lose far more in vigour of argument, and in the imposing influence of a sense of consistency and power, than they can possibly gain in charming away the fears of those who would, but dare not, follow them.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The worst features of the case, as it appeared against them in the preliminary investigation, were all confirmed, and more than confirmed, by the evidence on the trial.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    .They were in a great hurry to make me General of the army of England, so that they might get me out of Italy, where I am the master, and am more of a sovereign than commander of an army.^ The English are in the wrong; more so than they will ever be again.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We are more than 10,000 armies.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Indeed I am more grieved than any of the honorable friends and colleagues of Mr. Pitt, at the growing greatness of France, which is daily extending her power in Europe and in America.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    .They will see how things go on when I am not there.^ I have to go back!’’So he went back to see Miss Pinky,and they all lived happily ever after.

    ^ They could see how the system, improved and well-regulated, had worked in those parishes; they could see the advantages which had been there derived from it, and they were thus enabled to refer to experiments already made, to guide them elsewhere in the work of reformation.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There was an indicator that showed her going up to the 3rd floor, where he assumed she'd walk down the stairs so they didn't know about the basement.
    • Bruce Napoleon, Vampire Veterinarian 9 February 2010 15:30 UTC vampvet.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    I am leaving Berthier, but he is not fit for the chief command, and, I predict, will only make blunders. .As for myself, my dear Miot, I may inform you, I can no longer obey; I have tasted command, and I cannot give it up.^ Take what steps you may, you will have no other terms."
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If the foundations of a house give way, the house falls, and there is no longer a house.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On the 7th of May, 1800, Napoleon entered his carriage at the Tuileries, saying, "Good-by, my dear Josephine!
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    .I have made up my mind, if I cannot be master I shall leave France; I do not choose to have done so much for her and then hand her over to lawyers.^ In the name of my Master, Saint Simon, I have announced to them the destruction of all the privileges of birth, by which the industrious are weighed down, and delivered up to the will and pleasure of the idle; .
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Napoleon then proposed that the Island of Malta should be placed in the hands of the Emperor of Russia; leaving it with him in trust, till the discussions between France and England were decided.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Pooky soon shouted back guiltily "I am so sorry, Perfy i cannot, i have made some wonderful friends and cannot again leave them!"

    .
    • Conversation at Turin, as quoted in Memoirs of Count Miot de Melito (1788 - 1815) as translated by Frances Cashel Hoey and John Lillie (1881), Vol.^ Memoirs of Count Miot de Melito, minister, ambassador, councillor of state and member of the Institute of France, between the years 1788 and 1815.
      • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Memoirs and recollections of count Segur, ambassador from France to the courts of Russia and Prussia etc., etc.
      • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ She succeeded her relative, king Franois of France, and married to Charles de Cotivy, Count de Tailleburg, and lived (1462-1520).

      II, p. .113
    • 'Monk' refers to George Monck, military ruler of Puritan England after Cromwell, who ultimately gave up power when he invited Charles II in and enabled the English Restoration
  • I hope the time is not far off when I shall be able to unite all the wise and educated men of all the countries and establish a uniform regime based on the principles of the Quran which alone are true and which alone can lead men to happiness.
    • Letter to Sheikh El-Messiri, (28 August 1798); published in Correspondance Napoleon edited by Henri Plon (1861), Vol.4, No.^ Men of letters and science in the time of Geo.
      • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

      ^ Men of letters of the time of Geo.
      • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

      ^ All the men who challenged their power were "dealt with" in different ways.

      3148, p. .420
  • The barbarous custom of having men beaten who are suspected of having important secrets to reveal must be abolished.^ This calumny must be classed among those which malice delights to take in the character of men who become celebrated, calumnies which are adopted lightly and without reflection.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    It has always been recognized that this way of interrogating men, by putting them to torture, produces nothing worthwhile. .The poor wretches say anything that comes into their mind and what they think the interrogator wishes to know.
    • On the subject of torture, in a letter to Louis Alexandre Berthier (11 November 1798), published in Correspondance Napoleon edited by Henri Plon (1861), Vol.^ He went into the kitchen and next thing I know theres a big," She kicked the one that was still alive in the side, "Fucking baton coming at me.