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Napoleon I
Full length portrait of a man in his forties, in high-ranking dress white and dark blue military uniform. He stands amid rich 18th-century furniture laden with papers, and gazes at the viewer. <a name=.His hair is Brutus style, cropped close but with a short fringe in front, and his right hand is tucked in his waistcoat."^ Any sistah who's 5'8" or taller, has short cropped hair, is an athlete, or full figured and tall with broad shoulders has had that shade thrown at them.

^ Murat, who, said Napoleon, "was superb at Aboukir," with a numerous cavalry and a crops of grenadiers was stationed at St. Cloud, a thunderbolt in Napoleon's right hand.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/03/3/5/2/51890633163999200.jpg" width="210" height="343" />
The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries, by Jacques-Louis David, 1812
Emperor of the French
Reign 18 May 1804 – 11 April 1814
20 March 1815 – 22 June 1815
Coronation 2 December 1804
Predecessor French Consulate
Himself as First Consul of the French First Republic.
Previous ruling monarch was Louis XVI as King of the French (1791-1792)
Successor Louis XVIII (de jure in 1814; as legitimate monarch in 1815)
Napoleon II (according to his father's will of 1815)
King of Italy
Reign 17 March 1805 – 11 April 1814
Coronation 26 May 1805
Predecessor Himself as .President of the Italian Republic.^ To-day the news reaches London that Napoleon has been elected President of the Italian Republic.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]


Previous ruling monarch was Emperor Charles V, crowned in Bologna in 1530
Successor Kingdom disbanded
Next monarch crowned in Milan was Emperor Ferdinand I, next king of Italy was Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy
Spouse Joséphine de Beauharnais
Marie Louise of Austria
Issue
Napoleon II of France
Full name
Napoleon Bonaparte
House House of Bonaparte
Father Carlo Buonaparte
Mother Letizia Ramolino
Born 15 August 1769(1769-08-15)
Ajaccio, Corsica
Died 5 May 1821 (aged 51)
Longwood, Saint Helena, British Empire
Burial Les Invalides, Paris
.Napoleon Bonaparte (French: Napoléon Bonaparte French pronunciation: [napoleɔ̃ bɔnɑpaʁt], Italian: Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821), was a military and political leader of France and Emperor of the French as Napoleon I, whose actions shaped European politics in the early 19th century.^ Napoleon Bonaparte dies (b.

^ Napoleon declared himself French Emperor and became a military dictator.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In July 1790 the Emperor wrote to her asking for a military contribution and she answered in August, and the territory was hard hit by the French wars.

.Born in Corsica and trained as an artillery officer in mainland France, Bonaparte rose to prominence under the First French Republic and led successful campaigns against the First and Second Coalitions arrayed against France.^ Bonaparte, and the French people under his consulate.
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^ First campaign of Arabian troops led .
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^ Napoleon Bonaparte's first campaign: with comments.
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.In 1799, he staged a coup d'état and installed himself as First Consul; five years later the French Senate proclaimed him Emperor.^ It was time for the First Consul to decide to make himself emperor.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hodson, W. The life of Napoleon Bonaparte, once emperor of the French, who died in exile at St. Helena, after a captivity of six years' duration.
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^ In 1643 she transferred her rights to her brother Count Philip zur Lippe-A. and ruled with him as co-regent till her death three years later.

.In the first decade of the nineteenth century, the French Empire under Napoleon engaged in a series of conflicts—the Napoleonic Wars—involving every major European power.^ The early nineteenth century was dominated by the aftermath of the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He led the french through a series of conflicts called " the Napoleonic Wars" which involved every major European power!

^ This expansion helped to cause World War II. The war marked the first major victory of a non-western power over a western power.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.After a streak of victories, France secured a dominant position in continental Europe and Napoleon maintained the French sphere of influence through the formation of extensive alliances and the appointment of friends and family members to rule other European countries as French client states.^ The secrets amours of Napoleon and the members of his family.
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^ After a winning streak France began dominating all of Europe.

^ Although the family ruled over what might be, in theory, considered the most powerful country in Europe, the French monarchs had little control over their vassals, and many parts of France functioned as though they were independent states.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.The French invasion of Russia in 1812 marked a turning point in Napoleon's fortunes.^ Napoleon's invasion of Russia.
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^ Napoleon's invasion of Russia, 1812.
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^ Napoleon's campaign in Russia, anno 1812, medico-historical.
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His Grande Armée was badly damaged in the campaign and never fully recovered. .In 1813, the Sixth Coalition defeated his forces at Leipzig; the following year the Coalition invaded France, forced Napoleon to abdicate and exiled him to the island of Elba.^ Napoleon I of France is exiled to Elba on the same day.

^ Napoleon was forced to abdicate his throne.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Emperor Napoleon I of France arrives at Portoferraio on the island of Elba to begin his exile.

.Less than a year later, he escaped Elba and returned to power, but was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815. Napoleon spent the last six years of his life under British supervision on the island of Saint Helena.^ Napoleon at St. Helena 1815-1821.
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^ Saint Helena, little island.
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^ Napoleon, from Tilsit to Waterloo - 1807-1815.
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.An autopsy concluded he died of stomach cancer, though Sten Forshufvud and other scientists have since conjectured that he was poisoned with arsenic.^ In 1821 he died due to a stomach cancer at age 51.

.Napoleon's campaigns are studied at military academies the world over.^ Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana (1822-1905) graduated the United States Military Academy in 1842.
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^ Napoleon's campaign in Poland 1806-7: a military history of Napoleon's first war with Russia.
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^ Gibbs, Montgomery B. Military career of Napoleon the great; an account of the remarkable campaigns of the "man of destiny."
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.While considered a tyrant by his opponents, he is also remembered for the establishment of the Napoleonic code, which laid the administrative and judicial foundations for much of Western Europe.^ He also rewrote the old French feudal laws, which were confusing, creating a new Napoleonic Code of laws that were much clearer.

^ Napoleonic code - French code of civil law, established by Napoléon on March 21, 1804, to reform the French legal system in accordance with the principles of the French Revolution.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Origins and education

.Napoleon Bonaparte was born the second of eight children, in Casa Buonaparte in the town of Ajaccio, Corsica, on 15 August 1769, one year after the island was transferred to France by the Republic of Genoa.^ Born -15 August 1769 in France.

^ He was born on the island of Corsica one year after it became French property.

^ August 15, 1769 the day Napolian was born!!!

[1] .He was initially named Napoleone di Buonaparte, acquiring his first name from an uncle who had been killed fighting the French,[2] but later adopted the more French-sounding Napoléon Bonaparte.^ Napoleon Bonaparte dies (b.

^ Who killed Napoleon?.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The life of Napoleon Buonaparte, emperor of the French.
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[note 1]
Half-length portrait of a wigged middle-aged man with a well-to-do jacket. His left hand is tucked inside his waistcoat.
Napoleon's father Carlo Buonaparte was Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI of France
.The Corsican Buonapartes originated from minor Italian nobility, who had come to Corsica in the 16th century.^ Waterloo Letters: a selection from original and hitherto unpublished letters bearing on the operations of the 16th, 17th, and 18th June, 1815, by officers who served in the campaign.
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^ From the early 16th to the early 19th century it was the center of the Bani Muhammad dynasty, which originated in Morocco.

^ Politique - A term used in the 16th century to describe a head of state who put politics and the nation's well being before religion.
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[4] .His father Nobile Carlo Buonaparte, an attorney, was named Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI in 1777. The dominant influence of Napoleon's childhood was his mother, Maria Letizia Ramolino, whose firm discipline restrained a rambunctious child.^ Madame Letizia: a portrait of Napoleon's mother.
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^ Napoleon's christening name was Italian: Napoleone Buonaparte.

^ According to Ottoman historians, she, together with her mother and husband conspired to bring about the death of Sehzade Mustafa, who stood in the way of her influence over her father.

[5] .He had an elder brother, Joseph; and younger siblings Lucien, Elisa, Louis, Pauline, Caroline and Jérôme.^ The gentle Bonaparte; a biography of Joseph, Napoleon's elder brother.
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Napoleon was baptised Catholic just before his second birthday, on 21 July 1771 at Ajaccio Cathedral.[6]
.Napoleon's noble, moderately affluent background and family connections afforded him greater opportunities to study than were available to a typical Corsican of the time.^ "God is angry, me must respect him more than ever,"a farther of a large moshi family said rapidly.

^ His estimate for the distance to the moon was 67r vs. He estimated the sun to be 37 times farther than the moon and at least 12 times greater in diameter than the Earth.
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^ Her refinement and love of study contrasted with her husband, Peter of Holstein-Gottorp's vulgarity and intemperance; neglected by him, she ingratiated herself with some of the nobles.

[7] .In January 1779, Napoleon was enrolled at a religious school in Autun, mainland France, to learn French, and in May he was admitted to a military academy at Brienne-le-Château.^ Calais, the last English possession on mainland France, was recaptured by the French.
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^ "Napoleon in Military Dress", Le Fleure, 1810.
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^ Napoleon was one of the greatest military commanders in history and also Napoleon decided on a military career when he was a child, winning a scholarship to a French military academy at age 14.

[8] He spoke with a marked Corsican accent and never learned to spell properly.[9] Napoleon was teased by other students for his accent and applied himself to study.[10][note 2] An examiner observed that Napoleon "has always been distinguished for his application in mathematics. He is fairly well acquainted with history and geography... This boy would make an excellent sailor."[12][note .3] On completion of his studies at Brienne in 1784, Napoleon was admitted to the elite École Militaire in Paris; this ended his naval ambition, which had led him to consider an application to the British Royal Navy.^ Sepoy mutiny (1857–1858) - Rebellions against British colonial rule in India; caused the end of the British East India Company's rule in India, and led to a century of direct rule of India by Britain.
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^ Gandhi's "civil disobedience" led to an end to British rule, and in 1935 the Government of India Act provided India with an internal self-government.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The British Royal Navy systematically hunted them down, though not without some embarrassment from its inability to protect Allied shipping.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[14] .Instead, he trained to become an artillery officer and, when his father's death reduced his income, was forced to complete the two-year course in one year.^ The dughter of Min Ch'irok, she was raised to the posthumous rank and title of Empress Myongsong two years after her death.

^ Regent Datuk I Pateka Tana of Tanette (Indonesia) After the death of the female ruler, Datuk I Pancaitana, she was for one year until Andi Basso became regent.

^ Perfy feet.Perfy jumped the net and continued on catching butterflys.Perfy got a quick glance at the butterfly."This is going to be hard to catch"Said Perfy."the butterfly has got two heads instead of one.

[10] .He was examined by the famed scientist Pierre-Simon Laplace, whom Napoleon later appointed to the Senate.^ She sold the patent to another Guernsey Andros, Sir Edmund Le Breton, whom Charles II later appointed Governor of New York.

[15]

Early career

Head and shoulders portrait of a white-haired, portly, middle-aged man with a pinkish complexion, blue velvet coat and a ruffle
Nationalist Corsican leader Pasquale Paoli. Portrait by Richard Cosway.
.Upon graduating in September 1785, Bonaparte was commissioned a second lieutenant in La Fère artillery regiment.^ G R E U Z E , Jean Baptiste (1725-1805) [NAPOLEON BONAPARTE AS LIEUTENANT IN THE FIRST ARTILLERY OF LA FERE] 1892.
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[8][note .4] He served on garrison duty in Valence, Drôme and Auxonne until after the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, though he took nearly two years of leave in Corsica and Paris during this period.^ The great French revolution, 1789-1793.
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^ The French revolution and Napoleon, 1789-1815.
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^ The French revolution from 1789 to 1815.
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A fervent Corsican nationalist, Bonaparte wrote to the Corsican leader Pasquale Paoli in May 1789: "As the nation was perishing I was born. Thirty thousand Frenchmen were vomited on to our shores, drowning the throne of liberty in waves of blood. Such was the odious sight which was the first to strike me."[17]
.He spent the early years of the Revolution in Corsica, fighting in a complex three-way struggle between royalists, revolutionaries, and Corsican nationalists.^ Carbonari ("coal-burners") - groups of secret revolutionary societies founded in early 19th century Italy, and instrumental in organizing revolution in Italy in 1820 and 1848.
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^ This revolution would be caused by what Marx described as a historic class struggle between these two groups.
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^ Kulturkampf (Cultural Fight) - Attempt by Chancellor Otto von Bismarck to reduce Catholic influence in the early years of the 1871 German Empire.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.He supported the revolutionary Jacobin faction, gained the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and command over a battalion of volunteers.^ Richard Johnson (1780-1850), from Beargrass, Kentucky, was commissioned a colonel of Kentucky Volunteers and commanded a regiment in the War of 1812.
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^ During the Spanish-American War he was lieutenant colonel and chief of engineers of United States Volunteers.
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^ Bolsheviks - A faction of the Russian revolutionary movement formed 1903 by followers of Vladimir Lenin, who believed in a small party of revolutionaries with a large fringe group of supporters.
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.After he had exceeded his leave of absence and led a riot against a French army in Corsica, he was somehow able to convince military authorities in Paris to promote him to Captain in July 1792.[18] He returned to Corsica once again, and came into conflict with Paoli, who had decided to split with France and sabotage a French assault on the Sardinian island of La Maddalena, where Bonaparte was one of the expedition leaders.^ He was born on the island of Corsica one year after it became French property.

^ Until 1913 Rebellion Leader Muhumusa in Uganda She was a healer who lead the women-centered popular movement that led the resistance against European settlers who were attempting to overrule Africans.

^ She returned to Bijapur and mustered some reliable troops for the defence of Ahmadnagar fort against the army of the Mughals.

[19] .Bonaparte and his family had to flee to the French mainland in June 1793 because of the split with Paoli.^ In 1793, Caroline moved with her family to France during the French Revolution.
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^ Corsica: picturesque, historical and social: with a sketch of the early life of Napoleon, and an account of the Bonaparte, Paoli, Pozzo di Borgo, and other principal families.
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^ In 1793 she had to flee the French troops after having initially managed to keep a neutral position.

[20]

Siege of Toulon

.In July 1793, he published a pro-republican pamphlet, Le Souper de Beaucaire [Supper at Beaucaire], which gained him the admiration and support of Augustin Robespierre, younger brother of the Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre.^ Anonymous Portrait of Maximilien de Robespierre c.
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^ He gained the support of Napoleon III by promising him Savoy and Nice.
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^ Margerand, J. Les aides de camp de Bonaparte, 1793-1804.
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.With the help of fellow Corsican Antoine Christophe Saliceti, Bonaparte was appointed artillery commander of the republican forces at the siege of Toulon.^ This republiqueta was basically under siege from 1810 until 1825 when other republican armies under Simon Bolivar were able to join her remote forces.

.The city had risen against the republican government and was occupied by British troops.^ With their help the prince lost no time in occupying the Jind fort and established his government after putting the Rani the puppet of the British government to the sword.

^ A.D. -Togon occupied considerable territory, had cities (protected settlements), had organized government, maybe copied .
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^ Irish nationalists rebel against British occupation forces, believing that French troops were going to invade Ireland .

[21] .He adopted a plan to capture a hill placing that would allow republican guns to dominate the city's harbour and force the British ships to evacuate.^ A force led by U.S. Marines captured the city of Derna, on the shores of Tripoli.
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^ Viet Cong forces are suspected of placing a bomb on the ship.

^ The Battle of Princeton took place in the War of Independence, in which George Washington defeated the British forces, led by Cornwallis.
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.The assault on the position, during which Bonaparte was wounded in the thigh, led to the capture of the city and his promotion to Brigadier General.^ A force led by U.S. Marines captured the city of Derna, on the shores of Tripoli.
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^ During the battle the Soviets will capture the city of Kharkov from the German Army, only to be encircled and destroyed.

^ During the Korean conflict, North Korean and Communist Chinese forces captured the city of Seoul.
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.His actions brought him to the attention of the Committee of Public Safety and he was given command of the artillery arm of France's Army of Italy.^ Robespierre (1758-1794) - One of the best known leaders of the French Revolutions; known as "the Incorruptible"; leader of the Committee of Public Safety.
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^ Memoirs of Bertrand Barre, chairman of the Committee of public safety during the revolution.
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^ Moltke's variation called for an artillery assault on Liege, but with the rail lines and the unprecedented firepower the German army brought he did not expect any significant defense of the fortress.
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[22] .He became engaged to Désirée Clary, whose sister, Julie Clary, married Bonaparte's elder brother Joseph in 1794. The Clarys were a wealthy merchant family from Marseille.^ Two of her sisters; Sophia and Elisabeth, married one of his 11 children by his first wife, and she therby became their mother-in-law.

^ She is the youngest child of King Carl XVI Gustaf, and she acts as regent in the absence of her elder sister, Crown Princess Victoria, and brother, Prince Carl Philip (b.

^ Together with her sister-in-law, Sophia, she was also instrumental in securing that the emperor abdicated in favour of his nephew, Franz Joseph, rather than his brother, Franz Karl.

[23]

13 Vendémiaire

Etching of a street, there are a lot pockets of smoke due to a group of republican artillery firing on royalists across the street at the entrance to a building
The Journée of 13 Vendémiaire, Year 4. The Saint-Roch Church, Rue Saint-Honoré, Paris/
.Following the fall of the Robespierres in the July 1794 Thermidorian Reaction, Bonaparte was put under house arrest in August 1794 for his association with the brothers.^ Erzsbet was put under house arrest.

^ Although the Church forced him to recant his ideas and spend the rest of his life under house arrest, his works had already been published and could not be disregarded.
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^ On 27 July ("9 Thermidor" in the Revolutionary Calendar) 1794, Robespierre himself was arrested, and was executed the next day.
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[note .5] Although he was released after only ten days, he remained out of favour.^ Barentsz died while studying charts only seven days after starting out, but it took seven more weeks for the boats to reach Kola where they were rescued.
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^ Although temporarily out of favour (169294) owing to the political disgrace of her husband, Sarah maintained a close relationship with the Queen.

[25] .In April 1795, he was assigned to the Army of the West, which was engaged in the War in the Vendée—a civil war and royalist counter-revolution in France's Vendée region.^ With men such as you, our cause was not lost -- but the war was interminable -- it had become a civil war and France was only becoming most unfortunate.
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^ American Civil War : Confederate General Edmund Kirby Smith , commander of the Confederate Trans-Mississippi division, is the last general of the Confederate Army to surrender, at Galveston, Texas .

^ History of the war between Germany and France, with biographical sketches of the principal personages engaged in the contest.
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As an infantry command, it was a demotion from artillery general, and he pleaded poor health to avoid the posting.[26] .He was moved to the Bureau of Topography of the Committee of Public Safety and sought, unsuccessfully, to be transferred to Constantinople (officially renamed Istanbul on 28 March 1930) in order to offer his services to the Sultan.^ Robespierre (1758-1794) - One of the best known leaders of the French Revolutions; known as "the Incorruptible"; leader of the Committee of Public Safety.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Memoirs of Bertrand Barre, chairman of the Committee of public safety during the revolution.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Ottoman Turks were Muslims from Asia Minor who gradually conquered the old Byzantine Empire , completed in 1453 with the fall of Constantinople (renamed to Istanbul).
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[27] .During this period he wrote a romantic novella, Clisson et Eugénie, about a soldier and his lover, in a clear parallel to Bonaparte's own relationship with Désirée.^ Travels in France during the years 1814-15 comprising a residence at Paris during the stay of the allied armies, and at Aix, at the period of the landing of Bonaparte.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pauline Bonaparte and her lovers as revealed by contemporary witnesses, by her own love-letters, and by the anti-Napoleonic pamphleteers.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Giovanni Boccaccio wrote The Decameron , a short story about the lives of people living during the Black Death.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[28] On 15 September Bonaparte was removed from the list of generals in regular service, with the reason given being his refusal to serve in the Vendée campaign. He now faced a difficult financial situation and further reduced career prospects.[29]
.On 3 October, royalists in Paris declared a rebellion against the National Convention after they were excluded from a new government, the Directory.^ In a Carriage they travelled back to Paris surrounded by a mob of people screaming and shouting threats against the King and Queen.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The revolutionaries in France established a new government in order to accomplish what they desired.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She was daughter of a chemist and against the opposition of his mother, Henritte Catharina; they had married in 1798, when he took over the government after his mother's regency, which had lasted from 1683.

[30] .One of the leaders of the Thermidorian Reaction, Paul Barras knew of Bonaparte's military exploits at Toulon and gave him command of the improvised forces in defence of the Convention in the Tuileries Palace.^ She followed him to Italy, where he was in command of a battalion, and gave birth to their first son, Christian Danneskiold-Samse.

^ Perfy only gave the HUMAN boy one rox and convinced him it was equal 100,00 rox the exact) .

^ Military Leader Lilliard in Scotland (United Kingdom) She led the Scots at the Battle of Ancrum in one of their last victories over the English forces.

.Bonaparte had witnessed the massacre of the King's Swiss Guard there three years earlier and realised artillery would be key to its defence.^ AT&T announced that it would eliminate 40,000 jobs over three years.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ His successor Ozuere only reigned for one year and did not appoint his mother Iyoba of Uselu since this traditionally happened after three years of reign by the king.

^ The terrified King Louis XVI, Queen Marie Antoinette and there 2 young children, 11 year old Marie Therese, and 4 year old Louis-Charles, and the Kings sister Madam Elizabeth.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[8] He ordered a young cavalry officer, Joachim Murat to seize large cannons and used them to repel the attackers on 5 October 1795—13 Vendémiaire An IV in the French Republican Calendar. 1,400 royalists died and the rest fled.[30] .He had cleared the streets with "a whiff of grapeshot" according to the 19th-century historian Thomas Carlyle, in The French Revolution: A History.^ A biographical history of the French revolution.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The French revolution, a history.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Carbonari ("coal-burners") - groups of secret revolutionary societies founded in early 19th century Italy, and instrumental in organizing revolution in Italy in 1820 and 1848.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[31]
.The defeat of the Royalist insurrection extinguished the threat to the Convention and earned Bonaparte sudden fame, wealth, and the patronage of the new Directory; Murat would become his brother-in-law and one of his generals.^ Agrafia), becoming brother-in law of Khan Uzbek, and lives 2 years in Sa rai Berke .
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet appointment even by the Directors, subject to the veto of the Minister, would be objectionable, being likely in practice to become, as the appointment of the Governor-General now is, appointment by the Minister.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Openly, he was supporting the bid of his brother-in-law, Datu Mamaku, brother of Rajah Putri to become the new Sultan of Maguindanao.

.Bonaparte was promoted to Commander of the Interior and given command of the Army of Italy.^ Copies of original letters from the army of General Bonaparte in Egypt, intercepted by the fleet under the command of Admiral Lord Nelson.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] .Within weeks he was romantically attached to Barras's former mistress, Joséphine de Beauharnais, whom he married on 9 March 1796, after he had broken off his engagement to Désirée Clary.^ Joséphine de Beauharnais dies (b.

^ Five years later she married Philippe de Bourbon-Busset, seigneur de Chabannes and Busset (1499-1557), with whom she had 6 children.

^ Alexander also mar ried the daughter of Darius, whom he de feated in 333, while staying firmly attached to his comrade, Hephaistion.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32]

First Italian campaign

Three-quarter length depiction of Bonaparte, with black tunic and leather gloves, holding a standard and sword, turning backwards to look at his troops
Bonaparte at the Bridge of the Arcole, by Baron Antoine-Jean Gros, (ca. 1801), Louvre, Paris
.Two days after the marriage, Bonaparte left Paris to take command of the Army of Italy and led it on a successful invasion of Italy.^ A.D. - In 813, Krum led a large army of Slavs and Avars against Byzantium and be sieged Constantinople without success.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They led the two armies into a series of successful assault missions.

^ He met Napolean Bonaparte and he led the army with him.

.At the Battle of Lodi he defeated Austrian forces, then drove them out of Lombardy.^ Taborite forces led by Prokop the Great were defeated and almost annihilated in the Battle of Lipany , effectively ending the Hussite Wars .

^ Taft defeated Roosevelt for the Republican nomination in a bruising battle in 1912 that forced Roosevelt out of the GOP and left Taft people in charge for decades.
  • Printable Catalog - Marketplace Auction 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.ha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In America, an estimated 11,000 Northern soldiers were killed or wounded when Union forces were defeated by Confederates under General Robert E. Lee, at the Battle of Fredericksburg.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

[20] .He was defeated at Caldiero by Austrian reinforcements, led by József Alvinczi, though Bonaparte regained the initiative at the crucial Battle of the Bridge of Arcole and proceeded to subdue the Papal States.^ However, even though the English won every major battle and many of the smaller ones, relatively poor England was never able to subdue southern France, by far the wealthiest portion of France, which eventually led to the English losing the war.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Austrian Empire defeated Piedmont-Sardinia's campaign, and Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte sent troops to Rome to protect the Pope.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Austria invaded Italy, but the Italians, aided by French troops, defeated the Austrians at the battles of Magenta and Solferino.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[33] .Bonaparte argued against the wishes of Directory atheists to march on Rome and dethrone the Pope as he reasoned this would create a power vacuum that would be exploited by the Kingdom of Naples.^ Would not a junction of all the office-seeking parties against them have been suffered by the nation to expel them from power?
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was announced that American businessman Edmond Pope would be released from a Russian prison for humanitarian reasons.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ To ensure that one of her own sons would succeed to the throne, she did everything in her power to turn Sleyman against his eldest son and heir Mustafa.

.Instead, in March 1797, Bonaparte led his army into Austria and forced it to negotiate peace.^ He led his army of 12,000 troops, including 2.000 Amazons into battle.

^ This led to many Europeans feeling that it was a family affair that they had been dragged into and forced to endure.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ March on Rome); the fascist forces were largely inferior, but the king ordered the army not to intervene, formed an alliance with Mussolini, and convinced the liberal party to endorse a fascist-led government.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[34] .The Treaty of Leoben gave France control of most of northern Italy and the Low Countries and a secret clause promised the Republic of Venice to Austria.^ France controlled Algeria, and Italy controlled Somalia.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the family ruled over what might be, in theory, considered the most powerful country in Europe, the French monarchs had little control over their vassals, and many parts of France functioned as though they were independent states.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By secret treaty, Austria, Britain, and France formed a defensive alliance against Prusso-Russian plans to solve the Saxon and Polish problems.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

.Bonaparte marched on Venice and forced its surrender, ending 1,100 years of independence; he also authorised the French to loot treasures such as the Horses of Saint Mark.^ State of the French republic at the end of the year VIII. Translated from the French of Citizen Hauteriv e, Chef De Relations Exterieurs.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Carthage was forced to surrender its control over the western region of Sicily and this marked the end of the first Punic War.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This 2nd Punic War lasted 16 years (202 B.C. - ) at the end of which Carthage was forced to surrender all of its territory to Rome except for its capital city in North Africa.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35]
.His application of conventional military ideas to real-world situations effected his military triumphs, such as creative use of artillery as a mobile force to support his infantry.^ King Erik liked the idea but As he was forced to abdicate in 1568 he didn't get the chance to realize the extradition.

^ After seeing the horrors and atrocities of war during World War I, nations desired to avoid such a situation again in the future.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

He referred to his tactics thus: "I have fought sixty battles and I have learned nothing which I did not know at the beginning. .Look at Caesar; he fought the first like the last."^ B.C. - The Romans under Julius Caesar fought the first skirmishes with the Celts in England.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] .He was adept at espionage and deception and could win battles by concealment of troop deployments and concentration of his forces on the 'hinge' of an enemy's weakened front.^ Out of fear of a two front war, which Germany was nearly certain it could not win, it devised the plan to eliminate one of the fronts of the war before the other side could prepare.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.If he could not use his favourite envelopment strategy, he would take up the central position and attack two cooperating forces at their hinge, swing round to fight one until it fled, then turn to face the other.^ Then Savkville Street) All he could see was the Irish and the English fighting until the enemy was dead.

^ On this point we should not fear to take the opinion of any man who has been minister of England in the last thirty years, could we be sure that he would speak his real sentiments.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If the opposite party, or if independent electors, anxious only to elect the best man, could make up, not a half, or a third, or a tenth, but a bare twenty-second part of the number of actual voters, they would obtain one, at least, of the twenty-two representatives.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[37] .In this Italian campaign, Bonaparte's army captured 150,000 prisoners, 540 cannons and 170 standards.^ Some 20,000 Ro mans under Crassus were killed by the Par thian army and 10,000 were captured.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38] .The French army fought 67 actions and won 18 pitched battles through superior artillery technology and Bonaparte's tactics.^ I guess he has won the battle and this was the best battle he ever fought.

^ A.D. - Dmitrii Donskoi of Moscow and Rus princes in 1380 won a signal victory over Kipchak Army under rebelious general Mamai at Battle of Kulikovo .
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Through the Great Embassy, Peter acquired many important technological skills, especially military technology, such as naval instruments, army tactics, ship building techniques, and naval strategy.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[39]
.During the campaign, Bonaparte became increasingly influential in French politics.^ It became a political preference, and increasingly a recognised system.

^ Politically Influential Queen Henrietta Maria de France of England Very influential during the reign of her husband, Charles I (1625-49).

^ Politically Influential Empress Marie-Claire of Hati She was influential during the reign of her husband, Jean Jacques Dessalines.

.He published two newspapers, ostensibly for the troops in his army, but widely circulated in France as well, and in May 1797, founded a third newspaper, Le Journal de Bonaparte et des hommes vertueux, which was published in Paris.^ Le Journal des Débats.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Les mystères de Paris.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Le Journal de St. Petersburgh.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[40] .Elections in mid-1797 gave the royalist party more power and alarmed the Directory.^ Tomorrow they crown him, he is going to pardon the conspirators, this will ruin the Royalist party and depopularize it more.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After she led her party to victory in the December 1973 elections, she resigned in mid-1974.

^ In 1797, the first free elections were held, and the people of France astonished members of the Directory by electing a majority of royalists to the legislature.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[41] The royalists attacked Bonaparte for looting Italy and claimed he had overstepped his authority in dealings with the Austrians. .Bonaparte sent General Pierre Augereau to Paris to lead a coup d'état and purge the royalists on 4 September—18 Fructidor.^ In Turkey , General Cemal Gürsel leads a military coup d'état removing President Celal Bayar and the rest of the democratic government.

^ In an attempt to prevent freely elected royalists from taking control of the Directory in 1799, members of the bourgeois sent Napoleon Bonaparte and his army to defend the Directory and the annulment of the elections.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Unwilling to risk the reversal of everything achieved since 1789, left-wing members of the legislature, combined with support from the military, purged the Directory of rightist members in the coup of 18 Fructidor, which established a dictatorship controlled by left-wing Directors.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.This left Barras and his Republican allies in control again, but dependent on Bonaparte who proceeded to peace negotiations with Austria.^ The peace in 1748 was recognized as temporary by all, and in 1756 Austria and France allied in what was known as the Diplomatic Revolution.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.These negotiations resulted in the Treaty of Campo Formio, and Bonaparte returned to Paris in December as a hero, more popular than the Directors.^ These men that my fortune has raised after it had already more than enough for a marshall's baton.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These changes in Europe resulted in more calls for autonomy in the colonies, and the influence of Woodrow Wilson's proposed "self-determination" of nations grew.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The First Treaty of Paris is signed returning French borders to their 1792 extent.

[42] .He met with Talleyrand, France's new Foreign Minister—who would later serve in the same capacity for Emperor Napoleon—and they began to prepare for an invasion of England.^ Emperor Napoleon I of France arrives at Portoferraio on the island of Elba to begin his exile.

^ The revolutionaries in France established a new government in order to accomplish what they desired.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then she met the warmen of world war 1 , man they are serious!She left quite soon there because she would have got hurt , and that would of not been good.Napoleon was the best!

[20]

Egyptian expedition

Small figure on a horse looks towards a giant statue in the desert, with a blue sky
Bonaparte Before the Sphinx, (ca. 1868) by Jean-Léon Gérôme, Hearst Castle
.After two months of planning, Bonaparte decided France's naval power was not yet strong enough to confront the Royal Navy in the English Channel and proposed a military expedition to seize Egypt and thereby undermine Britain's access to its trade interests in India.^ There were also two military expeditions to the Crimea.

^ At the Washington Naval Conference in 1921, the United States, Great Britain, France, Japan, and Italy agreed to build no new battleships for ten years and to reduce the current size of their navies.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The ultimate goal of Peter's foreign policy was to obtain warm water ports for his nation, which were essential for trade, naval power, and access to the west.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[20] .Bonaparte wished to establish a French presence in the Middle East, with the ultimate dream of linking with a Muslim enemy of the British in India, Tipu Sultan.^ As a result, trade with Asia and India was made considerably easier because travellers would no longer have to travel through the Middle East.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sepoy mutiny (1857–1858) - Rebellions against British colonial rule in India; caused the end of the British East India Company's rule in India, and led to a century of direct rule of India by Britain.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In Asia, the British, Dutch and French all established or expanded their colonies.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[43] .Napoleon assured the Directory that "as soon as he had conquered Egypt, he will establish relations with the Indian princes and, together with them, attack the English in their possessions."[44] According to a February 1798 report by Talleyrand: "Having occupied and fortified Egypt, we shall send a force of 15,000 men from Suez to India, to join the forces of Tipu-Sahib and drive away the English."[44] The Directory, though troubled by the scope and cost of the enterprise, agreed so the popular general would be absent from the centre of power.^ Austria signed the Declaration of Pillnitz (1791), which stated that if the other powers attack France, so would Austria.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With their help the prince lost no time in occupying the Jind fort and established his government after putting the Rani the puppet of the British government to the sword.

^ Austria, the U.S. and six other countries agreed on the broad outline of a plan that would compensate Nazi-Era forced labor.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

[45]
.In May 1798, Bonaparte was elected a member of the French Academy of Sciences.^ She was Member of the Politburo 1973-89, Minister and Chairperson of the Academy of Science and first Vice-Chairperson of the Council of Ministers and 1979-89.

^ The Archduchess was member of a number of Imperial Academies of Art and was interested in science and music.

His Egyptian expedition included a group of 167 scientists: mathematicians, naturalists, chemists and geodesists among them; their discoveries included the Rosetta Stone and their work was published in the Description de l'Égypte in 1809.[46]
En route to Egypt, Bonaparte reached Malta on 9 June 1798, then controlled by the Knights Hospitaller. .The two hundred Knights of French origin did not support the Grand Master, Prussian Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim, who had succeeded a Frenchman, and made it clear they would not fight against their compatriots.^ They were succeeded by son, Johann Karl, who had two sons.

^ "STOP!" I cried pleading they would see me.They did.

^ Auntie, isn't the grand Master of the Dressing Room the one who -- ?
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hompesch surrendered after token resistance and Bonaparte captured a very important naval base with the loss of only three men.^ Well -- but it is impossible that Bonaparte with his 40,000 men can still resist.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

[47]
Battle of the Pyramids, Francois-Louis-Joseph Watteau, 1798-1799
General Bonaparte and his expedition eluded pursuit by the Royal Navy and on 1 July landed at Alexandria.[20] .Bonaparte successfully fought the Battle of Chobrakit against the Mamluks, an old power in the Middle East.^ You will see the famous battle of the pyramids won by General-in-Chief Bonaparte over the ferocious Mourad-Bey, the most powerful leader of the Mameluks.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

.This helped the French plan their attack in the Battle of the Pyramids fought over a week later, about 6 km from the pyramids.^ She stayed in Gottorp for about one year and in 1700 her only child, Karl Friedrich (1700-39), was born, and two years later her husband was killed in battle.

^ German and French forces fought the Battle of Artois.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Joseph Joffre, General (1852-1931) - Catalan French general; helped counter the Schlieffen Plan through retreat and counterattack at the First Battle of the Marne.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.General Bonaparte's forces were greatly outnumbered by the Mamluks' cavalry—20,000 against 60,000—but he formed hollow squares with supplies kept safely inside.^ That practice, at last, by force of general feeling against the vehement remonstrances of those who had the power of inflicting the brutality, has been almost abolished.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In America, an estimated 11,000 Northern soldiers were killed or wounded when Union forces were defeated by Confederates under General Robert E. Lee, at the Battle of Fredericksburg.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ It was only in 1735 that she gained political influence, forming a party against the Spanish Council in Vienna, but also her daughter kept her away from the government.

.300 French and approximately 6,000 Egyptians were killed.^ An Earthquake kills about 300,000 people in Syria and Antiochia .

^ In south-central Sri Lanka flash floods and landslides killed at least 300 people and drove some 150,000 people from their homes.

[48]
.On 1 August, the British fleet under Horatio Nelson captured or destroyed all but two French vessels in the Battle of the Nile and Bonaparte's goal of a strengthened French position in the Mediterranean Sea was frustrated.^ Bonaparte, and the French people under his consulate.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (World War I) Battle of Jutland (1916) - Largest naval battle of World War I; fought in the North Sea between British and German fleets.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In Asia, the British, Dutch and French all established or expanded their colonies.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[49] His army had nonetheless succeeded in a temporary increase of French power in Egypt, though it faced repeated uprisings.[50] .In early 1799, he moved the army into the Ottoman province of Damascus (Syria and Galilee).^ B.C. - 150 B.C. - Early in the 2nd cen tury B .C. -the Romans made Macedo nia into a province and obliterated the city .
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bonaparte led these 13,000 French soldiers in the conquest of the coastal towns of Arish, Gaza, Jaffa, and Haifa.^ Decembrists - Officers of the Russian Army that led 3,000 soldiers in the Decembrist Revolt, an attempted uprising at Senate Square in December, 1825.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[51] .The attack on Jaffa was particularly brutal: Bonaparte, on discovering many of the defenders were former prisoners of war, ostensibly on parole, ordered the garrison and 1,400 prisoners to be executed by bayonet or drowning to save bullets.^ In Argentina, five former military junta members received sentences in prison for their roles in the "dirty war" in which nearly 9,000 people had "disappeared."
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1613, Ma offended a court eunuch, was arrested and died in prison, and she was ordered to take her husbands former military office.

^ Former U.S. Attorney General John N. Mitchell was released on parole after serving 19 months at a federal prison in Alabama.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

[49] .Men, women and children were robbed and murdered for three days.^ After the death of her last son, Raja Ravi Vama, Raja, she adopted an entire family from the House of Kolatbunad, the Koil Tampurans of Kilimanur - three men and three women.

^ The U.S. Seventh Cavalry massacred over 400 men, women and children at Wounded Knee Creek, SD. This was the last major conflict between Indians and U.S. troops.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

[52]
.With his army weakened by disease — mostly bubonic plague — and poor supplies, Bonaparte was unable to reduce the fortress of Acre, and returned to Egypt in May.^ She also visited Hungary, Italy and Egypt where she embarked on her return journey to a Bhopal struck by plague.

[49] To speed up the retreat, he ordered plague-stricken men to be poisoned.[53] His supporters have argued this decision was necessary given the continued harassment of stragglers by Ottoman forces and those left behind alive were indeed tortured and beheaded by the Ottomans. Back in Egypt, on 25 July, Bonaparte defeated an Ottoman amphibious invasion at Abukir.[54]

Ruler of France

Cartoon with many men fleeing over upturned tables as Bonaparte stands raising his hand towards them and his soldiers advance with bayonets
"EXIT LIBERTÈ a la FRANCOIS ! or BUONAPARTE closing the Farce of Egalitè, at St. Cloud near Paris Nov. 10th. 1799", British satirical depiction of the 18 Brumaire coup d'état, by James Gillray.
While in Egypt, Bonaparte stayed informed of European affairs through irregular delivery of newspapers and dispatches. .He learned France had suffered a series of defeats in the War of the Second Coalition.^ The War of the Second Coalition 1798 to 1801, a strategic commentary.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Austria suffered many defeats in the Napoleonic Wars of the late 1700 s and early 1800 s.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, Bismarck required France to hold elections so that he could negotiate a peace.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[55] .On 24 August 1799, he took advantage of the temporary departure of British ships from French coastal ports and set sail for France, despite the fact he had received no explicit orders from Paris.^ On May 28, 1588, the Armada, with 131 ships and 30,000 men had set sail.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ French explorer Jacques Cartier sets sail on his second voyage to North America with 3 ships, 110 men, and Chief Donnacona 's 2 sons (who Cartier kidnapped during his first voyage).

^ Japanese retainer and samurai under Oda Nobunaga 1588 - The last ship of the Spanish Armada sets sail from Lisbon heading for the English Channel .

[49] The army was left in the charge of Jean Baptiste Kléber.[56] .Unknown to Bonaparte, the Directory had sent him orders to return to ward off possible invasions of French soil but poor lines of communication meant the messages had failed to reach him.^ In order to be able to return to Germany and meet him, she became politically active and used her connections to the French government - the Foreign Minister Talleyrand or the Emperor himself.

^ In 1888 she formally petitioned the British to set up a Protectorate to head off what she believed to be imminent invasion by the French.

^ Kings sent executive orders and began to institute royal courts, and they lived off of money from the manors that they owned and fees from their vassals.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[55] .By the time he reached Paris in October, France's situation had been improved by a series of victories.^ The people of France at the time of 1789 were being influenced by the media, which did not help the situation.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

The Republic was bankrupt, however, and the ineffective Directory was unpopular with the French population.[57] The Directory discussed Bonaparte's "desertion" but was too weak to punish him.[55]
.Bonaparte was approached by one of the Directors, Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, for his support in a coup to overthrow the constitutional government.^ Bonaparte; Opinions; Gov- ernments and their supporters; Reply to M. de La- martine; The past and future of artillery; L'ldee Napoleonienne, 1840; Revision of the constitution, 1851; Miscellaneous papers, etc.: Papers relating to the coup d'etat.
  • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the Freikorps also sought to overthrow the Weimar Republic's government with a coup of their own in 1920, which failed when German workers responded with a general strike.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Coup d'état - Sudden overthrow of a government, typically done by a small group that only replaces the top power figures.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.The leaders of the plot included his brother Lucien Bonaparte; the speaker of the Council of Five Hundred, Roger Ducos; another Director, Joseph Fouché; and Talleyrand.^ Confidential correspondence of Napoleon Bonaparte with his brother Joseph.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The gentle Bonaparte; a biography of Joseph, Napoleon's elder brother.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Directory was the first constitutional republic, which had an executive body of five directors, as well as a bicameral legislative body consisting of the Council of Ancients and the Council of 500.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.On 9 November—18 Brumaire by the French Republican Calendar—Bonaparte was charged with the safety of the legislative councils, who were persuaded to remove to the Château de Saint-Cloud, to the west of Paris, after a rumour of a Jacobin rebellion was spread by the plotters.^ November a French commissoner took charge.

^ Saint-Aubin, Augustin de (1736-1807) French School.
  • Full text of "Catalog of the Gardiner Greene Hubbard Collection of engravings" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hodson, W. The life of Napoleon Bonaparte, once emperor of the French, who died in exile at St. Helena, after a captivity of six years' duration.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58] .By the following day, the deputies had realised they faced an attempted coup.^ The four queens were able rulers and they all survived several coup attempts amid a fluctuating political situation in the region.

^ In 1861 she survived an assassination attempt, but the following year they letf the country after an uprising and spend the rest of their life in exile in Bavaria.

.Faced with their remonstrations, Bonaparte led troops to seize control and disperse them, which left a rump legislature to name Bonaparte, Sièyes, and Ducos as provisional Consuls to administer the government.^ A provisional government took control of Hawaii.

^ Napoleon seized control and initially installed an enlightened despotism known as the Consulate .
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While her husband was directing military campaigns in Ireland and on the Continent, Mary administered the government in her own name, but she relied entirely on his advice.

[49]

French Consulate

Portrait painting of a horse rearing up at a 45-degree angle with a man sitting on it and pointing forwards with his right hand whilst holding onto the reins with his left
Detail from Napoleon Crossing the Alps (1800)
.Though Sieyès expected to dominate the new regime, he was outmanoeuvred by Bonaparte, who drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul.^ (NFL) 1974 - Private U.S. citizens were allowed to buy and own gold for the first time in more than 40 years.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Hodson, W. The life of Napoleon Bonaparte, once emperor of the French, who died in exile at St. Helena, after a captivity of six years' duration.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, you can see the battle of Marengo, won by the First-Consul Bonaparte.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

[59] .This made Bonaparte the most powerful person in France and he took up residence at the Tuileries.^ On the flogging of grown-up persons public opinion is made up.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first successful gasoline-powered airplane flight took place near Kitty Hawk, NC. Orville and Wilbur Wright made the flight.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Well I fort they wore really good here is a rime a made up about them:Hairosniff is great Hairosniff s good but most of it is COOL. By Emily858pop .

[49]
.In 1800, Bonaparte and his troops crossed the Alps into Italy, where French forces had been almost completely driven out by the Austrians whilst he was in Egypt.^ Alps into Italy.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British and French forces began a withdrawal from Egypt during the Suez War.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ He took his forces into southern Italy and successfully conquered Naples and the two Sicilies.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[note .6] The campaign began badly for the French after Bonaparte made strategic errors; one force was left besieged at Genoa but managed to hold out and thereby occupy Austrian resources.^ British and French forces began a withdrawal from Egypt during the Suez War.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Her father and brother had left her with large debts but she managed to bring the financial situation back in order, and was one of the chief creditors of the kingdom.

^ AAAAAAAAArrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrgggggggggggggggggggggggg.Went the dinosaurs.Later on perfy found a cave and made tools out of rock,then he went back to the time machine and used the tools to build a new one.

[61] .This effort and French general Desaix's timely reinforcements, allowed Bonaparte to narrowly avoid defeat and triumph over the Austrians in June at the significant Battle of Marengo.^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of the French, containing numerous anecdotes of his court and times.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Road to Empire the life and times of Bonaparte, the general.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An historical account of the battle of Waterloo, fought on the 18th of June, 1815, between the Anglo-Allied army, under the command of the Duke of Wellington, supported by a part of t he Prussian army commanded by Prince Blucher of Wahlstadt, and the French army, under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bonaparte's brother Joseph led the peace negotiations in Lunéville and reported that Austria, emboldened by British support, would not recognise France's newly gained territory.^ The journal of a British chaplain in Paris during the peace negotiations of 1801-2.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Austria signed the Declaration of Pillnitz (1791), which stated that if the other powers attack France, so would Austria.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Confidential correspondence of Napoleon Bonaparte with his brother Joseph.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As negotiations became increasingly fractious, Bonaparte gave orders to his general Moreau to strike Austria once more.^ He gave hospitals, socialized medicine, the right to unionize and strike, shorter hours, injured worker homes, a revamped prison system, and more.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Moreau led France to victory at Hohenlinden.^ She explained how she lived in eastern France and how she led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War!

.As a result, the Treaty of Lunéville was signed in February 1801: the French gains of the Treaty of Campo Formio were reaffirmed and increased.^ The First Treaty of Paris is signed returning French borders to their 1792 extent.

^ As a result, in March 1918, the new Russian government, represented by Leon Trotsky, signed an armistice treaty with Germany, removing the eastern front of the war for Germany.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In February 1890, the French occupied Cotonou and Behanzin prepared for war which resulted in a treaty, with the French continuing to occupy Cotonou, for which Behanzin exacted an annuity.

[62]

Temporary peace in Europe

.Bonaparte set up a camp at Boulogne-sur-Mer to prepare for an invasion of Britain but both countries had become tired of war and signed the Treaty of Amiens in October 1801 and March 1802; this included the withdrawal of British troops from most colonial territories it had recently occupied.^ With men such as you, our cause was not lost -- but the war was interminable -- it had become a civil war and France was only becoming most unfortunate.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sepoy mutiny (1857–1858) - Rebellions against British colonial rule in India; caused the end of the British East India Company's rule in India, and led to a century of direct rule of India by Britain.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ British and French forces began a withdrawal from Egypt during the Suez War.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

[61] .The peace was uneasy and short-lived; Britain did not evacuate Malta as promised and protested against Bonaparte's annexation of Piedmont and his Act of Mediation, which established a new Swiss Confederation, though neither of these territories were covered by the Treaty.^ And you call a brigand, an ogre, Napoleon, the Great, Emperor of the French and King of Italy, Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine, mediator of the Swiss Federation!
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In these, the West recognized the Soviet occupation of Eastern Europe, and the Soviets promised to respect the civil rights of people living in the occupied territories.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The New Yorkies loved it!By that time Einstein lived there ( only for 1 week though ) and perfy has always wanted to meet him .

[63] .The dispute culminated in a declaration of war by Britain in May 1803, and he reassembled the invasion camp at Boulogne.^ Britain and Canada also declared war on Japan.
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^ Further encouraged by the Allied invasion of Turkey in April 1915, Italy joined the Triple Entente and declared war on Austria-Hungary on May 23.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Britain declared war on France, beginning the French and Indian War.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

[49]
Bonaparte faced a major setback and eventual defeat in the Haitian Revolution. .By the Law of 20 May 1802 Bonaparte re-established slavery in France's colonial possessions, where it had been banned following the Revolution.^ In 1623, during the Thirty Years War, Essen received a Spanish garrison and Maria Clara the military power, the following year the re-catholisation-law was introduced, non-catholic books banned and the obligatory church attendance reintroduced.

^ A new law banned Catholic priests from the colony of Massachusetts.
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^ Ancien Régime ("Old Order") - the social and political system established in France under the absolute monarchy; removed by the French Revolution.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[64] Following a slave revolt, he sent an army to reconquer Saint-Domingue and establish a base. .The force was, however, destroyed by yellow fever and fierce resistance led by Haitian generals Toussaint Louverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines.^ Politically Influential Empress Marie-Claire of Hati She was influential during the reign of her husband, Jean Jacques Dessalines.

^ After two years of war, the Dutch, led by Michiel de Ruyter,destroyed or captured much of the British fleet at Medway, and England was forced to sue for peace.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[note .7] Faced by imminent war against Britain and bankruptcy, he recognised French possessions on the mainland of North America would be indefensible and sold them to the United States—the Louisiana Purchase—for less than three cents per acre ($7.40 per km²).^ THREE years in North America.
  • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ British Prime Minister Neville Chabmerlain responded to the occupation of Czechoslovakia by giving a guarantee to Poland that Britain would go to war against Germany if Germany attacked Poland.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Believing that a French invasion of Ireland was imminent, Irish nationalists rose up against the British occupation.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

[66]

Reforms

.Bonaparte instituted lasting reforms, including centralised administration of the departments, higher education, a tax code, road and sewer systems and the Banque de France—the country's central bank.^ Institut de France.
  • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ He engag es in many large building programs, including a system of roads.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sovereign Princess Isabelle-Louise de Bourbon of Carency (France) Her brother, Betrand died in 1515 as the last male of the line.

He negotiated the Concordat of 1801 with the Catholic Church, which sought to reconcile the mostly Catholic population to his regime. .It was presented alongside the Organic Articles, which regulated public worship in France.^ In 1520, however, the she went to France alongside Henry and was present at the great meeting of the 'Field of the Cloth of Gold'.

.Later that year, Bonaparte became President of the French Academy of Sciences and appointed Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre its Permanent Secretary.^ In 1690 her husband appointed her head of an eventual regency government, but she died three years later.

^ She became extremely rich, and her sisters and her husband's relatives and later their descendants fought over the inheritance, which was not settled for another 100 years.

^ Princess-Abbess Johanna Maria von Holdinghausen of Keppel (Germany) She joined the Chapter in 1655, and 11 years later she became Catholic.

[46] .In May 1802, he instituted the Légion d'Honneur, a substitute for the old royalist decorations and orders of chivalry, to encourage civilian and military achievements; the order is still the highest decoration in France.^ Ancien Régime ("Old Order") - the social and political system established in France under the absolute monarchy; removed by the French Revolution.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[67] .His powers were increased by the Constitution of the Year X including: Article 1. The French people name, and the Senate proclaims Napoleon-Bonaparte First Consul for Life.[68] After this he was generally referred to as Napoleon rather than Bonaparte.^ Napoleon Bonaparte, what are the consequences of power?
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bonaparte, and the French people under his consulate.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A life of Napoleon Bonaparte: with sketches of Josephine, empress of the French.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]
.Napoleon's set of civil laws, the Code Civil—now often known as the Napoleonic code—was prepared by committees of legal experts under the supervision of Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès, the Second Consul.^ Napoleon seized control and initially installed an enlightened despotism known as the Consulate .
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Simon, Jean Cathelin, Louis Jacques L a r m e s s i n , Nicolas de, III. 469 Page 12 168 298 59 185 LOUIS XVI., King of France.
  • Full text of "Catalog of the Gardiner Greene Hubbard Collection of engravings" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Napoleonic code - French code of civil law, established by Napoléon on March 21, 1804, to reform the French legal system in accordance with the principles of the French Revolution.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

Napoleon participated actively in the sessions of the Council of State that revised the drafts. .The development of the Code was a fundamental change in the nature of the civil law legal system with its stress on clearly written and accessible law.^ Napoleonic code - French code of civil law, established by Napoléon on March 21, 1804, to reform the French legal system in accordance with the principles of the French Revolution.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sir Thomas Gates institutes "laws divine moral and marshal," a harsh civil code for Jamestown.
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^ Harris, J 1109.13 MAN. Atkinson, H. G. Laws of the nature and development of 137.18 Combe, G. Constitution of.
  • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

.Other codes were commissioned by Napoleon to codify criminal and commerce law; a Code of Criminal Instruction was published, which enacted rules of due process.^ Napoleonic code - French code of civil law, established by Napoléon on March 21, 1804, to reform the French legal system in accordance with the principles of the French Revolution.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They enacted codified, uniform laws, repressed local authority, nobles, and the church, and often acted impulsively and instilled change at an incredibly fast rate.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The most important of these is his Napoleonic Code, which provided freedom of religion, a uniform law code, social and legal equality, property rights, and ended feudal dues.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[69] See Legacy.

French Empire

.
Slim man with brown hair in his mid-thirties sitting on a throne with a very large ermine cloak that has mink trimmings.</span><span class=^ PAEDOE, J. Episodes of French history during the consulate and the first empire.
  • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

.He holds a long thin staff in his right hand, his left hand rests on his knee and he wears a golden laurel wreath."^ Seated, holding money in right hand, scepter in left.
  • Full text of "Catalog of the Gardiner Greene Hubbard Collection of engravings" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Seated, holding sword with right hand, dagger with left.
  • Full text of "Catalog of the Gardiner Greene Hubbard Collection of engravings" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Perfy whizzed of to the battlefield and met French leader Napolean and they shock with left hand as his right was in his jacket like normal.

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/11/1/3/0/11493432001997656.jpg" width="140" height="227" class="thumbimage" />
.Napoleon faced royalist and Jacobin plots as France's ruler, including the Conspiration des poignards [Daggers conspiracy] in October 1800 and the Plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise two months later.^ Two years later Juan de Avila was appointed governor.

^ In two months they copied it plank by plank and built 100 like it and eventually the Roman fleet was able to de feat the Carthaginians.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1657 she married Henri II, Duke de Nemours, a near-invalid, who died two years later, leaving her childless.

[70] .In January 1804, his police uncovered an assassination plot against him which involved Moreau and which was ostensibly sponsored by the Bourbon former rulers of France.^ The era of absolutism, exemplified by the "Sun King" Louis XIV Bourbon of France, marks the rise of rulers throughout Europe who had absolute power over their nations.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

On the advice of Talleyrand, Napoleon ordered the kidnapping of the Duke of Enghien, in violation of neighbouring Baden's sovereignty. After a secret trial the Duke was executed, even though he had not been involved in the plot.[71]
.Napoleon used the plot to justify the re-creation of a hereditary monarchy in France, with himself as Emperor, as a Bourbon restoration would be more difficult if the Bonapartist succession was entrenched in the constitution.^ Restoration of monarchy in France.
  • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Perfy took a picture with Charles and went to 1815 where he found Napoleon I of France being proclaimed the Emperor of France.

^ Died- 5 May 1821 (aged 51) He told me some more great facts; like how he was a French senate, but became overwhelmed with power and proclaimed himself Emperor of France.

[72] .Napoleon crowned himself Emperor Napoleon I on 2 December 1804 at Notre Dame de Paris and then crowned Joséphine Empress.^ NOTRE Dame dc Paris.
  • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Souvenirs de Napoleon I. Paris, 1854.
  • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Paris, to the Emperor Napoleon, at Dresden; intercepted by the advanced troops of the Allies in the north of Germany.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Claims that he seized the crown out of the hands of Pope Pius VII during the ceremony—to avoid his subjugation to the authority of the pontiff—are apocryphal; the coronation procedure had been agreed in advance.^ Napoleon I of France orders the annexation of the Papal States to the French Empire Pope Pius VII responded by excommunicating Napoleon.

^ An authentic narrative of the seizure and removal of Pope Pius VII).
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The emperor and the pope; the story of Napoleon and Pius VII. New York, Doubleday, 1961.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[note .8] At Milan Cathedral on 26 May 1805, Napoleon was crowned King of Italy with the Iron Crown of Lombardy.^ And you call a brigand, an ogre, Napoleon, the Great, Emperor of the French and King of Italy, Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine, mediator of the Swiss Federation!
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who looks like a king so he got a little closer and it was Napoleon the leader of france but what was he doing in italy?Napoleon started running towards Perfy.

^ Napoleon, by the constitution of the Empire, Emperor of the French, and King of Italy.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

.He created eighteen Marshals of the Empire from amongst his top generals, to secure the allegiance of the army.^ Authentic anecdotes of the battlefield as told by the famous marshals and generals of the first empire.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ludwig van Beethoven, a long-time admirer, was disappointed at this turn towards imperialism, and scratched his dedication to Napoleon from his 3rd Symphony.[72]

War of the Third Coalition

.By 1805, Britain had convinced Austria and Russia to join a Third Coalition against France.^ In these wars, Napoleon I of France fought an alliance of European states that included-in addition to Austria- the United Kingdom, Prussia, and Russia.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First Coalition : Napoleon I of France wins a decisive victory against Austrian forces at Lodi bridge over the River Adda in Italy .

^ By secret treaty, Austria, Britain, and France formed a defensive alliance against Prusso-Russian plans to solve the Saxon and Polish problems.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

.Napoleon knew the French fleet could not defeat the Royal Navy in a head-to-head battle and planned to lure it away from the English Channel.^ Japanese retainer and samurai under Oda Nobunaga 1588 - The last ship of the Spanish Armada sets sail from Lisbon heading for the English Channel .

^ Napoleon Bonaparte leads his French troops into the Battle of Bautzen in Saxony , Germany , against the combined armies of Russia and Prussia .

^ This, coupled with the so-called "Protestant Wind" that blew the Spanish ships through the English Channel, resulted in the Spanish defeat.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.The French Navy would escape from the British blockades of Toulon and Brest and threaten to attack the West Indies, thus drawing off the British defence of the Western Approaches, in the hope a Franco-Spanish fleet could take control of the Channel long enough for French armies to cross from Boulogne and invade England.^ British Prime Minister Neville Chabmerlain responded to the occupation of Czechoslovakia by giving a guarantee to Poland that Britain would go to war against Germany if Germany attacked Poland.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite the fact that the Dahomey army was armed only with rifles while the French had machine guns and cannons, the Amazons attacked when the French troops attempted a river crossing, inflicting heavy casualties.

^ England and France had secretly agreed to split the Netherlands between themselves, but after defeats at sea, and unable the cross the waterline, the French Army began a slow and cautious retreat out of the Republic.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[73] .However, after defeat at the naval Battle of Cape Finisterre in July 1805 and Admiral Villeneuve's retreat to Cadiz, invasion was never again a realistic option for Napoleon.^ However, Napoleon quickly raised a new army, but this army was crushed by the Quadruple Alliance of England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia at the Battle of Nations/Leipzig in 1813.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Franco-Prussian war lasted from 1870-1871, and resulted in the defeat of Emperor Napoleon III. He was captured on September 2, 1870 at the Battle of Sedan.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Napoleon failed to subdue England, and was defeated in his attempt to crush the English Navy at the Battle of Trafalgar by Admiral Nelson.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[74]
Instead, he ordered the army stationed at Boulogne, his Grande Armée, to secretly march to Germany in a turning movement—the Ulm Campaign. .This encircled the Austrian forces about to attack France and severed their lines of communication.^ First Coalition : Napoleon I of France wins a decisive victory against Austrian forces at Lodi bridge over the River Adda in Italy .

.On 20 October 1805, the French captured 30,000 prisoners at Ulm, though the next day Britain's victory at the Battle of Trafalgar meant the Royal Navy gained control of the seas.^ The German submarine U-110 was captured at sea by Britain's Royal navy.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ The battle ends the next day with a French victory.

^ But a few days later, two powerful Sandhanvalia Sardars, Atar Singh and Ajit Singh, collaterals of the royal contenders for the throne, arrived in Lahore and took over control.

.Six weeks later, on the first anniversary of his coronation, Napoleon defeated Austria and Russia at Austerlitz.^ However, Napoleon quickly raised a new army, but this army was crushed by the Quadruple Alliance of England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia at the Battle of Nations/Leipzig in 1813.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon was undefeated against his three main continental enemies, defeating Austria, Russia, and Prussia multiple times.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some states, such as Russia and Austria, failed to industrialize significantly in this period, a factor that would lead to later difficulties during the First World War.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

This ended the Third Coalition and he commissioned the Arc de Triomphe to commemorate the victory. .Austria had to concede territory: the Peace of Pressburg led to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire and creation of the Confederation of the Rhine with Napoleon named as its Protector.^ Napoleon eliminated the Holy Roman Empire, and in 1806 consolidated it into 40 states and named it the Confederation of the Rhine.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Holy Roman Empire 90 , 114 .
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And you call a brigand, an ogre, Napoleon, the Great, Emperor of the French and King of Italy, Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine, mediator of the Swiss Federation!
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

[75]
.Napoleon would go on to say that "The battle of Austerlitz is the finest of all I have fought."^ If that's all you have to say to me, go!
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The calculations that Perfy made was meant to go to the past when Albert Einstein was alive.Perfy loved Albert Einstein with all of the inventions she was sure she would meet him.

^ Waterloo Memoirs; or, Record of all the events connected with, and arising out of, the battles fought on the 16th, 17th, and 18th of June, 1815, in the Netherlands.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[76] Frank McLynn suggests Napoleon was so successful at Austerlitz he lost touch with reality, and what used to be French foreign policy became a "personal Napoleonic one".[77] Vincent Cronin disagrees, stating Napoleon was not overly ambitious for himself, that "he embodied the ambitions of thirty million Frenchmen".[78]

Middle-Eastern alliances

A group of men, some wearing beards and turbans, are in a room with a large painting on the wall, they look towards a doorway wear a man in military uniform including white johphurs (Napoleon) looks back at them and has his right hand in his waistcoat.
The Persian Envoy Mirza Mohammed Reza-Qazvini meets with Napoleon I at the Finkenstein castle, 27 April 1807, by François Mulard
.Even after the failed campaign in Egypt, Napoleon continued to entertain a grand scheme to establish a French presence in the Middle East.^ Napoleonic code - French code of civil law, established by Napoléon on March 21, 1804, to reform the French legal system in accordance with the principles of the French Revolution.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gifford, E. Memoirs of the life and campaigns of Napoleon Buonaparte in France, Italy, Germany, Egypt, Syria, Spain, Poland, Portugal, and Russia.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] .An alliance with Middle-Eastern powers would have the strategic advantage of pressuring Russia on its southern border.^ Treaties of Tilsit (1807) - Treaties ending war between Russia and France; began a powerful secret alliance between the two countries.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.From 1803, Napoleon went to considerable lengths to try to convince the Ottoman Empire to fight against Russia in the Balkans and join his anti-Russian coalition.^ After the third partition of Poland in 1795 she contacted with Central Assembly, patriotic organisation, who prepared the military fight against Russian domination in Poland.

^ Napoleon was undefeated against his three main continental enemies, defeating Austria, Russia, and Prussia multiple times.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon Bonaparte leads his French troops into the Battle of Bautzen in Saxony , Germany , against the combined armies of Russia and Prussia .

[79] .Napoleon sent General Horace Sebastiani as envoy extraordinary, promising to help the Ottoman Empire recover lost territories.^ The Austrian Empire defeated Piedmont-Sardinia's campaign, and Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte sent troops to Rome to protect the Pope.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Consequently extensive territories were lost to Ottomans, including most of Azerbaijan, with Tabriz, and Georgia.

^ During the Napoleonic Wars the family lost much of their territories.

[79] .In February 1806, following Napoleon's victory at Austerlitz and the ensuing dismemberment of the Habsburg Empire, the Ottoman Emperor Selim III finally recognized Napoleon as Emperor, formally opting for an alliance with France "our sincere and natural ally", and war with Russia and England.^ Napoleon III: the modern emperor.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, England declares war on France.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Napoleon III and the Rhine; the origin of the war of 1870 - 1871.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[80] .A Franco-Persian alliance was also formed, from 1807 to 1809, between Napoleon and the Persian Empire of Fath Ali Shah, against Russia and Great Britain.^ A German conscript with Napoleon Jakob Walter's recollections of the campaigns of 1806-1807, 1809, and 1812-1813, according to a manuscript found at Lecompton, Kansas.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Napoleon annexed the German territories on the Baltic, including her husband's Grand Duchy, her brother protested against what he considered a personal offense, and together with other events this resulted in the war between France and Russia.

^ Supplementary Slave Trade Convention between France and Great Britain” (22 Mar., 1833).
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The alliance ended when France allied with Russia and turned its focus to European campaigns.^ Treaties of Tilsit (1807) - Treaties ending war between Russia and France; began a powerful secret alliance between the two countries.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Keeping its alliance with France, Russia's armies invaded Germany's easternmost province, East Prussia, in August.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, France, desperate for allies after the Franco-Prussian war, had cultivated a friendship with Russia.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[43]

War of the Fourth Coalition

Napoleon, on a horse, looks across a line of bearskinned-hatted troops, one of the soldiers is breaking ranks and holding his hat up gesturing towards Napoleon
Napoleon reviews his troops shortly before the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt (14 October 1806), as painted by Horace Vernet
.The Fourth Coalition was assembled in 1806, and Napoleon defeated Prussia at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt in October.^ Napoleon's conquest of Prussia - 1806.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Napoleon quickly raised a new army, but this army was crushed by the Quadruple Alliance of England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia at the Battle of Nations/Leipzig in 1813.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1918, the Austro-Hungarians failed to break through, in a series of battles on the Asiago Plateau, finally being decisively defeated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto in October of that year.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[81] He marched against advancing Russian armies through Poland, and was involved in the bloody stalemate of the Battle of Eylau on 6 February 1807.[82]
.After a decisive victory at Friedland, he signed the Treaties of Tilsit; one with Tsar Alexander I of Russia which divided the continent between the two powers; the other with Prussia which stripped that country of half its territory.^ Treaties of Tilsit (1807) - Treaties ending war between Russia and France; began a powerful secret alliance between the two countries.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Peace treaty between Russia and Prussia .

^ Alexander III is crowned Tsar of Russia .

.Napoleon placed puppet rulers on the thrones of German states, including his brother Jérôme as king of the new Kingdom of Westphalia.^ He saw Napoleon, a king and ruler.

^ Jovial king, Napoleon's youngest brother.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1867, Prussia established the North German Confederation, made up of 21 small northern states with a constitution and Kaiser Wilhelm as king.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the French-controlled part of Poland, he established the Duchy of Warsaw with King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony as ruler.^ He tried to rule Sweden from Poland but his uncle (duke Charles, later king Charles IX) took full control of Sweden.

^ Schleswig and Holstein were German duchies whose ruler was also the Danish king, Frederick VII. Frederick's death in 1863 caused consternation amongst German nationalists as his successor, Christian IX, decided to annex Schleswig and Holstein, and make the German duchies into part of the Danish state.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The most powerful vassals of the French kings were the Plantagenet dynasty of England, who, through their Angevin ancestry, ruled large parts of western France.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[83]
.With his Milan and Berlin Decrees, Napoleon attempted to enforce a Europe-wide commercial boycott of Britain called the Continental System.^ Industry of Britain, western Europe, and the United States developed within the system of capitalism .
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Continental System - Foreign economic warfare policy of Napoléon, consisting of an embargo against Great Britain, which failed.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result, Napoleon employed the Continental System, a method of economic warfare.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.This act of economic warfare did not succeed, as it encouraged British merchants to smuggle into continental Europe and Napoleon's exclusively land-based customs enforcers could not stop them.^ As a result, Napoleon employed the Continental System, a method of economic warfare.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From there, merchants spread the disease to Constantinople, where it propagated throughout Europe, first by ship to Mediterranean ports such as Messina and Genoa, and then by land in all directions.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The balance of power was not taken into consideration by France or England because the partitioning did not upset the great powers of Europe.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[84]

Peninsular War

.Portugal did not comply with the Continental System so, in 1807, Napoleon invaded with the support of Spain.^ In 1801 the Spanish dictator Manuel de Godoy invaded Portugal with backing from Napoleon, but was forced to abandon the campaign in the same year.

^ As a result, Napoleon employed the Continental System, a method of economic warfare.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As the politicians and military leaders did not know what to do, she personally met Napoleon I in Tilsit in 1807, and tried to limit the consequences of the Prussian defeat to the Napoleonic forces.

.Under the pretext of a reinforcement of the Franco-Spanish army occupying Portugal, Napoleon invaded Spain as well, replaced Charles IV with his brother Joseph and placed his brother-in-law Joachim Murat in Joseph's stead at Naples.^ In 1806 Naples was captured by Napoleon, and he installed his brother, Joseph, as King.

^ The Spanish mousetrap; Napoleon and the court of Spain.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Together with her sister-in-law, Sophia, she was also instrumental in securing that the emperor abdicated in favour of his nephew, Franz Joseph, rather than his brother, Franz Karl.

.This led to resistance from the Spanish army and civilians in the Dos de Mayo Uprising.^ In 1854 the British invaded the state, and she led the resistance against the British in the 1857-uprising.

^ Decembrists - Officers of the Russian Army that led 3,000 soldiers in the Decembrist Revolt, an attempted uprising at Senate Square in December, 1825.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ French-Mexican War : The Mexican army defeats the French army in the Battle of Puebla (on May 9 this day was made into the Cinco de mayo holiday).

[85] .Following a French retreat from much of the country, Napoleon took command and defeated the Spanish Army.^ They engaged in hand to hand combat with the survivors eventually forcing the French army to retreat, but was later defeated, and the Amazons burned fields, villages and cities rather than let them fall to the French.

^ After both her father and husband was killed and the Indonesian forces defeated by the Dutch, Dien took over both her late husbands and fathers army commands and led them in guerilla warfare Her second husband was Teuku Umar, who was another relative.

^ He also rewrote the old French feudal laws, which were confusing, creating a new Napoleonic Code of laws that were much clearer.

.He retook Madrid, then outmanoeuvred a British army sent to support the Spanish and drove it to the coast.^ In 1581, the Spanish army was sent to retake the United Provinces of the Netherlands, or the Dutch Republic, who had just declared their independence.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[86] .Before the Spanish population had been fully subdued, Austria again threatened war and Napoleon returned to France.^ The Napoleonic wars and German nationalism in Austria.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ France declared war on Austria.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Returning to France for a brief period of time before being forced to leave by Napoleon who said “She was the only man in her family” when Marie Therese gathered an army and refused to leave France.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[87]
Head and shoulders portrait of middle-aged man looking towards the viewer. He wears a red tunic with gold braid finishing
The Duke of Wellington in 1814 by Sir Thomas Lawrence
.The costly and often brutal Peninsular War continued in Napoleon's absence; in the second Siege of Saragossa most of the city was destroyed and over 50,000 people perished.^ She was leader in the Young Socialists prior to and during the war, member of the Provisoric People's Chamber 1949-50 and of the People's Chamber 1950-53 and 1967-90.

^ In Martinique , Mount Pelée erupts, destroying the town of St. Pierre and killing over 30,000 people.

^ Princess-Abbess Anna Christiane Hundbiss von Waltrams of Lindau (Germany) 1646-47 the City of Lindau was under siege during the 30th Year War.

[88] .Although Napoleon left 300,000 of his finest troops to battle Spanish guerrillas as well as British and Portuguese forces commanded by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, French control over the peninsula again deteriorated.^ Arthur Wellesley, 1st duke of Wellington was born in Dublin.

^ Napoleon was defeated at the Battle of Toulouse by the British and the Spanish.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ An historical account of the battle of Waterloo, fought on the 18th of June, 1815, between the Anglo-Allied army, under the command of the Duke of Wellington, supported by a part of t he Prussian army commanded by Prince Blucher of Wahlstadt, and the French army, under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[89] .Following several allied victories, the war concluded after Napoleon's abdication in 1814.[90] Napoleon later described the Peninsular War as central to his final defeat, writing in his memoirs That unfortunate war destroyed me...^ Napoleon's victories; from the personal memoirs of Capt.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Napoleonic Wars 90 .
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Memoirs of the war in Spain, from 1808 to 1814.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

All... my disasters are bound up in that fatal knot.
[91]

War of the Fifth Coalition and remarriage

.In April 1809, Austria abruptly broke its alliance with France and Napoleon was forced to assume command of forces on the Danube and German fronts.^ However, Napoleon quickly raised a new army, but this army was crushed by the Quadruple Alliance of England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia at the Battle of Nations/Leipzig in 1813.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She urged the appointment of the duc de Choiseul and other Ministers and encouraged the French alliance with Austria, which involved France in the Seven Years War.

^ By secret treaty, Austria, Britain, and France formed a defensive alliance against Prusso-Russian plans to solve the Saxon and Polish problems.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

.After early successes, the French faced difficulties in crossing the Danube and suffered a defeat in May at the Battle of Aspern-Essling near Vienna.^ War of Austrian Succession : Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy , French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army.

^ Battle of Ackia : British and Chickasaw Native Americans defeat French troops.

^ North-West Rebellion : The four-day Battle of Batoche , pitting rebel French Canadians against the Canadian government, comes to an end with a decisive rebel defeat.

The Austrians failed to capitalise on the situation and allowed Napoleon's forces to regroup. .He defeated the Austrians again at Wagram and a new peace, the Treaty of Schönbrunn, was signed between Austria and France.^ Peace treaty between Russia and Prussia .

^ Austrian Independence Treaty signed.

^ On May 1871, the Treaty of Frankfurt was signed, and France ceded Alsace-Lorraine and 5 billion gold francs to Germany.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[92]
.Britain was the other member of the coalition.^ The British government announced that seven Iraqi diplomats, another embassy staff member and 67 other Iraqis were being expelled from Britain.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

In addition to the Iberian Peninsula, the British planned to open another front in mainland Europe. However, Napoleon was able to rush reinforcements to Antwerp, owing to Britain's inadequately organised Walcheren Campaign.[93] .He concurrently annexed the Papal States because of the Church's refusal to support the Continental System; Pope Pius VII responded by excommunicating the emperor.^ Napoleon I of France orders the annexation of the Papal States to the French Empire Pope Pius VII responded by excommunicating Napoleon.

^ Anna's government was supported by the States and favoured a bi-confessional co-existance system.

^ Well, you will see if one refuses the baton of Marshall, because it is given to him from the hand of an Emperor.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Pope was then abducted by Napoleon's officers, and though Napoleon had not ordered his abduction, he did not order Pius' release.^ Napoleon I of France orders the annexation of the Papal States to the French Empire Pope Pius VII responded by excommunicating Napoleon.

^ Emperor Napoleon III also did so, widening the streets of Paris during his reconstruction of Paris in order to prevent barricading in the case of revolution.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The emperor and the pope; the story of Napoleon and Pius VII. New York, Doubleday, 1961.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Pope was moved throughout Napoleon's territories, sometimes while ill, and Napoleon sent delegations to pressure him on issues including agreement to a new concordat with France, which Pius refused.^ Napoleon I of France orders the annexation of the Papal States to the French Empire Pope Pius VII responded by excommunicating Napoleon.

^ All institutes were to be put under the jurisdiction of the bishop of the diocese in which the houses were situated; this corresponds to the main point of the Concordat arranged between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon, and which was still in force.

^ When Napoleon annexed the German territories on the Baltic, including her husband's Grand Duchy, her brother protested against what he considered a personal offense, and together with other events this resulted in the war between France and Russia.

.In 1810 Napoleon married the Austrian Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, following his divorce of Joséphine; this further strained his relations with the Church and thirteen cardinals were imprisoned for non-attendance at the marriage ceremony.^ Marie Louise, Napoleon's nemesis.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Napoleon and Marie Louise; the fall of the empire.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The marriage ventures of Marie-Louise.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[94] The Pope remained confined for 5 years, and did not return to Rome until May 1814.[95]
Map of Europe. <a name=.French Empire shown as slightly bigger than present day France as it included parts of present-day Netherlands and Italy."^ The original six members were France , (West) Germany , Italy , Belgium , Luxembourg , and the Netherlands .
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ LAING, S. Notes on France, Prussia, Switzer- land, Italy and ether parts of Europe.
  • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The most powerful vassals of the French kings were the Plantagenet dynasty of England, who, through their Angevin ancestry, ruled large parts of western France.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/10/3/6/0/61254101141701602.png" width="180" height="183" class="thumbimage" />
First French Empire at its greatest extent in 1811      French Empire      Conquered "rebellious" states      Allied states
.Napoleon consented to one of his marshals—and long-term rival—Bernadotte, ascent to the Swedish throne in November 1810. Napoleon had indulged Bernadotte's indiscretions because he was married to Désirée Clary, but came to regret sparing his life when Bernadotte later sided Sweden with France's enemies.^ Malthus suggested, as a solution to this problem, marrying later in life to slow the population growth, but he was not optimistic that this plan would ever come to fruition.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Well, you will see if one refuses the baton of Marshall, because it is given to him from the hand of an Emperor.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Marie Antoinette marries 15-year old Louis-Auguste who later becomes king of France .

[96]

Invasion of Russia

Gold 20 Franc Coin of Napoleon I, struck 1808
.Known as Napoleon Gold, the French began to simply call these coins, "Napoleons."^ He led the french through a series of conflicts called " the Napoleonic Wars" which involved every major European power!

^ History of the French consulate, under Napoleon Buonaparte; being an authentic narrative of his administration, which is so little known in foreign countries.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Obverse: (French) NAPOLEON EMPERERUR, or in English, "Napoleon, Emperor""
Reverse: (French) REPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE, 1808, 20 FRANCS, or in English, "French Republic, 1808, 20 Francs."
.The Congress of Erfurt sought to preserve the Russo-French alliance and the leaders had a friendly personal relationship after their first meeting at Tilsit in 1807.[97] By 1811, however, tensions between the two nations had increased and Alexander was under pressure from the Russian nobility to break off the alliance.^ B.C. - 285 B.C. - Ptolemy I Soter, son of Lagus and commander under Alexander, ruled Egypt as the first king of the Ptolema ic Dynasty.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cobden Chevalier Treaty (1860) - Treaty substantially lowering duties between the Britain and France, marking increasing cooperation between the two nations.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, some suggest that the war was brought about by poor leadership at the time, others argue that the war was brought about by accident - that Europe stumbled into war due to tension between alliance systems.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.The first clear sign the alliance had deteriorated was the relaxation of the Continental System in Russia, which angered Napoleon.^ However, Napoleon quickly raised a new army, but this army was crushed by the Quadruple Alliance of England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia at the Battle of Nations/Leipzig in 1813.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon's campaign in Poland 1806-7: a military history of Napoleon's first war with Russia.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, Napoleon employed the Continental System, a method of economic warfare.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[98] By 1812, advisers to Alexander suggested the possibility of an invasion of the French Empire and the recapture of Poland. .On receipt of intelligence reports on Russia's war preparations, Napoleon expanded his Grande Armée to more than 450,000 men.^ An earthquake hits northern Algeria , killing more than 2,000 people.

^ Liberace grossed more than $2,000,000 for his engagement at New York City's Radio City Music Hall.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ When Napoleon annexed the German territories on the Baltic, including her husband's Grand Duchy, her brother protested against what he considered a personal offense, and together with other events this resulted in the war between France and Russia.

.He ignored repeated advice against an invasion of the vast Russian heartland and prepared for an offensive campaign; on 23 June 1812, his invasion of Russia commenced.^ Napoleon's invasion of Russia, 1812.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Russian campaign, 1812.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the third partition of Poland in 1795 she contacted with Central Assembly, patriotic organisation, who prepared the military fight against Russian domination in Poland.

[99]
.In an attempt to gain increased support from Polish nationalists and patriots, Napoleon termed the war the Second Polish War—the First Polish War had been the Bar Confederation uprising by Polish nobles against Russia in 1768. Polish patriots wanted the Russian part of Poland to be joined with the Duchy of Warsaw and an independent Poland created.^ The physiology of war: Napoleon and the Russian campaign.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First sketches of the second and third parts.
  • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Napoleon's campaign in Poland 1806-7: a military history of Napoleon's first war with Russia.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was rejected by Napoleon, who stated he had promised his ally Austria this would not happen.^ Austria signed the Declaration of Pillnitz (1791), which stated that if the other powers attack France, so would Austria.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some states, such as Russia and Austria, failed to industrialize significantly in this period, a factor that would lead to later difficulties during the First World War.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Here's what happened, Perfy was bored and was wondering what it would be like to travel back in time and who she would like to meet.

.Napoleon refused to manumit the Russian serfs, because of concerns this might provoke a reaction in his army's rear.^ He saw Napoleon and his army fleeing from the Russian army.

^ Russian army of the Napoleonic wars.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the first time, Napoleon failed, as the Russian army employed scorched earth tactics to defeat Napoleon's army.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.The serfs would later commit atrocities against French soldiers during France's retreat.^ Charles DeGaulle, who led the Free French Resistance movement against the Nazis during their occupation of France in World War II, was elected but refused to participate and thus resigned.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some states, such as Russia and Austria, failed to industrialize significantly in this period, a factor that would lead to later difficulties during the First World War.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She explained how she lived in eastern France and how she led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War!

[100]
.The Russians avoided Napoleon's objective of a decisive engagement and instead retreated deeper into Russia.^ Continued in rebellion until 1792, when he retreated into Russia, and was allowed to settle at Akhaltzykh.

^ Napoleon Bonaparte leads his French troops into the Battle of Bautzen in Saxony , Germany , against the combined armies of Russia and Prussia .

^ A Russian Antonov 124 military transport crashed into a residential area in Irkutsk, Russia, shortly after takeoff.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

.A brief attempt at resistance was made at Smolensk in August; the Russians were defeated in a series of battles and Napoleon resumed his advance.^ Russians defeated the Poles at battle of Ostrolenska.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1918, the Austro-Hungarians failed to break through, in a series of battles on the Asiago Plateau, finally being decisively defeated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto in October of that year.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon defeated Austria at Battle of Abensberg, Bavaria.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

.The Russians again avoided battle, although in a few cases this was only achieved because Napoleon uncharacteristically hesitated to attack when the opportunity arose.^ Because the Amazons were armed with spears, bows and swords while the Egba had European cannons only about 1,200 survived the extended battle.

^ In 1697 at the Treaty of Rijswijk she achieved her aims, but died only a few weeks after.

.Owing to the Russian army's scorched earth tactics, the French found it increasingly difficult to forage food for themselves and their horses.^ For the first time, Napoleon failed, as the Russian army employed scorched earth tactics to defeat Napoleon's army.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[101]
Map with a band getting thinner showing route of army. Graph at bottom notes temperature at different points on the route
Charles Joseph Minard's graph shows the decreasing size of the Grande Armée as it marched to Moscow and back
.The Russians eventually offered battle outside Moscow on 7 September: the Battle of Borodino resulted in approximately 44,000 Russian and 35,000 French, dead, wounded or captured, and may have been the bloodiest day of battle in history up to that point.^ On this day in History - May 19 .

^ On this day in History - May 16 .

^ On this day in History - May 29 .

[102] .Although the French had won, the Russian army had accepted, and withstood, the major battle Napoleon had hoped would be decisive.^ Russian army of the Napoleonic wars.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Napoleon quickly raised a new army, but this army was crushed by the Quadruple Alliance of England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia at the Battle of Nations/Leipzig in 1813.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ World War II : Second Battle of Kharkov - In the eastern Ukraine , the Soviet Army initiates a major offensive.

.Napoleon's own account was: "The most terrible of all my battles was the one before Moscow.^ Belgium and he saw napoleon with his hand tucked in his shirt, one of his most famous poses.

^ 'Of course I will your my bestie'!!So he grabbed all of his luggage and before you could say Moshi Monsters, he shot out the door like a jet.

^ Before Commodore William Bainbridge ordered the sinking of the Java he had her wheel removed to replace the one the Constitution had lost during the battle.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

The French showed themselves to be worthy of victory, but the Russians showed themselves worthy of being invincible."[103]
The Russian army withdrew and retreated past Moscow. .Napoleon entered the city, assuming its fall would end the war and Alexander would negotiate peace.^ Rudimentary tanks and mechanized warfare also entered the battlefield near the end of the war.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The dominance of foreign powers was brought to an end by the Napoleonic wars.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then she met the warmen of world war 1 , man they are serious!She left quite soon there because she would have got hurt , and that would of not been good.Napoleon was the best!

.However, on orders of the city's governor Fyodor Rostopchin, rather than capitulation, Moscow was ordered burned.^ They engaged in hand to hand combat with the survivors eventually forcing the French army to retreat, but was later defeated, and the Amazons burned fields, villages and cities rather than let them fall to the French.

.After a month, concerned about loss of control back in France, Napoleon and his army left.^ The resulting "Thermidorian Reaction" was a response to France's swing to the left, during which the government briefly went to the right, and finally back to the center.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ French armies fell back in disarray as the Germans crossed from Belgium into France on a wide front.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In an attempt to prevent freely elected royalists from taking control of the Directory in 1799, members of the bourgeois sent Napoleon Bonaparte and his army to defend the Directory and the annulment of the elections.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[104]
The French suffered greatly in the course of a ruinous retreat, including from the harshness of the Russian Winter. The Armée had begun as over 400,000 frontline troops, but in the end fewer than 40,000 crossed the Berezina River in November 1812, to escape.[105] .The Russians had lost 150,000 in battle and hundreds of thousands of civilians.^ "One Hundred Fifty Thousand rifles and 30,000 sabers not later than fifteen days from today."
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

[106]

War of the Sixth Coalition

Cartoon of Napoleon sitting back to front on a donkey with a broken sword and two drummers in the background drumming
British etching from 1814 in celebration of Napoleon's first exile to Elba at the close of the War of the Sixth Coalition
.There was a lull in fighting over the winter of 1812–13 while both the Russians and the French rebuilt their forces; Napoleon was then able to field 350,000 troops.^ European Union leaders agreed to dispatch 3,000-4,000 troops to join an international peacekeeping force in Afghanistan.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Napoleon Bonaparte leads his French troops into the Battle of Bautzen in Saxony , Germany , against the combined armies of Russia and Prussia .

^ Under Napoleon the country had been forced into the Confederation of the Rhine, compelling it to send troops into the Wars at Colberg, in Tirol, Spain and Russia.

[107] .Heartened by France's loss in Russia, Prussia joined with Austria, Sweden, Russia, Great Britain, Spain, and Portugal in a new coalition.^ The traditional alliances of France and Prussia against Great Britain and Austria changed to France and Austria against Great Britain and Prussia.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Napoleon quickly raised a new army, but this army was crushed by the Quadruple Alliance of England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia at the Battle of Nations/Leipzig in 1813.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Spain and Portugal joined the European Community (EC).
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

.Napoleon assumed command in Germany and inflicted a series of defeats on the Coalition culminating in the Battle of Dresden in August 1813.[108] Despite these successes, the numbers continued to mount against Napoleon and the French army was pinned down by a force twice its size and lost at the Battle of Leipzig.^ Napoleon's last campaign in Germany 1813.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ War of Austrian Succession : Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy , French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army.

^ Napoleon Bonaparte leads his French troops into the Battle of Bautzen in Saxony , Germany , against the combined armies of Russia and Prussia .

.This was by far the largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars and cost more than 90,000 casualties in total.^ Napoleonic Wars 90 .
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Her governorship was indicative of the increasingly signora nature of the Medici regime and that she had far more power, influence and authority than the previous generation of Medici women.

^ The 1916 Battle of Jutland (German: Skagerrakschlacht , or "Battle of the Skagerrak") developed into the largest naval battle of the war, the only full-scale clash of battleships during the war.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[109]
.Napoleon withdrew back into France, his army reduced to 70,000 soldiers and 40,000 stragglers, against more than three times as many Allied troops.^ Three Allied Armies are readying to enter France.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Directory has done more against it than the Mountain.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He doubled the army to 80,000 soldiers.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[110] .The French were surrounded: British armies pressed from the south, and other Coalition forces positioned to attack from the German states.^ The British attack the American forces at Ft.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ The U.S. government released a video tape that showed Osama bin Laden and others discussing their knowledge of the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Austria signed the Declaration of Pillnitz (1791), which stated that if the other powers attack France, so would Austria.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

Napoleon won a series of victories in the Six Days Campaign, though these were not significant enough to turn the tide and Paris was captured by the Coalition in March 1814.[111]
.When Napoleon proposed the army march on the capital, his marshals decided to mutiny.^ The march of the Twenty-six; the story of Napoleon's marshals.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The armies of the first French Republic and the rise of the marshals of Napoleon I. London, Oxford university press, 1926, 3v.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[112] On 4 April, led by Ney, they confronted Napoleon. .Napoleon asserted the army would follow him and Ney replied the army would follow its generals.^ FELIX. NAPOLEON I. (as General-in-cMef of the French Army) A P p i A N i , ANDREA .
  • Full text of "Catalog of the Gardiner Greene Hubbard Collection of engravings" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

Napoleon had no choice but to abdicate. .He did so in favour of his son; however, the Allies refused to accept this and Napoleon was forced to abdicate unconditionally on 11 April.^ Napoleon was forced to abdicate his throne.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Two years later her husband abdicated in favour of his younger brother, she moved to her son-in-law in Modena, where she died.

^ She abdicated in favour of her son, I Jonjo Karaeng Limbangparang , who ruled until 1955).

Photo of a coastline with the sea, greyish cliffs, vegetation and beige buildings
.
Napoleon's Villa Mulini on Elba
The Allied Powers having declared that Emperor Napoleon was the sole obstacle to the restoration of peace in Europe, Emperor Napoleon, faithful to his oath, declares that he renounces, for himself and his heirs, the thrones of France and Italy, and that there is no personal sacrifice, even that of his life, which he is not ready to do in the interests of France.^ No peace with Napoleon.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The allied powers having proclaimed that the Emperor Napoleon is the sole obstacle to the reestablishment of peace in Europe, the Emperor Napoleon, faithful to his oath, declares that he renounces for him and his children the Thrones of France and Italy and that there is no sacrifice, not even of his life that he will not be ready to make for the interests of France -- April 6, 1814" -- are you satisfied, Duke?
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon declared himself French Emperor and became a military dictator.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]


Done in the palace of Fontainebleau, 11 April 1814.
Act of abdication of Napoleon[113]
.In the Treaty of Fontainebleau the victors exiled him to Elba, an island of 12,000 inhabitants in the Mediterranean, 20 km off the Tuscan coast.^ Aspects of Elba and the other islands of the Tuscan Archipelago.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That Your Majesty will permit me to accompany him to the Island of Elba.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon Bonaparte disembarked at Portoferraio on the island of Elba in the Mediterranean.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

.They gave him sovereignty over the island and allowed him to retain his title of Emperor.^ He was allowed to keep the title of emperor.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ After his return they married and in 1594 Philip II appointed him as governor of the island of San Cristobal in the Solomons, and gave orders to found a colony there.

^ If the Emperor scorned these men as they have reproached him now -- the world can see today that he had reasons which motivated his scorn.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

.Napoleon attempted suicide with a pill he had carried since a near-capture by Russians on the retreat from Moscow.^ Napoleon's campaign of 1812 and the retreat from Moscow.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1605 the False Dmitri I, Russian pretender, married her, in a failed attempt to establish a firm foothold in Moscow.

.Its potency had weakened with age and he survived to be exiled, while his wife and son took refuge in Vienna.^ Her son Jan IV van Glymes took over as regent in 1550 at the age of 22.

[114] .In the first few months on Elba he created a small navy and army, developed the iron mines, and issued decrees on modern agricultural methods.^ They also create a constantly increasing demand for coal, iron, and all the other produce of mining industry.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cartographer Abraham Ortelius issues the first modern atlas.

^ She began financial reforms, reorganised the army, humanised the juridical system, introduced religious tolerance, created a modern school system, and promoted the cultural life.

[115]

Hundred Days

.Separated from his wife and son, who had come under Austrian control, cut off from the allowance guaranteed to him by the Treaty of Fontainebleau, and aware of rumours he was about to be banished to a remote island in the Atlantic Ocean, Napoleon escaped from Elba on 26 February 1815. He landed at Golfe-Juan on the French mainland, two days later.^ He was banished to the island of Elba.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ They were succeeded by son, Johann Karl, who had two sons.

^ Emperor Napoleon I of France arrives at Portoferraio on the island of Elba to begin his exile.

[116] .The 5th Regiment was sent to intercept him and made contact just south of Grenoble on 7 March 1815. Napoleon approached the regiment alone, dismounted his horse and, when he was within gunshot range, shouted, "Here I am.^ Perfy travelled back in time to meet Napoleon which he landed in June 1815 just in time to witness when Napoleon was defeated at the battle of Waterloo.

^ ALBERT EINSTEIN,JOAN OF ARC AND NAPOLEON.BUT WHEN PERFY MET HIM NAPOLEON SENT A WHOLE FLEET AFTER PERFY! .

.Kill your Emperor, if you wish."^ I would rather you did not add the sentence proposed in your letter, because I do not wish to be understood as having peculiar sources of information.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Your body is a Scared Vessel, or HOLY GRAIL if you wish.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[117] The soldiers responded with, "Vive L'Empereur!" and marched with .Napoleon to Paris; Louis XVIII fled.^ President Louis Napoleon Bonaparte rebuilt central Paris, installing new apartments, straight, long, and wide streets, sewage, and sanitation.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.On 13 March, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared Napoleon an outlaw and four days later Great Britain, the Netherlands, Russia, Austria and Prussia bound themselves to put 150,000 men into the field to end his rule.^ Britain's direct rule was ended.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Congress of Vienna after the Napoleonic wars.

^ José María Aznar is appointed Prime Minister of Spain , thus ending 13 years of Socialist rule.

[118]
Battlefield with infantry and cavalry, lot of blue smoke in the centre
Battle of Waterloo, painted by William Sadler (1782–1839)
.Napoleon arrived in Paris on 20 March and governed for a period now called the Hundred Days.^ The response of the Dutch government came in August 1831, when the Dutch Army set off on a so called "Ten Days Campaign".
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon in exile: Elba; from the entry of the allies into Paris on the 31st March 1814 to the return of Napoleon from Elba and his landing at Golfe Jouan on the 1st March 1815.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Napoleon: the hundred days, a play by Benito Mussolini and Giovacchino Forzano.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the start of June the armed forces available to him had reached 200,000 and he decided to go on the offensive to attempt to drive a wedge between the oncoming British and Prussian armies.^ He established much better education, and he also established the first modern Russian army with 200,000 men.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The force numbered 25,000 horsemen, 50,000 foot soldiers, 200 chariots and 15 war elephants.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A.D. -Valens acted alone and engaged a massive Gothic force of estimated 200,000 warriors near Adrianople.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The French Army of the North crossed the frontier into the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, in modern-day Belgium.^ Indian Wars : Sitting Bull leads his band of Lakota into Canada to avoid harassment by the United States Army under Colonel Nelson Miles .

^ French-Mexican War : The Mexican army defeats the French army in the Battle of Puebla (on May 9 this day was made into the Cinco de mayo holiday).

^ England and France had secretly agreed to split the Netherlands between themselves, but after defeats at sea, and unable the cross the waterline, the French Army began a slow and cautious retreat out of the Republic.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[119]
.Napoleon's forces fought the allies, led by Wellington and Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, at the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June 1815. Wellington's army withstood repeated attacks by the French and drove them from the field while the Prussians arrived in force and broke through Napoleon's right flank.^ German and French forces fought the Battle of Artois.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Napoleon, from Tilsit to Waterloo - 1807-1815.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo (1815), conquering the world's conqueror.

.The French army left the battlefield in disorder, which allowed Coalition forces to enter France and restore Louis XVIII to the French throne.^ Pressure by King Louis XIV of France, then an ally, forced the Bishop of Mnster to withdraw.

^ At length, Hamid Khan, the traitor allowed the Mughal force to enter Ahmadnagar, and entered the palace to kill her.

^ Austria declared war on France and its forces entered Bavaria.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

Off the port of Rochefort, Charente-Maritime, after consideration of an escape to the United States, Napoleon formally demanded political asylum from the British Captain Frederick Maitland on HMS Bellerophon on 15 July 1815.[120]

Exile on Saint Helena

Sea with coast in the background and large grey clouds. <a name=.There are four ships with several smaller ones and rowing boats."^ This one was very much below the surface of a mound on which there grew a pine tree over four hundred years old.
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This afternoon the people of San Salvador came swimming to our ships and in boats made from one log.
  • Voices of Resistance 11 September 2009 8:50 UTC voiceseducation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gauss: Yes, but then the Danish magically summoned also two threedeckers, along with four smaller ships.
  • Europa Universalis Short AAR Contest - The Entries - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/05/2/5/5/7099217476392653.jpg" width="180" height="115" class="thumbimage" />
.
Scene in Plymouth Sound in August 1815, by John James Chalon.
^ EASTLAKE.Sir Charles Lock (1793-1865) NAPOLEON BONAPARTE As HE PRESENTED HIMSELF AT THE GANGWAY OF His MAJESTY'S SHIP BELLEKOPHON, IN PLYMOUTH SOUND, IN THE MONTH OF AUGUST 1815 .
  • Full text of "Catalog of the Gardiner Greene Hubbard Collection of engravings" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

.Pictured is HMS Bellerophon with Napoleon aboard, shortly before his transferral to HMS Northumberland for delivery to Saint Helena
Photo of a front garden and large brown building.</span><span class=^ The last years of Napoleon, his captivity on Saint Helena.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ History of the captivity of Napoleon at St. Helena; from the letters and journals of the late Lieut.-Gen Sir Hudson Lowe, and official documents not before made public.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Letters written on board his Majesty's ship the Northumberland, and Saint Helena; in which the conduct and conversations of Napoleon Buonaparte, and his suite, during the voyage, and the first months of his residence in that island, are faithfully described and related.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.French flag on a flagpole next to a small cannon."^ A small ink pot sat next to hi, and the teacher boomed like a cannon: "One farthing=..."

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/10/2/7/8/09098063144139023.jpg" width="180" height="102" class="thumbimage" />
Longwood House, Saint Helena: site of Napoleon's captivity
.Napoleon was imprisoned and then exiled to the island of Saint Helena in the Atlantic Ocean, 2,000 km from any major landmass.^ Saint Helena, little island.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Letters written on board his Majesty's ship the Northumberland, and Saint Helena; in which the conduct and conversations of Napoleon Buonaparte, and his suite, during the voyage, and the first months of his residence in that island, are faithfully described and related.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ontario, Oswego, NY. 1821 - Napoleon Bonaparte died on the island of St. Helena, where he had been in exile.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

.In his first two months there, he lived in a pavilion on the Briars estate, which belonged to a William Balcombe.^ She lived there with her two sisters, Margaretha and Helena.

^ Mother of seven children with her two first husbands, and lived (1912-2003).

^ After having given birth to two daughters she died two months after the birth of her only son, who only lived a few days.

Napoleon became friendly with his family, especially his younger daughter Lucia Elizabeth who later wrote .Recollections of the Emperor Napoleon.^ Recollections of the Emperor Napoleon during the first three years of his captivity on the island of St. Helena, including the time of his residence at her father's house, "The Briars."
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It said "Recollections of the Emperor Napoleon".

[121] .This friendship ended in 1818 when British authorities became suspicious that Balcombe had acted as an intermediary between Napoleon and Paris, and dismissed him from the island.^ The City of Indore became the capital of the Indore princely state in 1818 after the British forces under Sir John Malcolm defeated the Holkar forces under her command.

^ Acting Governor Dancia Penn, British Virgin Islands (External Territory of United Kingdom and Great Britain) The Deputy Governor since 2004, she has acted as governor on different occations, but in 2006 she acted in the interim between two governors from 10.

^ She supported him in his efforts to unite the islands of the archipelago under his central authority and shared largely in their governance.

[122]
.Napoleon moved to Longwood House in December 1815; it had fallen into disrepair, and the location was damp, windswept and unhealthy.^ Napoleon in exile: Elba; from the entry of the allies into Paris on the 31st March 1814 to the return of Napoleon from Elba and his landing at Golfe Jouan on the 1st March 1815.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Times published articles insinuating that the British government was trying to hasten his death and he often complained of the living conditions in letters to the governor and his custodian, Hudson Lowe.^ Shahjehans husbandbecame titular Nawab, and she tried to leave as much as the governing to him as possible, but he came at odds with the British, and was stripped of his title and position.

^ The Wafd continued to organize resistance to the British and the British-backed government, and he was soon exiled again, this time in the Seychelles.

^ With their help the prince lost no time in occupying the Jind fort and established his government after putting the Rani the puppet of the British government to the sword.

[123] .With a small cadre of followers, Napoleon dictated his memoirs and criticised his captors—particularly Lowe.^ Memoirs of the history of France during the reign of Napoleon: dictated by the emperor at St. Helena to the generals who shared his captivity.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lowe's treatment of Napoleon is regarded as poor by historians such as Frank McLynn.[124] .Lowe exacerbated a difficult situation through measures including a reduction in Napoleon's expenditure, a rule that no gifts could be delivered to him if they mentioned his imperial status, and a document that his supporters had to sign that guaranteed they would stay with the prisoner indefinitely.^ If they could redden the earth, the would do it.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Prisoner.—No, I did not; I thought the sergeant would tell the truth.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration announced that they would no longer exclusively name hurricanes after women.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

[124]
.In 1818, The Times reported a false rumour of Napoleon's escape and said the news had been greeted by spontaneous illuminations in London.^ The New York Times reported Ray Charles would undergo tests to see whether or not he had abstained from narcotic drugs.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

[note .9] There was sympathy for him in the British Parliament: Lord Holland gave a speech which demanded the prisoner be treated with no unnecessary harshness.^ There's no use waiting for him.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After his return they married and in 1594 Philip II appointed him as governor of the island of San Cristobal in the Solomons, and gave orders to found a colony there.

^ I stared at him, he was wearing armor and there were no ladies to be seen.

[126] .Napoleon kept himself informed of the events through The Times and hoped for release in the event that Holland became Prime Minister.^ She surrounded the Duke with her protgs and confidants, became the center of a court party and sold court offices, and had her brother, Wilhelm Friederich, appointed as Prime Minister.

^ Margaret Thatcher became the longest-serving British Prime Minister in the 20th century.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ William Lamb became prime minister of England.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

.He also enjoyed the support of Lord Cochrane, who was involved in Chile's and Brazil's struggle for independence and wanted to rescue Napoleon and help him set up a new empire in South America, a scheme frustrated by Napoleon's death in 1821.[127] There were other plots to rescue Napoleon from captivity including one from Texas, where exiled soldiers from the Grande Armée wanted a resurrection of the Napoleonic Empire in America.^ There have been other instances lately of this, but none hitherto that comes up to what we extract from a Southwark police report of Friday last: .
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The New Yorkies loved it!By that time Einstein lived there ( only for 1 week though ) and perfy has always wanted to meet him .

^ Bacon, L. Essays on 127.10 Bleby, H. Death struggles of 127.20 Canot, T. Twenty years of an African slaver.
  • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

There was even a plan to rescue him with a primitive submarine.[128] .For Lord Byron, Napoleon was the epitome of the Romantic hero, the persecuted, lonely and flawed genius.^ Napoleon : tragic figure or flawed genius?

.The news that Napoleon had taken up gardening at Longwood also appealed to more domestic British sensibilities.^ A.It was very hard yes if you were not here to help me it would of taken me alot more time to round the animals up.

^ The life of Napoleon I: including new materials from the British official records.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[129]

Death

A large ship in docks with two smaller boats, lots of French flags on all of the vessels' rigging.
.
Frigate Belle-Poule returns Napoleon's remains to France
Photo of a large, shiny burgundy cuboid-shaped vessel raised on a dark green plinth.</span><span class=^ She remained very active in the fight for her son's restoration, and returned to England in 1660, but resumed living in France five years later.

^ Napoleon, the return from Saint Helena; an account of the removal of the emperor's remains from Saint Helena to France in 1840, together with a description of his tomb in the H&oci rc;tel des invalides in Paris, with eight illustrations.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There are two female statues in the background either side of the vessel." src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/1/4/9/43999094187110882.jpg" width="180" height="135" class="thumbimage" />
Napoleon's tomb at Les Invalides
.In February 1821, his health began to fail rapidly and on 3 May, two British physicians who had recently arrived, attended him and could only recommend palliatives.^ It was just another inch until he grabbed Perfy but he could not reach him with his two tiny arms.

^ Perfy began running until he could reach him but he was so exhausted carring his time machine and hold the box at the same time.

^ His heart was failing, Perfy didn't realize she could have hurt him!

[130] .He died two days later, after confession, Extreme Unction and Viaticum at the hands of Father Ange Vignali.^ Rain Queen Makobo Modjadji VI of Balobedu (South Afcica) Elected to succeed her grandmother because her mother, Princess Makhaele' Maria Modjadji, died two days later than her mother, Rain Queen Mokope Modjadji V (1937-81-2001).

^ White, a young boy with AIDS, died later the same day.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ He later recived the Offices of Neustettin and Rgenwalde until he succeeded his brother as duke but died after only two years, and she took over Neustettin as her dorwy.

[130] His last words were, "France, armée, tête d'armée, Joséphine."("France, army, head of the army, Joséphine.")[130] .Napoleon's original death mask was created around 6 May, though it is not clear which doctor created it.^ Later information indicated that the death toll may have been 3 to 4 times the original estimate.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

[131][note 10] In his will, he had asked to be buried on the banks of the Seine, but the British governor said he should be buried on St. Helena, in the Valley of the Willows. .Hudson Lowe insisted the inscription should read 'Napoleon Bonaparte', Montholon and Bertrand wanted the Imperial title 'Napoleon' as royalty were signed by their first names only.^ Napoleon Bonaparte's first campaign: with comments.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ History of the captivity of Napoleon at St. Helena; from the letters and journals of the late Lieut.-Gen Sir Hudson Lowe, and official documents not before made public.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Barbara Streisand's first TV special aired on CBS. It was titled "My Name is Barbara".
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

As a result the tomb was left nameless.[130]
.In 1840, Louis-Philippe, King of the French obtained permission from the British to return Napoleon's remains to France.^ King Louis XV of France dies (b.

^ Louis XVI becomes King of France .

^ And you call a brigand, an ogre, Napoleon, the Great, Emperor of the French and King of Italy, Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine, mediator of the Swiss Federation!
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

The remains were transported aboard the frigate Belle-Poule, which had been painted black for the occasion and on 29 November she arrived in Cherbourg. The remains were transferred to the steamship Normandie, which transported them to Le Havre, up the Seine to Rouen and on to Paris. On 15 December, a state funeral was held. .The hearse proceeded from the Arc de Triomphe down the Champs-Élysées, across the Place de la Concorde to the Esplanade des Invalides and then to the cupola in St Jérôme's Chapel, where it stayed until the tomb designed by Louis Visconti was completed.^ On the accession of Louis XVI, Madame du Barry was banished to a nunnery; from 1776 until the outbreak of the Revolution she lived on her estates with the Duke de Brissac.

^ Until 1561 Sovereign Countess Jacqueline-Marguerite de Longwy of Bar-sur-Seine (France) She was the first wife of Louis de Bourbon, Duc de Montpensier, Prince de La Roche-sur-Yon and Dauphin d'Auvergne.

^ She had no children in her marriage with Prince Louis-Armand I de Bourbon-Conti, prince de la Roche-sur-Yon (1661-85).

.In 1861, Napoleon's remains were entombed in a porphyry sarcophagus in the crypt under the dome at Les Invalides.^ Napoleon Bonapart's remains were interred in Les Invalides in Paris, having been brought from St. Helena, where he died in exile.
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^ LE CLERGE REfOIT LES RESTES MORTEL8 DE NAPOLEON DANS LA COUK D'HONNEUR DE L*H6TEL DES INVALIDES (15 DECEMBRE, 1840) No.
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[133]

Cause of death

.Napoleon's physician, Francesco Antommarchi, led the autopsy which found the cause of death to be stomach cancer, though he did not sign the official report, stating, "What had I to do with...^ Napoleon Bonaparte's death was by stomach cancer.

^ When the m-state materials (found to be naturally occurring) in wine and the M-sate materials (found to be naturally occurring) in ocean water are combined in the stomach (as a PPT condensate), will they all have an effect on one another?
  • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Medicine and the natural sciences in France during the Napoleonic Era", "The Emperor's personal physicians", "Hygienic problems of the Napoleonic armies", Napoleon's maladies and death", Napoleon's medical legislation."
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English reports?"[134] Napoleon's father had died of stomach cancer though this was seemingly unknown at the time of the autopsy.[135] .Antommarchi found evidence of a stomach ulcer and it was the most convenient explanation for the British who wanted to avoid criticism over their care of the Emperor.^ She criticized the plans of her cousin, Jean Bedel Bokassa, chief of state since 1966, who wanted to become emperor, and in effect he sacked her.

^ British-born American electrical engineer and industrialist who founded the Weston Electrical Instrument Company 1858 - Nasceu o professor e escritor português Ricardo Jorge.

[130]
Gold-framed portrait painting of a gaunt middle-aged man with receding hair and laurel wreath, lying eyes-closed on white pillow with a white blanket covering to his neck and a gold Jesus cross resting on his chest
Napoléon sur son lit de mort [Napoleon on his death bed], by Horace Vernet, 1826
In 1955, the diaries of Napoleon's valet, Louis Marchand, appeared in print. .His description of Napoleon in the months before his death led Sten Forshufvud to put forward other causes for his death, including deliberate arsenic poisoning, in a 1961 paper in Nature.^ "Medicine and the natural sciences in France during the Napoleonic Era", "The Emperor's personal physicians", "Hygienic problems of the Napoleonic armies", Napoleon's maladies and death", Napoleon's medical legislation."
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^ Confidential correspondence of the Emperor Napoleon and the Empress Josephine: including letters from the time of their marriage until the death of Josephine and also several private letters from th e emperor to his brother Joseph, and other important personages.
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^ A Letter from Ulysses to the Earl of Liverpool, on the situation and views of the French and of the allies, before and after The Treaty of Paris; and on the circumstances that caused the ab dication of Napoleon.
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[136] Arsenic was used as a poison during the era because it was undetectable when administered over a long period. .Forshufvud, in a 1978 book with Ben Weider, noted the emperor's body was found to be remarkably well-preserved when moved in 1840. Arsenic is a strong preservative and therefore this supported the poisoning hypothesis.^ As to the prior knowledge of the Essenes in modern times, some translations of The Essene Way of Life in Slavic text * have been found, well preserved, in the possession of the Habsburgs in Austria.
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^ If perchance a journal of his life has been preserved and it falls into fitting hands, it will be a remarkable book—a record of the old changing into the new.
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Forshufvud and Weider observed that Napoleon had attempted to quench abnormal thirst by drinking high levels of orgeat syrup that contained cyanide compounds in the almonds used for flavouring. They maintained that the potassium tartrate used in his treatment prevented his stomach from expellation of these compounds and that the thirst was a symptom of poisoning. Their hypothesis was that the calomel given to Napoleon became an overdose, which killed him and left behind extensive tissue damage.[136] .A 2007 article stated that the type of arsenic found in Napoleon's hair shafts was mineral type, the most toxic, and according to toxicologist Dr Patrick Kintz, this supported the conclusion that his death was murder.^ Then, after stating that he observed congestion of the membranes of the brain, and at the base of the brain extravasation of blood, and that he “found the cause of death in the head,” Mr. Turner continued: .
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was perceived as a big threat to the Roman Aristocracy and so his murder was supported by Cicero and most Romans.
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[137]
The wallpaper used in Longwood contained a high level of arsenic compound used for colouring by British manufacturers. The adhesive, which in the cooler British environment was innocuous, may have grown mold in the more humid climate and emitted the poisonous gas arsine. .This theory has been ruled out as it does not explain the arsenic absorption patterns found in other analyses.^ Perfy then found out that the boy was none other than Alexander the Great.

^ Who discovered the theory of relativity.However he didn't bring it into the world whitch Perfy must have found out.

[136] .A 2004 group of researchers claimed treatments imposed on the emperor accidentally caused death by Torsades de pointes—a condition in which the heart ceases to function properly.^ In 1740, after the sudden death of Emperor Karl VI, both her sons-in-law decided to claim the Imperial office.

^ On her death in 1679 she was buried with great splendour by her brother Conde, and her heart, as she had directed, was sent to the nuns of the Port Royal des Champs.

^ Suzane was married to Charles III de Bourbon-Montpensier, Duke of Bourbonnais, who claimed the inheritance after her death.

[138]
There have been modern studies which have supported the original autopsy finding.[137] .Researchers, in a 2008 study, analysed samples of Napoleon's hair from throughout his life, and from his family and other contemporaries.^ Napoleon, illustrated with prints from contemporary and other portraits.
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^ Corsica: picturesque, historical and social: with a sketch of the early life of Napoleon, and an account of the Bonaparte, Paoli, Pozzo di Borgo, and other principal families.
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^ With an appendix, containing an examination of Sir W. Scott's "Life of Napoleon Bonaparte;" and a notice of the principal errors of other writers, respecting his ch aracter and conduct.
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.All samples had high levels of arsenic, approximately 100 times higher than the current average.^ American singer ( Higher and Higher, We’re All Alone, You, All Time High) 1945 - Joseph Goebbels dies (suicide) (b.

^ I wish I could go back in time to undo all my missstake and get are 100 persent on my math test my mum so mad at me.

^ So perfy came up with a brilliant idea he went a few moments back in time before he built all of the pyramids and instead he built a huge statue higher than the clouds of...........PERFY! yes that's rite he built a statue of him self.

.According to these researchers, Napoleon's body was already heavily contaminated with arsenic as a boy, and the high arsenic concentration in his hair was not due to intentional poisoning; people were constantly exposed to arsenic from glues and dyes, throughout their lives.^ Other people are but occasionally and rarely liable to ill-treatment; but these are exposed to it at every hour and every moment of their lives.
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^ "Arsenic contents of Napoleon I's hair probably taken immediately after his death."
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[note .11] A 2007 study found no evidence of arsenic poisoning in the relevant organs and stated that stomach cancer was the cause of death.^ I found the cause of death in the head.
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^ Napoleon Bonaparte's death was by stomach cancer.

^ He would have said that there had been “chastisement of which he did not approve,” but that there was no proof that the death of the victim was caused by the “chastisement.” 6 .
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[140]

Marriages and children

Woman with brown hair, in a white dress and tiara, sitting on a plush orange sofa
Napoleon's first wife, Joséphine, Empress of the French, painted by François Gérard, 1801
.Napoleon married Joséphine de Beauharnais in 1796, when he was twenty-six; she was a thirty-two-year-old widow whose first husband had been executed during the Revolution.^ Napoleon and Paris, thirty years of history.
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^ Joséphine de Beauharnais dies (b.

^ Napoleon's viceroy, Eugne de Beauharnais.
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Until she met Bonaparte, she had been known as 'Rose', a name which he disliked. He called her 'Joséphine' instead, and she went by this name henceforth. .Bonaparte often sent her love letters while on his campaigns.^ Pauline Bonaparte and her lovers as revealed by contemporary witnesses, by her own love-letters, and by the anti-Napoleonic pamphleteers.
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[141] .He formally adopted her son Eugène and cousin Stéphanie, and arranged dynastic marriages for them.^ Married to a second cousin and the mother of 4 daughters and an adopted son.

.Joséphine had her daughter Hortense marry Napoleon's brother, Louis.^ She was Infanta of Spain and the eldest daughter of Felipe III of Spain, and married Louis XIII, King of France, in 1615.

^ Her daughter Kawalu, married her half-brother, George Kaumu-alii, King of Kauai (1794-1810).

^ De-facto ruler Queen Supayalat of Burma The daughter of King Mindon Min, she was married to her half-brother, Thibaw.

[142]
.Joséphine had lovers, including a Hussar lieutenant, Hippolyte Charles, during Napoleon's Italian campaign.^ Governor and Lieutenant General Queen Maria Luisa Gabriala de Saboya of Spain Appointed regent during her husband, Felipe V's campaign in Italy.

[143] .Napoleon learnt the full extent of her affair with Charles while in Egypt, and a letter he wrote to his brother Joseph regarding the subject was intercepted by the British.^ Confidential correspondence of Napoleon Bonaparte with his brother Joseph.
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^ In 1806 Naples was captured by Napoleon, and he installed his brother, Joseph, as King.

^ Confidential correspondence of the Emperor Napoleon and the Empress Josephine: including letters from the time of their marriage until the death of Josephine and also several private letters from th e emperor to his brother Joseph, and other important personages.
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.The letter appeared in the London and Paris presses, much to Napoleon's embarrassment.^ A Letter from Ulysses to the Earl of Liverpool, on the situation and views of the French and of the allies, before and after The Treaty of Paris; and on the circumstances that caused the ab dication of Napoleon.
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^ The substance of some letters, written by an Englishman resident at Paris during the last reign of the Emperor Napoleon.
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^ In a series of letters from a resident at Paris to a nobleman in London, written during the months of August, September and October, 1805.
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.Napoleon had his own affairs too: during the Egyptian campaign he took Pauline Bellisle Foures, the wife of a junior officer, as his mistress.^ Notes and reminiscences of a staff officer, chiefly relating to the Waterloo campaign and to St. Helena matters during the captivity of Napoleon.
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^ Also during Hayat's reign she was the effective ruler, and it was she who took decisions on military campaigns and all other administrative affairs.

^ The ordeal of Captain Roeder, from the diary of an officer in the First Battalion of Hessian Lifeguards during the Moscow campaign of 1812-13.
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.She became known as Cleopatra after the Ancient Egyptian ruler.^ During the unrest she became known as "Mother of the Egyptians" (Umm al-Misriyyin).

^ She was one of the Sikh female rulers, who became well known for their administrative acumen, grasp of political situations, and dexterity in handling arms and organizing defence.

[144][note 12]
.While Napoleon's mistresses had children by him, Joséphine did not produce an heir, possibly because of either the stresses of her imprisonment during the Terror or an abortion she may have had in her twenties.^ Because of the upheavels during the Thirty Years War she had to leave Zerbst and seek refuge with her children in Wittenberg until she moved to Oldenburg with her children in 1633 and lived by her brother, Anton Gnther, and they did not move back until Zerbst until 1642.

^ This attempt at reconciliation failed, largely because Menelik recognized that he needed an heir, and that Bafena was too old to produce more offspring.

^ The oldest, Landgraf Ernst (1846-1925) did not have either the political experience or the economic capability to enable him to stand up to the consequences of the annexation.

[146] Napoleon ultimately chose divorce so he could remarry in search of an heir. .In March 1810, he married by proxy Marie Louise, Archduchess of Austria, and a great niece of Marie Antoinette; thus he had married into the German royal family.^ Head of the Royal Family Princess Gowramma of Coorg (India) Her father Maharajah Virarakendra Wodeyar was deposed and sent into exile by the British in 1834.

^ She was born Marie Louise Leopoldine Franziska Theresia Josepha Lucia, Princess Imperial and Archduchess of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary and Bohemia as the daughter of Emperor Franz I of Austria and his second wife, Maria Theresa of the Two Sicilies, and lived (1791-1847).

^ Marie Antoinette marries 15-year old Louis-Auguste who later becomes king of France .

.They remained married until his death, though she did not join him in exile on Elba and thereafter never saw her husband again.^ Not only did they think it was him it WAS him.

^ After her death, her husband married Antionia of Lorraine (d.

^ She went in exile in Switzerland followed by the Duke until they both returned in 1710 after she had been married to the Landhofmeister Graf von Wrben.

.The couple had one child, Napoleon Francis Joseph Charles (1811–1832), known from birth as the King of Rome.^ Paracelsus ; Pippa Passes, a drama ; King Victor and King Charles, tragedy i Colombe's birth day, a play.
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^ Napoleon was one of the greatest military commanders in history and also Napoleon decided on a military career when he was a child, winning a scholarship to a French military academy at age 14.

^ After Napoleon's abdication she and her son, Napoleon Francis Joseph Charles Bonaparte (King of Rome and later Duke of Reichstadt), fled Paris to Blois and then to Vienna where she remained until granted the duchies in Italy by her family.

.He became Napoleon II in 1814 and reigned for only two weeks.^ The last of those, Otumfuo Nana Osei Agyeman Prempeh II, began his reign in 1931, became Asantehene in 1935, and ruled until 1970.

^ Memorandum of two conversations between Emperor Napoleon and Viscount Ebrington, at Porto Ferrajo, on the 6th and 8th of December, 1814.
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^ Prince became only the 5th songwriter to have two top ten hits at the same time.
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.He was awarded the title of the Duke of Reichstadt in 1818 and died of tuberculosis aged 21, with no children.^ They had no children and when her husband died in 1861, Wilhelm became king.

^ In 1818 she married Carl Rudolf Graf von der Schulenburg, but had no children and was succeeded by sister, Pauline.

^ She had no children of her own but became the foster-mother Abdlhamid II (1876-1909) whose mother had died of tubercolosis when he was a child.

[147]
Woman in a white satin dress and tiara sitting on a plush rougey sofa, looking down at a baby lying on the sofa with its eyes closed
Empress Marie-Louise and the King of Rome, by Joseph Franque, 1812. Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma with Napoleon II
Napoleon acknowledged two illegitimate children:
He may have had further unacknowledged illegitimate offspring as well:
.
  • Karl Eugin von Mühlfeld, by Victoria Kraus[149]
  • Hélène Napoleone Bonaparte (1816–1910) by Albine de Montholon
  • Jules Barthélemy-Saint-Hilaire, whose mother also remains unknown.^ Mother of a son with an unknown husband, Morton Laguna de Perlas, perhaps the same as Norton Cuthbert Clarence, who was mentioned as head of the house in 1977.

    ^ GIRODET-TRIOSON, Anne Louis de Roussy (1767-1824) BONAPARTE (CHARLES DE) PERE DE L'EMPEREUR NAPOLEON + 1875.
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    ^ Saint-Cricq, Pierre Laurent Barthélemy, comte de (1772-1854; DPF ).
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    [150]

Image

Cartoon of a tall man and a short man sitting at either side of a table carving up a large pinkish globe with their swords.
In The Plumb-pudding in danger (1805), James Gillray caricatured a tall Pitt and a diminutive Napoleon
.Napoleon has become a worldwide cultural icon who symbolises military genius and political power.^ The first Napoleon; a sketch, political and military.
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^ There were many large landowners and professional military pushed from power by Chinese landowners who took power.
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^ She managed to have Cardinal Wolsey, who opposed their marriage, removed from power in 1529, and she became the most powerful person at Court where she had a great say over appointments and political matters.

.Since his death, many towns, streets, ships, and even cartoon characters have been named after him.^ She acted as regent during his absence from the state and after his death, she reigned in the name of her son, Frdric-Maurice (1605-52) and continued to act as temporary regent for him after he came of age.

^ In wealth and in family, he ranked among the first class of Athenians: in political character, Aristotle placed him, together with Thucydides son of Melesias and Theramenes, above all other names in Athenian history—seemingly even above Perikles.
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^ Her sister was another of Pedro's many mistresses, she was named Baroness of Sorocaba and had a child with him.

He has been portrayed in hundreds of films and discussed in hundreds of thousands of books and articles.[151]
.During the Napoleonic Wars he was taken seriously by some in the British press as a dangerous tyrant, poised to invade.^ Then she met the warmen of world war 1 , man they are serious!She left quite soon there because she would have got hurt , and that would of not been good.Napoleon was the best!

^ British and French forces began a withdrawal from Egypt during the Suez War.
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^ King Henry VI was taken prisoner by the Yorkists at the Battle of St. Albans, during the War of the Roses.
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.A nursery rhyme warned children that Bonaparte ravenously ate naughty people; the 'bogeyman'.[152] The British Tory press sometimes depicted Napoleon as much smaller than average height and this image persists.^ Napoleon Bonaparte was a man with a height that was average which amazed Perfy of the stories that said Napoleon was short but really good at dominating and that reminded Perfy of him self although he was 2 feet taller.

.Confusion about his height also results from the difference between the French pouce and British inch—2.71 and 2.54 cm respectively; he was 1.7 metres (5 ft 7 in) tall, average height for the period, sometimes quoted as 1.68 metres (5 ft 6 in).^ She had the misfortune to be caught up in the endgame of the maneuvering that had been going on between the British and French since the beginning of the century.

[153][note 13]
In 1908 psychologist Alfred Adler cited Napoleon to describe an inferiority complex in which short people adopt an overaggressive behavior to compensate for lack of height; this inspired the term Napoleon complex.[155] .The stock character of Napoleon is a comically short "petty tyrant" and this has become a cliché in popular culture.^ But, short of this, there are modifications of the rights of landed property of a more or less fundamental character, which have already numerous supporters, and are likely, as we believe, before long to become widely popular.
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.He is often portrayed wearing a comically large bicorne and a hand-in-waistcoat gesture—a reference to the 1812 painting by Jacques-Louis David.^ DAVID, Jacques Louis (1748-1825) NAPOLEON LE GRAND [1812] P Stipple engraving.
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^ DAVID, Jacques Louis (1748-1825) [MADAME RECAMIER] f Line engraving.
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^ GARNERAY, Jean Francois (1755-1837) (After DAVID, Jacques Louis) (1748-1825) JEAN SILVAIN BAILLY. p Colored aquatint.
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[156]

Legacy

Warfare

.
Photo of a grey and phosphorous-coloured equestrian statue.</span><span class=^ Gibbs, Montgomery B. Military career of Napoleon the great; an account of the remarkable campaigns of the "man of destiny."
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^ Napoleon was one of the greatest military commanders in history and also Napoleon decided on a military career when he was a child, winning a scholarship to a French military academy at age 14.

^ The military and political life, character, and anecdotes of Napoleon Bonaparte, from his origin to his death on the rock of St. Helena.
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.Napoleon is seated on the horse, which is rearing up, he looks forward with his right hand raised and pointing forward; his left hand holds the reins."^ Seated, holding money in right hand, scepter in left.
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^ Seated, holding a sword with right land and pointing to it with left.
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^ Seated, holding sword with right hand, dagger with left.
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src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/03/3/8/6/79632912087240214.jpg" width="140" height="187" class="thumbimage" />
Statue in Cherbourg-Octeville unveiled by Napoleon III in 1858. Napoleon I strengthened the town's defences to prevent British naval incursions.
.In the field of military organisation, Napoleon borrowed from previous theorists such as Jacques Antoine Hippolyte, Comte de Guibert, the reforms of preceding French governments and developed much of what was already in place.^ Actor 1959 - Charles de Gaulle forms French government 1961 - Melissa Etheridge was born.

^ Bourgeois de la Richardiere, Antoine Achille (1777- ) French School.
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^ Merlin de Douai, Philippe Antoine, comte (1754-1838; GDU ).
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He continued the policy, which emerged from the Revolution, of promotion based primarily on merit.[157] .Corps replaced divisions as the largest army units, mobile artillery was integrated into reserve batteries, the staff system became more fluid and cavalry returned as an important formation in French military doctrine—these methods are now referred to as essential features of Napoleonic warfare.^ Los Angeles became the third largest city in the United States.
  • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

^ Napoleon and his campaigns: embracing a complete history of Bonaparte's great military operations throughout Europe, with the most important incidents of his private and political life: a graphic ac count of his army and his generals and their unexampled military career: with a sketch of the French revolution: to which is added Bonaparte's last will and testament.
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^ She explained how she lived in eastern France and how she led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War!

[157] .Though he consolidated the practice of modern conscription introduced by the Directory, one of the restored monarchy's first acts was to end it.^ During her time in Bltrn, she wrote "Jammersmide" (Memory of Lamenting), one of the first Danish autobiographies by a woman, which was not published until 1869, though.

^ He was succceeded by the fat, lazy though devout son Giorgi XII. One of Giorgi's first acts on becoming ruler was to secure the Russian Master's agreement to recognise his eldest son as Heir Apparent and successor.

^ These acts restored the reputation of the monarchy, and in a referendum on 28.09 1919, 77.8% voted in favour of the monarchy.

[158]
.Weapons and other kinds of military technology remained largely static through the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras, but 18th century operational mobility underwent significant change.^ Tour through South Holland, and across the Netherlands, to Ostend 389.2 Tytler, A. F. Universal history to the begin- ning of the 18th century.
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[159] Napoleon's biggest influence was in the conduct of warfare. .Napoleon was regarded by the influential military theorist Carl von Clausewitz as a genius in the operational art of war and historians rank him as a great military commander.^ Napoleon was one of the greatest military commanders in history and also Napoleon decided on a military career when he was a child, winning a scholarship to a French military academy at age 14.

^ Naval Commander and Resistance Leader Laskarina Bouboulina in Greece She dominated the naval operations of the War of Independence in 1821.

^ Dymond, J 127.2 WAR. See Military art and science ; Moral phi- losophy, etc.
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[160] .Wellington, when asked who was the greatest general of the day, answered: "In this age, in past ages, in any age, Napoleon."^ Napoleon was one of the greatest military commanders in history and also Napoleon decided on a military career when he was a child, winning a scholarship to a French military academy at age 14.

^ Memoirs of the history of France during the reign of Napoleon: dictated by the emperor at St. Helena to the generals who shared his captivity.
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[161]
A new emphasis towards the destruction, not just outmanoeuvring, of enemy armies emerged. Invasions of enemy territory occurred over broader fronts which made wars costlier and more decisive. .The political impact of war increased significantly; defeat for a European power now meant more than the loss of isolated enclaves.^ Bobby Sands and 9 more Irish Republican Army hunger strikers were protesting their treatment as criminals rather than political prisoners.

^ This, then, being, of all the “points,” by far the most disagreeable to the present ruling powers, the opposition to it is proportionally more obstinate than to any other.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Slowly, however, she began to withdraw from active politics, leaving more and more power to Ras Tafari Makonnen, who was a modernizer.

.Near-Carthaginian peaces intertwined whole national efforts, intensifying the Revolutionary phenomenon of total war.^ The Guatemalan government and leaders of the leftist Guatemalan National Revolutionary Union signed a peace accord in Guatemala City, ending a civil war that had lasted 36 years.
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[162]

Metric system

.The official introduction of the metric system in September 1799 was unpopular in large sections of French society, and Napoleon's rule greatly aided adoption of the new standard across not only France but the French sphere of influence.^ New letters of Napoleon I omitted from the edition published under the auspices of Napoleon III. From the French by Lady Mary Loyd.
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^ She was extremely unpopular and was killed by a mob during the French Revolution in the September massacres (1792), and her head was displayed on a pike under the queen's windows.

^ She received foreign guests; new ambassadors were always officially presented to her and her husband only attended official events from time to time.

.Napoleon ultimately took a retrograde step in 1812, as he passed legislation to return France to its traditional units of measurement, but these were decimalised and the foundations were laid for the definitive introduction of the metric system across Europe in the middle of the 19th century.^ GERVINUS, G. G. Introduction to the history of the 19th century.
  • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ JOHNSTON, W. England as it is in the middle of the 19th century.
  • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Introduction to "Woman in the 19th century."
  • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

[163]

Jewish emancipation

Napoleon emancipated Jews from laws which restricted them to ghettos, and expanded their rights to property, worship, and careers. .Despite the anti-semitic reaction to Napoleon's policies from foreign governments and within France, he believed emancipation would benefit France by attracting Jews to the country given the restrictions they faced elsewhere.^ They have been bought, in a large degree, from funds or from the income of funds given by the benefactors of the Library, but also from funds furnished annually by the liber- ality of the City Government.
  • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Journals and periodicals published in France and other countries during the revolution and Napoleonic period 1789 - 1815.
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^ She did not support the idea of an ANC Government as she believed that its anti-traditional ideas would dilute her authority.

[164] .He stated that, "I will never accept any proposals that will obligate the Jewish people to leave France, because to me the Jews are the same as any other citizen in our country.^ "Well" the man started "We are building it so high because we are protecting our country, China, from Turkey and Mongolia."

^ The Beatles refused to perform for the Queen of England at a British Olympic Appeal Fund show because "Our decision would be the same no matter what the cause.
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^ She is head if state in 15 countries apart from Great Britain and as Head of the Commonwealth, she is the front person of the organization of many other former British colonies and territories.

It takes weakness to chase them out of the country, but it takes strength to assimilate them."[165] He was seen as so favourable to the Jews that the Russian Orthodox Church formally condemned him as "Antichrist and the Enemy of God".[166]

Napoleonic Code

Page of French writing
First page of the 1804 original edition of the Code Civil
.The Napoleonic code was adopted throughout much of Europe, though only in the lands he conquered, and remained in force after Napoleon's defeat.^ God,” King of the Huns and conqueror of much of Europe, in 447 reached the walls of Constantinople, where he forced Theodosius II to accept a tripling of the yearly tribute.
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^ Einstien his theory of why the sky was blue and for nopolean how much of europe he conquered and the Joan Of Arc told me about her life and childhood.

^ He also rewrote the old French feudal laws, which were confusing, creating a new Napoleonic Code of laws that were much clearer.

.Napoleon said: "My true glory is not to have won 40 battles...Waterloo will erase the memory of so many victories. ...^ Get out of my way” Napoleon said.

^ Napoleon and the battle of Waterloo.
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^ The campaigns of Napoleon Buonaparte, embracing the events of his unexampled military career, from the siege of Toulon, to the battle of Waterloo.
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But...what will live forever, is my Civil Code."[167] The Code still has importance today in a quarter of the world's jurisdictions including in Europe, the Americas and Africa.[168] .Dieter Langewiesche described the code as a "revolutionary project" which spurred the development of bourgeoisie society in Germany by the extension of the right to own property and an acceleration towards the end of feudalism.^ He abolished slavery, liberalized the family code, child marriage was limited, women got right to choose their own husband, etc.

^ Princess-Abbess Maria Jacoba von Schwartzenberg of Buchau (Germany) She was in dispute with the bishop of Konstanz and strongly maintained her own rights and the position of her territory.

.Napoleon reorganised what had been the Holy Roman Empire, made up of more than a thousand entities, into a more streamlined forty-state Confederation of the Rhine; this provided the basis for the German Confederation and the unification of Germany in 1871.[169] The movement toward national unification in Italy was similarly precipitated by Napoleonic rule.^ Holy Roman Empire 90 , 114 .
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^ And you call a brigand, an ogre, Napoleon, the Great, Emperor of the French and King of Italy, Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine, mediator of the Swiss Federation!
  • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1766 Lorraine was incorporated in France after having belonged to the Holy Roman Empire for centuriesand lived (1714-73).

[170] These changes contributed to the development of nationalism and the Nation state.[171]

Bonapartism

.In French political history, Bonapartism has two meanings.^ Former French Foreign Minister Roland Dumas is sentenced to six months in prison over the country's biggest political scandal in recent history.

.The term can refer to people who restored the French Empire under the House of Bonaparte including Napoleon's Corsican family and his nephew Louis.^ Napoleon, and the French people under his empire.
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^ Bonaparte, and the French people under his consulate.
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^ The Napoleon dynasty; or The history of the Bonaparte family.
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.Napoleon left a Bonapartist dynasty which ruled France again; Louis became Napoleon III of France, Emperor of the Second French Empire and was the first President of France.^ Paul Kruger became its first president.
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^ Napoleon III: the modern emperor.
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^ The second empire, Bonapartism, the prince, the president, the emperor.
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.In a wider sense, Bonapartism refers to a broad centrist or center-right political movement that advocates the idea of a strong and centralized state, based on popular support.^ In spite of the resignation from the court she tried to influence the politics of the state as she acted in favour of the rights of her younger sons.

^ Politically Influential First Lady Nancy Davis Reagan in United States of America She had a strong influence over her husband.

[172]

Admirers and critics

.Napoleon ended lawlessness and disorder in post-Revolutionary France.^ Napoleon, warrior and ruler and the military supremacy of revolutionary France.
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[173] He was, however, considered a tyrant and usurper by his opponents.[174] .His critics charge that he was not significantly troubled when faced with the prospect of war and death for thousands, turned his search for undisputed rule into a series of conflicts throughout Europe and ignored treaties and conventions alike.^ The civil war was concluded shortly after Marie's death by the Treaty of Edinburgh (1560), which ended the French domination of Scotland and opened the way for the establishment of the Protestant church.

^ C. Asian T"rks turned into holy war.
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^ Hence we have the Quest for the Holy Grail and The Search for the Lost Ark (Ark of the Covenant) and stories concerning a Philosophers  Stone (turning lead into gold).
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.Napoleon institutionalised plunder of conquered territories: French museums contain art stolen by Napoleon's forces from across Europe.^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of the French, containing numerous anecdotes of his court and times.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The moaner lisa, a painting carefully crafted to moan like no other, is going to be stolen from the moshi art museum.

^ Napoleon conquered large parts of the Holy Roman Empire, and in 1806 he forced Emperor Francis II to dissolve the empire.
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.Artefacts were brought to the Louvre for a grand central Museum; his example would later serve as inspiration for more notorious imitators.^ The first time she refused totally to go.Later she would be more indulgent.

[175] He was compared to Hitler most famously by the historian Pieter Geyl in 1947.[176] David G. Chandler, historian of Napoleonic warfare, replied that "nothing could be more degrading to the former and more flattering to the latter."[177]
A painting, set at nighttime, of a firing squad, about to fire at a group of men. One of the men about to be shot has his hands outstretched in the air and is illuminated by a lamp making him the focal point of the painting
.
Goya's The Third of May 1808, painted in 1814, depicts the civilian executions that occurred following the Dos de Mayo Uprising.
^ Maio de 1962) in A Circulatura do Quadrado Alguns dos Mais Belos Sonetos de Poetas cuja Mátria é a Língua Portuguesa - Edições Unicepe 2004 .

^ Correspondance politique et administrative commencée au mois de mai 1814, et dédiée à M. le Comte de Blacas d’Aulps.
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^ French-Mexican War : The Mexican army defeats the French army in the Battle of Puebla (on May 9 this day was made into the Cinco de mayo holiday).

Five thousand defenders of Madrid were executed in two days.[178]
.When other countries offered terms to Napoleon which would have restored France's borders to positions that would have delighted his predecessors, Napoleon refused compromise and only accepted his enemies' surrender.^ Austria, the U.S. and six other countries agreed on the broad outline of a plan that would compensate Nazi-Era forced labor.
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^ On the other hand, the measures in question would be attended with no small amount of positive benefit.
  • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sony said it would offer about 50 hit songs from Lauryn Hill, Pearl Jam, Michael Jackson, Mary Chapin Carpenter, and others.
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Critics argue that Napoleon's true legacy must reflect the loss of status for France and needless deaths brought by his rule: historian Victor Davis Hanson writes, "After all, the military record is unquestioned—17 years of wars, perhaps six million Europeans dead, France bankrupt, her overseas colonies lost."[179] McLynn notes that, "He can be viewed as the man who set back European economic life for a generation by the dislocating impact of his wars.[174] .Vincent Cronin replies that such criticism relies on the flawed premise that Napoleon was responsible for the wars which bear his name, when in fact France was the victim of a series of coalitions which aimed to destroy the ideals of the Revolution.^ Heweston, W.B. History of Napoleon Bonaparte, and wars of Europe; from the revolution in France to the termination of the late wars, including anecdotes of the most celebrated characters that have appeared duri ng and since the revolution.
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^ Then she met the warmen of world war 1 , man they are serious!She left quite soon there because she would have got hurt , and that would of not been good.Napoleon was the best!

^ In these wars, Napoleon I of France fought an alliance of European states that included-in addition to Austria- the United Kingdom, Prussia, and Russia.
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[180]
Some occultists consider Napoleon one of the anti-christs prophecized by Nostradamus.[181]
.International Napoleonic Congresses are held regularly and include participation by members of the French and American military, French politicians and scholars from different countries.^ Napoleon was one of the greatest military commanders in history and also Napoleon decided on a military career when he was a child, winning a scholarship to a French military academy at age 14.

^ Napoleon: his army and his generals: their unexampled military career: with a sketch of the French revolution.
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^ As the politicians and military leaders did not know what to do, she personally met Napoleon I in Tilsit in 1807, and tried to limit the consequences of the Prussian defeat to the Napoleonic forces.

[182]

Titles

Emperor Napoleon I of France
Political offices
Preceded by
French Directory
Provisional Consul of France
11 November – 12 December 1799
Served alongside:
Roger Ducos and Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès
became Consul
New title
First Consul of France
12 December 1799 – 18 May 1804
Served alongside:
Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès (Second Consul)
Charles-François Lebrun, duc de Plaisance (Third Consul)
became Emperor
Regnal titles
Vacant
Title last held by
Louis XVI of France
as King of the French
Emperor of the French
18 May 1804 – 11 April 1814
Succeeded by
Louis XVIII of France
as King of France and Navarre
Vacant
Title last held by
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
as last crowned monarch, 1530
King of Italy
17 March 1805 – 11 April 1814
Vacant
Title next held by
Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy
Preceded by
Louis XVIII of France
as King of France and Navarre
Emperor of the French
20 March – 22 June 1815
Succeeded by
Louis XVIII of France
as King of France and Navarre
(Napoleon II
according to his will only)
New title
State created
Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine
12 July 1806 – 19 October 1813
Rhine Confederation dissolved
successive ruler:
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
as President of the German Confederation
Titles in pretence
New title — TITULAR —
Emperor of the French
11 April 1814 – 20 March 1815
Vacant
Title next held by
Napoleon II of France

Notes

  1. ^ He was called Nabolione in Corsican.[3]
  2. ^ At Brienne, Napoleon first met the Champagne maker Jean-Rémy Moët. They became friends, and Napoleon would later frequently stay at Moët's estate. Victorious French armies were known for their indulgence in sabrage.[11]
  3. ^ Aside from his name, there does not appear to a connection between him and Napoleon's theorem.[13]
  4. ^ He was mainly referred to as Bonaparte until he became First Consul for life.[16]
  5. ^ Some histories state that he was imprisoned at the Fort Carré in Antibes but there is no evidence for this.[24]
  6. ^ This is depicted in Bonaparte Crossing the Alps by Hippolyte Delaroche and in Jacques-Louis David's imperial Napoleon Crossing the Alps, he is less realistically portrayed on a charger in the latter work.[60]
  7. ^ Claude Ribbe advances the thesis that the French used gas chambers.[65]
  8. ^ Napoleon gave the pope a tiara following the ceremony, now referred to as the Napoleon Tiara.
  9. ^ A custom in which householders place candles in street-facing windows to herald good news.[125]
  10. ^ It was customary to cast a death mask or mold of a leader. Four genuine death masks of Napoleon are known to exist: one in The Cabildo, a state museum located in New Orleans, one in a Liverpool museum, another in Havana and one in the library of the University of North Carolina.[132]
  11. ^ The body can tolerate large doses of arsenic if ingested regularly, and arsenic was a fashionable cure-all.[139]
  12. ^ One night, during an illicit liaison with the actress Marguerite George, Napoleon had a major fit. This and other more minor attacks have led historians to debate whether he had epilepsy and, if so, to what extent.[145]
  13. ^ Napoleon's height was 5 ft 2 French inches according to Antommarchi at Napoleon's autopsy and British sources put his height at 5 ft 7 British inches: both equivalent to 1.7 m.[154] Napoleon surrounded himself with tall bodyguards and had a nickname of le petit caporal which was an affectionate term that reflected his reported camaraderie with his soldiers rather than his height.

Citations

  1. ^ McLynn 1998, p.6
  2. ^ Bresler 1999, p.15–16
  3. ^ Asprey 2000, p.4
  4. ^ McLynn 1998, p.2
  5. ^ Cronin 1994, p.20–21
  6. ^ "Cathedral—Ajaccio". La Fondation Napoléon. http://www.napoleon.org/en/magazine/museums/files/Cathedral-Ajaccio.asp. Retrieved 2008-05-31.  
  7. ^ Cronin 1994, p.27
  8. ^ a b c Roberts 2001, p.xvi
  9. ^ McLynn 1998, p.18
  10. ^ a b Hibbert 1998, p.21–2
  11. ^ Kladstrup 2005, p.61–8
  12. ^ Asprey 2000, p.13
  13. ^ Wells 1992, p.74
  14. ^ McLynn 1998, p.23
  15. ^ McLynn 1998, p.26
  16. ^ a b McLynn 1998, p.290
  17. ^ McLynn 1998, p.37
  18. ^ McLynn 1998, p.55
  19. ^ McLynn 1998, p.61
  20. ^ a b c d e f Roberts 2001, p.xviii
  21. ^ Schom 1998, p.16
  22. ^ Schama 1989, p.688
  23. ^ McLynn 1998, p.103
  24. ^ Dwyer 2008, p.155
  25. ^ Schom 1998, p.25
  26. ^ McLynn 1998, p.92
  27. ^ Schom 1998, p.26
  28. ^ Dwyer 2008, p.164
  29. ^ McLynn 1998, p.93
  30. ^ a b McLynn 1998, p.96
  31. ^ Johnson 2002, p.27
  32. ^ McLynn 1998, p.102
  33. ^ McLynn 1998, p.129
  34. ^ Schama 1989, p.738
  35. ^ McLynn 1998, p.132
  36. ^ McLynn 1998, p.145
  37. ^ McLynn 1998, p.142
  38. ^ Harvey 2006, p.179
  39. ^ McLynn 1998, p.135
  40. ^ Hanley 2005, Chapter 3
  41. ^ Schom 1998, pp.69–70
  42. ^ Schom 1998, p.87
  43. ^ a b c Watson 2003, p.13-14
  44. ^ a b Amini 2000, p.12
  45. ^ Schom 1998, pp.72–73
  46. ^ a b Alder 2002
  47. ^ McLynn 1998, p.175
  48. ^ Smith 1998, p.140
  49. ^ a b c d e f g Roberts 2001, p.xx
  50. ^ Schom 1998, pp.139–144
  51. ^ Roberts 1995, p.147–160
  52. ^ McLynn 1998, p.189
  53. ^ McLynn 1998, p.193
  54. ^ Schom 1998, pp.176–179
  55. ^ a b c Connelly 2006, p.57
  56. ^ Schom 1998, pp.186–188
  57. ^ Schom 1998, p.194
  58. ^ McLynn 1998, p.215
  59. ^ McLynn 1998, p.224
  60. ^ Chandler 2002, p.51
  61. ^ a b McLynn 1998, p.235
  62. ^ Schom 1997, p.302
  63. ^ McLynn 1998, p.265
  64. ^ Jackson 2004, p.33
  65. ^ Ribbe 2007
  66. ^ Connelly 2006, p.70
  67. ^ Blaufarb 2007, p.101–2
  68. ^ Edwards 1999, p.55
  69. ^ McLynn 1998, 255
  70. ^ Bruce 1995, p.321–3
  71. ^ McLynn 1998, p.296
  72. ^ a b McLynn 1998, p.297
  73. ^ McLynn 1998, p.321
  74. ^ McLynn 1998, p.332
  75. ^ Goetz 2005, p.301
  76. ^ Schom 1997, p.414
  77. ^ McLynn 1998, p.350
  78. ^ Cronin 1994, p.344
  79. ^ a b Karsh 2001, p.11
  80. ^ Karsh 2001, p.12
  81. ^ McLynn 1998, p.356
  82. ^ McLynn 1998, p.370
  83. ^ McLynn 1998, p.426
  84. ^ McLynn 1998, p.497
  85. ^ Gates 2001, p.20
  86. ^ Chandler 1995, p.631
  87. ^ McLynn 1998, p.408
  88. ^ Harvey 2006, p.631
  89. ^ Gates 2001, p.177
  90. ^ Gates 2001, p.467
  91. ^ Napoleon Bonaparte, Memorial de Sainte-Helene, Vol 1 (Paris: Garnier fretes, 1961 (1823), pp. 609-610
  92. ^ Castle 1994, p.90
  93. ^ McLynn 1998, p.422
  94. ^ McLynn 1998, p.470
  95. ^ McLynn 1998, p.433–5
  96. ^ McLynn 1998, p.472
  97. ^ McLynn 1998, p.378
  98. ^ Riehn 1991, p.24
  99. ^ Riehn 1991, p.81
  100. ^ McLynn 1998, p.504—505
  101. ^ Harvey 2006, p.773
  102. ^ McLynn 1998, p.518
  103. ^ Markham 1988, p.194
  104. ^ McLynn 1998, p.522
  105. ^ Markham 1988, p.190 and 199
  106. ^ McLynn 1998, p.541
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    ^ Students at Kent State University riot in downtown Kent, OH, in protest of the American invasion of Cambodia.
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    ^ BERT 01-11-2009, 05:58 PM Jan.
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    ^ Napoleon and Josephine, the rise of the empire.
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    ^ The Napoleonic empire in southern Italy and the rise of the secret societies.
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    ^ New York, Columbia University Press, 1952.
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    ^ Waterloo: Napoleon's last campaign.
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    ^ Notes and reminiscences of a staff officer, chiefly relating to the Waterloo campaign and to St. Helena matters during the captivity of Napoleon.
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  • Jackson, John (2004). Race, Racism, and Science. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1851094482.  
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  • Karsh, Inari (2001). .Empires of the Sand: The Struggle for Mastery in the Middle East, 1789-1923.^ A.D. -Kazakh Empire divides into three hordes: Great Horde (east), Middle Horde (center), and Lesser Horde(west).
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    ^ London: Heinemann; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1952, 8-180.
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    ^ The meeting was used to discuss the reconstruction of Europe after World War I. 1925 - F. Scott Fitzgerald published "The Great Gatsby" for the first time.
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    ^ Politically Influential Domitlia de Castro Couto e Mello in Brazil Very influential during the reign of her lover, Emperor Pedro I (1798-1834).

    ^ Regent Infanta Caterina de Bragana of Portugal Stepped in as leader of the government during the ilness of her brother Dom Pedro II (1648-83-1706).

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  • Schama, Simon (2004). Citizens. Penguin. ISBN 0141017279.  
  • Scheck, Raffael (2008). Germany, 1871–1945: A Concise History. Berg. ISBN 184520817X.  
  • Schom, Alan (1998). .Napoleon Bonaparte: A Life.^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of the French, containing numerous anecdotes of his court and times.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hodson, W. The life of Napoleon Bonaparte, once emperor of the French, who died in exile at St. Helena, after a captivity of six years' duration.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, to which is added a sketch of the life of the late emperor Napoleon the third.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Harper Perennial. ISBN 0060929588.
     
  • Schwarzfuchs, Simon (1979). Napoleon, the Jews and the Sanhedrin. Routledge. ISBN 0197100236.  
  • Smith, Digby (1998). The Greenhill Napoleonic Wars Data Book. Greenhill Books. ISBN 1853672769.  
  • Thomson, Kathleen (1969). "Balcombe, Alexander Beatson (1811–77)". Australian Dictionary of Biography Online. http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A030078b.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-27.  
  • Wanniski, Jude (1998). The Way the World Works. Regnery Gateway. ISBN 0895263440.  
  • Watson, William (2003). Tricolor and crescent. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0275974707. http://books.google.com/books?id=o4vrUbMK5eEC&pg=PA13. .Retrieved 2009-06-12.  
  • Wells, David (1992).^ Posted by khajiit036988 on November 06, 2009 at 05:12 PM GMT+00:00 # .

    ^ Posted by Samsoma on November 12, 2009 at 06:32 PM GMT+00:00 # .

    ^ Posted by kimmidoll10 on November 06, 2009 at 05:12 PM GMT+00:00 # .

    The Penguin Dictionary of Curious and Interesting Geometry. Penguin Books. ISBN 0140118136.  
  • Wilkins, William (1972) [1944]. Napoleon's Submarine. New English Library. ISBN 0450010287.  
  • Wilson, J (2 August 1975). Dr. Archibald Arnott: Surgeon to the 20th Foot and Physician to Napoleon. British Medical Journal. PMC 1674241. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1674241&blobtype=pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-07.  
  • Wood, Philip (2007). The Law and Practice of International Finance Series. Sweet & Maxwell. ISBN 1847032109.  
  • Woodward, Chris (July 2005). ."Napoleon's Last Journey".^ Napoleon's last journey.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    History Today. http://www.historytoday.com/MainArticle.aspx?m=31103&amid=30222626. Retrieved 2008-07-12.
     

Further reading

Biographies
  • Englund, S. (2004). .Napoleon: a Political Life.^ I. Political life ; Political reveries; Ideas of a new constitution; Switzerland, political and military; Ideas of Napoleonism; Historical frag- ments; The revolutions of 16S8 and 1830.
    • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Harvard University Press.^ London: Heinemann; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1950, 2-307.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ London: Heinemann; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1946.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ London: Heinemann; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1952, 8-180.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 0674018036.
     
  • Markham, J. David (2003). Napoleon's Road to Glory. London: Brassey's UK. ISBN 1857533275.  
  • Markham, J. David (2005). Napoleon For Dummies. Hoboken: For Dummies. ISBN 0764597981.  
Related history
  • Broers, Michael (2002). .The Politics of Religion in Napoleonic Italy: The war against God, 1801-1814.^ Perfy left Miss Pinky on his adventure first he went to Napoleon and fort in a war against England!.

    ^ First Coalition : Napoleon I of France wins a decisive victory against Austrian forces at Lodi bridge over the River Adda in Italy .

    ^ Regent Empress Marie-Louise von Habsburg-Lothringen of France 1814-47 Sovereign Duchess of Parma, Piacenza and Gaustalla (Italy) Regent during her husband, Napoleon Is war in Russia.

    Routledge. ISBN 9780415266703.
     
  • Connelly, Owen (1990). .Napoleon’s Satellite Kingdoms: Managing Conquered Peoples.^ Napoleon's satellite kingdoms.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Malabar: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company. ISBN 9780894644160.
     
  • Conner, Susan P. (2004). The Age of Napoleon. Westport: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0313320144.  
  • Dean, Rodney J. (2004) (in French). .L’Église Constitutionnelle, Napoléon et le Concordat de 1801.^ De la restauration et de la monarchie élective, ou Réponse à l’interpellation de quelques journaux sur mon refus de servir le nouveau gouvernement.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Ordonnance du roi qui réforme, selon les principes de la charte constitutionnelle, les règles d’élection, et prescrit l’exécution de l’article 46 de la charte, Bull.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Discours sur l’origine et les fondements de l’inégalité parmi les hommes.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    Paris: Rodney J. Dean. ISBN 2708407198.
     
  • Fregosi, Paul (1990). .Dreams of Empire: Napoleon and the First World War, 1792-1815.^ Perfy left Miss Pinky on his adventure first he went to Napoleon and fort in a war against England!.

    ^ The Soviet Army launched its first major offensive of World War II and took Kharkov in the eastern Ukraine from the German army.
    • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The meeting was used to discuss the reconstruction of Europe after World War I. 1925 - F. Scott Fitzgerald published "The Great Gatsby" for the first time.
    • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

    .New York: Carol Publishing Group.^ The Petula Clark TV special "Petula" aired on NBC. 1971 - Chicago became the first rock group to play Carnegie Hall in New York City.
    • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Damned became the first British punk group to perform at New York's club CBGB. 1979 - Van Halen began their first world tour.
    • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Carole King performed in New York's Central Park.
    • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

    ISBN 9780091739263.
     
  • Hall, Henry Foljambe (1905). .Napoleon's Notes on English History Made on the Eve of the French Revolution.^ Napoleon and the end of the French revolution.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Life of Napoleon, with view of the French revolution.
    • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ History of the wars resulting from the French revolution: With a relation of the circumstances which led to that important event.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    New York: E. P. Dutton & Co..
     
  • Holtman, Robert B. (1967). The Napoleonic Revolution. .Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.^ Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1950.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ U.S. federal troops occupy Baton Rouge, Louisiana .

    ISBN 0807104876.
     
  • Kagan, Frederick W. (2006). The End of the Old Order: Napoleon and Europe, 1801-1805. Cambridge: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0306811375.  
  • Prendergast, Christopher (1997). .Napoleon and History Painting: Antoine-Jean Gros's La Bataille d'Eylau.^ Hill, G. A. The war in La Vendee and the little Chouanncrie 1008.13 History of Napoleon .and Fr.
    • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Oxford: Clarendon Press.^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1765-69.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sylburg (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1810).
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1773), is in SC. .
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 0198174225.
     
  • Semmel, Stuart (2004). Napoleon and the British. .New Haven: Yale University Press.^ New Haven, Yale University, 1949.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New Haven, Yale University, [n.d.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York, Columbia University Press, 1955.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 978-0300090017.
     
  • Woloch, Isser (2001). Napoleon and his Collaborators: The Making of a Dictatorship. .New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc..^ The Longines Watch Company signed for the first FM radio advertising contract with experimental station W2XOR in New York City.
    • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

    ^ New York, The Werner Company, 1900.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ford Motor Company announced that the Model A would replace the Model T. 1927 - The "Movietone News" was shown for the first time at the Sam Harris Theatre in New York City.
    • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

    ISBN 9780393050097.
     

External links

.

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

The true character of man ever displays itself in great events.
.Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 17695 May 1821) was a Corsican-born military general who rose to prominence in the French Revolution, becoming the ruler of France as First Consul of the French Republic (11 November 1799 - 18 May 1804), and then Emperor of the French and King of Italy under the name Napoleon I (18 May 1804 - 6 April 1814, and again briefly from 20 March - 22 June 1815).^ Napoleon declared himself French Emperor and became a military dictator.
  • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis XVI becomes King of France .

^ August 15, 1769 the day Napolian was born!!!

Everything tells me I shall succeed.

Contents

Sourced

My waking thoughts are all of thee...
.
The barbarous custom of having men beaten who are suspected of having important secrets to reveal must be abolished.
  • Send me 300 francs; that sum will enable me to go to Paris.^ This calumny must be classed among those which malice delights to take in the character of men who become celebrated, calumnies which are adopted lightly and without reflection.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Directory - A group of five men who held the executive power in France, according to the French Revolution constitution of 1795.
    • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    .There, at least, one can cut a figure and surmount obstacles.^ No doubt, there is at least one party of this sort in France; but the republican party must be mad if they compromised a cause of which the success is infallible, by ineffectual attempts.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    Everything tells me I shall succeed. .Will you prevent me from doing so for the want of 100 crowns?
    • Letter to his uncle, Joseph Fesch (June 1791), as quoted in A Selection from the Letters and Despatches of the First Napoleon.^ A selection from letters and dispatches of the first Napoleon with explanatory notes.
      • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ A voice from Waterloo a history of the battle fought on the 18th June 1815, with a selection from the Wellington dispatches, general orders and letters relating to the battle.
      • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ England and Napoleon in 1803; being the despatches of Lord Whitworth and others, now first printed from the originals in the Record office.
      • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .With Explanatory Notes
      (1884) edited by D. A. Bingham, Vol.^ Edited, with explanatory notes, by Major-General H. T. Siborne.
      • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      I, p. .24
  • My waking thoughts are all of thee. Your portrait and the remembrance of last night's delirium have robbed my senses of repose.^ Listen, listen all to my last legacy.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The victory is wholly yours, not mine, since I only appeared among you in the last stage of the contest to meet the desire expressed for a fuller explanation of my opinions.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "At least two nights, I'll let you know my plans as they develop here in your fine city."
    • Bruce Napoleon, Vampire Veterinarian 9 February 2010 15:30 UTC vampvet.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Sweet and incomparable Josephine, what an extraordinary influence you have over my heart.^ Napoleon smiled upon her kindly, and said, "Why, my poor Josephine, you are mad.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Well, then, madame," responded Lucien, "all that I can say is, that from my heart I pity you."
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    Are you vexed? .Do I see you sad?^ ''You make a perfect friend, I will be sad to see you go.''

    Are you ill at ease? .My soul is broken with grief, and there is no rest for your lover.^ When Joan got injured and commanded: "take my banner, and there will be no more difficulty".

    ^ "No im sorry theres not much room cause of all my things im bringing" all of a sudden there was a huge falsh of light and boom purfy was gone.

    ^ "NO! YOU'RE NOT TELLING ME! IM TELLING YOU! SO THERE! IM LEAVING!" I storm, and climb into my time machine.

    • Letter to Joséphine de Beauharnais (February 1796), as translated in Napoleon's Letters to Josephine 1796-1812 (1901) edited by Henry Foljambe Hall
From the sublime to the ridiculous is but a step.
What is a throne? — a bit of wood gilded and covered in velvet. I am the state...
.
France is invaded; I am leaving to take command of my troops, and, with God's help and their valor, I hope soon to drive the enemy beyond the frontier.
  • All great events hang by a hair.^ At St. Helena Napoleon said, "Of all the general I ever had under my command Desaix and Kleber possessed the greatest talent.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Moreover, the areas that Germany initially invaded were all of German heritage, and the leaders of the nations wondered if perhaps Germany should be allowed to take those territories.
    • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Bruce, Here is all we could find on Lindsey, I hope it helps.
    • Bruce Napoleon, Vampire Veterinarian 9 February 2010 15:30 UTC vampvet.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The man of ability takes advantage of everything and neglects nothing that can give him a chance of success; whilst the less able man sometimes loses everything by neglecting a single one of those chances.
    • Letter to Minister of Foreign Affairs, Passariano (26 September 1797), as quoted in Napoleon as a General (1902) by Maximilian Yorck von Wartenburg, p.^ Married to a former Minister of Foreign Affairs.

      ^ Those cases, however, are the exception, not the rule: and when they occur, what is lost in one quarter is gained in another, and there is the general gain due to the prosperity of the country besides.
      • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Government, in dealing with any proprietor, whether for waste or cultivated land, is bound to satisfy him before taking any part of his land to give to others.
      • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

      .269
  • From the heights of these pyramids, forty centuries look down on us.
    • Speech to his troops in Egypt (21 July 1798) Variant translation: "Soldiers, from the summit of yonder pyramids forty centuries look down upon you...". Published in the autobiography of French general Eugène de Beauharnais.
  • What I have done up to this is nothing.^ Forty centuries look down; a biographical novel of Napoleon.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ State of the French republic at the end of the year VIII. Translated from the French of Citizen Hauteriv e, Chef De Relations Exterieurs.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.
    • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    .I am only at the beginning of the course I must run.
    Do you imagine that I triumph in Italy in order to aggrandise the pack of lawyers who form the Directory, and men like Carnot and Barras?^ 'Of course I will your my bestie'!!So he grabbed all of his luggage and before you could say Moshi Monsters, he shot out the door like a jet.

    ^ She might be a Pict or Celt SPY!" The man who spoke first turned to his men and said "Well you know what this means...

    ^ In the rapid course into which society has been projected, men and systems succeed one another to conduct it to its destination: the last relay is the one which will arrive, and that one is you.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    What an idea! .
    • As quoted in Memoirs of Count Miot de Melito (1788 - 1815) as translated by Frances Cashel Hoey and John Lillie (1881), Vol.^ Memoirs of Count Miot de Melito, minister, ambassador, councillor of state and member of the Institute of France, between the years 1788 and 1815.
      • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Memoirs and recollections of count Segur, ambassador from France to the courts of Russia and Prussia etc., etc.
      • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ She succeeded her relative, king Franois of France, and married to Charles de Cotivy, Count de Tailleburg, and lived (1462-1520).

      II, p. .94
  • I do not care to play the part of Monk; I will not play it myself, and I do not choose that others shall do so. But those Paris lawyers who have got into the Directory understand nothing of government.^ In addition to nationalizing church property, the Civil Constitution also abolished religious vows and turned all Church clerics (including monks and nuns) into civil servants who received their pay and assignments not from Rome, but from Paris.
    • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Part of Paris Charles De Gaulle International Airport Terminal 2E collapses, killing five people and injuring three others.

    ^ For wealth he cared nothing Millions had been at his disposal, and he had emptied them all into the treasury of France.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    They are poor creatures. .I am going to see what they want to do at Rastadt; but I doubt much that we shall understand each other, or long agree together.^ We are going to find each other much changed.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Yeah, now and then, Stuart and I gave a socialite a double treatment together the other day, so you can see….", Mick looked crestfallen.
    • Bruce Napoleon, Vampire Veterinarian 9 February 2010 15:30 UTC vampvet.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I have to go back!’’So he went back to see Miss Pinky,and they all lived happily ever after.

    .They are jealous of me, I know, and notwithstanding all their flattery, I am not their dupe; they fear more than they love me.^ The English are in the wrong; more so than they will ever be again.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If they do, they lose far more in vigour of argument, and in the imposing influence of a sense of consistency and power, than they can possibly gain in charming away the fears of those who would, but dare not, follow them.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The worst features of the case, as it appeared against them in the preliminary investigation, were all confirmed, and more than confirmed, by the evidence on the trial.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    .They were in a great hurry to make me General of the army of England, so that they might get me out of Italy, where I am the master, and am more of a sovereign than commander of an army.^ The English are in the wrong; more so than they will ever be again.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We are more than 10,000 armies.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Indeed I am more grieved than any of the honorable friends and colleagues of Mr. Pitt, at the growing greatness of France, which is daily extending her power in Europe and in America.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    .They will see how things go on when I am not there.^ I have to go back!’’So he went back to see Miss Pinky,and they all lived happily ever after.

    ^ They could see how the system, improved and well-regulated, had worked in those parishes; they could see the advantages which had been there derived from it, and they were thus enabled to refer to experiments already made, to guide them elsewhere in the work of reformation.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There was an indicator that showed her going up to the 3rd floor, where he assumed she'd walk down the stairs so they didn't know about the basement.
    • Bruce Napoleon, Vampire Veterinarian 9 February 2010 15:30 UTC vampvet.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    I am leaving Berthier, but he is not fit for the chief command, and, I predict, will only make blunders. .As for myself, my dear Miot, I may inform you, I can no longer obey; I have tasted command, and I cannot give it up.^ Take what steps you may, you will have no other terms."
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If the foundations of a house give way, the house falls, and there is no longer a house.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On the 7th of May, 1800, Napoleon entered his carriage at the Tuileries, saying, "Good-by, my dear Josephine!
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    .I have made up my mind, if I cannot be master I shall leave France; I do not choose to have done so much for her and then hand her over to lawyers.^ In the name of my Master, Saint Simon, I have announced to them the destruction of all the privileges of birth, by which the industrious are weighed down, and delivered up to the will and pleasure of the idle; .
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Napoleon then proposed that the Island of Malta should be placed in the hands of the Emperor of Russia; leaving it with him in trust, till the discussions between France and England were decided.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Pooky soon shouted back guiltily "I am so sorry, Perfy i cannot, i have made some wonderful friends and cannot again leave them!"

    .
    • Conversation at Turin, as quoted in Memoirs of Count Miot de Melito (1788 - 1815) as translated by Frances Cashel Hoey and John Lillie (1881), Vol.^ Memoirs of Count Miot de Melito, minister, ambassador, councillor of state and member of the Institute of France, between the years 1788 and 1815.
      • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Memoirs and recollections of count Segur, ambassador from France to the courts of Russia and Prussia etc., etc.
      • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ She succeeded her relative, king Franois of France, and married to Charles de Cotivy, Count de Tailleburg, and lived (1462-1520).

      II, p. .113
    • 'Monk' refers to George Monck, military ruler of Puritan England after Cromwell, who ultimately gave up power when he invited Charles II in and enabled the English Restoration
  • I hope the time is not far off when I shall be able to unite all the wise and educated men of all the countries and establish a uniform regime based on the principles of the Quran which alone are true and which alone can lead men to happiness.
    • Letter to Sheikh El-Messiri, (28 August 1798); published in Correspondance Napoleon edited by Henri Plon (1861), Vol.4, No.^ Men of letters and science in the time of Geo.
      • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

      ^ Men of letters of the time of Geo.
      • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

      ^ All the men who challenged their power were "dealt with" in different ways.

      3148, p. .420
  • The barbarous custom of having men beaten who are suspected of having important secrets to reveal must be abolished.^ This calumny must be classed among those which malice delights to take in the character of men who become celebrated, calumnies which are adopted lightly and without reflection.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    It has always been recognized that this way of interrogating men, by putting them to torture, produces nothing worthwhile. .The poor wretches say anything that comes into their mind and what they think the interrogator wishes to know.
    • On the subject of torture, in a letter to Louis Alexandre Berthier (11 November 1798), published in Correspondance Napoleon edited by Henri Plon (1861), Vol.^ He went into the kitchen and next thing I know theres a big," She kicked the one that was still alive in the side, "Fucking baton coming at me.
      • Bruce Napoleon, Vampire Veterinarian 9 February 2010 15:30 UTC vampvet.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ It has, we think, been shown that they are all of them such as a very little consideration of the subject is sufficient to dispel.
      • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ He needed to know where she had come from, thinking fast, he said..
      • Bruce Napoleon, Vampire Veterinarian 9 February 2010 15:30 UTC vampvet.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

      V, No. 3606, p. .128
  • A form of government that is not the result of a long sequence of shared experiences, efforts, and endeavors can never take root.
    • Statement (1803) as quoted in The Mind of Napoleon (1955) by J. Christopher Herold
  • From the sublime to the ridiculous is but a step.
    • Writing about the retreat from Moscow, in a letter to Abbé du Pradt.^ Napoleon's campaign of 1812 and the retreat from Moscow.
      • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ She supported him in his efforts to unite the islands of the archipelago under his central authority and shared largely in their governance.

      ^ He stands at the door of his tent, and gazes at it long and earnestly, before he bids it farewell, equally impressed with the sublime magnificence of its situation and form, and with the solemn grandeur of its history.
      • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

      .(1812) [specific citation needed]
    • Variant translations:
      There is but one step from the sublime to the ridiculous.
      There is only one step from the sublime to the ridiculous.
  • Le mot impossible n'est pas français.
    • The word impossible is not French.
    • Letter to General Jean Le Marois (9 July 1813), quoted in Famous Sayings and their Authors (1906) by Edward Latham, p.^ Le mot impossible .
      • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Letter to General Count Lemarois (9 July, 1813).
      • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ If it is, there are not two powers, but only one.
      • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

      .138
    • Variant translation: You write to me that it is impossible; the word is not French.
    • Variant attribution : Impossible is a word to be found only in the dictionary of fools.
  • If the art of war were nothing but the art of avoiding risks, glory would become the prey of mediocre minds....^ But gloriously does it illustrate the immutable truth of God's word, that even in such an exigence as this, the path which the Bible pointed out was the only path of safety and of peace.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Las Vegas, Nevada is founded when 110 acres (0.4 km²), in what later would become downtown, are auctioned off.

    ^ "Only a year, we found out about you a year ago, and I moved in permanently 6 months in.
    • Bruce Napoleon, Vampire Veterinarian 9 February 2010 15:30 UTC vampvet.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    .I have made all the calculations; fate will do the rest.
    • Statement at the beginning of the 1813 campaign, as quoted in The Mind of Napoleon (1955) by J. Christopher Herold, p.^ The calculations that Perfy made was meant to go to the past when Albert Einstein was alive.Perfy loved Albert Einstein with all of the inventions she was sure she would meet him.

      ^ Desaix, plunging his spurs into his horse, outstripped all the rest, and galloped into the presence of Napoleon.
      • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

      45
  • What is a throne? — a bit of wood gilded and covered in velvet. .I am the state— I alone am here the representative of the people.^ Here's another representative of the people.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Even if I had done wrong you should not have reproached me in public—people wash their dirty linen at home.^ You have substituted for patriots people who don't even know their country.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

    .France has more need of me than I of France.^ Indeed I am more grieved than any of the honorable friends and colleagues of Mr. Pitt, at the growing greatness of France, which is daily extending her power in Europe and in America.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Probably in all France, there was not, at that time, a more unhappy woman than Josephine.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The descent to the plains of Italy is even more precipitous and dangerous than the ascent from the green pastures of France.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    • Statement to the Senate (1814)[specific citation needed] He echoes here the remark attributed to Louis XIV L'état c'est moi ( "The State is I" or more commonly: "I am the State.")
    • Variant translation: A throne is only a bench covered with velvet...
  • France is invaded; I am leaving to take command of my troops, and, with God's help and their valor, I hope soon to drive the enemy beyond the frontier.
    • Statement at Paris (23 January 1814) [specific citation needed]
      I generally had to give in.
.
I never was truly my own master but was always ruled by circumstances.
  • The bullet that will kill me is not yet cast.^ Alas, even at this late hour the Virus prevails and histories are twisted to suit the needs of the Masters of Deception~ And yet, admittedly Virus is not truly to blame.
    • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I relied more on the effect of the reproaches which would be cast by man upon the liberation of woman, than on the power of my own words.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When my hour is come, a fever, a fall from a horse in the hunt will kill me as effectively as a bullet.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Statement at Montereau (17 February 1814) [specific citation needed]
  • The Allied Powers having proclaimed that the Emperor Napoleon is the sole obstacle to the re-establishment of peace in Europe, he, faithful to his oath, declares that he is ready to descend from the throne, to quit France, and even to relinquish life, for the good of his country.^ The Napoleon gallery or, Illustrations of the life and times of the emperor of France.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Daily life in France under Napoleon.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The life of Napoleon Buonaparte, emperor of the French.
    • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Act of Abdication (4 April 1814)
  • Unite for the public safety, if you would remain an independent nation.^ It would bestow a free press, freedom of public discussion, representative assemblies, national education.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Napoleon abdicated on 6 April 1814.AND came back and told all her stories .

    ^ Occupied by Napoleon from 1808 to 1814, a brutal "war of independence" was waged against the occupiers that led to an emergent Spanish nationalism.
    • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Proclamation to the French People (22 June 1815)
  • Wherever wood can swim, there I am sure to find this flag of England.^ Déclaration au peuple français (22 June), Moniteur, 1815, 715.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There is no need to go further than Sir C. Wood’s speech, and his correspondence with the Directors, to find the principles which condemn the nomination clause.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A familier voice said, Adolf Hitler was standing there and there were many english people and french people the other end of the grounds.

    • Statement at Rochefort (July 1815) [specific citation needed]
  • Whatever shall we do in that remote spot? Well, we will write our memoirs. .Work is the scythe of time.
    • On board H.M.S. Bellerophon (August 1815) [specific citation needed]
  • I generally had to give in.
    • Statement on his relations with the Empress Josephine (19 May 1816), quoted in The Story of Civilization (1935) by Will Durant and Ariel Durant, p.^ The present age also is an age of struggle between conflicting principles which it is the work of this time, and perhaps of many generations more, to bring into a just relation with one another.
      • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Then there is the proposal with respect to general drainage, or, to use the new term, arterial dramage, under the superintendence of the Board of Works, which, in may cases, proprietors could not execute for themselves (687-8) .
      • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The Times, and may have been responsible for leading articles on 16, 17, and 19 November professing the attitudes to which Mill was objecting.
      • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

      234
.
Morality has nothing to do with such a man as I am.
  • I may have had many projects, but I never was free to carry out any of them. It did me little good to be holding the helm; no matter how strong my hands, the sudden and numerous waves were stronger still, and I was wise enough to yield to them rather than resist them obstinately and make the ship founder.^ Did he make out okay?"
    • Bruce Napoleon, Vampire Veterinarian 9 February 2010 15:30 UTC vampvet.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ No matter -- my police are not good.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They'd have to ship me out in little pieces.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Thus I never was truly my own master but was always ruled by circumstances.
    • Conversation with Emmanuel, comte de Las Cases (11 November 1816), Mémorial de Sainte Hélène, v.^ Mémorial de Sainte Hélène.
      • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Las Cases, Emmanuel-Auguste-Dieudonn, comte de.
      • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Rohan, Victor Louis Mériadec de, prince de Guéménée, comte de Saint-Pol (1766-1846; GDU ).
      • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

      4, p. 133.
  • What then is, generally speaking, the truth of history ? A fable agreed upon. .
    • Conversation with Emmanuel, comte de Las Cases (20 November 1816), Mémorial de Sainte Hélène, v.^ Mémorial de Sainte Hélène.
      • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Rohan, Victor Louis Mériadec de, prince de Guéménée, comte de Saint-Pol (1766-1846; GDU ).
      • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Saint-Cricq, Pierre Laurent Barthélemy, comte de (1772-1854; DPF ).
      • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

      4, p. 251. However, the phrase predates Napoleon. .Helvétius attributes it to Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle, De l'esprit (1758), p.^ Projet de loi sur les attributions municipales (14 Sept.
      • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Projet de loi sur les attributions communales (8 Dec.
      • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Projet de loi sur les attributions départementales (16 Sept.
      • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

      443
  • Women are nothing but machines for producing children.
    • The St. Helena Journal of General Baron Gourgaud (9 January 1817); as quoted in The St. Helena Journal of General Baron Gourgaud, 1815-1818 : Being a Diary written at St. Helena during a part of Napoleon's Captivity (1932) as translated by Norman Edwards, a translation of Journal de Sainte-Hélène 1815-1818 by General Gaspard Gourgaud
  • My maxim was, la carrière est ouverte aux talents, without distinction of birth or fortune.
    • Statement while on St. Helena (3 March 1817) [specific citation needed]
  • Religions are all founded on miracles — on things we cannot understand, such as the Trinity. Jesus calls himself the Son of God, and yet is descended from David. .I prefer the religion of Mahomet — it is less ridiculous than ours.^ We have managed to destroy our natural environment in less than a few hundred years, with most of the destruction having occurred within the past 60 years!
    • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • Letter from St. Helena (28 August 1817); as quoted in The St. Helena Journal of General Baron Gourgaud, 1815-1818 : Being a Diary written at St. Helena during a part of Napoleon's Captivity (1932) as translated by Norman Edwards, a translation of Journal de Sainte-Hélène 1815-1818 by General Gaspard Gourgaud, t.2, p.226
  • Muhammad was a great man, fearless soldier; with a handful of men he triumphed at the battle of Badr, great captain, eloquent, a great man of state, it regenerated his homeland, and created in the middle of the deserts of Arabia a new people and a new power. .
    • Statement of 1817 quoted in Précis des guerres de César, écrit à Sainte-Hélène sous la dictée de l'empereur (1836) edited by Comte Marchand, p.^ Las Cases, Emmanuel-Auguste-Dieudonn, comte de.
      • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Sieclede 1076.19 Louis XV. Saint Simon, L. de R. Le regent et la cour de France, sous la minority de .
      • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

      ^ Lepotd'or; Les avfnturcs de la nuit de Saint-Syl- vestre; Maitre Martin le tonuelier et sea apprentis.
      • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

      .237
  • Our hour is marked, and no one can claim a moment of life beyond what fate has predestined.^ No one dared to peril his life by the refusal.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The interest of my glory and that of my happiness, would seem to have marked the term of my public life, at the moment when the peace of the world is proclaimed.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ No Doubt sued the clothing manufacturer No Fear with the claim that the companies clothing items that had the "No Doubt" name on them infringe on the bands copyrighted service mark.
    • On This Day [Archive] - Myopenforum 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.myopenforum.com [Source type: General]

    • To Dr. Arnott (April 1821) [specific citation needed]
  • I see that everybody has lost their head since the infamous capitulation of Bailén. .I realise that I must go there myself to get the machine working again.^ "And there was Perfi, preparing his time machine to go to the fascinating ancient Rome.

    ^ There was a distant shadow it said"purdy you must go find some one in the past and quick ........

    ^ Here we go, twitch that there, and a little twisting of that," he said as his shaky fingers toyed with the time machine that seemed to have blinked out.

    • Said after the capitulation of Balien to the Spanish, as quoted in The Art of Warfare on Land (1974) by David G. Chandler, p. .164
  • Ordinary men died, men of iron were taken prisoner: I only brought back with me men of bronze.
    • Statement of 1812, quoted in Napoleon's Cavalary and its Leaders (1978) by David Johnson
  • Among so many conflicting ideas and so many different perspectives, the honest man is confused and distressed and the skeptic becomes wicked ...^ DAVID, Jacques Louis (1748-1825) NAPOLEON LE GRAND [1812] P Stipple engraving.
    • Full text of "Catalog of the Gardiner Greene Hubbard Collection of engravings" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ With men such as you, our cause was not lost -- but the war was interminable -- it had become a civil war and France was only becoming most unfortunate.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And that’s when she releases the strange man was Leonardo Di moshling then suddenly big strong men arrived with there strong muscles and Perfy was not very strong so there was only one thing to do run back into the time machine and do it again.

    .Since one must take sides, one might as well choose the side that is victorious, the side which devastates, loots, and burns.^ Raja Ratu Ungu of Patani (Thailand) She was the last of three sisters to rule the kingdom since 1585 and must have been well into her 60ies.

    ^ You must take this one, and replace the old one" He explained.

    ^ It is possible that you must take horse from one moment to the next.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

    Considering the alternative, it is better to eat than to be eaten.
    • Letter to his brother, as quoted in The Age of Napoleon (2002) by J. Christopher Herold, p. 8

Memoirs of Napoleon (1829-1831)

More glorious to merit a sceptre than to possess one.
Memoirs of Napoleon was published in 10 volumes (1829-1831) by Louis Antoine Fauvelet de Bourrienne who from 1797 to 1802 had been a private secretary to Napoleon.
  • Immortality is the best recollection one leaves.
  • Kiss the feet of Popes provided their hands are tied.
  • Malice delights to blacken the characters of prominent men.
  • More glorious to merit a sceptre than to possess one.
  • Those who are free from common prejudices acquire others.

Political Aphorisms, Moral and Philosophical Thoughts (1848)

.Political Aphorisms, Moral and Philosophical Thoughts of Emperor Napoleon collected and published by Cte.^ Political aphorisms, moral and philosophical thoughts of the emperor Napoleon.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Napoleon's war maxims: with his social and political thoughts.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Aphorismes politiques, penses morales et philosophiques de l'empereur Napolon) Collected from upwards of eighty original works.
  • Plough Library - Catalog of the Leslie H. Kuehner Napoleon Collection 17 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.cbu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A. G. de Liancourt; edited by James Alexander Manning; this work is also sometimes referred to as Maxims of Napoleon
.
  • When you have an enemy in your power, deprive him of the means of ever injuring you.^ It was so mean of him not to let you go with .

    ^ That means you would assassinate him?
    • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Well try your power, order this fire to be extinguished, for this conflagration to retreat, and if it obeys you, you are more than man -- you are simply a God.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

    • p. 30
  • He who fears being conquered is certain of defeat.
    • p. .146
  • The greater the man, the less is he opinionative, he depends upon events and circumstances.
    • p.^ There are vices and virtues which depend upon circumstances.
      • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

      146
  • What is the government? nothing, unless supported by opinion.
    • p. 242
  • A constitution should be framed so as not to impede the action of government, nor force the government to its violation.
    • p. .246
  • The people must not be counted upon; they cry indifferently : "Long live the King!"^ So long as I live, they will tremble.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ She succeeded her relative, king Franois of France, and married to Charles de Cotivy, Count de Tailleburg, and lived (1462-1520).

    ^ B.C. - Herodotus mentioned Sarmatians living to north of Scythians of N. Pontic regions and not close to their old homelands along Araxes, Sarmatians must have been a long time thorn in Scythian side.
    • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    and "Long live the Conspirators!" a proper direction must be given to them, and proper instruments employed to effect it.
    • p. 246
  • Hereditary succession to the magistracy is absurd, as it tends to make a property of it; it is incompatible with the sovereignty of the people.
    • p. 246
  • Orders and decorations are necessary in order to dazzle the people.
    • p. 248
  • Power is founded upon opinion.
    • p. 248
  • Sometimes a great example is necessary to all the public functionaries of the state.
    • p. 248
  • A Government protected by foreigners will never be accepted by a free people.
  • A great people may be killed, but they cannot be intimidated.
  • A great reserve and severity of manners are necessary for the command of those who are older than ourselves.
  • A king is sometimes obliged to commit crimes; but they are the crimes of his position.
  • A King should sacrifice the best affections of his heart for the good of his country; no sacrifice should be above his determination.
  • Greatness is nothing unless it be lasting.
  • Many a one commits a reprehensible action, who is at bottom an honourable man, because man seldom acts upon natural impulse, but from some secret passion of the moment which lies hidden and concealed within the narrowest folds of his heart.
  • The life of a citizen is the property of his country.
  • You cannot treat with all the world at once.

Napoleon : In His Own Words (1916)

Napoleon : In His Own Words (1916) edited by Jules Bertaut, as translated by Herbert Edward Law and Charles Lincoln Rhodes
Ch. I : On Success
.
  • There are only two forces that unite men — fear and interest. All great revolutions originate in fear, for the play of interests does not lead to accomplishment.
  • Audacity succeeds as often as it fails; in life it has an even chance.
  • The superior man is never in anyone's way.
  • There are so many laws that no one is safe from hanging.
  • Success is the most convincing talker in the world.
  • As a rule it is circumstances that make men.
  • Impatience is a great obstacle to success; he who treats everything with brusqueness gathers nothing, or only immature fruit which will never ripen.
  • One must indeed be ignorant of the methods of genius to suppose that it allows itself to be cramped by forms. Forms are for mediocrity, and it is fortunate that mediocrity can act only according to routine.^ The Way, most pristine form 97 .
    • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There's no one in the antechamber.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There is no documentation of her acting as Queen.

    Ability takes its flight unhindered.
  • Never depend on the multitude, full of instability and whims; always take precautions against it.
  • From triumph to downfall is but a step. .I have seen a trifle decide the most important issues in the gravest affairs.
  • It is only by prudence, wisdom, and dexterity, that great ends are attained and obstacles overcome.^ Perfy had a great time and she had brought back the most important thing, her knowledge.

    ^ She was in charge of the treasury and took part in the most important government decisions, and her brother-in-law was only regent concerning the "electoral affairs" (jura electoralia).

    ^ The most important of these is his Napoleonic Code, which provided freedom of religion, a uniform law code, social and legal equality, property rights, and ended feudal dues.
    • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Without these qualities nothing succeeds.
  • The man fitted for affairs and authority never considers individuals, but things and their consequences.
  • A congress of the powers is deceit agreed on between diplomats — it is the pen of Machiavelli combined with the scimitar of Mahomet.
  • Destiny urges me to a goal of which I am ignorant.^ I spoke these things; but I spoke them in order to be heard, especially by those who ought to be the first to hear; by those who have the power to enfranchise, and who domineer; who have the power to unite, and who divide; who have the power to purify, and who corrupt.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ However a power struggle ensued between the Prime Minister, who sought to assert the authority of the Cabinet and members of the Liqoqo.

    ^ These conditions limited royal power; they are regarded being a contract between sovereign and people.

    Until that goal is attained I am invulnerable, unassailable. When Destiny has accomplished her purpose in me, a fly may suffice to destroy me.
  • Necessity dominates inclination, will, and right.
Ch. II : Psychology and Morals
.
  • Men have their virtues and their vices, their heroisms and their perversities; men are neither wholly good nor wholly bad, but possess and practice all that there is of good and bad here below.^ There are good memes and bad memes.
    • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If those rights have any effect i at all on cultivation, i it must be to make it bad, not good.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I am sorry that the subject was introduced here; for we wanted no additional examples to prove to us that a good poet may be a very bad politician.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    Such is the general rule. Temperament, education, the accidents of life, are modifying factors. Outside of this, everything is ordered arrangement, everything is chance. .Such has been my rule of expectation and it has usually brought me success.
  • Whatever misanthropists may say, ingrates and the perverse are exceptions in the human species.
  • The great mass of society are far from being depraved; for if a large majority were criminal or inclined to break the laws, where would the force or power be to prevent or constrain them?^ The vices condemned are anger, falsehood, cruelty, depravity, whatever that may stand for, and the naked body-spirit, which probably was simply the savage instinct that rejects clothing.
    • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ On the 7th of May, 1800, Napoleon entered his carriage at the Tuileries, saying, "Good-by, my dear Josephine!
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The unsought confidence which you have placed in me has laid on me an obligation which it would heavily tax powers far superior to mine adequately to fulfil.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    .And herein is the real blessing of civilization, because this happy result has its origin in her bosom, growing out of her very nature.
  • Imagination governs the world.
  • What are we?^ As a result of new learning from the Scientific Revolution, the world was less of a mystical place, as natural phenomena became increasingly explainable by science.
    • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The dinosaur was a very unusual kind of dinosaur, because he was setting out the dining stuff and doing humanlike things.

    ^ It was originally an equal alliance, growing out of the operations against Xerxes, and intended for the naval defence of Greece, against Persian domination.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    What is the future? What is the past? .What magic fluid envelops us and hides from us the things it is most important for us to know?^ Spread of Protestantism During the 1500s During this period of European history, the most important thing to individuals of society was religion.
    • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Perfy had a great time and she had brought back the most important thing, her knowledge.

    .We are born, we live, and we die in the midst of the marvelous.
  • To do all that one is able to do, is to be a man; to do all that one would like to do, would be to be a god.
  • Man achieves in life only by commanding the capabilities nature has given him, or by creating them within himself by education and by knowing how to profit by the difficulties encountered.
  • It is a mistake, too, to say that the face is the mirror of the soul.^ How strange is the life of the heart of man.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Take -- take them all -- leave only one for me.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Eh -- how would I know?
    • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The truth is, men are very hard to know, and yet, not to be deceived, we must judge them by their present actions, but for the present only.
  • One is more certain to influence men, to produce more effect on them, by absurdities than by sensible ideas.
  • It is not true that men never change; they change for the worse, as well as for the better.^ More worlds than one.
    • Full text of "Index to the catalogue of a portion of the Public library of the city of Boston, arranged in the Lower hall" 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ But it is better to make no change than a change decidedly for the worse.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The English are in the wrong; more so than they will ever be again.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    .It is not true they are ungrateful; more often the benefactor rates his favors higher than their worth; and often too he does not allow for circumstances.^ The English are in the wrong; more so than they will ever be again.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Henry IV could be described as a politique , or one who cares more about his nation's peace and prosperity than he does the enforcement of religious toleration.
    • User:Eloquence/bee - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Whether or not they were true or false ( or a blend thereof, which, of course is most often the case, as that is the time-tested formulae for the .
    • http://williamhearth.com/ORMUS_myth-magic-murder-of.2007.htm 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC williamhearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .If few men have the moral force to resist impulses, most men do carry within themselves the germs of virtues as well as of vices, of heroism as well as of cowardice.^ Well -- but it is impossible that Bonaparte with his 40,000 men can still resist.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Most sachems were men, but many women are known to have been sachems as well.

    ^ Well might she say, "Napoleon is the most fascinating of men."
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    .Such is human nature — education and circumstances do the rest.
  • Ordinarily men exercise their memory much more than their judgment.
  • There is nothing so imperious as feebleness which feels itself supported by force.
  • True character stands the test of emergencies.^ Such is the weakness of human reason and judgment!
    • Napoleon Bonaparte 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The evils Sir Robert can understand, but on the subject of remedies nothing can be more lame and impotent than his conclusion.
    • Online Library of Liberty - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XXV - Newspaper Writings December 1847 - July 1873 Part IV 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These men that my fortune has raised after it had already more than enough for a marshall's baton.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte, Drama by Alexandre Dumas p�re 6 February 2010 12:49 UTC www.cadytech.com [Source type: Original source]

    Do not be mistaken, it is weakness from which the awakening is rude.
  • How many seemingly impossible things have been accomplished by resolute men because they had to do, or die.
  • The fool has one great advantage over a man of sense — he is always satisfied with himself.
  • Simpletons talk of the past, wise men of the present, and fools of the future.
  • One must learn to forgive and not to hold a hostile, bitter attitude of mind, which offends those about us and prevents us from enjoying ourselves; one must recognize human shortcomings and adjust himself to them rather than to be constantly finding fault with them.
  • It is not necessary to prohibit or encourage oddities of conduct which are not harmful.
  • The best way to keep one's word is not to give it.
Ch. III : Love and Marriage
.
  • In love the only safety is in flight.
  • I do not believe it is in our nature to love impartially.^ "You're My One And Only Love"/ "Honey Rock" (Verve 10070, 1957) in NM 8 and "Believe What You Say"/ "My Bucket's Got A Hole In It" in MT 9.