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Napoleonic Wars
Austerlitz-baron-Pascal.jpg
Sadler, Battle of Waterloo.jpg
Top: Battle of Austerlitz
Bottom: Battle of Waterloo
Date ca.1803–1815
Location Europe, Atlantic Ocean, Río de la Plata, French Guiana, Indian Ocean, North America
Result Coalition victory, Congress of Vienna
Belligerents
 Austrian Empire[a][b]
France French Empire
Commanders
Austria Francis I
France Napoléon I of France
Casualties and losses
from 3,350,000 to 6,500,000, see Full list
.
  1. The term "Austrian Empire" came into use after Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of the French in 1804, whereby Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor took the title Emperor of Austria (Kaiser von Österreich) in response.^ In December of 1804, Napoleon crowned himself Emperor.
    • NapoleonGames.com: Games by Operational Studies Group. 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.napoleongames.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ December 2, 1804: Bonaparte crowned himself Emperor.
    • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He took over the reins of power in France in 1799 and was crowned Emperor in 1804.

    .The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved in 1806, and consequently "Emperor of Austria" became Francis' primary title.^ The states of Germany had already been altered by the Confederation of the Rhine; Napoleon's allies, the electors of Bavaria, Württemberg, and Saxony, were made kings; the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved (1806); the kingdoms of Holland and Westphalia were created (1806 and 1807), with Napoleon's brothers Louis and Jérôme Bonaparte occupying the thrones.

    ^ The two largest states within the Holy Roman Empire (Prussia and Austria) resist France's advances, remaining sovereign nations.
    • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This was a loosely-affiliated collection of German states, similar to the Holy Roman Empire before.
    • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

    .For this reason, "Austrian Empire" is often used instead of "Holy Roman Empire" for brevity's sake when speaking of the Napoleonic Wars, even though the two entities are not synonymous.
  2. Both Austria and Prussia briefly became allies of France and contributed forces to the French invasion of Russia in 1812.
  3. Russia became an ally of France following the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807. The alliance broke down in 1810, which led to the French invasion in 1812. During that time Russia waged war against Sweden (1808–1809) and the Ottoman Empire (1806–1812), and nominally against Britain (1807–1812).
  4. Spain was an ally of France until a stealthy French invasion in 1808, then fought France in the Peninsular War.
  5. Sicily remained in personal union with Naples until Naples became a French client-republic following the Battle of Campo Tenese in 1806.
  6. Nominally, Sweden declared war against the United Kingdom after its defeat by Russia in the Finnish War (1808–1809).
  7. Fought against Napoleon in the French Campaign in Egypt and Syria as part of the French Revolutionary Wars.^ Britain was now also at war with France.
    • Short History 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC qlrmuseum.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ Austria and Prussia agreed to a defensive alliance with Russia.
    • NapoleonGames.com: Games by Operational Studies Group. 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.napoleongames.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ APA Style: French revolutionary and Napoleonic wars .
    • French revolutionary and Napoleonic wars (European history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    .Fought against Britain in the Anglo-Turkish War (1807–1809) and against Russia in the Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812).
  8. The French Empire annexed the Kingdom of Holland in 1810. Dutch troops fought against Napoleon during the Hundred Days in 1815.
  9. The French Empire annexed the Kingdom of Etruria in 1807.
  10. The Kingdom of Naples, briefly allied with Austria in 1814, allied with France again and fought against Austria during the Neapolitan War in 1815.
  11. Napoleon established the Duchy of Warsaw, ruled by the Kingdom of Saxony in 1807. Polish Legions had already been serving in the French armies beforehand.
  12. Sixteen of France's allies among the German states (including Bavaria and Württemberg) established the Confederation of the Rhine in July 1806 following the Battle of Austerlitz (December 1805).^ Britain was now also at war with France.
    • Short History 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC qlrmuseum.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ NAPOLEONIC WARS 1804 - 1815 .

    ^ The War of 1812-15 was fought between USA and Great Britain.
    • Uniforms : Napoleonic Wars : French : Russian : Austrian : British : Prussian 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Following the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt (October 1806), various other German states that had previously fought alongside the anti-French allies, including Saxony and Westphalia, also allied with France and joined the Confederation.^ Territories allied with the French included: .
    • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A number of German states, including Bavaria, Württemberg, and Baden, allied themselves with France.
    • NAPOLEONIC WARS, 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In 1806 he seized the kingdom of Naples and made his elder brother Joseph king, converted the Dutch Republic into the kingdom of Holland for his brother Louis, and established the Confederation of the Rhine (most of the German states) of which he was protector.
    • NAPOLEON I 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Saxony changed sides again in 1813 during the Battle of Leipzig, causing most other member-states to quickly follow suit and declare war on France.
  13. Denmark-Norway remained neutral until the Battle of Copenhagen (1807).^ France declares war on England & Holland .
    • Gaslight's NAPOLEONIC ERA LITERATURE 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC gaslight.mtroyal.ca [Source type: Reference]
    • Gaslight's NAPOLEONIC ERA LITERATURE 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC gaslight.mtroyal.ab.ca [Source type: Reference]

    ^ August: Austria declares war on France.
    • Timeline of the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonsims.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ France declared war in April 1792.
    • French revolutionary and Napoleonic wars (European history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    Denmark was compelled to cede Norway to Sweden by the Treaty of Kiel in 1814. Following a brief Swedish campaign against Norway, Norway entered a personal union with Sweden.
  14. Wellington, Somerset was an Earldom prior to 11 May 1814, when it was made a Dukedom.
  15. Was a commander for the French Empire, as Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, 1804–1810.
  16. Joseph Bonaparte ruled as Joseph I of Naples and Sicily from 30 March 1806 to 6 June 1808, and of Spain from 8 June 1808 to 11 December 1813. He also served as a French commander before and after these two reigns.
.The Napoleonic Wars were a series of conflicts declared against Napoleon's French Empire and changing sets of European allies by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815. As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789, they revolutionized European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly due to the application of modern mass conscription.^ The Napoleonic Wars 1805 - 1815 .
  • NapoleonGames.com: Games by Operational Studies Group. 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.napoleongames.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They continued to some extent the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleonic Wars British army 1806-1815 .
  • Wargame figures Napoleonic Wars British army 30mm Tradition 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.traditionoflondon.com [Source type: General]

.French power rose quickly, conquering most of Europe, but collapsed rapidly after France's disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812.^ French power rose quickly, conquering most of Europe; and collapsed rapidly after France's disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812, and Napoleon's empire ultimately suffered complete military defeat, resulting in the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in France.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He conquered much of Europe before the setback of his disastrous 1812 campaign in Russia.

^ It was not until 1812 when Napoleon and his allies were smashed in Russia that the invasion of Britain was clearly beyond the French - and in this year the construction of the chain of Martello towers ceased.
  • BBC - History - British History in depth: Napoleon, Nelson and the French Threat 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Napoleon's empire ultimately suffered complete military defeat resulting in the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in France.^ French power rose quickly, conquering most of Europe; and collapsed rapidly after France's disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812, and Napoleon's empire ultimately suffered complete military defeat, resulting in the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in France.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ French power rose quickly, conquering most of Europe; the fall was also rapid, beginning with the disastrous invasion of Russia, and Napoleon's empire ultimately suffered complete military defeat, resulting in the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in France.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Peninsular War cost France 300,000 casualties and untold sums of money and contributed to the eventual weakening of the Napoleonic empire.
  • NAPOLEON I 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The wars resulted in the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.^ Roman Empire declares war on France .
  • Gaslight's NAPOLEONIC ERA LITERATURE 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC gaslight.mtroyal.ca [Source type: Reference]
  • Gaslight's NAPOLEONIC ERA LITERATURE 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC gaslight.mtroyal.ab.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ The two largest states within the Holy Roman Empire (Prussia and Austria) resist France's advances, remaining sovereign nations.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was a loosely-affiliated collection of German states, similar to the Holy Roman Empire before.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

.Meanwhile the Spanish Empire began to unravel as French occupation of Spain weakened Spain's hold over its colonies, providing an opening for nationalist revolutions in Latin America.^ Meanwhile, the Spanish Empire began to unravel as French occupation of Spain itself weakened the Spanish hold over its colonies and provided an opening for nationalist revolutions in Latin America .
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Bravé (D edicated to the French navy and its allies during the Revolution, the Republic and the First Empire.

^ UK invaded Spanish South America with the purpose to prevent these colonies from falling into the hands of the French, who still controlled Spain.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

.As a direct result of the Napoleonic wars the British Empire became the foremost world power for the next century,[1] thus beginning Pax Britannica.^ The Napoleonic Wars were also the main topic of interest for some of the greatest cartoonists of all time, making this period part of the 'The Golden Age of Caricature' which spanned the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century.
  • Napoleonic Wars in Cartoons: Amazon.co.uk: Mark Bryant: Books 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.amazon.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The Peninsular War cost France 300,000 casualties and untold sums of money and contributed to the eventual weakening of the Napoleonic empire.
  • NAPOLEON I 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The map of Europe was to be re-drawn in the next hundred years following Napoleon's wars, not based on fiefs and aristocracy, but on the basis of human culture, origin, and ideology.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

.No consensus exists as to when the French Revolutionary Wars ended and the Napoleonic Wars began.^ THE FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY WAR 1793-1802 .
  • Short History 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC qlrmuseum.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Headwears of French troops of the Napoleonic Wars.
  • Uniforms : Napoleonic Wars : French : Russian : Austrian : British : Prussian 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French Revolution and early Napoleonic Wars.
  • Napoleonic Military History Glossary 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.miniatures.de [Source type: Reference]

.One possible date is 9 November 1799, when Bonaparte seized power in France with the coup of 18 Brumaire.^ November 1799: Bonaparte seized power in France.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He seized control of the French government on 9 November 1799 in the coup of 18 Brumaire, toppling the Directory.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ November: Napoleon's coup of 18 Brumaire establishes the Consulate.
  • Timeline of the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonsims.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.18 May 1803 is probably the most commonly used date, as this was when a renewed declaration of war between Britain and France ended the only period of peace in Europe between 1792 and 1814. The latest proposed date is 2 December 1804, when Bonaparte crowned himself Emperor.^ Britain was now also at war with France.
  • Short History 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC qlrmuseum.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ In December of 1804, Napoleon crowned himself Emperor.
  • NapoleonGames.com: Games by Operational Studies Group. 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.napoleongames.com [Source type: Original source]

^ France declares war on England & Holland .
  • Gaslight's NAPOLEONIC ERA LITERATURE 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC gaslight.mtroyal.ca [Source type: Reference]
  • Gaslight's NAPOLEONIC ERA LITERATURE 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC gaslight.mtroyal.ab.ca [Source type: Reference]

.The Napoleonic Wars ended following Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo on 18 June 1815 and the Second Treaty of Paris.^ Rge wars did not end until his defeat at Waterloo in 1815.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Napoleonic Wars ended on 20 November 1815, following Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo and the Second Treaty of Paris .
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Napoleonic Wars 1805 - 1815 .
  • NapoleonGames.com: Games by Operational Studies Group. 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.napoleongames.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Background 1789–1802

.The French Revolution of 1789 had a significant impact throughout Europe, which only increased with the arrest of King Louis XVI of France in 1792 and his execution in January 1793 for "crimes of tyranny" against the French people.^ Main articles: French Revolutionary Wars, First Coalition, and War of the Second Coalition The French Revolution posed an implied threat to monarchies throughout Europe, which only increased with the arrest of King Louis XVI of France in 1792, and his subsequent execution in January 1793.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ King Louis XVI and his wife were executed for high treason against the state.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The territories of the French Empire already exceded the boundaries of 1789 France, as a result of annexations: Comtat-Venaissin (1791), Savoie (1792), Belgium and Germany up to the Rhine (1795), all of which were confirmed by the peace of Lunéville in 1801.
  • Napoleonic Titles and Heraldry 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.heraldica.org [Source type: Original source]

.The first attempt to crush the French Republic came in 1793 when Austria, the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Kingdom of Naples, Prussia, Spain and the Kingdom of Great Britain formed the First Coalition.^ The first attempt to crush the First French Republic came between 1792 and 1797 from the First Coalition, which consisted of: Austria Piedmont the Kingdom of Naples Prussia Spain the Kingdom of Great Britain.

^ The first attempt to crush the new French republic was made in 1792-1797 by the First Coalition, which consisted of: .
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the opening of the war: Austria, Prussia, Spain, and Britain formed an alliance against France (the "First Coalition").
  • History of Nova Scotia; Book.2; Part 4; Ch. 1. "Nova Scotia And The Napoleonic Wars." 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.blupete.com [Source type: Original source]

.French measures, including general conscription (levée en masse), military reform, and total war, contributed to the defeat of the First Coalition, despite the civil war occurring in France.^ French measures, including general conscription (levée en masse), military reform, and total war, contributed to the defeat of the First Coalition.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ French measures, including general conscription ( levée en masse ), military reform and total war, contributed to the defeat of the First Coalition.

^ It was defeated by the French efforts, which consisted of general conscription (levée en masse), military reform and total war.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The war ended when General Bonaparte forced the Austrians to accept his terms in the Treaty of Campo Formio.^ The war ended when Bonaparte forced the Austrians to accept his terms in the Treaty of Campo Formio.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The war ended when Bonaparte forced the Austrians to accept his terms in the Treaty of Campo Formio ( 17 October 1797).

^ The war was ended by Bonaparte when the Austrians were forced to accept his terms in the Treaty of Campo Formio.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Only Great Britain remained diplomatically opposed to the French Republic.^ Great Britain remained the only anti-French power still in the field by 1797.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Portugal (on the side of Great Britain) and Spain (on the side of France) entered the conflict later, and a force from the neutral Dutch Republic was attacked in India.

^ Great Britain remains unharmed, while achieving victories against France at sea and abroad.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Second Coalition was formed in 1798 by Austria, Great Britain, the Kingdom of Naples, the Ottoman Empire, Papal States, Portugal, Russia, Sweden and other states.^ Second Coalition (formed in 1798) .
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Second Coalition ( 1798– 1801) consisted of the following nations or states: Austria Great Britain Kingdom of Naples Ottoman Empire Papal States Portugal Russia The French government, corrupt and divided under the Directory, suffered from a severe shortage of funds.

^ Russia, Prussia, Sweden, Austria, number of German states, and Britain .
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the War of the Second Coalition, the French Republic suffered from corruption and internal division under the Directory.^ During the War of the Second Coalition, the French Republic suffered from corruption and division under the Directory.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Edition puts players in control of the Admiralty of Britain, France or Spain in the West Indies during the French Revolutionary Wars of 1793-1801.
  • Wargame Vault - Napoleonic | Napoleonic | Napoleonic | Napoleonic - The largest wargame download store 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.wargamevault.com [Source type: General]

^ The Second Coalition ( 1798– 1801) consisted of the following nations or states: Austria Great Britain Kingdom of Naples Ottoman Empire Papal States Portugal Russia The French government, corrupt and divided under the Directory, suffered from a severe shortage of funds.

.France also lacked funds, and no longer had the services of Lazare Carnot, the war minister who had guided it to successive victories following extensive reforms during the early 1790s.^ France also lacked funds to prosecute the war and no longer had the services of Lazare Carnot, the war-minister who had guided her to successive victories following extensive reforms during the early 1790s.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The French Republic was also stripped of Lazare Carnot—the war minister who had guided France to successive victories following massive reform during the first war.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The French Republic in this conflict also lacked the services of Lazare Carnot, the war-minister who had guided France to successive victories following massive reform during the 1790s.

.Napoleon Bonaparte, the main architect of victory in the last years of the First Coalition, had gone to campaign in Egypt.^ Napoleon Bonaparte, the main architect of victory in the last years of the First Coalition, had gone to campaign in Egypt .
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The war with the Fifth Coalition was Napoleon's last successful campaign.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon appeared briefly and scored victories, but after his departure the fighting continued for five years, with the British backing Spanish armies and guerrillas.
  • NAPOLEON I 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Missing two of its most important military figures from the previous conflict, the Republic suffered successive defeats against revitalized enemies whom British financial support brought back into the war.^ Stripped of two of its most important military figures from the previous conflict, the Republic suffered successive defeats against revitalized enemies, brought back into the conflict by British financial support.

^ Stripped of two of its most important military figures from the previous conflict, the Republic suffered successive defeats against revitalized enemies which British financial support brought back into the war.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Stripped of two of its most important military commanders from the previous conflict, the Republic suffered successive defeats against revitalized enemies, brought back into the war by British financial support.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Bonaparte returned from Egypt to France on 23 August 1799, and seized control of the French government on 9 November 1799 in the coup of 18 Brumaire, replacing the Directory with the Consulate.^ November 1799: Bonaparte seized power in France.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He seized control of the French government on 9 November 1799 in the coup of 18 Brumaire, toppling the Directory.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He seized control of the French government on 9 November 1799 (the coup of 18 Brumaire), toppling the Directory with the aid of ideologue Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès.

.He reorganized the French military and created a reserve army positioned to support campaigns either on the Rhine or in Italy.^ Napoleon reorganised the French military and created a reserve army positioned to support the efforts either on the Rhine or in Italy.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon reorganised the French military and created a reserve army positioned to support campaigns either on the Rhine or in Italy.

^ Napoleon reorganized the French military and created a reserve army positioned to support campaigns either on the Rhine or in Italy .
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.On all fronts, French advances caught the Austrians off guard and knocked Russia out of the war.^ On all fronts, French advances caught the Austrians off-guard.

^ On all fronts, French advances caught Austrians off-guard.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lazare Carnot played a large part in the reorganization of the French army from 1793 to 1794 — a time which saw previous French misfortunes reversed, with Republican armies advancing on all fronts.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.In Italy, Bonaparte won a victory against the Austrians at Marengo (1800).^ In Italy, Napoleon won a victory against the Austrians at Marengo (1800).
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Successive Austrian counter-offensives into Italy failed, leading to Bonaparte's entry into Friuli.

^ The combat of Borghetto (2 May 1800) was an Austrian victory that saw them force Suchet and the left wing of the Army of Italy to retreat further away from contact with the rest of the army at Genoa.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But the decisive win came on the Rhine at Hohenlinden in 1800. The defeated Austrians left the conflict after the Treaty of Lunéville (9 February 1801), forcing Britain to sign the "peace of Amiens" with France.^ The Austrians were defeated and temporarily left the conflict after the Treaty of Lunéville (February 1801).
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the decisive battle came on the Rhine at Hohenlinden in 1800.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ March: Treaty of Amiens signed with Great Britain.
  • Timeline of the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonsims.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus the Second Coalition ended in another French triumph.^ Thus the Second Coalition ended in another French triumph.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It covers a broad period from the beginning of the 1st Coalition against the French revolutionary armies in 1792, and ending with the 7th coalition and the final defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815.
  • Slitherine Software :: View topic - Field of Glory Renaissance Wars & Napoleonic Wars announ 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.slitherine.com [Source type: General]
  • Slitherine Software :: View topic - Field of Glory Renaissance Wars & Napoleonic Wars announ 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.slitherine.com [Source type: General]

^ During the War of the Second Coalition, the French Republic suffered from corruption and division under the Directory.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, the United Kingdom remained an important influence on the continental powers in encouraging their resistance to France.^ The United Kingdom remained the only power still at war with France by 1797.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon's main problem was now the United Kingdom, which remained an important influence on the continental powers in encouraging resistance to France.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United Kingdom remained an important influence on the Continental powers in encouraging their resistance to France.

.London had brought the Second Coalition together through subsidies, and Bonaparte realized that without either defeating the British or signing a treaty with them he could not achieve complete peace.^ The United Kingdom had brought the second coalition together through subsidies and Napoleon realised that without British defeat or a treaty with the UK there could not be a complete peace.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ London had brought the Second Coalition together through subsidies, and Napoleon realised that without British defeat or a treaty with the UK he could not achieve a complete peace.

^ As a result of the battle of Austerlitz in December 1805 the Austrians were forced out of the coalition and by the end of December, through the treaty of Schnbrunn, the Prussians followed suit and entered into an alliance with France, through which they were to occupy British Hannover.
  • Bx8091a 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.hat.com [Source type: Original source]

Start date and nomenclature

.No consensus exists as to when the French Revolutionary Wars ended and the Napoleonic Wars began.^ THE FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY WAR 1793-1802 .
  • Short History 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC qlrmuseum.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Headwears of French troops of the Napoleonic Wars.
  • Uniforms : Napoleonic Wars : French : Russian : Austrian : British : Prussian 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French Revolution and early Napoleonic Wars.
  • Napoleonic Military History Glossary 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.miniatures.de [Source type: Reference]

.Possible dates include 9 November 1799, when Bonaparte seized power in France;[2] 18 May 1803, when Britain and France ended the only period of peace in Europe between 1792 and 1814, and 2 December 1804, when Bonaparte crowned himself Emperor.^ In December of 1804, Napoleon crowned himself Emperor.
  • NapoleonGames.com: Games by Operational Studies Group. 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.napoleongames.com [Source type: Original source]

^ War between Britain and France, 1803–1814 .
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ December 2, 1804: Bonaparte crowned himself Emperor.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
Sources in the UK occasionally refer to the nearly continuous period of warfare from 1792 to 1815 as the Great French War, or as the final phase of the Anglo-French Second Hundred Years' War, spanning the period 1689 to 1815.[3]

War between Britain and France, 1803–1814

.Unlike its many coalition partners, Britain remained at war throughout the period of the Napoleonic Wars.^ Unlike its many coalition partners, Britain remained at war throughout the entire period of the hostilities of the Napoleonic Wars.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Great Britain during the Napoleonic Wars .
  • Great Britain during and after the Napoleonic wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC revolution.allbest.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Great Britain during and after the Napoleonic wars .
  • Great Britain during and after the Napoleonic wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC revolution.allbest.ru [Source type: Original source]

.Protected by naval supremacy (in the words of Admiral Jervis to the House of Lords "I do not say, my Lords, that the French will not come.^ Protected by naval supremacy (in the words of Admiral Jervis to the House of Lords "I do not say, my Lords, that the French will not come.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the British Admiral Jervis's famous phrase, "I do not say, my Lords, that the French will not come.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the British Admiral Jervis's famous phrase put it: "I do not say, my Lords, that the French will not come.

.I say only they will not come by sea"), the United Kingdom maintained low-intensity land warfare on a global scale for over a decade.^ I say only they will not come by sea"), the United Kingdom could maintain low-intensity land warfare on a global scale for over a decade.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I say only they will not come by sea".
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The second player controls the United Kingdom and the United States -- they must stem the tide of German armor and hold their positions until reinforcements arrive.
  • World War 2, Napoleonic, and Fantasy Miniatures for the tabletop game enthusiast. 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.scaleddown.com [Source type: General]

.The British Army gave long-term support to the Spanish rebellion in the Peninsular War of 1808–1814. Protected by topography, assisted by massive Spanish guerrilla activity, and sometimes falling back to massive earthworks (The Lines of Torres Vedra), Anglo-Portuguese forces succeeded in harassing French troops for several years.^ The British Army gave long-term support to the Spanish rebellion in the Peninsular War of 1808-1814.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Peninsular War, 1807-1814 Fiction.
  • Elkhart Public Library - Main Page 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.elkhart.lib.in.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Headwears of French troops of the Napoleonic Wars.
  • Uniforms : Napoleonic Wars : French : Russian : Austrian : British : Prussian 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 1815, the British Army would play the central role in the final defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo.^ British Napoleonic Cavalryman 1792 - 1815 .
  • HM Books - Osprey Publications - Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.histomin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Napoleonic British Infantry 1815 .
  • Italeri 1:72 Scale Plastic Figures 15 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.michtoy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But why would the British want to do in Napoleon?
  • Napoleonic wars | Film | The Guardian 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.The Treaty of Amiens (25 March 1802) resulted in peace between the UK and France, but satisfied neither side.^ The Treaty of Amiens (1802) resulted in peace between the UK and France, and marked the final collapse of the Second Coalition.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Crowning of Napoleon , memorialized by Jacques-Louis David The Treaty of Amiens (25 March 1802) resulted in peace between the UK and France.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Treaty of Amiens ( 25 March 1802) resulted in peace between the UK and France, and marked the final collapse of the Second Coalition.

.Both parties dishonored parts of it: the French intervened in the Swiss civil strife (Stecklikrieg) and occupied several coastal cities in Italy, while the UK occupied Malta.^ Military actions soon clouded the peace: the French intervened in the Swiss civil strife ( Stecklikrieg ) and occupied several coastal cities in Italy, while the United Kingdom occupied Malta.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ June, French occupy Malta .
  • Napoleon Bonaparte@Everything2.com 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Military actions soon clouded the peace: the French intervened in the Swiss civil strife ( Stecklikrieg ) and occupied several coastal cities in Italy, while the United Kingdom occupied Malta .

.Bonaparte tried to exploit the brief peace at sea to restore the colonial rule in the rebellious Antilles.^ Napoleon attempted to exploit the brief peace at sea to restore the colonial rule in the rebellious Antilles.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

.The expedition, though initially successful, would soon turn to a disaster, with the French commander and Bonaparte’s brother-in-law, Charles Leclerc, dying of yellow fever and almost his entire force destroyed by the disease combined with the fierce attacks by the rebels.^ The expedition, though initially successful, would soon turn to a disaster, with the French commander and Bonaparte’s brother-in-law, Charles Leclerc, dying of yellow fever and almost his entire force destroyed by the disease combined with the fierce attacks by the rebels.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It ended in disaster after the Army commander - John Pitt, 2nd Earl of Chatham - failed to capture the objective, the naval base of French-controlled Antwerp .

^ It ended in disaster after the Army commander — John Pitt, 2nd Earl of Chatham — failed to capture the objective, the naval base of French-controlled Antwerp.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hostilities between Britain and France renewed on 18 May 1803. The Coalition war-aims changed over the course of the conflict: a general desire to restore the French monarchy became closely linked to the struggle to stop Bonaparte.^ Britain was now also at war with France.
  • Short History 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC qlrmuseum.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ War between Britain and France, 1803–1814 .
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hostilities between Great Britain and France recommenced on May 18, 1803.

Crowning of Napoleon, memorialized by Jacques-Louis David
.Bonaparte declared France an Empire on 18 May 1804 and crowned himself Emperor at Notre-Dame on 2 December.^ In December of 1804, Napoleon crowned himself Emperor.
  • NapoleonGames.com: Games by Operational Studies Group. 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.napoleongames.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Roman Empire declares war on France .
  • Gaslight's NAPOLEONIC ERA LITERATURE 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC gaslight.mtroyal.ca [Source type: Reference]
  • Gaslight's NAPOLEONIC ERA LITERATURE 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC gaslight.mtroyal.ab.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ December 2, 1804: Bonaparte crowned himself Emperor.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.Having lost most of its colonial empire in the preceding decades, French efforts were focused mainly in Europe.^ Meanwhile, the Spanish Empire began to unravel as French occupation of Spain itself weakened the Spanish hold over its colonies and provided an opening for nationalist revolutions in Latin America .
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ French power rose quickly, conquering most of Europe; and collapsed rapidly after France's disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812, and Napoleon's empire ultimately suffered complete military defeat, resulting in the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in France.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Dutch had lost the majority of their colonial empire to the British during the Napoleonic Wars, as they signed most of it over to them.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

.Haiti had won its independence, the Louisiana Territory had been sold to the United States of America, and British naval superiority threatened any potential for France to establish colonies outside Europe.^ However, in order to mount his invasion, he needed to achieve naval superiority — or at least to pull the British fleet away from the English Channel.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon had an elaborate plan to divert the superior British naval forces to the Mediterranean (where the Spanish Armada would join in) and then, after a grand triumph, his fleet would invade Britain.
  • All About Romance Novels - Kathleen O'Reilly on the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The British Royal Navy held unquestioned naval superiority throughout the world, and Britain's industrial economy made it the most powerful commercial country as well.

Beyond minor naval actions against British imperial interests, the Napoleonic Wars were much less global in scope than preceding conflicts such as Seven Years' War which historians would term a "world war".
.In 1806, Napoleon issued the series of Berlin Decrees, which brought into effect the Continental System.^ In Berlin, Napoleon issued a series of decrees which, on November 1, 1806 brought the Continental System into effect, which aimed to eliminate the threat of the United Kingdom by closing French controlled territory to its trade.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Berlin, Napoleon issued a series of decrees which, on November 21, 1806 brought into effect the Continental System.

^ In 1806, Napoleon issued the series of Berlin Decrees, which brought into effect the Continental System.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.This policy aimed to eliminate the threat from Britain by closing French-controlled territory to its trade.^ This policy aimed to eliminate the threat of the United Kingdom by closing French-controlled territory to its trade.

^ In Berlin, Napoleon issued a series of decrees which, on November 1, 1806 brought the Continental System into effect, which aimed to eliminate the threat of the United Kingdom by closing French controlled territory to its trade.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon ) Although Britain had the largest navy in the world and was separated from the French by water the threat of French invasion was greeted in England with horror.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Britain maintained a standing army of just 220,000 at the height of the Napoleonic Wars, whereas France's strength peaked at over 2,500,000, as well as several hundred thousand national guardsmen that Napoleon could draft into the military if necessary; however, British subsidies paid for a large proportion of the soldiers deployed by other coalition powers, peaking at about 450,000 in 1813.[4] The Royal Navy effectively disrupted France's extra-continental trade—both by seizing and threatening French shipping and by seizing French colonial possessions—but could do nothing about France's trade with the major continental economies and posed little threat to French territory in Europe.^ Britain was now also at war with France.
  • Short History 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC qlrmuseum.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Napoleon dreamed about crushing the economical power of Britain.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Napoleonic Wars also had a profound military impact.

.Also, France's population and agricultural capacity far outstripped that of Britain.^ In addition France's population and agricultural capacity far outstripped that of the United Kingdom.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]
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  • Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, Britain had the greatest industrial capacity in Europe, and its mastery of the seas allowed it to build up considerable economic strength through trade.^ However, the United Kingdom possessed the greatest industrial capacity in Europe, and its mastery of the seas allowed it to build up considerable economic strength through trade.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the United Kingdom's industrial capacity was the greatest in Europe and its mastery of the seas allowed it to build up considerable economic strength through trade.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the founding of the English Levant Company in 1581, through a charter of Queen Elizabeth I, Britain was closely engaged with the Turks as the Ottoman empire expanded westwards through central Europe and Britain's trade network expanded eastwards to meet it.
  • Pashas: Traders and Travellers in the Islamic World by James Mather | Book review | Books | The Observer 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.That sufficed to ensure that France could never consolidate its control over Europe in peace.^ That was sufficient to ensure that France was never able to consolidate its control over Europe in peace.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That sufficed to ensure that France could never consolidate its control over Europe in peace.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ French domination of Europe could never be assured without Britains defeat.
  • Napoleonic War Art Prints Special Offers 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.military-art.com [Source type: General]

.However, many in the French government believed that cutting Britain off from the Continent would end its economic influence over Europe and isolate it.^ However, many in the French government believed that cutting the United Kingdom off from the Continent would end its economic influence over Europe and isolate it.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many soldiers however cut them shorter, just under the knee.
  • Uniforms : Napoleonic Wars : French : Russian : Austrian : British : Prussian 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the United Kingdom possessed the greatest industrial capacity in Europe, and its mastery of the seas allowed it to build up considerable economic strength through trade.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

War of the Third Coalition 1805

Bucentaure being fired upon by Temeraire at the Battle of Trafalgar.
.As Britain was gathering the Third Coalition against France, Napoleon planned an invasion of Great Britain,[5][6][7][8] and massed 180,000 effectives at Boulogne.^ Napoleon planned an invasion of the British Isles, and massed 180,000 troops at Boulogne.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Britain and the coalitions against France.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon planned an invasion of the British Isles , and massed 180,000 troops at Boulogne.

.However, in order to mount his invasion, he needed to achieve naval superiority—or at least to pull the British fleet away from the English Channel.^ However, he needed to achieve naval superiority to mount his invasion, or at least to pull the British fleet away from the English Channel.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, in order to mount his invasion, he needed to achieve naval superiority — or at least to pull the British fleet away from the English Channel.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, in order to mount his invasion, he needed to achieve naval superiority — or at least to pull the British fleet away from the English Channel .

.A complex plan to distract the British by threatening their possessions in the West Indies failed when a Franco-Spanish fleet under Admiral Villeneuve turned back after an indecisive action off Cape Finisterre on 22 July 1805. The Royal Navy blockaded Villeneuve in Cádiz until he left for Naples on 19 October; the British squadron subsequently caught and defeated his fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October (the British commander, Lord Nelson, died in the battle).^ A complex plan to distract the British by threatening their possessions in the West Indies failed when a Franco-Spanish fleet under Admiral Villeneuve turned back after an inconclusive action off Cape Finisterre on 22 July 1805.

^ (The French navy however was defeated at Trafalgar.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Royal Navy blockaded Villeneuve in Cádiz until he left for Naples on October 19, but Lord Nelson caught and defeated his fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar on October 21.

.Napoleon would never again have the opportunity to challenge the British at sea.^ Napoleon would never again have the opportunity to challenge the British at sea.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This battle cost Admiral Nelson his life at the hands of a French sharp-shooter, but Napoleon would never again have the opportunity to challenge the British at sea.

^ Napoleon had an elaborate plan to divert the superior British naval forces to the Mediterranean (where the Spanish Armada would join in) and then, after a grand triumph, his fleet would invade Britain.
  • All About Romance Novels - Kathleen O'Reilly on the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.By this time, however, Napoleon had already all but abandoned plans to invade England, and had again turned his attention to enemies on the Continent.^ Then he turned his attention to the plan for the coming campaign.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By this time, however, Napoleon had already all but abandoned plans to invade the British Isles, and turned his attention to enemies on the Continent once again.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By this time, however, Napoleon had already all but abandoned plans to invade the British Isles, and had turned his attention to enemies on the Continent once again.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.The French army left Boulogne and moved towards Austria.^ The French army left Boulogne and moved towards Austria.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It came only nine days after the French had declared war on Austria on 20 April, and ended in a humiliating defeat for the armies of revolutionary France.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The action at Tudela of 8 June 1808 was the first of three attempts by the Spanish to defeat or delay a French army that was marching towards Saragossa.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

European strategic situation in 1805 before the War of the Third Coalition
.In April 1805, the United Kingdom and Russia signed a treaty with the aim of removing the French from the Batavian Republic (roughly present-day Netherlands) and the Swiss Confederation (Switzerland).^ In April 1805 the United Kingdom and Russia signed a treaty with the aim of removing the French from Holland and Switzerland.

^ European strategic situation in 1805 before the War of the Third Coalition In April 1805 the United Kingdom and Russia signed a treaty with the aim of removing the French from Holland and Switzerland.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Military actions soon clouded the peace: the French intervened in the Swiss civil strife ( Stecklikrieg ) and occupied several coastal cities in Italy, while the United Kingdom occupied Malta.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

Austria joined the alliance after the annexation of Genoa and the proclamation of Napoleon as King of Italy on 17 March 1805.
.The Austrians began the war by invading Bavaria with an army of about 70,000 under Karl Mack von Leiberich, and the French army marched out from Boulogne in late July, 1805 to confront them.^ The Austrians began the war by invading Bavaria with an army of about 70,000 under Karl Mack von Lieberich, and the French army marched out from Boulogne in late July, 1805 to confront them.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Austrians began the war by invading Bavaria with an army of about 70,000 under Karl Mack von Leiberich, and the French army marched out from Boulogne in late July, 1805 to confront them.

^ Grouchy failed, and although he engaged and defeated the Prussian rearguard under the command of Lt-Gen von Thielmann in the Battle of Wavre (June 18 – 19 June), the rest of the Prussian army "marched towards the sound of the guns" at Waterloo.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.At Ulm (25 September–20 October) Napoleon surrounded Mack's army, forcing its surrender without significant losses.^ His army was devestated and Mack was forced to surrender to the Napoleon.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At Ulm (September 25 – October 20) Napoleon surrounded Mack's army, forcing its surrender without significant losses.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At Ulm (September 25 - October 20) Napoleon managed to surround Mack's army by a brilliant envelopment, forcing its surrender without significant losses.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

.With the main Austrian army north of the Alps defeated (another army under Archduke Charles manoeuvred inconclusively against André Masséna's French army in Italy), Napoleon occupied Vienna.^ First Consul Napoleon led a fresh French army into Italy, defeating an Austrian army at Marengo in Italy.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon this time actually occupied Vienna.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Italy, Napoleon won a victory against the Austrians at Marengo (1800).
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.Far from his supply lines, he faced a larger Austro-Russian army under the command of Mikhail Kutuzov, with the Emperor Alexander I of Russia personally present.^ Far from his supply lines, he faced a larger Austro-Russian army under the command of Mikhail Kutuzov, with the Emperor Alexander of Russia personally present.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Far from his supply lines, he faced a superior Austro-Russian army under the command of Mikhail Kutuzov, with the Emperor Alexander of Russia personally present.

^ Although the French emperor quickly collected a new army that was almost as large as the one he had lost in Russia, Napoleon was decisively beaten at Leipzig in October 1813.
  • Great Britain during and after the Napoleonic wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC revolution.allbest.ru [Source type: Original source]

.On 2 December, Napoleon crushed the joint Austro-Russian army in Moravia at Austerlitz (usually considered his greatest victory).^ On December 2 Napoleon crushed the joint Austro-Russian army at Austerlitz in Moravia (this is usually considered his greatest victory).
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On December 2 Napoleon crushed the joint Austro-Russian army in Moravia at Austerlitz (usually considered his greatest victory).

^ Napoleon's army had a record of continuous unbroken victory on land, but the full force of the Russian army had not yet come into play.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

.He inflicted a total of 25,000 casualties on a numerically superior enemy army while sustaining fewer than 7,000 in his own force.^ He inflicted a total of 25,000 casualties on a numerically superior enemy army while sustaining fewer than 7,000 in his own force.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some 160,000 (increasing in number as the campaign went on) French went against Prussia and moved with such speed that Napoleon was able to destroy as an effective military force the entire quarter of a million strong Prussian army - which sustained 25,000 casualties, lost a further 150,000 prisoners and 4,000 artillery pieces, and over 100,000 muskets stockpiled in Berlin.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some 160,000 French soldiers (increasing in number as the campaign went on) went against Prussia and moved with such speed that Napoleon was able to destroy as an effective military force the entire quarter of a million strong Prussian army — which sustained 25,000 casualties, lost a further 150,000 prisoners and 4,000 artillery pieces, and over 100,000 muskets stockpiled in Berlin.

.Austria signed the Treaty of Pressburg (26 December 1805) and left the Coalition.^ After Austerlitz, Austria signed the Treaty of Pressburg ( 26 December 1805) and left the Coalition.

^ After Austerlitz, Austria signed the Treaty of Pressburg, leaving the coalition.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Austria signed the Treaty of Pressburg (26 December 1805) and left the Coalition.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Treaty required the Austrians to give up Venetia to the French-dominated Kingdom of Italy and the Tyrol to Bavaria.^ This required the Austrians to give up Venetia to the French dominated Kingdom of Italy and Tyrol to Bavaria.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Treaty required the Austrians to give up Venetia to the French-dominated Kingdom of Italy and the Tyrol to Bavaria.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Treaty required the Austrians to give up Venetia to the French-dominated Kingdom of Italy and Tyrol to Bavaria.

.With the withdrawal of Austria from the war, stalemate ensued.^ With the withdrawal of Austria from the war, stalemate ensued.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]
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  • Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

.Napoleon's army had a record of continuous unbroken victories on land, but the full force of the Russian army had not yet come into play.^ Napoleon's army had a record of continuous unbroken victory on land, but the full force of the Russian army had not yet come into play.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon's army had a record of continuous unbroken victories on land, but the full force of the Russian army had not yet come into play.

^ Napoleon orders retreat; Russian campaign ends in disaster; By December the Grand Army no longer exists .
  • Gaslight's NAPOLEONIC ERA LITERATURE 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC gaslight.mtroyal.ca [Source type: Reference]
  • Gaslight's NAPOLEONIC ERA LITERATURE 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC gaslight.mtroyal.ab.ca [Source type: Reference]

War of the Fourth Coalition 1806–1807

.
Napoleon in Berlin (Meynier).
^ Main article: Fourth Coalition Napoleon in Berlin (Meynier).
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

After defeating Prussian forces at Jena, the French Army entered Berlin on 27 October 1806
.Within months of the collapse of the Third Coalition, the Fourth Coalition (1806–07) against France was formed by Prussia, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.^ The Fourth Coalition (1806–1807) of Prussia, Russia, Saxony, Sweden and the United Kingdom against France formed within months of the collapse of the previous coalition.

^ The Fifth Coalition (1809) of the United Kingdom and Austria against France was formed while the United Kingdom was also engaged in the Peninsular War against France.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Britain and the coalitions against France.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.In July 1806, Napoleon formed the Confederation of the Rhine out of the many tiny German states which constituted the Rhineland and most other western parts of Germany.^ By 1806, Napoleon had conquered most of the German states in what was then the Holy Roman Empire and renamed them the Confederation of the Rhine.
  • All About Romance Novels - Kathleen O'Reilly on the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In July 1806 Napoleon formed the Confederation of the Rhine out of the many tiny German states which constituted the Rhineland and most other parts of western Germany.

^ Though Napoleon brought most of Western Europe under his rule (a feat not seen since the days of the Roman Empire ), a state of constant warfare between France and the combined other major powers of Europe for over two decades finally took its toll.

.He amalgamated many of the smaller states into larger electorates, duchies and kingdoms to make the governance of non-Prussian Germany smoother.^ He amalgamated many of the smaller states into larger electorates, duchies and kingdoms to make the governance of non-Prussian Germany smoother.

^ The conquered portion of Poland is organized into the French puppet state of the Duchy of Warsaw.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, many in the French government believed that cutting the United Kingdom off from the Continent would end its economic influence over Europe and isolate it.

.Napoleon elevated the rulers of the two largest Confederation states, Saxony and Bavaria, to the status of kings.^ Napoleon elevated the rulers of the two largest Confederation states, Saxony and Bavaria, to the status of kings.

^ The two largest states within the Holy Roman Empire (Prussia and Austria) resist France's advances, remaining sovereign nations.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of these was Duke Maximillian who Napoleon elevated to a king.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

.In August 1806, the Prussian king, Friedrich Wilhelm III decided to go to war independently of any other great power except the distant Russia.^ In August 1806 the Prussian king, Friedrich Wilhelm III made the decision to go to war independently of any other great power, save the distant Russia.

^ Even small nations now had armies rivalling the Great Powers of past wars in size.

^ Even small nations now had armies rivalling the Great Powers' forces of past wars in size.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Russian army, an ally of Prussia, was still far away when Prussia declared war.^ In any event, the Russian army, an ally of Prussia, still remained far away when Prussia declared war.

^ Leo Tolstoy's epic novel, War and Peace recounts a Russian story of the Napoleonic era, covering society, politics, armies and battles.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the French Revolution (1789-1799), Austria and Prussia took advantage of the political turmoil in France by declaring war on that country.
  • All About Romance Novels - Kathleen O'Reilly on the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.In September, Napoleon unleashed all the French forces east of the Rhine.^ In September Napoleon unleashed all the French forces east of the Rhine.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In September Napoleon unleashed all French forces east of the Rhine.

^ The French ultimately triumphed but the margin of superiority was decreasing and all of Napoleons skill and determination was required to achieve a victorious outcome.

.Napoleon himself defeated a Prussian army at Jena (14 October 1806), and Davout defeated another at Auerstädt on the same day.^ Napoleon himself defeated a Prussian army at Jena ( October 14, 1806), and Davout defeated another at Auerstädt on the same day.

^ Napoleon himself defeated a Prussian army at Jena (October 14, 1806), and Davout defeated another at Auerstädt on the same day.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In a bit of bad luck for the Prussians at Jena (just east of Frankfurt), a group of Napoleon’s troops happened upon them and trounced them soundly.
  • All About Romance Novels - Kathleen O'Reilly on the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some 160,000 French soldiers (increasing in number as the campaign went on) attacked Prussia, moving with such speed that they destroyed as an effective military force the entire Prussian army of 250,000—which sustained 25,000 casualties, lost a further 150,000 prisoners and 4,000 artillery pieces, and over 100,000 muskets stockpiled in Berlin.^ Some 160,000 French soldiers (increasing in number as the campaign went on) attacked Prussia, moving with such speed that Napoleon succeeded in destroying as an effective military force the entire quarter-of-a-million strong Prussian army — which sustained 25,000 casualties, lost a further 150,000 prisoners and 4,000 artillery pieces, and over 100,000 muskets stockpiled in Berlin.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some 160,000 French soldiers (increasing in number as the campaign went on) went against Prussia and moved with such speed that Napoleon was able to destroy as an effective military force the entire quarter of a million strong Prussian army — which sustained 25,000 casualties, lost a further 150,000 prisoners and 4,000 artillery pieces, and over 100,000 muskets stockpiled in Berlin.

^ WWI French Artillery - 48 pieces  .
  • Minutemen Toy Soldiers - Military Figures 1/72, 1/76 15 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.mmtoysoldiers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At Jena, Napoleon fought only a detachment of the Prussian force.^ In the former battle Napoleon only fought a detachment of the Prussian force.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At Jena Napoleon fought only a detachment of the Prussian force.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In a bit of bad luck for the Prussians at Jena (just east of Frankfurt), a group of Napoleon’s troops happened upon them and trounced them soundly.
  • All About Romance Novels - Kathleen O'Reilly on the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.likesbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Auerstädt involved a single French corps defeating the bulk of the Prussian army.^ Auerstädt involved a single French corps defeating the bulk of the Prussian army.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The latter battle involved a single French corps defeating the bulk of the Prussian army.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon himself defeated a Prussian army at Jena ( October 14, 1806), and Davout defeated another at Auerstädt on the same day.

.Napoleon entered Berlin on 27 October 1806. He visited the tomb of Frederick the Great and instructed his marshals to remove their hats there, saying, "If he were alive we wouldn't be here today". In total Napoleon had taken only 19 days from beginning his attack on Prussia until knocking it out of the war with the capture of Berlin and the destruction of its principal armies at Jena and Auerstädt.^ Napoleon himself defeated a Prussian army at Jena ( October 14, 1806), and Davout defeated another at Auerstädt on the same day.

^ Napoleon entered Berlin on 27 October 1806.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Prussian army was defeated by Napoleon at Jena and by Davout at Auerstädt (October 14, 1806).
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

.By contrast, Prussia had fought for three years in the War of the First Coalition with little achievement.^ By contrast, Prussia had fought for three years in the War of the First Coalition with little achievement.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By contrast Prussia had fought for three years in the War of the First Coalition with little achievement.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "The war pitted Prussia and Britain and a coalition of smaller German states against an alliance consisting of Austria, France, Russia, Sweden, and Saxony.

.In the next stage of the war the French drove Russian forces out of Poland and instituted a new state, the Duchy of Warsaw.^ The next stage of the war involved the French driving Russian forces out of Poland and instituting a new state, the Duchy of Warsaw.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The conquered portion of Poland is organized into the French puppet state of the Duchy of Warsaw.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The next stage of the war involved the French driving Russian forces out of Poland and creating a new Duchy of Warsaw.

.Then Napoleon turned north to confront the remainder of the Russian army and to try to capture the temporary Prussian capital at Königsberg.^ Napoleon then turned north to confront the remainder of the Russian army and to attempt to capture the temporary Prussian capital at Königsberg.

^ Napoleon then turned north to confront the remainder of the Russian army and attempt to capture the new Prussian capital at Königsberg.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon's army had a record of continuous unbroken victory on land, but the full force of the Russian army had not yet come into play.
  • Napoleonic Wars - WarWiki 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

.A tactical draw at Eylau (7–8 February 1807) forced the Russians to withdraw further north.^ A tactical draw at Eylau (February 7 – February 8, 1807) forced the Russians to withdraw further north.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A tactical draw at Eylau ( February 7– 8) forced the Russians to withdraw further north.

^ Thus, when late on the 7th of February 1807 Murat and Soult overtook the enemy near Eylau (q.v.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Napoleon then routed the Russian army at Friedland (14 June 1807).^ Napoleon then routed the Russian army at Friedland ( June 14).

^ Napoleon then routed the Russian army at Friedland (June 14, 1807).
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Leo Tolstoy's epic novel, War and Peace recounts a Russian story of the Napoleonic era, covering society, politics, armies and battles.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.Following this defeat, Alexander had to make peace with Napoleon at Tilsit (7 July 1807).^ Following this defeat, Alexander had to make peace with Napoleon at Tilsit ( July 7, 1807).

^ Following this defeat, Alexander had to make peace with Napoleon at Tilsit (July 7, 1807).
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Main article: Napoleon's invasion of Russia The Treaty of Tilsit in 1807 resulted in the Anglo-Russian War (1807–12).
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.By September, Marshal Brune completed the occupation of Swedish Pomerania, allowing the Swedish army, however, to withdraw with all its munitions of war.^ By September, Marshal Brune completed the occupation of Swedish Pomerania, allowing the Swedish army, however, to withdraw with all its munitions of war.

^ Their manoeuvre was carried out with complete success, kind of stupor and allowed his marshals to fight by themselves.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In September 1813 Marshal Soult, wrote to the Minister of War that British sharpshooters were killing the French officers in a fast rate: "the losses of officers are so out of proportion with the losses in soldiers".
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.During 1807, Britain attacked Denmark and captured its fleet.^ After a show of intimidation in the first Battle of Copenhagen ( 2 April 1801), the British captured large portions of the entire Danish fleet in the Second Battle of Copenhagen (August–September 1807).

^ The British attacked, captured, and or destroyed large portions of the Danish fleet in the First Battle of Copenhagen (2 April 1801), and again in the Second Battle of Copenhagen (August – September 1807).
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Tsar Alexander I declared war on the United Kingdom after the British attack on Denmark in September 1807.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.The large Danish fleet could have greatly aided the French by replacing many of the ships France had lost at Trafalgar in 1805. The British attack helped bring Denmark into the war on the side of France.^ Gill tackles the political background to the war, especially the motivations that prompted Austria to launch an offensive against France while Napoleon and many of his veterans were distracted in Spain.

^ As a response to the treaty of Tilsit the British launched a pre-emptive strike against Denmark, as Britain feared that the strong Danish fleet might otherwise end up under French control.
  • Bx8091a 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.hat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Edition puts players in control of the Admiralty of Britain, France or Spain in the West Indies during the French Revolutionary Wars of 1793-1801.
  • Wargame Vault - Napoleonic | Napoleonic | Napoleonic | Napoleonic - The largest wargame download store 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.wargamevault.com [Source type: General]

.At the Congress of Erfurt (September–October 1808), Napoleon and Alexander agreed that Russia should force Sweden to join the Continental System, which led to the Finnish War of 1808–09 and to the division of Sweden into two parts separated by the Gulf of Bothnia.^ At the Congress of Erfurt (September – October 1808) Napoleon and Alexander agreed that Russia should force Sweden to join the Continental System, which led to the Finnish War of 1808–09 and to the division of Sweden into two parts separated by the Gulf of Bothnia.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the Congress of Erfurt (September–October 1808) Napoleon and Alexander agreed that Russia should force Sweden to join the Continental System, which led to the Finnish War of 1808–1809 and to the division of Sweden into two parts separated by the Gulf of Bothnia.

^ Russia suggested to Napoleon that Sweden be forced to join the French-imposed Continental System (forcing other nations to cease trade with UK).
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

.The eastern part became the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland.^ Finland instead became an independent Grand Duchy under the tsar.
  • Bx8091a 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.hat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The eastern part became the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland.

^ Tuscany : This was not properly a sovereign grand-duchy, since Tuscany formed part of the French Empire, but an honorary title.
  • Napoleonic Titles and Heraldry 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.heraldica.org [Source type: Original source]

War of the Fifth Coalition 1809

Surrender of Madrid (Gros), 1808. Napoleon enters Spain's capital during the Peninsular War
.The Fifth Coalition (1809) of the United Kingdom and Austria against France formed as the UK engaged in the Peninsular War against France.^ Britain and the coalitions against France.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Fifth Coalition ( 1809) of the United Kingdom and Austria against France formed as the United Kingdom engaged in the Peninsular War against France.

^ The Allies formed the eventh and last Coalition against France.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Again the UK stood alone, and the sea became the major theatre of war against Napoleon's allies.^ Once again, the United Kingdom stood alone, and the sea became the major theatre of war between the United Kingdom and Napoleon's allies.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The heart of this drama is the metamorphosis of several families against the backdrop of the Napoleonic Wars.
  • New! WAR AND PEACE 2 Vol 928 p L.TOLSTOY Classic Novel - eBay (item 120501080542 end time Jan-31-10 14:18:36 PST) 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC cgi.ebay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gill tackles the political background to the war, especially the motivations that prompted Austria to launch an offensive against France while Napoleon and many of his veterans were distracted in Spain.

.During the time of the Fifth Coalition, the Royal Navy won a succession of victories in the French colonies.^ During the time of the Fifth Coalition, the Navy won a succession of victories in the French colonies and another major naval victory at the Battle of Copenhagen ( September 2, 1807).

^ During the time of the Fifth Coalition, the Royal Navy won a succession of victories in the French colonies and another major naval victory against the neutral Denmark at the Battle of Copenhagen (September 2, 1807).
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lieutenant of the Royal Navy commands marines and crew during a sea battle with the French during the battle of Cape St Vincent.
  • Military Prints, Battle of Maida 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

.On land, the Fifth Coalition attempted few extensive military endeavours.^ On land, the Fifth Coalition attempted few extensive military endeavours.

^ For the most part of the years of the Fifth Coalition, British military operations on land — outside of the Peninsular War — remained restricted to hit-and-run operations.

.One, the Walcheren Expedition of 1809, involved a dual effort by the British Army and the Royal Navy to relieve Austrian forces under intense French pressure.^ Vimeiro, Corunna.1809 - Walcheren Expedition.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One, the Walcheren Expedition of 1809, involved a dual effort by the British Army and the Royal Navy to relieve Austrian forces under intense French pressure.

^ Napoleon had enjoyed easy success in Spain, retaking Madrid, defeating the Spanish and consequently forcing a withdrawal of the heavily out-numbered British army from the Iberian Peninsula ( Battle of Corunna, 16 January 1809).

.It ended in disaster after the Army commander—John Pitt, 2nd Earl of Chatham—failed to capture the objective, the naval base of French-controlled Antwerp.^ It ended in disaster after the Army commander - John Pitt, 2nd Earl of Chatham - failed to capture the objective, the naval base of French-controlled Antwerp .

^ It ended in disaster after the Army commander — John Pitt, 2nd Earl of Chatham — failed to capture the objective, the naval base of French-controlled Antwerp.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Piedmont, one of the original members of the Coalition, had persistently threatened the French on the Italian front for four years before Bonaparte assumed command of the French Army of Italy.

.For the most part of the years of the Fifth Coalition, British military operations on land—apart from in the Iberian Peninsula—remained restricted to hit-and-run operations executed by the Royal Navy, which dominated the sea after having beaten down almost all substantial naval opposition from France and its allies and blockading what remained of France's naval forces in heavily fortified French-controlled ports.^ For the most part of the years of the Fifth Coalition, British military operations on land — apart from in the Iberian Peninsula — remained restricted to hit-and-run operations executed by the Royal Navy, which dominated the sea after having beaten down almost all substantial naval opposition from France and its allies and blockading what remained of the latter's naval forces in heavily fortified French-controlled ports.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The British naval blockade of France affected neutral shipping.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These were executed by the Royal Navy, who dominated the sea after having beaten down almost all substantial naval opposition from France and her allies and blockading what remained of the latter's naval forces in heavily fortified French-controlled ports.

.These rapid-attack operations functioned rather like exo-territorial guerrilla strikes: they aimed mostly at destroying blockaded French naval and mercantile shipping, and disrupting French supplies, communications, and military units stationed near the coasts.^ These rapid-attack operations were a sort of exo-territorial guerrilla strikes: they were aimed mostly at destroying blockaded French naval and mercantile shipping, and disrupting French supplies, communications, and military units stationed near the coasts.

^ These rapid-attack operations functioned rather like exo-territorial guerrilla strikes: they aimed mostly at destroying blockaded French naval and mercantile shipping, and disrupting French supplies, communications, and military units stationed near the coasts.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When Spain failed to maintain the system the Spanish alliance with France came to an end and French troops gradually encroached on Spanish territory until they occupied Madrid .
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.Often, when British allies attempted military actions within several dozen miles or so of the sea, the Royal Navy would arrive and would land troops and supplies and aid the Coalition's land forces in a concerted operation.^ On land, the Fifth Coalition attempted few extensive military endeavours.

^ Often, when British allies attempted military actions within several dozen miles or so of the sea, the Royal Navy would arrive and would land troops and supplies and aid the Coalition's land forces in a concerted operation.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Often, when British allies attempted military actions within several dozen miles or so of the sea, the Royal Navy would be present and would land troops and supplies and aid the allied land forces in a concerted operation.

.Royal Navy ships even provided artillery support against French units when fighting strayed near enough to the coastline.^ Royal Navy ships even provided artillery support against French units when fighting strayed near enough to the coastline.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Royal Navy ships were even known to provide artillery support against French units should fighting stray near enough to the coastline.

^ Lieutenant of the Royal Navy commands marines and crew during a sea battle with the French during the battle of Cape St Vincent.
  • Military Prints, Battle of Maida 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

.However, the ability and quality of the land forces governed these operations.^ However, these operations were limited to the ability and quality of the land forces.

^ However, the ability and quality of the land forces governed these operations.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One of these ventures was actually carried out, without, however, securing the co-operation, or effecting the purpose he had in view.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.For example, when operating with inexperienced guerrilla forces in Spain, the Royal Navy sometimes failed to achieve its objectives simply because of the lack of manpower that the Navy's guerrilla allies had promised to supply.^ For example, when operating with inexperienced guerrilla forces in Spain, the Royal Navy sometimes failed to achieve its objectives simply because of the lack of manpower that the Navy's guerrilla allies had promised to supply.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, when operating with inexperienced guerrilla forces in Spain, the Royal Navy sometimes failed to achieve their objectives simply for lack of manpower that was supposed to have been supplied for the operation by the Navy's guerrilla allies.

^ Spain's armies also peaked in size at around 300,000, but to this one needs to add a considerable force of guerrillas.

The European strategic situation in February 1809
.Economic warfare also continued—the French Continental System against the British naval blockade of French-controlled territory.^ It was designed to protect their trade with continental ports under French control against British naval interference.
  • Bx8091a 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.hat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The French Empire in Europe in 1811, near its peak extent The struggle also continued in the sphere of economic warfare — the French Continental System vs. British naval blockade of French-controlled territory.

^ The European strategic situation in February 1809 The struggle also continued in the sphere of economic warfare — the French Continental System against the British naval blockade of French-controlled territory.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.Due to military shortages and lack of organisation in French territory, many breaches of the Continental System occurred as French-dominated states engaged in illicit (though often tolerated) trade with British smugglers.^ Due to military shortages and lack of organisation in French territory, numerous breaches of the Continental System occurred as French-dominated states engaged in illicit (though often tolerated) trade with British smugglers.

^ Zamoyski - "Moscow 1812" pp 14-15 ) As there was widespread commercial jealousy of Britain, Napoleon's continental system and banning all British trade from the Continent was a popular policy.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both sides entered additional conflicts in attempts to enforce their blockade; the British fought the United States in the War of 1812 (1812-1814), and the French engaged in the Peninsular War (1808-1814).

.Both sides entered additional conflicts in attempts to enforce their blockade; the British fought the United States in the War of 1812 (1812–15), and the French engaged in the Peninsular War (1808–14).^ The War of 1812-15 was fought between USA and Great Britain.
  • Uniforms : Napoleonic Wars : French : Russian : Austrian : British : Prussian 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both sides entered additional conflicts in attempts to enforce their blockade; the British fought the United States in the War of 1812 (1812-1814), and the French engaged in the Peninsular War (1808-1814).

^ THE PENINSULA WAR 1808-14 .
  • Short History 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC qlrmuseum.co.uk [Source type: General]

.The Iberian conflict began when Portugal continued trade with the UK despite French restrictions.^ The Iberian conflict began when Portugal continued trade with the United Kingdom despite French restrictions.

^ The French in 1807 began to give increasing attention to the Iberian Peninsula where Britain had an ally in Portugal that helped it circumvent Napoleon's Continental System.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both Prussia and Austria continue to fight the French throughout the Napoleonic Wars, despite continued defeats at the hands of the French.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

.When Spain failed to maintain the continental system, the uneasy Spanish alliance with France ended in all but name.^ When Spain failed to maintain the system the alliance with France came to an end and French troops gradually encroached on its territory until Madrid was occupied.

^ In Sweden Gustaf IV Adolf had refused to join France's Continental System and instead decided to stick with its British ally.
  • Bx8091a 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.hat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ France's motivation for invading Russia was to send a strong signal that it was intolerable to undermine its Continental System.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

.French troops gradually encroached on Spanish territory until they occupied Madrid, and installed a client monarchy.^ When Spain failed to maintain the system the alliance with France came to an end and French troops gradually encroached on its territory until Madrid was occupied.

^ When Spain failed to maintain the system the Spanish alliance with France came to an end and French troops gradually encroached on Spanish territory until they occupied Madrid .
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The French Cavalry started to press forward, the retreat rapidly deteriorated into a race until they had passed the village of Genappe.

This provoked an explosion of popular rebellions across Spain. .Heavy British involvement soon followed.^ British intervention soon followed.

.Austria, previously an ally of France, took the opportunity to attempt to restore its imperial territories in Germany as held prior to Austerlitz.^ Austria, previously an ally of the French, took the opportunity to attempt to restore its imperial territories in Germany as held prior to Austerlitz.

^ During this time Allied negotiations finally brought Austria out in open opposition to France.

^ Two principal Austrian armies took the field, adding an additional 300,000 troops to the Allied armies in Germany.

.Austria achieved a number of initial victories against the thinly-spread army of Marshal Davout.^ Austria achieved a number of initial victories against the thinly-spread army of Marshal Davout.

^ The Seventh Coalition (1815) pitted the United Kingdom, Russia, Prussia, Sweden, Austria, the Netherlands and a number of German states against France.

^ Great Britain remains unharmed, while achieving victories against France at sea and abroad.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

.Napoleon had left Davout with only 170,000 troops to defend France's entire eastern frontier (in the 1790s, 800,000 troops had carried out the same task, but holding a much shorter front).^ (In the 1790s, 800,000 troops had carried out the same task, but holding a much shorter front.

^ Napoleon had left Davout with only 170,000 troops to defend France's entire eastern frontier (In the 1790s, 800,000 troops had carried out the same task, but holding a much shorter front).
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon had left Davout with only 170,000 troops to defend France's entire eastern frontier.

.Napoleon had enjoyed easy success in Spain, retaking Madrid, defeating the Spanish and consequently forcing a withdrawal of the heavily out-numbered British army from the Iberian Peninsula (Battle of Corunna, 16 January 1809).^ Napoleon had enjoyed easy success in Spain, retaking Madrid, defeating the Spanish and consequently forcing a withdrawal of the heavily out-numbered British army from the Iberian Peninsula ( Battle of Corunna, 16 January 1809).

^ Napoleon had enjoyed easy success in Spain, retaking Madrid, defeating the Spanish and consequently forcing a withdrawal of the heavily out-numbered British army from the Iberian Peninsula (Battle of Corunna, 16 January 1809).
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Leo Tolstoy's epic novel, War and Peace recounts a Russian story of the Napoleonic era, covering society, politics, armies and battles.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.But when he left, the guerrilla war against his forces in the countryside continued to tie down great numbers of troops.^ Russia proclaimed a Patriotic War, while Napoleon proclaimed a Second Polish war, but against the expectations of the Poles (who supplied almost 100,000 troops for the invasion-force) he avoided any concessions to Poland, having in mind further negotiations with Russia.

^ Even small nations now had armies rivalling the Great Powers' forces of past wars in size.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ War of Second Coalition Against France (1799) : Austria joins Great Britain in hopes of regaining territory lost to France, without success.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

.Austria's attack prevented Napoleon from successfully wrapping up operations against British forces by necessitating his departure for Austria, and he never returned to the Peninsula theatre.^ Austria's attack prevented Napoleon from successfully wrapping up operations against British forces by necessitating his departure for Austria, and he never returned to the Peninsula theatre.

^ Napoleon had enjoyed easy success in Spain, retaking Madrid, defeating the Spanish and consequently forcing a withdrawal of the heavily out-numbered British army from the Iberian Peninsula ( Battle of Corunna, 16 January 1809).

^ Gill tackles the political background to the war, especially the motivations that prompted Austria to launch an offensive against France while Napoleon and many of his veterans were distracted in Spain.

.In his absence and that of his best marshals (Davout remained in the east throughout the war) the French situation in Spain deteriorated, and then became dire when Sir Arthur Wellesley arrived to take charge of British-Portuguese forces.^ In his absence and in the absence of his best marshals (Davout remained in the east throughout the war) the French situation deteriorated, especially when the prodigious British general, Sir Arthur Wellesley, arrived to command the British forces.

^ In his absence and in the absence of his best marshals (Davout remained in the east throughout the war) the French situation in Spain deteriorated, especially when the prodigious British general, Sir Arthur Wellesley, arrived to command the British forces.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Wellington's British force in Portugal was the only remaining force opossing the French.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Austrians drove into the Duchy of Warsaw, but suffered defeat at the Battle of Raszyn on 19 April 1809. The Polish army captured West Galicia following its earlier success.^ The Polish army captured West Galicia following its earlier success.

^ The Austrians drove into the Duchy of Warsaw, but suffered defeat at the Battle of Radzyn April 19, 1809.

^ The Austrian Army in 1809 26 27.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.
The French Empire in Europe in 1811, near its peak extent.
^ See a map of the French empire at its peak in 1811.
  • Napoleonic Titles and Heraldry 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.heraldica.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The French Empire in Europe in 1811, near its peak extent.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The French Empire in Europe in 1811, near its peak extent The struggle also continued in the sphere of economic warfare — the French Continental System vs. British naval blockade of French-controlled territory.

Dark and light green areas indicate the French Empire and its territories; blue, pink and yellow areas indicate French client and satellite states
.Napoleon assumed personal command in the east and bolstered the army there for his counter-attack on Austria.^ Napoleon assumed personal command in the east and bolstered the army there for his counter-attack on Austria.

^ Dark and light green areas indicate the French Empire and its territories; blue, pink and yellow areas indicate French client and satellite states Napoleon assumed personal command in the east and bolstered the army there for his counter-attack on Austria.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Piedmont, one of the original members of the Coalition, had persistently threatened the French on the Italian front for four years before Bonaparte assumed command of the French Army of Italy.

.After a few small battles, the well-run campaign forced the Austrians to withdraw from Bavaria, and Napoleon advanced into Austria.^ After a well-run campaign that, after a few small battles, forced the Austrians to withdraw from Bavaria, Napoleon advanced into Austria.

^ Napoleon had enjoyed easy success in Spain, retaking Madrid, defeating the Spanish and consequently forcing a withdrawal of the heavily out-numbered British army from the Iberian Peninsula ( Battle of Corunna, 16 January 1809).

^ Outnumbered, Napoleon almost lost this battle, the winter weather was appalling but for the superb Cavalry Charge led by Prince Murat, halted the Russian advance.
  • Napoleonic War Art Prints Special Offers 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.military-art.com [Source type: General]

.His hurried attempt to cross the Danube resulted in the massive Battle of Aspern-Essling (22 May 1809)— Napoleon's first significant tactical defeat.^ His hurried attempted to cross the Danube resulted in the massive Battle of Aspern-Essling ( 22 May 1809) — Napoleon's first significant tactical defeat.

^ Thus on the 21st of May the battle of Aspern or Essling began.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His hurried attempt to cross the Danube resulted in the massive Battle of Aspern-Essling (22 May 1809) — Napoleon's first significant tactical defeat.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.But the Austrian commander, Archduke Karl, failed to follow up on his indecisive victory, allowing Napoleon to prepare and seize Vienna in early July.^ Failure by the Austrian commander, Archduke Karl, to follow up on his indecisive victory meant that Napoleon could prepare for a renewed attempt to seize Vienna, and in early July he did so.

^ The battle of Castiglione (5 August 1796) was a French victory that effectively ended the first Austrian attempt to lift the siege of Mantua, and was an early example of a battle in which Napoleon brought several different columns together on the same battlefield.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here the Austrians outnumerd the French, The difference was purely Napoleon's comptence as a commander.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

.He defeated the Austrians at Wagram, on 5–6 July (During this battle, Napoleon stripped Marshal Bernadotte of his title and ridiculed him in front of other senior officers.^ He defeated the Austrians at Wagram, on July 5 – July 6 (During this battle Napoleon stripped Marshal Bernadotte of his title and ridiculed him in front of other senior officers.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (During this battle Napoleon stripped Marshal Bernadotte of his title and ridiculed him in front of other senior officers.

^ Napoleon is seen with his generals as his faithfull Guard regiments (held in reserve) pass him on their way to the last French attack on the British lines during the last stages of the Battle of Waterloo.
  • Military Prints, Battle of Maida 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

.Shortly thereafter, Bernadotte took up the offer from Sweden to fill the vacant position of Crown Prince there.^ Shortly thereafter, Bernadotte took up the offer from Sweden to fill the vacant position of Crown Prince there.

^ The elected Swedish king Karl XIII was old and childless, why Sweden was now in urgent need of a crown prince.
  • Bx8091a 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.hat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So it happened, that the former French Marshal Jean Baptiste Bernadotte was elected crown prince of Sweden and formally adopted by Karl XIII under the name Karl XIV Johan.
  • Bx8091a 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.hat.com [Source type: Original source]

.Later he would actively participate in wars against his former Emperor).^ Later he would actively participate in wars against his former Emperor.

^ Later he would actively participate in wars against his former Emperor).
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Before the war in 1812 against Russia the Guard horse grenadiers replaced their old bearskins with new ones made by the Emperor's hatter Poupard.
  • Uniforms : Napoleonic Wars : French : Russian : Austrian : British : Prussian 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The War of the Fifth Coalition ended with the Treaty of Schönbrunn (14 October 1809).^ The War of the Fifth Coalition ended with the Treaty of Schönbrunn (October 14, 1809).
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The War of the Fifth Coalition ended with the Treaty of Schönbrunn ( October 14, 1809).

^ (The War of the 5th Coalition ended with the Treaty of Schonbrunn.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the east, only the Tyrolese rebels led by Andreas Hofer continued to fight the French-Bavarian army until finally defeated in November 1809, while in the west the Peninsular War continued.^ The French continued to fight.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the east only the Tyrolese rebels led by Andreas Hofer continued to fight the French-Bavarian army until finally defeated in November 1809, while in the west the Peninsular War continued.

^ Edition puts players in control of the Admiralty of Britain, France or Spain in the West Indies during the French Revolutionary Wars of 1793-1801.
  • Wargame Vault - Napoleonic | Napoleonic | Napoleonic | Napoleonic - The largest wargame download store 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.wargamevault.com [Source type: General]

.In 1810, the French Empire reached its greatest extent.^ In 1810 the French Empire reached its greatest extent.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1812, Napoleon's French Empire had reached its peak, and appeared to be unstoppable in its desire of even further expansion.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They formed to some extent an extension of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789 and continued during the régime of the Second French Empire of 1852– 1870.

.On the continent, the British and Portuguese remained restricted to the area around Lisbon (behind their impregnable lines of Torres Vedras) and to besieged Cadiz.^ On the continent, the British and Portuguese remained restricted to the area around Lisbon behind their impregnable lines of Torres Vedras.

^ The first combat of Sobral of 12 October 1810 was the first of two skirmishes around the village of Sobral that would turn out to be the only French attacks on the Lines of Torres Vedras, the strong defensive position built to protect Lisbon.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the British battalions behind Hougoumont-La Haye Sainte line were formed in column of companies (not a "thin red line").
  • French Artillery: Artillerie fran�aise: Franz�sische Artillerie: Uniforms: Organization: Equipment 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Napoleon married Marie-Louise, an Austrian Archduchess, with the aim of ensuring a more stable alliance with Austria and of providing the Emperor with an heir (something his first wife, Josephine, had failed to do).^ Napoleon married Marie-Louise, an Austrian Archduchess, with the aims of ensuring a more stable alliance with Austria and of providing the Emperor with an heir (something his first wife, Josephine, had failed to do).
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon married Marie-Louise, an Austrian Archduchess, in order to ensure a more stable alliance with Austria and to provide the Emperor with an heir, something his first wife, Josephine, had failed to do.

^ Rome : the purely honorary title of King of Rome was reserved for the heir apparent of the Emperor (Napoleon's son, from 1811 to 1814).
  • Napoleonic Titles and Heraldry 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.heraldica.org [Source type: Original source]

.As well as the French Empire, Napoleon controlled the Swiss Confederation, the Confederation of the Rhine, the Duchy of Warsaw and the Kingdom of Italy.^ The next stage of the war involved the French driving Russian forces out of Poland and instituting a new state, the Duchy of Warsaw.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Military actions soon clouded the peace: the French intervened in the Swiss civil strife ( Stecklikrieg ) and occupied several coastal cities in Italy, while the United Kingdom occupied Malta.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Briffith writes, "It was the great artillery reformer Gribeauval who prepared the standardised equipment which was to serve the French so well in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
  • French Artillery: Artillerie fran�aise: Franz�sische Artillerie: Uniforms: Organization: Equipment 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Territories allied with the French included:
and .Napoleon's former enemies, Prussia and Austria.^ Kingdom of Spain (under Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon's elder brother) the Kingdom of Westphalia (Jérôme Bonaparte, Napoleon's younger brother) the Kingdom of Naples (under Joachim Murat, husband of Napoleon's sister Caroline) the Principality of Lucca and Piombino (under Elisa Bonaparte (Napoleon's sister) and her husband Felice Bacciocchi); and Napoleon's former enemies, Prussia and Austria.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Both Prussia and Austria continue to fight the French throughout the Napoleonic Wars, despite continued defeats at the hands of the French.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Main article: Sixth Coalition Seeing an opportunity in Napoleon's historic defeat, Prussia, Sweden, Austria and a number of German states re-entered the war.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

The Invasion of Russia 1812

Charles Joseph Minard’s famous graph of the decreasing size of the Grande Armée represented by the width of the line as it marches to Moscow (tan) and back (black).
.The Treaty of Tilsit in 1807 resulted in the Anglo-Russian War (1807–12).^ (The Treaty of Tilsit in 1807 between France and Russia resulted in the Anglo-Russian War 1807-12).
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Main article: Napoleon's invasion of Russia The Treaty of Tilsit in 1807 resulted in the Anglo-Russian War (1807–12).
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was recognized as king of Holland by Prussia and Russia in the treaty of Tilsit of 7 July 1807.
  • Napoleonic Titles and Heraldry 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.heraldica.org [Source type: Original source]

.Emperor Alexander I declared war on the United Kingdom after the British attack on Denmark in September 1807. British men-of-war supported the Swedish fleet during the Finnish War and had victories over the Russians in the Gulf of Finland in July 1808 and August 1809. However, the success of the Russian army on the land forced Sweden to sign peace-treaties with Russia in 1809 and with France in 1810 and to join the Continental Blockade against Britain.^ Britain and the coalitions against France.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Fifth Coalition ( 1809) of the United Kingdom and Austria against France formed as the United Kingdom engaged in the Peninsular War against France.

^ (The Treaty of Tilsit in 1807 between France and Russia resulted in the Anglo-Russian War 1807-12).
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.But Franco-Russian relations became progressively worse after 1810, and the Russian war with the UK effectively ended.^ Russian rule was restored at the end of the Napoleonic Wars, imposing a more harsh burden for Poland, leading to multiple failed revolts throughout the 19th century.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Later that year a peace was signed with Denmark-Norway and in January 1810 with France on condition that Sweden declared war on Britain before the end of 1810.
  • Bx8091a 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.hat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon the end of the Napoleonic Wars, relations with both normalized.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

.In April 1812, Britain, Russia and Sweden signed secret agreements directed against Napoleon.^ In April 1812 Britain, Russia and Sweden signed secret agreements directed against Napoleon.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1812 Napoleon invaded Russia.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "The war pitted Prussia and Britain and a coalition of smaller German states against an alliance consisting of Austria, France, Russia, Sweden, and Saxony.

.In 1812, Napoleon invaded Russia.^ In 1812 Napoleon’s magnificent army invaded Russia .

^ In 1812 Napoleon invaded Russia.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1812 during the retreat from Russia, only Napoleon's V Army Corps (Poniatowski's Poles ) brought back 30 pieces.
  • French Artillery: Artillerie fran�aise: Franz�sische Artillerie: Uniforms: Organization: Equipment 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He aimed to compel Emperor Alexander I to remain in the Continental System and to remove the imminent threat of a Russian invasion of Poland.^ He aimed to compel Emperor Alexander I to remain in the Continental System and to remove the imminent threat of a Russian invasion of Poland.

^ The battle of Wattignies (15-16 October 1793) was a French victory that forced the Allies to lift the siege of Maubeuge, and removed the threat of an immediate Allied invasion of France.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Russian-Ruled Kingdom of Poland (1815) : Kingdom of Poland, ruled by the Russian Tsar (Emperor) was established in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

.The French-led Grande Armée, consisting of 650,000 men (270,000 Frenchmen and many soldiers of allies or subject areas), crossed the Niemen River on 23 June 1812. Russia proclaimed a Patriotic War, while Napoleon proclaimed a Second Polish war.^ The Grand Armee crossed of the Niemen River, launching the offnsive (June 24, 1812).
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The French-led Grande Armée , consisting of 650,000 men (270,000 Frenchmen and many soldiers of allies or subject areas), crossed the Niemen River on June 23, 1812.

^ The War of 1812 to most Europeans meant the invasion of Russia by Napoleon's Grand Army.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Poles supplied almost 100,000 troops for the invasion-force, but against their expectations, Napoleon avoided any concessions to Poland, having in mind further negotiations with Russia.^ Russia proclaimed a Patriotic War, while Napoleon proclaimed a Second Polish war, but against the expectations of the Poles (who supplied almost 100,000 troops for the invasion-force) he avoided any concessions to Poland, having in mind further negotiations with Russia.

^ Of the 500,000 men that Napoleon had organized for his invasion of Russia, barely 100,000 remained.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The British landed 33,000 troops in Portugal in 1808 at the height of the Napoleonic Wars in a bid to stave off invasion.
  • Cogeco fighting a Napoleonic war in Portugal: RBC - FP Trading Desk 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC network.nationalpost.com [Source type: News]

.Russia maintained a scorched-earth policy of retreat, broken only by the Battle of Borodino on 7 September 1812. This required the Grande Armée to adjust its methods of operation, but it refused to do so.^ Russia maintained a scorched-earth policy of retreat, broken only by the Borodino on September 7, 1812.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The march of the Grand Army to Moscow in 1812 and its disastrous retreat set Europe once more ablaze.
  • Great Britain during and after the Napoleonic wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC revolution.allbest.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ By September 14, 1812 the Grande Armée had captured Moscow ; although by this point the Russians had largely abandoned the city, even releasing prisoners from Moscow's prisons to inconvenience the French.
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

[9] .This refusal led to most of the losses of the main column of the Grande Armée, which in one case amounted to 95,000 troops in a single week.^ Swedish-Finnish losses - mostly from epidemics among the poorly led and equipped militia - accumulated to some 20.000.
  • Bx8091a 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.hat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Main Causes of the Downfall of the Napoleonic-French Empire: Overextension: Napoleon-led France apeared to be unstoppable as it conquered most of western and central Europe at will.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Swedish-Pomeranian losses during the war amounted to some 6.000 killed and taken prisoners.
  • Bx8091a 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.hat.com [Source type: Original source]

[10] .The bloody confrontation of Borodino ended in a tactical defeat for Russia, thus opening the road to Moscow for Napoleon.^ The French, under Napoleon, won a costly tactical victory and advanced to capture Moscow, but the outcome was not the decisive, war-ending blow Napoleon desperately sought.

^ His intention was to occupy a strong position and fight one general action for the possession of Moscow, and to this end he selected the line of the Kalatscha where the stream intersects the great Moscow road.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1814, after two successive years of defeat in Russia and central Europe, Napoleon was faced with the ultimate disaster - an Allied invasion of France itself.

[11]
.By 14 September 1812, the Grande Armée had captured Moscow.^ The march of the Grand Army to Moscow in 1812 and its disastrous retreat set Europe once more ablaze.
  • Great Britain during and after the Napoleonic wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC revolution.allbest.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ On 7 September 1812 at Borodino, 75 miles west of Moscow, the armies of the Russian and French empires clashed in one of the climactic battles of the Napoleonic Wars.

.But by then, the Russians had largely abandoned the city, even releasing prisoners from the prisons to inconvenience the French.^ The combat of Almazan of 10 July 1810 demonstrated the difficulties the French facing in moving even quite large bodies of reinforcements to their armies in Spain.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Alexander I refused to capitulate, and the governor, Count Fyodor Vasilievich Rostopchin, ordered the city burnt to the ground.[12] .With no sign of clear victory in sight, Napoleon began the disastrous Great Retreat from Moscow.^ The march of the Grand Army to Moscow in 1812 and its disastrous retreat set Europe once more ablaze.
  • Great Britain during and after the Napoleonic wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC revolution.allbest.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ The French, under Napoleon, won a costly tactical victory and advanced to capture Moscow, but the outcome was not the decisive, war-ending blow Napoleon desperately sought.

^ France's Disastrous Invasion of Russia (1812) : Russia shows signs of defying Napoleon, causing France to invade.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

.The remnants of the Grande Armée crossed the Berezina River in November, and only 27,000 fit soldiers remained.^ The crossing of the Berezina River was a dissaster.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Swedish army at land counted 9.000, but only some 5.400 of them were fit for fight.
  • Bx8091a 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.hat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Grand Armee crossed of the Niemen River, launching the offnsive (June 24, 1812).
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Napoleon then left his army and returned to Paris to prepare to defend Poland against the advancing Russians.^ In the autumn of 1798 Napoleon left his army and returned to Paris.
  • Great Britain during and after the Napoleonic wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC revolution.allbest.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Outnumbered, Napoleon almost lost this battle, the winter weather was appalling but for the superb Cavalry Charge led by Prince Murat, halted the Russian advance.
  • Napoleonic War Art Prints Special Offers 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.military-art.com [Source type: General]

^ Napoleon carefully prepared for an ivasion and assumed a huge army of 0.5 million French and other European soldiers.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

.With some 380,000 men dead and 100,000 captured,[13] the situation seemed less dire than at first.^ More than 2.000 men died in less than three months.
  • Bx8091a 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.hat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of the 500,000 men that Napoleon had organized for his invasion of Russia, barely 100,000 remained.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ganteaume met with some measure of success in capturing isolated British men-of-war, one of them being a 74, the " Swiftsure."
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Russians had lost around 210,000 men, leaving their army depleted.^ The Silesian army was thus able to escape, and marching northwards combined with Bernadotte at Laon - this reinforcement bringing the forces at Blucher's disposal up to over 10o,000 men.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the beginning of 1801, a British naval force, commanded by Lord Keith , had sailed from Gibraltar , escorting an army of 18,000 men under General Abercromby.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The total number of men assigned to the field army was i io,000 Prussians and Saxons .
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.But with their shorter supply-lines, they could replenish their armies faster than the French.^ This heavy line was deeper than the French line.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Prussian General Gneiseanu and French Marshal Soult could, and would, assume an independent command of their armies if necessary.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon decided he had to defeat the Allied armies in the field before they could be reinforced.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

War of the Sixth Coalition 1812–1814

.Seeing an opportunity in Napoleon's historic defeat, Prussia, Sweden, Austria, and a number of German states re-entered the war.^ Russia, Prussia, Sweden, Austria, number of German states, and Britain .
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Britain, Prussia, Netherlands, Russia, Sweden, Austria, number of German states .
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The war pitted Prussia and Britain and a coalition of smaller German states against an alliance consisting of Austria, France, Russia, Sweden, and Saxony.

.Napoleon vowed that he would create a new army as large as the one he had sent into Russia, and quickly built up his forces in the east from 30,000 to 130,000 and eventually to 400,000. Napoleon inflicted 40,000 casualties on the Allies at Lützen (2 May 1813) and Bautzen (20–21 May 1813).^ Napoleon raised a new army and took Vienna again (May 1809).
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Had he defeated Russia, Napoleon may have been able to launch an invasion of England in 1813.
  • Napoleonic War Art Prints Special Offers 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.military-art.com [Source type: General]

^ Although the French emperor quickly collected a new army that was almost as large as the one he had lost in Russia, Napoleon was decisively beaten at Leipzig in October 1813.
  • Great Britain during and after the Napoleonic wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC revolution.allbest.ru [Source type: Original source]

.Both battles involved total forces of over 250,000, making them some of the largest conflicts of the wars so far.^ If wanting to make Swedes in the kapott there should be some American Civil War-figures around that could be used to swap heads with.
  • Bx8091a 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.hat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ War with Burma in1825-26 involved the 47th in several sharp actions and earned them the battle honour Ava .
  • Short History 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC qlrmuseum.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ But for the sake of argument can we define a world war as a globe-spanning, physical conflict with clearly defined sides and involving 100's of millions or billions of people?

.Meanwhile, in the Peninsular War, Arthur Wellesley renewed the Anglo-Portuguese advance into Spain just after New Year in 1812, besieging and capturing the fortified towns of Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz, and in the Battle of Salamanca (which was a damaging defeat to the French).^ Ciudad Rodrigo, siege of Badajoz, Salamanca.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before he could advance into Spain in 1812 Wellington had to capture the frontier fortress.
  • Short History 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC qlrmuseum.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Battle of Salamanca: British-Portuguese versus French .
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.As the French regrouped, the Anglo–Portuguese entered Madrid and advanced towards Burgos, before retreating all the way to Portugal when renewed French concentrations threatened to trap them.^ The 88th Foot [Irish] next deployed into line, advancing all the time towards their opponents, who seemed to wait very coolly for them.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Issuing orders to Davout, Oudinot and his cavalry to concentrate with all speed towards Eckmuhl, he himself rode back along the Regensburg road and reached the battle-field just as the engagement between the advance troops had commenced.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The combat of Torrijos of 26 July 1809 was a clash between the Spanish rearguard and advancing French cavalry, fought two days before the battle of Talavera.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a consequence of the Salamanca campaign, the French were forced to end their long siege of Cadiz and to permanently evacuate the provinces of Andalusia and Asturias.^ Bernard Cornwell, Sharpe's Sword , during Wellington's Salamanca Campaign, a French assassin gets a second chance to kill Sharpe; #14 (chronologically by setting) in the Sharpe series.

^ The battle of Alba de Tormes of 28 November 1809 was a dramatic French cavalry victory that ended the Spanish Junta’s autumn campaign of 1809.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The battle of Wattignies (15-16 October 1793) was a French victory that forced the Allies to lift the siege of Maubeuge, and removed the threat of an immediate Allied invasion of France.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In a strategic move, Wellesley planned to move his supply base from Lisbon to Santander. .The Anglo–Portuguese forces swept northwards in late May and seized Burgos.^ The siege of Olivenza of 9-15 April 1811 saw the town liberated by an Anglo-Portuguese force only three months after it had been captured by the French.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 21 June, at Vitoria, the combined Anglo-Portuguese and Spanish armies won against Joseph Bonaparte, finally breaking the French power in Spain.^ French General Thiebault writes that the scattered state of the French army in Spain rendered its situation desperate, and that the slowness of Sir Arthur Wellesley saved it several times.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The French had by this time totally destroyed the Spanish Army.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The battle took place off Cape Trafalgar on the southern coast of Spain, where a British fleet of 27 ships under the command of Admiral Nelson had to fight against a slightly larger combined enemy fleet commanded by a French admiral.
  • Great Britain during and after the Napoleonic wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC revolution.allbest.ru [Source type: Original source]

.The French had to retreat out of the Iberian peninsula, over the Pyrenees.^ The debiliating campaigns of the Iberian Peninsula and the dissaster in Russia had cost much of the experienced core of the French army.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The French in 1807 began to give increasing attention to the Iberian Peninsula where Britain had an ally in Portugal that helped it circumvent Napoleon's Continental System.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1811, when Napoleon had to draw away part of his forces for his Russian campaign, Wellington was able to take the offensive and step by step the French were driven out of the Peninsula.
  • Great Britain during and after the Napoleonic wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC revolution.allbest.ru [Source type: Original source]

.The belligerents declared an armistice from 4 June 1813 (continuing until 13 August) during which time both sides attempted to recover from the loss of approximately a quarter of a million total troops in the preceding two months.^ In consequence, France, spurred by its leader’s lack of political restraint and thirst for conquest, was able to war advantageously against one or two powers at a time until the formation in 1813–15 of the alliance that finally defeated Napoléon.

^ His narrative gives a powerful insight into the sheer brutality of the close-quarter fighting and the astonishing heroism exhibited by soldiers and officers on both sides.

^ Joseph reigned until 1813, when Napoleon returned Spain conditionally to Ferdinand VII (treaty of Valançay, 13 Dec 1813) and French troups evacuated Spain.
  • Napoleonic Titles and Heraldry 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.heraldica.org [Source type: Original source]

.During this time Coalition negotiations finally brought Austria out in open opposition to France.^ Several times during the Revolution France had tried to invade Great Britain, once in Ireland and once in Wales.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The siege of Longwy (20-23 August 1792) was the first military success during the Austrian and Prussian invasion of France at the start of the War of the First Coalition.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This time I have chosen England during post revolutionary France and the rise of Napoleon.
  • The Napoleonic Wars: An Account by an English Officer - Paradox Interactive Forums 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

.Two principal Austrian armies took the field, adding an additional 300,000 troops to the Coalition armies in Germany.^ Another French army swept through Germany and the Austrians again asked for peace terms.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ulm Campaign 1805 : Napoleon and the Defeat of the Austrian Army During the 'war of the Third Coalition' .

^ Napoleon faced the Archduke Charles, the best of the Habsburg commanders, and a reformed Austrian Army that was arguably the best ever fielded by the Danubian Monarchy.

.In total the Allies now had around 800,000 front-line troops in the German theatre, with a strategic reserve of 350,000 formed to support the frontline operations.^ "The Light Copany was frequently detached to form a skirmish line some 200 m in front of the battalion...
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If operating together with regular troops probably deployed some 50-100 metres in front or to the side of them.
  • Bx8091a 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.hat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The storm of the lines of Wissembourg (12-13 October 1793) was an Allied victory on the Rhine front late in 1793 that briefly threatened the entire French position in Alsace.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Napoleon succeeded in bringing the total imperial forces in the region to around 650,000—although only 250,000 came under his direct command, with another 120,000 under Nicolas Charles Oudinot and 30,000 under Davout.^ Thither he succeeded in bringing only 55,000 men.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the peace of Tilsit the Grand Army was gradually withdrawn behind the Rhine, leaving only three commands, totalling 63,000 men, under Davout in Prussia, Oudinot in west central Germany, and Lefebvre in Bavaria, to assist the princes of the Confederation of the Rhine in the maintenance of order and the enforcement of the French law of conscription , which was rigorously insisted on in all the States comprised in this new federation.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile Schwarzenberg's force opposing these had dwindled to a bare 30,000.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

The remainder of imperial forces came mostly from the Confederation of the Rhine, especially Saxony and Bavaria. .In addition, to the south, Murat's Kingdom of Naples and Eugène de Beauharnais's Kingdom of Italy had a total of 100,000 armed men.^ Eugéne de Beauharnais (1781-1824) was Napoleon’s step-son and an able soldier who spent much of his career as Viceroy of Italy.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was conferred on Dec 17, 1807 to Eugène de Beauharnais, viceroy of Italy and adopted son of Napoleon I. It was not endowed, and functioned much like the title of king of Rome for the French Empire.
  • Napoleonic Titles and Heraldry 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.heraldica.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A statute of June 5, 1805 defined the position of viceroy of Italy, to which Napoléon appointed Eugène de Beauharnais (1781-1824), son of his wife Joséphine from her first marriage.
  • Napoleonic Titles and Heraldry 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.heraldica.org [Source type: Original source]

.In Spain, another 150,000 to 200,000 French troops steadily retreated before Anglo–Portuguese forces numbering around 100,000. Thus in total, around 900,000 French troops in all theatres faced around a million Coalition troops (not including the strategic reserve under formation in Germany).^ The Silesian army was thus able to escape, and marching northwards combined with Bernadotte at Laon - this reinforcement bringing the forces at Blucher's disposal up to over 10o,000 men.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The French admiral had the intention to slip out of Cadiz, which was under British blockade, to land troops in southern Italy, where the French were fight-ing.
  • Great Britain during and after the Napoleonic wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC revolution.allbest.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ At the beginning of 1801, a British naval force, commanded by Lord Keith , had sailed from Gibraltar , escorting an army of 18,000 men under General Abercromby.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.The gross figures may mislead slightly, as most of the German troops fighting on the side of the French fought at best unreliably and stood on the verge of defecting to the Allies.^ Wallmoden's corps managed to severe the Danish troops from their French allies, but the Danes managed to secure their retreat by their victory at the battle of Sehestad.
  • Bx8091a 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.hat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The French admiral had the intention to slip out of Cadiz, which was under British blockade, to land troops in southern Italy, where the French were fight-ing.
  • Great Britain during and after the Napoleonic wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC revolution.allbest.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles Lefebvre-Desnouettes was a very capable French cavalry commander who fought in most major campaigns of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One can reasonably say that Napoleon could count on no more than 450,000 troops in Germany—which left him outnumbered about two to one.^ Napoleon's troops were no different.
  • Uniforms : Napoleonic Wars : French : Russian : Austrian : British : Prussian 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Along with Ben Weider, the two delved into sources of available information regarding Napoleon, his imprisonment and those close to him.

^ Napoléon could adopt a son or grandson of one of his brothers Joseph or Louis, if he had no children of his own.
  • Napoleonic Titles and Heraldry 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.heraldica.org [Source type: Original source]

.Following the end of the armistice, Napoleon seemed to have regained the initiative at Dresden (August 1813), where he defeated a numerically-superior Coalition army and inflicted enormous casualties, while the French army sustained relatively few.^ Although the French emperor quickly collected a new army that was almost as large as the one he had lost in Russia, Napoleon was decisively beaten at Leipzig in October 1813.
  • Great Britain during and after the Napoleonic wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC revolution.allbest.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ The French, under Napoleon, won a costly tactical victory and advanced to capture Moscow, but the outcome was not the decisive, war-ending blow Napoleon desperately sought.

^ The battle of Castiglione (5 August 1796) was a French victory that effectively ended the first Austrian attempt to lift the siege of Mantua, and was an early example of a battle in which Napoleon brought several different columns together on the same battlefield.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the failures of his marshals and a slow resumption of the offensive on his part cost him any advantage that this victory might have secured.^ The Iberian peninsula however "provides some of the best defensive ground in the world, and he was not slow to take advantage of it."
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the Battle of Leipzig in Saxony (16–19 October 1813), also called the "Battle of the Nations", 191,000 French fought more than 300,000 Allies, and the defeated French had to retreat into France.^ Leipzig Campaign : 1813-napoleon and the Battle of the Nations .

^ Although the French emperor quickly collected a new army that was almost as large as the one he had lost in Russia, Napoleon was decisively beaten at Leipzig in October 1813.
  • Great Britain during and after the Napoleonic wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC revolution.allbest.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Wallmoden's corps managed to severe the Danish troops from their French allies, but the Danes managed to secure their retreat by their victory at the battle of Sehestad.
  • Bx8091a 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.hat.com [Source type: Original source]

.Napoleon then fought a series of battles, including the Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube, in France itself, but the overwhelming numbers of the Allies steadily forced him back.^ The battle of Wattignies (15-16 October 1793) was a French victory that forced the Allies to lift the siege of Maubeuge, and removed the threat of an immediate Allied invasion of France.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As commander of the Guard, Lannes' enthusiasm for showy uniforms for his guardsmen landed him in serious trouble with Napoleon.
  • Uniforms : Napoleonic Wars : French : Russian : Austrian : British : Prussian 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The battle of Montenotte (11-12 April 1796) was the first of a series of remarkable victories in northern Italy that firmly established Napoleon Bonaparte as one of the most important figures in revolutionary France.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Russian army enters Paris in 1814
.The Allies entered Paris on 30 March 1814. During this time Napoleon fought his Six Days Campaign, in which he won multiple battles against the enemy forces advancing towards Paris.^ Paris surrendered (March 31, 1814).
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This campaign was chosen not only because of the many colorful armies involved, but also due to the fact that reform and Napoleon not being at every battle actually gives the Allies a fighting chance.
  • Napoleonic Rules: Brigade Games and Hobby Supply, LLP 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.brigadegames.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Waterloo Campaign in 1815 the raising of artillery was beset by some frustrating difficulties, and there was very little time.
  • French Artillery: Artillerie fran�aise: Franz�sische Artillerie: Uniforms: Organization: Equipment 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, during this entire campaign he never managed to field more than 70,000 troops against more than half a million Coalition troops.^ During campaign the troops wore cheaper, more durable and more comfortable trousers and overalls.
  • Uniforms : Napoleonic Wars : French : Russian : Austrian : British : Prussian 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 2.000 men died in less than three months.
  • Bx8091a 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.hat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Right: In 1812 after the campaign in Russia the grey overalls became more popular than ever.
  • Uniforms : Napoleonic Wars : French : Russian : Austrian : British : Prussian 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the Treaty of Chaumont (9 March 1814), the Allies agreed to preserve the Coalition until Napoleon's total defeat.^ Ulm Campaign 1805 : Napoleon and the Defeat of the Austrian Army During the 'war of the Third Coalition' .

^ In 1813, however, Maximilian contrived to change sides opportunely, and thus managed to have confirmed to him, by the treaties of 1814-15, an extent of territory nearly as valuable as the possessions which he had gained as an ally of Napoleon, and which he had now to restoreto Austria.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon decided he had to defeat the Allied armies in the field before they could be reinforced.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Napoleon determined to fight on, even now, incapable of fathoming his massive fall from power.^ No, even if that happens I just don't see the remaining military powers fighting directly head to head.

^ Insights into the politics and intrigue surrounding his fall powerful portrait of Napoleon after Waterloo .

^ Detailed, Dramatic account of Napoleon's fall from Power.

.During the campaign he had issued a decree for 900,000 fresh conscripts, but only a fraction of these ever materialized, and Napoleon's increasingly unrealistic schemes for victory eventually gave way to the reality of the hopeless situation.^ The battle of Ceva (16 April 1796) was a rare setback for Napoleon during the first stage of his campaign in Italy in 1796.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The battle of Rivoli (14 January 1797) was the most comprehensive of Napoleon's victories in Italy during his campaign of 1796-97.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The battle of Millesimo (13-14 April 1796) was a minor French victory during Napoleon Bonaparte's first campaign in Italy in the spring of 1796, and saw a French force under General Augereau eventually overcome Piedmontese resistance at Millesimo and Cosseria.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Napoleon abdicated on 6 April. However, occasional military actions continued in Italy, Spain, and Holland throughout the spring of 1814.
.The victors exiled Napoleon to the island of Elba, and restored the French Bourbon monarchy in the person of Louis XVIII.^ This time Napoleon was exiled on a remote South Atlantic Island--Saint Helena.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba, off the coast of Italy; he was given sovereignty over the island for his lifetime (the arms of the island under Napoleon were argent on a bend gules three bees or ).
  • Napoleonic Titles and Heraldry 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.heraldica.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1814, when monarchy was restored, the Charter used the term "new nobility" when referring to the Napoleonic titles, but again specified that nobility conferred no exemption from the burdens and duties of society.
  • Napoleonic Titles and Heraldry 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.heraldica.org [Source type: Original source]

.They signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau (11 April 1814) and initiated the Congress of Vienna to redraw the map of Europe.^ But due to its decisive role, Russia gained great political influence in Europe, including a strong say in the redrawing of the European map.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After Waterloo (1815) and the Congress of Vienna (1814-15), individual nation satates coalessed and developed theie own values and fashions.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With spring came news that the war in Europe was fanally over; Bonaparte abdicated on 11 April (1814) … In America, Federalists rejoiced, assuming the news would herald peace, but Republicans were skeptical.

Gunboat War 1807–1814

.Initially, Denmark-Norway declared itself neutral in the Napoleonic Wars, established a navy, and traded with both sides.^ French Artillery: Artillerie franaise: Franzsische Artillerie: Uniforms: Organization: Equipment French Artillery of the Napoleonic Wars 1800-1815 "God is on the side with the best artillery."
  • French Artillery: Artillerie fran�aise: Franz�sische Artillerie: Uniforms: Organization: Equipment 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1800, by initiative of tsar Paul I, Russia, Sweden, Denmark and Prussia joined a league of neutrality.
  • Bx8091a 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.hat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cogeco fighting a Napoleonic war in Portugal: RBC - FP Trading Desk .
  • Cogeco fighting a Napoleonic war in Portugal: RBC - FP Trading Desk 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC network.nationalpost.com [Source type: News]

.But the British attacked and captured or destroyed large portions of the Dano-Norwegian fleet in the First Battle of Copenhagen (2 April 1801), and again in the Second Battle of Copenhagen (August–September 1807).^ The battle of Ceva (16 April 1796) was a rare setback for Napoleon during the first stage of his campaign in Italy in 1796.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The battle of Avesnes-le-Sec (12 September 1793) saw a sizable French infantry column virtually destroyed by an Austrian cavalry attack, and demonstrated that the new conscripted French infantry could still be vulnerable.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The battle of Oporto of 12 May 1809 was Arthur Wellesley’s first victory after his return to Portugal in April 1809 (Peninsular War) .
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This ended the Dano-Norwegian neutrality, who engaged in a naval guerrilla war in which small gunboats would attack larger British ships in Danish and Norwegian waters.^ The British naval blockade of France affected neutral shipping.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Day 20: We look at the gunboat , one of the smallest ships of war in use during this period, and an essential part of many amphibious operations.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Jefferson hoped the Embargo Act (1807) would end this, but the Act adversely affected the American economy and had little impact on the British.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Gunboat War effectively ended with a British victory at the Battle of Lyngør in 1812, involving the destruction of the last large Dano-Norwegian ship—the frigate Najaden.^ The resulting battle was a spectacular British victory.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The battle ended up in a draw, the horrors of war are depicted in his painting of the battle in which 35,000 men fell.
  • Napoleonic War Art Prints Special Offers 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.military-art.com [Source type: General]

^ The French, under Napoleon, won a costly tactical victory and advanced to capture Moscow, but the outcome was not the decisive, war-ending blow Napoleon desperately sought.

War of 1812

.Coinciding with the War of the Sixth Coalition and not considered part of the Napoleonic Wars by most Americans, the otherwise neutral United States, owing to various transgressions by the British, declared war on the United Kingdom and attempted to invade Canada.^ The British landed 33,000 troops in Portugal in 1808 at the height of the Napoleonic Wars in a bid to stave off invasion.
  • Cogeco fighting a Napoleonic war in Portugal: RBC - FP Trading Desk 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC network.nationalpost.com [Source type: News]

^ Many historians consider Salamanca as Wellington's greatest victory The structure of the British Army was complex, due to the different origins of its various constituent parts.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The "British Empire" was not a de jure entity (like the German Empire or Russian Empire), since Britain itself was a kingdom (the "United Kingdom" of Great Britain and Northern Ireland).
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The war ended in status quo ante bellum under the Treaty of Ghent, signed on 24 December 1814, though sporadic fighting continued for several months (most notably, the Battle of New Orleans).^ The battle ended up in a draw, the horrors of war are depicted in his painting of the battle in which 35,000 men fell.
  • Napoleonic War Art Prints Special Offers 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.military-art.com [Source type: General]

^ The French, under Napoleon, won a costly tactical victory and advanced to capture Moscow, but the outcome was not the decisive, war-ending blow Napoleon desperately sought.

^ Napoleonic Wars Aftermath for Italy: Italy continued to toil under foreign domination, as the pre-war status quo is established, with Austria ruling the north, and Spain the south.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

.Apart from the seizing of then-Spanish Mobile by the United States, there was negligible involvement from other participants of the broader Napoleonic War.^ There was much civil war and battles with other nations throughout the Middle Ages.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the Napoleonic Wars there were two types of the tall boots.
  • Uniforms : Napoleonic Wars : French : Russian : Austrian : British : Prussian 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Napoleonic War Aftermath for United Kingdom: The UK's naval capability is by far the greatest in the world, as its chief competitors were badly weakened during the wars.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

.Notably, a series of British raids, later called the "Burning of Washington," would result in the burning of the White House, the Capitol, the Navy Yard, and other public buildings.^ In 1806 as a result of the British naval blockade there was a shortage of indigo used for dyeing cloth and so Napoleon ordered the introduction of a white uniform for his line infantry.
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^ The disagreements resulted in a fiasco with the aggravated Moore embarking his British force and sailing home only a month later, without anything having been achieved.
  • Bx8091a 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.hat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon was concerned that other countries would follow suit which, in combination with the Royal Navy, would mean that France could be isolated and straggled economically.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

.The main effect of the War of 1812 on the wider Napoleonic Wars was to force Britain to divert troops, supplies and funds to defending Canada.^ Headwears of French troops of the Napoleonic Wars.
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^ The British landed 33,000 troops in Portugal in 1808 at the height of the Napoleonic Wars in a bid to stave off invasion.
  • Cogeco fighting a Napoleonic war in Portugal: RBC - FP Trading Desk 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC network.nationalpost.com [Source type: News]

^ The War of 1812-15 was fought between USA and Great Britain.
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.This inadvertently helped Napoleon in that Britain could no longer use these troops, supplies and funds in the war against France.^ Britain and the coalitions against France.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Headwears of French troops of the Napoleonic Wars.
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^ Napoleon's troops were no different.
  • Uniforms : Napoleonic Wars : French : Russian : Austrian : British : Prussian 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

War of the Seventh Coalition 1815

See also Hundred Days and the Neapolitan War between the Kingdom of Naples and the Austrian Empire.^ War of Third Coalition Against France (1805) : United Kingdom, Russia, Sweden, Austria and German states (Holy Roman Empire) combine to fight France.
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^ End of War of the First Coalition Against France (1797) : Republic of Venice comes to an end, split between France (Illyrian Provinces) and Austria.
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1789 - 1816 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.worldology.com [Source type: Original source]

^ War of 1812 Between United Kingdom and USA (1812) : For the UK, this was an extension of the Napoleonic Wars.
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Wellington at Waterloo by Robert Alexander Hillingford.
.The Seventh Coalition (1815) pitted the United Kingdom, Russia, Prussia, Sweden, Austria, the Netherlands and a number of German states against France.^ Britain and the coalitions against France.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Russia, Prussia, Sweden, Austria, number of German states, and Britain .
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Britain, Prussia, Netherlands, Russia, Sweden, Austria, number of German states .
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The period known as the Hundred Days began after Napoleon left Elba and landed at Cannes (1 March 1815).^ After learning the details of Napoleon's final days, Dr. Forshufvud began to suspect arsenic poisoning.

^ Escape from Elba : The Fall and Flight of Napoleon 1814-1815 .

.Travelling to Paris, picking up support as he went, he eventually overthrew the restored Louis XVIII.^ The Bourbon King Louis XVIII installd by the Allies fled from Paris and Napolon regained control of the government.
  • war and social upheaval: the Napoleonic Wars 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Allies rapidly gathered their armies to meet him again.^ The inhabitants of Berlin, headed by their mayor , came out to meet him, and the newspapers lavished adulation on the victors and abuse on the beaten army.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Napoleon raised 280,000 men, whom he distributed among several armies.^ The Silesian army was thus able to escape, and marching northwards combined with Bernadotte at Laon - this reinforcement bringing the forces at Blucher's disposal up to over 10o,000 men.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Of the 500,000 men that Napoleon had organized for his invasion of Russia, barely 100,000 remained.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The latter was not so shaken as Napoleon believed, and turning to bay inflicted a severe check on its pursuers, who at Ebelsberg lost 4000 men in three xix.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.To add to the 90,000 troops in the standing army, he recalled well over a quarter of a million veterans from past campaigns and issued a decree for the eventual draft of around 2.5 million new men into the French army.^ The combat of Collioure (21 December 1793) was a Spanish victory that saw them capture a series of small ports on the French coast and convinced the French army of the Eastern Pyrenees to retreat into winter quarters around Perpignan.
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^ We read reports of the French landing 7,000 men in Mangalore in March and burning the trading post.
  • The Napoleonic Wars: An Account by an English Officer - Paradox Interactive Forums 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ The Silesian army was thus able to escape, and marching northwards combined with Bernadotte at Laon - this reinforcement bringing the forces at Blucher's disposal up to over 10o,000 men.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.This faced an initial Coalition force of about 700,000—although Coalition campaign-plans provided for one million front-line troops, supported by around 200,000 garrison, logistics and other auxiliary personnel.^ About 37 countries sent troops as part of the coalition, and more provided financial and other support.

^ The retreat of the front lines involved the following ones in confusion, and presently the whole mass was driven back in considerable disorder.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "The Light Copany was frequently detached to form a skirmish line some 200 m in front of the battalion...
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.The Coalition intended this force to have overwhelming numbers against the numerically inferior imperial French army—which in fact never came close to reaching Napoleon's goal of more than 2.5 million under arms.^ Three principle army groups drove across the great German landmark, smashing the exhausted French forces that attempted to defend the eastern frontier.

^ It came only nine days after the French had declared war on Austria on 20 April, and ended in a humiliating defeat for the armies of revolutionary France.
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^ England could have never won against Napoleonic France without the Russian, Prussian and Austrian armies, and Spanish guerillas.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

FIAV historical.svgThe Prince's Flag, was used as a battle flag by the Dutch Forces during the Battle of Waterloo.
Map of the Waterloo campaign
.Napoleon took about 124,000 men of the Army of the North on a pre-emptive strike against the Allies in Belgium.^ As a response to the treaty of Tilsit the British launched a pre-emptive strike against Denmark, as Britain feared that the strong Danish fleet might otherwise end up under French control.
  • Bx8091a 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.hat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Silesian army was thus able to escape, and marching northwards combined with Bernadotte at Laon - this reinforcement bringing the forces at Blucher's disposal up to over 10o,000 men.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Of the 500,000 men that Napoleon had organized for his invasion of Russia, barely 100,000 remained.
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.He intended to attack the Coalition armies before they combined, in hope of driving the British into the sea and the Prussians out of the war.^ As a result of the battle of Austerlitz in December 1805 the Austrians were forced out of the coalition and by the end of December, through the treaty of Schnbrunn, the Prussians followed suit and entered into an alliance with France, through which they were to occupy British Hannover.
  • Bx8091a 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.hat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jacques-Philippe Bonnaud (1757-1796) was a French general of the War of the First Coalition who served with the Army of the North and the Army of the Sambre-and-Meuse, before dying of wounds suffered at the combat of Giessen.
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^ Moreau intended to collect an army of 100 000 men out of French prisoners of war left in Poland and Russia after the campaign of 1812 and with this force to go to France.

His march to the frontier achieved the surprise he had planned, catching the Anglo-Dutch Army in a dispersed arrangement. The Prussians had been more wary, concentrating 3/4 of their Army in and around Ligny. .The Prussians forced the Armee du Nord to fight all the day of the 15th to reach Ligny in a delaying action by the Prussian 1st Corps.^ France was not an island and was forced to spent huge amount of money on land forces to fight against the aggressive Prussian and Russian armies.
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^ Nelson, who reached Gibraltar on the very day the action off Ferrol was fought, was too far away to interfere with him.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At a time when Napoleon needed all his forces to reassert French dominance in Central Europe, why did he fixate on the Prussian capital of Berlin?

[14]He forced .Prussia to fight at Ligny on 16 June 1815, and the defeated Prussians retreated in some disorder.^ Glover lets the officers speak for themselves as they reveal exactly what happened on the 16, 17 and 18 June 1815.

^ Petre - "Napoleon at War" p 226, publ.1984 ) In 1814 and in 1815 ( Waterloo, Ligny) some infantrymen, incl.
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[15] .On the same day, the left wing of the Army of the North, under the command of Marshal Michel Ney, succeeded in stopping any of Wellington's forces going to aid Blücher's Prussians by fighting a blocking action at Quatre Bras.^ Napoleon halted a whole day to let the army close up; and then attacked with his old vigour and succeeded in clearing the road, but only at the cost of leaving Ney and the rearguard to its fate.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The combat of Borghetto (2 May 1800) was an Austrian victory that saw them force Suchet and the left wing of the Army of Italy to retreat further away from contact with the rest of the army at Genoa.
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^ At the beginning of 1801, a British naval force, commanded by Lord Keith , had sailed from Gibraltar , escorting an army of 18,000 men under General Abercromby.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Ney failed to clear the cross-roads and Wellington reinforced the position. But with the Prussian retreat, Wellington too had to retreat. He fell back to a previously reconnoitred position on an escarpment at Mont St Jean, a few miles south of the village of Waterloo.
.Napoleon took the reserve of the Army of the North, and reunited his forces with those of Ney to pursue Wellington's army, after he ordered Marshal Grouchy to take the right wing of the Army of the North and stop the Prussians re-grouping.^ Three principle army groups drove across the great German landmark, smashing the exhausted French forces that attempted to defend the eastern frontier.

^ England could have never won against Napoleonic France without the Russian, Prussian and Austrian armies, and Spanish guerillas.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The majority were to be part of a new Northern Army that together with a Bohemian and a Silesian army were to encircle Napoleon from the south, east and north respectively.
  • Bx8091a 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.hat.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the 1st of a series of miscalculations, both Grouchy and Napoleon failed to realize that the Prussian forces were already reorganized and were assembling at the village of Wavre.^ At a time when Napoleon needed all his forces to reassert French dominance in Central Europe, why did he fixate on the Prussian capital of Berlin?

.In any event the French army did nothing to stop a rather leisurely retreat that took place throughout the night and into the early morning by the Prussians.^ All hope of saving the battle had now to be given up, but the French covered their retreat obstinately and by daybreak next morning one-half of the army was already filing out along the road to Erfurt which had so fortunately been left for them.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The combat of Collioure (21 December 1793) was a Spanish victory that saw them capture a series of small ports on the French coast and convinced the French army of the Eastern Pyrenees to retreat into winter quarters around Perpignan.
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^ The battle of Alcolea, 7 June 1808 , was a French victory early in the Peninsular War won over an army of Spanish volunteers outside Cordova .
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[16] .As the 4th, 1st, and 2nd, Prussian Corps marched through the town towards the Battlefield of Waterloo the 3rd Prussian Corp took up blocking positions across the river, and although Grouchy engaged and defeated the Prussian rearguard under the command of Lt-Gen von Thielmann in the Battle of Wavre (18–19 June) it was 12 hours too late.^ Battle of Auerstadt 18 19.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Soult and Murat attacked his rearguard on the 3rd, and learning from his Cossacks that the French corps were being directed so as to swing round and enclose him, he withdrew by a night march and ultimately succeeded in getting his whole army, with the exception of von Lestocq's Prussians, together in the strong position along the Alle, the centre of which is marked by Preussisch-Eylau.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Russians after passing Schippenbeil had suddenly turned northwards, and on the evening of the 13th were taking up a strong position on the river Alle with Friedland as a centre.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the end, 17,000 Prussians had kept 33,000 badly needed French reinforcements off the field.^ The combat of Peyrestortes (17 September 1793) was a French victory that ended a short-lived blockade of Perpignan in the early phases of the War of the Convention.
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^ The total number of men assigned to the field army was i io,000 Prussians and Saxons .
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^ Especially painful was the defeat at Rossbach where 42.000 French and their Allies were trashed by 21,000 Prussians under Fredrick the Great.
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.Napoleon delayed the start of fighting at the Battle of Waterloo on the morning of 18 June for several hours while he waited for the ground to dry after the previous night's rain.^ Despite his injury he survived for several days after the battle and was presented with the cross of the Legion of Honour only hours before his death.
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^ A mailing list for anyone with a genealogical or historical interest in the Napoleonic Wars, especially the Peninsular War and the Battle of Waterloo.
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^ Morning of Waterloo by Ernest Crofts Napoleon on the morning of Waterloo surrounded by the Imperial Guard.
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.By late afternoon, the French army had not succeeded in driving Wellington's forces from the escarpment on which they stood.^ Some French deserters who joined the British Army in the Peninsula promptly deserted from it because they found discipline too severe.
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^ The combat of Arzobispo of 8 August 1809 was a minor French victory late in the Talavera campaign, which saw them force their way across the River Tagus.
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^ The battle of Hondschoote (8 September 1793) was a victory for the new mass armies of the French Republic, and forced an Allied army under the Duke of York to abandon the siege of Dunkirk.
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.When the Prussians arrived and attacked the French right flank in ever-increasing numbers, Napoleon's strategy of keeping the Coalition armies divided had failed and a combined Coalition general advance drove his army from the field in confusion.^ Napoleon is seen with his generals as his faithfull Guard regiments (held in reserve) pass him on their way to the last French attack on the British lines during the last stages of the Battle of Waterloo.
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^ General Bertrand was the most known engineer of the Napoleonic army.
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^ By daybreak on the 74th, the anniversary of Elchingen, upwards of 60,000 men stood densely battalions were sent forward, and these, delaying their advance till the fog had sufficiently lifted, were met by French skirmishers, and small columns, who rapidly overlapped their flanks and drove them back in confusion.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Grouchy organized a successful and well-ordered retreat towards Paris, where Marshal Davout had 117,000 men ready to turn back the 116,000 men of Blücher and Wellington.^ Of the 500,000 men that Napoleon had organized for his invasion of Russia, barely 100,000 remained.
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^ His orders were at once issued and complied with with such celerity that by the 31st he stood prepared to advance with the corps of Soult, Ney, Davout and Augereau, the Guard and the reserve cavalry (80,000 men on a front of 60 m.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Issuing orders to Davout, Oudinot and his cavalry to concentrate with all speed towards Eckmuhl, he himself rode back along the Regensburg road and reached the battle-field just as the engagement between the advance troops had commenced.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Militarily, it appeared quite possible that the French could defeat Wellington and Blücher, but politics proved the source of the Emperor's downfall.^ French domination of Europe could never be assured without Britains defeat.
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In any event Davout was defeated at Issy and negotiations for surrender had begun.
.On arriving at Paris three days after Waterloo, Napoleon still clung to the hope of a concerted national resistance; but the temper of the chambers, and of the public generally, did not favour his view.^ Day 13: Although not in common use, body armour was still used by cavalry during the Napoleonic Wars.
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^ In 1815, Napoleon Bonaparte arrived on the island of St. Helena to begin his imprisonment following Waterloo.

^ In view of this situation Napoleon on the 4th of October sent General Lauriston to the Russian headquarters to treat.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.The politicians forced Napoleon to abdicate again on 22 June 1815. Despite the Emperor’s abdication, irregular warfare continued along the eastern borders and on the outskirts of Paris until the signing of a cease-fire on 4 July.^ By the middle of June 1812 the emperor had assembled his army along the line of the Niemen.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The siege of Mantua (4 June-30 July 1796 and 24 August 1796-2 February 1797) was the focal point of the third phase of Napoleon's campaign in Italy in 1796-97.
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^ June K. Burton is associate professor emerita of history at the University of Akron and an associate editor of Historical Dictionary of Napoleonic France, 1799-1815 .

On 15 July, Napoleon surrendered himself to the British squadron at Rochefort. The Allies exiled him to the remote South Atlantic island of Saint Helena, where he died on 5 May 1821.
.Meanwhile in Italy, Joachim Murat, whom the Allies had allowed to remain King of Naples after Napoleon's initial defeat, once again allied with his brother-in-law, triggering the Neapolitan War (March to May, 1815).^ Following Napoleons deposition of Ferdinand IV, King of Naples in favour of his brother Joseph Bonaparte, the British government ordered General Sir John Stuart to land a force in Calabria, Southern Italy.
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^ Empire in Arms the Napoleonic Wars of 1805 - 1815 .
  • Empire in Arms the Napoleonic Wars of 1805 - 1815 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.matrixgames.com [Source type: General]

^ French Artillery: Artillerie franaise: Franzsische Artillerie: Uniforms: Organization: Equipment French Artillery of the Napoleonic Wars 1800-1815 "God is on the side with the best artillery."
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Hoping to find support among Italian nationalists fearing the increasing influence of the Habsburgs in Italy, Murat issued the Rimini Proclamation inciting them to war. .But the proclamation failed and the Austrians soon crushed Murat at the Battle of Tolentino (2 May to 3 May 1815), forcing him to flee.^ The Austrians after the defeats of 1800 had endeavoured to reorganize their forces on the French model, but they were soon to learn that in matters of organization the spirit is everything, the letter very little.
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The Bourbons returned to the throne of Naples on 20 May 1815. Murat tried to regain his throne, but after that failed, a firing squad executed him on 13 October 1815.

Political effects

Napoleon as King of Italy (Appiani)
.The Napoleonic Wars brought great changes both to Europe and the Americas.^ The Napoleonic Wars saw fighting on an unprecedented scale in Europe and the Americas.

^ Briffith writes, "It was the great artillery reformer Gribeauval who prepared the standardised equipment which was to serve the French so well in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
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^ With the collapse of the invasion scheme, the naval war between Napoleon and Great Britain entered on a new phase.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Napoleon had brought most of Western Europe under one rule—an achievement not met since the days of the Roman Empire, although Charlemagne reduced a large area of central Europe into a single empire.^ Philip Dwyer examines the fascinating evolution of Napoleon’s character and the means by which, at the age of thirty, he became head of the most powerful country in Europe.

^ He was largely responsible for the first Spanish victory during the uprising, at Baylen on 19 July 1808, a victory that encouraged resistance to Napoleon in Spain and across Europe.
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^ In 1814, after two successive years of defeat in Russia and central Europe, Napoleon was faced with the ultimate disaster - an Allied invasion of France itself.

.But France's constant warfare with the combined other major powers of Europe for over two decades finally took its toll.^ Asymmetric warfare isn't just a buzzword; it is the only effective way to strike at a major military power, but it is incapable of winning ground.

^ In consequence, France, spurred by its leader’s lack of political restraint and thirst for conquest, was able to war advantageously against one or two powers at a time until the formation in 1813–15 of the alliance that finally defeated Napoléon.

^ In 1814, after two successive years of defeat in Russia and central Europe, Napoleon was faced with the ultimate disaster - an Allied invasion of France itself.

.By the end of the Napoleonic Wars, France no longer held the role of the dominant power in Europe, as it had since the times of Louis XIV.^ Gill tackles the political background to the war, especially the motivations that prompted Austria to launch an offensive against France while Napoleon and many of his veterans were distracted in Spain.

^ Napoleon wore this hat in 1799, the year he seized power in France to become First Consul.
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^ In consequence, France, spurred by its leader’s lack of political restraint and thirst for conquest, was able to war advantageously against one or two powers at a time until the formation in 1813–15 of the alliance that finally defeated Napoléon.

.The United Kingdom emerged as the most powerful country in the world, coined by some as a hyperpower.^ Philip Dwyer examines the fascinating evolution of Napoleon’s character and the means by which, at the age of thirty, he became head of the most powerful country in Europe.

.Britain's Royal Navy gained unquestioned naval superiority throughout the world and her industrial economy made it the most powerful commercial country as well.^ Philip Dwyer examines the fascinating evolution of Napoleon’s character and the means by which, at the age of thirty, he became head of the most powerful country in Europe.

^ Napoleon ) Although Britain had the largest navy in the world and was separated from the French by water the threat of French invasion was greeted in England with horror.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Great Britain was one of the greatest imperial powers in the world, and although this dominance was principally achieved through the strength of the Royal Navy, the army played a significant role.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.In most European countries, the importation of the ideals of the French Revolution (democracy, due process in courts, abolition of privileges, etc.^ Day 5: The creation of Demi-Brigades was amongst the first of a series of reforms that made French armies the most feared in Europe in the two decades after the revolution.
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) left a mark. .The increasing prosperity and clout of the middle classes became incorporated into custom and law, and the vast new wealth built on bourgeois activities, such as commerce and industry, meant that European monarchs found it difficult to restore pre-revolutionary absolutism, and had to keep some of the reforms enacted during Napoleon's rule.^ Briffith writes, "It was the great artillery reformer Gribeauval who prepared the standardised equipment which was to serve the French so well in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
  • French Artillery: Artillerie fran�aise: Franz�sische Artillerie: Uniforms: Organization: Equipment 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also incorporates into his account French eyewitness testimony which throws new light on the thinking of the French commanders and the conduct of their troops.

^ But in this new and difficult country the emperor found it impossible to time his marches.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Institutional legacies remain to this day: many European countries have a civil-law legal system, with clearly redacted codes compiling their basic laws—an enduring legacy of the Napoleonic Code.^ Aside from having a winning record of battles, Napoleon is also remembered for establishing the Napoleonic Code, which influenced the law systems of many other countries.

^ One of the first truly modern politicians, Napoleon was a master at manipulating the media to project an idealized image of himself that has endured to this day.

A relatively new and increasingly powerful movement became significant. .Nationalism would shape the course of much of future European history; its growth spelled the beginning of some states and the end of others.^ In conclusion it may be said, that the English army surpasses other nations in discipline, and in some particulars of internal management ..."
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Sunday Times bestselling account of Napoleon's invasion of Russia and eventual retreat from Moscow, events that had a profound effect on the subsequent course of Russian and European history.

^ Some sources give red pompon for all companies in regiment while other sources stated that pompons were in color indicating company or squadron.
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.The map of Europe changed dramatically in the hundred years following the Napoleonic Era, based not on fiefs and aristocracy, but on the perceived basis of human culture, national origins, and national ideology.^ Napoleon's ultimate defeat was to determine the history of Europe for almost 100 years.

^ BRAND NEW Hardcover in Dust Jacket - 272pp - The period of turmoil that preceded and marked the Napoleonic era caused an expansion in the navies of Europe and the United States.

^ In 1814, after two successive years of defeat in Russia and central Europe, Napoleon was faced with the ultimate disaster - an Allied invasion of France itself.

.Bonaparte's reign over Europe sowed the seeds for the founding of the nation-states of Germany and Italy by starting the process of consolidating city-states, kingdoms and principalities.^ The Act of Union of 1800 assimilated Ireland within the British political process and created a new state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Napoleonic wars also played a key role in the independence of the American colonies from their European motherlands.^ The history of the British army spans over 350 years and numerous European and colonial wars.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A mailing list for anyone with a genealogical or historical interest in the role played by Missouri and its people during the American Civil War.
  • Wars/Military Mailing Lists 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A mailing list for anyone with a genealogical or historical interest in the role of Mississippi in the War for Southern Independence (Civil War).
  • Wars/Military Mailing Lists 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The conflict significantly weakened the authority and military power of the Spanish Empire, especially after the Battle of Trafalgar, which seriously hampered the contact of Spain with its American possessions.^ The first battle of Valencia (26-28 June 1808) was one of a series of Spanish victories early in the Peninsular War.
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^ The battle of the Somosierra Pass, 30 November 1808 , was the final Spanish attempt to stop Napoleon reaching Madrid during his 1808 campaign in Spain.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Evidence of this are the many uprisings in Spanish America after the end of the war, which eventually lead to the wars of independence.^ The combat of Espolla, 27 October 1793 , was a Spanish victory that ended a poorly conceived French attempt to capture the port of Roses early in the War of the Convention.
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^ The battle of Perpignan (17 July 1793) was the first significant Spanish failure during their campaign at the eastern end of the Pyrenees during the War of the Convention.
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^ A united British-Spanish-Portuguese army, under the command of Wellington, eventually forced the French out of Spain, in what the Spanish came to call their War of Independence.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

In Portuguese America, Brazil experienced greater autonomy as it now served as seat of the Portuguese Empire and ascended politically to the status of Kingdom. These events also contributed to the Portuguese Liberal Revolution in 1820 and the Independence of Brazil in 1822.
.After the war, in order to prevent another such war, Europe was divided into states according to the balance of power theory.^ Napoleon’s Wars seeks to answer the question: What was it that made the countries of Europe fight each other for so long and with such devastating results?

^ Part Two: The Engagements describes in detail, in chronological order, the individual actions divided into the three major wars - The War of the First Coalition 1792-1797, The War of the Second Coalition 1798-1802 and The Napoleonic Wars 1803-1815.

.This meant that, in theory, no European state would become strong enough to dominate Europe in the future.^ They consoled themselves with the conviction that no greater military splendour, bound up as it was with the charisma of their Emperor, had ever been seen in Europe, or would ever be seen again.
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^ His strong leadership and effective strategies brought France to a near domination of Europe .

Another concept emerged—that of a unified Europe. After his defeat, Napoleon deplored his unfinished dream to create a free and peaceful "European association" sharing the same principles, the same system of measurement, the same currency with different exchange rates and the same Civil Code. .Although his defeat set back the idea by one-and-a-half centuries, it re-emerged after the end of the Second World War.^ It was the first time that Sir Arthur Wellesley campaigned in Spain; it saw the first great Anglo-Spain victory of the war and the first really large French defeat in Spain since Baylen, and ended with the first of Wellesley’s retreats back towards Portugal.
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^ The pulling ability was further reduced by one-half if a horse carried a rider on its back.
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^ The battle of Magnano (5 April 1799) was a French defeat early in the War of the Second Coalition that ended any chance of their expelling the Austrians from northern Italy before Russian reinforcements could reach the area.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Military legacy

Napoleon Crossing the Alps (David). In 1800 Bonaparte took the French Army across the Alps, eventually defeating the Austrians at Marengo
.The Napoleonic Wars also had a profound military impact.^ XXXII, published in 1855 ) The Napoleonic artillery was a product of the change in French military theory that followed humiliations of the Seven Years War.
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^ Focussing on the lesser-known theaters of operation from 1800 to the Russian campaign in 1812, this study completes the gaps in the military history of the Napoleonic Wars.

^ General Moreau was Napoleon’s N1 rival and personal opponent at least in military sphere during Revolution wars in France.

.Until the time of Napoleon, European states employed relatively small armies, made up of both national soldiers and mercenaries.^ Right: soldiers of small German states.
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^ French General Thiebault writes that the scattered state of the French army in Spain rendered its situation desperate, and that the slowness of Sir Arthur Wellesley saved it several times.
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^ The battle of Fombio (7-9 May 1796) was a small scale engagement fought as Napoleon's army crossed the River Po.
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However, military innovators in the mid-18th century began to recognize the potential of an entire nation at war: a "nation in arms".[17]
.France, with the fourth-largest population in Europe by the end of the 18th century (27 million, as compared to the United Kingdom's 12 million and Russia's 35 to 40 million), seemed well poised to take advantage of the levée en masse.^ (The Treaty of Tilsit in 1807 between France and Russia resulted in the Anglo-Russian War 1807-12).
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^ England had conquered Wales in the 12th century and was then united with Scotland in the early 18th century to form Great Britain.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A series of wars in the 17th and 18th centuries with the Netherlands and France left England the dominant colonial power in North America and India.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Because the French Revolution and Napoleon's reign witnessed the first application of the lessons of the 18th century's wars on trade and dynastic disputes, commentators often falsely assume that such ideas arose from the revolution rather than found their implementation in it.^ Headwears of French troops of the Napoleonic Wars.
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^ European Wars 2 - 18th century Mod .
  • Napoleonic Total War 2 - Total War Center Forums 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ The French, under Napoleon, won a costly tactical victory and advanced to capture Moscow, but the outcome was not the decisive, war-ending blow Napoleon desperately sought.

But not all the credit for the innovations of this period go to Napoleon. .Lazare Carnot played a large part in the reorganization of the French army from 1793 to 1794—a time which saw previous French misfortunes reversed, with Republican armies advancing on all fronts.^ The combat of Collioure (21 December 1793) was a Spanish victory that saw them capture a series of small ports on the French coast and convinced the French army of the Eastern Pyrenees to retreat into winter quarters around Perpignan.
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^ The 88th Foot [Irish] next deployed into line, advancing all the time towards their opponents, who seemed to wait very coolly for them.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From the very first, however, the inherent weakness of the vast army, and the vicious choice of time for the beginning of the advance, began to make itself felt.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

The sizes of the armies involved give an obvious indication of the changes in warfare. .During Europe's major pre-revolutionary war, the Seven Years' War of 1756–1763, few armies ever numbered more than 200,000. By contrast, the French army peaked in size in the 1790s with 1.5 million Frenchmen enlisted.^ FRENCH WARRIORS 100 YEARS WAR .
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^ What about the Seven Years' War before that?

^ FRENCH 100 YEARS WAR INFANTRY .
  • Minutemen Toy Soldiers - Military Figures 1/72, 1/76 15 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.mmtoysoldiers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In total, about 2.8 million Frenchmen fought on land and about 150,000 at sea, bringing the total for France to almost 3 million combatants.
.The UK had 747,670 men under arms between 1792 and 1815, and had about 250,000 personnel in the Royal Navy.^ At the beginning of 1801, a British naval force, commanded by Lord Keith , had sailed from Gibraltar , escorting an army of 18,000 men under General Abercromby.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Schwarzenberg, with 180,000 men available at once and 60,000 on the following day; Blucher had about 60,000, but Bernadotte now could not arrive before the 18th.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Next, centring about Warsaw, a group of three corps (19,000 men) under the chief command of Napoleon's brother Jerome.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.In September 1812, Russia had about 904,000 enlisted men in its land forces, and between 1799 and 1815 a total of 2.1 million men served in the Russian army, with perhaps 400,000 serving from 1792 to 1799. A further 200,000 or so served in the Russian Navy from 1792 to 1815. There are no consistent statistics for other major combatants.^ (In 1812 the US Army consisted of 7,000 regulars (35,000 in 1815 !
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^ We read reports of the French landing 7,000 men in Mangalore in March and burning the trading post.
  • The Napoleonic Wars: An Account by an English Officer - Paradox Interactive Forums 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ They were to be supported by Schwarzenberg with men, who was to advance by Basel and Neu Breisach to the south, and Bernadotte with the Northern army, about 120,000, was to move in support on the right flank through the Netherlands and Laon ; this force was not yet ready and did not, in fact, reach the latter place till March.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Austria's forces peaked at about 576,000 and had little or no naval component. .Apart from the UK, Austria proved the most persistent enemy of France, and one can reasonably assume that more than a million Austrians served in total.^ BRAND NEW Oversized Hardcover - 244pp - Overseas Shipping extra Due to Size/Weight - From 1804 to 1815, more than 1400 officers served in the most powerful branch of the French Napoleonic cavalry, the cuirassiers.

^ Lord Mayo History proves that although she declaimed so loudly against France's grasping spirit, she has since acquired more territory than she ever charged him with conquering.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The side-buttoned overalls had proved to be more trouble than they were worth but the light cavalry liked them.
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.Prussia never had more than 320,000 men under arms at any time, only just ahead of the UK. Spain's armies also peaked at around 300,000 men, not including a considerable force of guerrillas.^ Running along the beams under a close fire a few gallant men forced their way across.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Silesian army was thus able to escape, and marching northwards combined with Bernadotte at Laon - this reinforcement bringing the forces at Blucher's disposal up to over 10o,000 men.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ French General Thiebault writes that the scattered state of the French army in Spain rendered its situation desperate, and that the slowness of Sir Arthur Wellesley saved it several times.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Otherwise only the United States (286,730 total combatants), the Maratha Confederation, the Ottoman Empire, Italy, Naples and the Duchy of Warsaw ever had more than 100,000 men under arms.^ They were more often in combat than other units.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ OMS NAPOLEONIC TOTAL WAR After many months of work, i finally release my mod, with more than 100 Napoleonic units, made for both campaign and battles.
  • oms_NAPOLEONIC_MOD 1.6 WORKING WITH DECEMBER PATCH - Total War Center Forums 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ Of the 500,000 men that Napoleon had organized for his invasion of Russia, barely 100,000 remained.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Even small nations now had armies rivalling the size of the Great Powers' forces of past wars.^ During the Napoleonic Wars Great Britain had a powerful navy but relatively small army.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (Source: www.btinternet.com/~james.mckay ) "The limbs of the Highlander are strong and sinewy, the frame hardy, and of great physical power, in proportion to size.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was now that the results of a divorce of the army from the nation began to be felt.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, one should bear in mind that the above numbers of soldiers come from military records and in practice the actual numbers of fighting men would fall below this level due to desertion, fraud by officers claiming non-existent soldiers' pay, death and, in some countries, deliberate exaggeration to ensure that forces met enlistment-targets.^ Barbero - "The Battle" p 22 ) According to Philip Haythorntwaite there is a record of Wellington coming upon aristocratic officers making their men carry them over a river.
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^ We were, however, agreeably deceived by the officer addressing us as follows, to the best of my recollecton, in broken English: 'I have been told to have you mens flogged, for a crime dat is very bad and disgraceful to de soldier - robbing de people you come paid to fight for.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is a record of Wellington coming upon aristocratic officers making their men carry them over a river.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

Despite this, the size of armed forces expanded at this time.
.
All the participants in the Napoleonic Wars.
^ The English Baker rifle was probably the most accurate of all firearms during the Napoleonic Wars.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ War for All the Oceans : From Nelson at the Nile to Napoleon at Waterloo .

Blue: The Coalition and their colonies and allies. Green: The First French Empire, its protectorates and colonies. .(While France and the U.S. were not explicitly allied, the U.S. engaged in the contemporaneous War of 1812 against Britain and purchased territory from France.^ Britain and the coalitions against France.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The war pitted Prussia and Britain and a coalition of smaller German states against an alliance consisting of Austria, France, Russia, Sweden, and Saxony.

^ Gill tackles the political background to the war, especially the motivations that prompted Austria to launch an offensive against France while Napoleon and many of his veterans were distracted in Spain.

)
.The initial stages of the Industrial Revolution had much to do with larger military forces—it became easy to mass-produce weapons and thus to equip significantly larger forces.^ Napoleon's own forces thus became the " general advanced guard " for Ney and Davout, who were to close in on either side and deliver the decisive stroke.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.The UK served as the largest single manufacturer of armaments in this period, supplying most of the weapons used by the Coalition powers throughout the conflicts (although using relatively few itself).^ Day 14: The Ship of the Line was the most powerful weapon used during the Napeleonic Wars.
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.France produced the second-largest total of armaments, equipping its own huge forces as well as those of the Confederation of the Rhine and other allies.^ France was not an island and was forced to spent huge amount of money on land forces to fight against the aggressive Prussian and Russian armies.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Napoleon himself showed innovative tendencies in his use of mobility to offset numerical disadvantages, as brilliantly demonstrated in the rout of the Austro-Russian forces in 1805 in the Battle of Austerlitz.^ Outnumbered, Napoleon almost lost this battle, the winter weather was appalling but for the superb Cavalry Charge led by Prince Murat, halted the Russian advance.
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^ It was not till the 5th that Napoleon received tidings of his advance, and for the moment these were so vague that he contented himself by warning the remainder of his forces to be prepared to move on the 6th.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus the manoeuvre against Vitebsk again miscarried, and Napoleon found himself in a far worse position, numerically and materially, than at the outset of the campaign.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.The French Army reorganized the role of artillery, forming independent, mobile units, as opposed to the previous tradition of attaching artillery pieces in support of troops.^ Field Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov tried to neutralize the French artillery with his own powerful batteries and protected his troops with strong fieldworks.
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^ On 2 July 1794, the horse artillery, previously attached to the foot artillery regiments was organized into full-fledged regiments: 9 light artillery regiments, each with 10 companies of 84 men."
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^ The French artillery was so well organized, and efficient that several other European armies patterned their artillery after the French.
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.Napoleon standardized cannonball sizes to ensure easier resupply and compatibility among his army's artillery pieces.^ In 1812 during the retreat from Russia, only Napoleon's V Army Corps (Poniatowski's Poles ) brought back 30 pieces.
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^ It was Napoleon's main and the best army in that time and thus the artillery was much better than the pieces attached to the armies on secondary theaters of war like Italy or Spain, and more numerous.
  • French Artillery: Artillerie fran�aise: Franz�sische Artillerie: Uniforms: Organization: Equipment 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another advance affected warfare: the semaphore system had allowed the French War-Minister, Carnot, to communicate with French forces on the frontiers throughout the 1790s.^ French advanced guard, which he took to be their whole force, on its right flank, and during the morning had drawn together the bulk of his forces on his right in the vicinity of GrossGurschen and Kaya.
  • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In September 1813 Marshal Soult, wrote to the Minister of War that British sharpshooters were killing the French officers in a fast rate: "the losses of officers are so out of proportion with the losses in soldiers".
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The newspapers were a little less kind, and Prime Minister Pitt came under heavy criticism for allowing the French to land on English soil in the first place.
  • The Napoleonic Wars: An Account by an English Officer - Paradox Interactive Forums 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

.The French continued to use this system throughout the Napoleonic wars.^ Headwears of French troops of the Napoleonic Wars.
  • Uniforms : Napoleonic Wars : French : Russian : Austrian : British : Prussian 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In particular the French artillery, whose teams of horses Napoleon had doubled up, using animals from the headquarters wagons, which remained safely in Dresden.
  • French Artillery: Artillerie fran�aise: Franz�sische Artillerie: Uniforms: Organization: Equipment 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Briffith writes, "It was the great artillery reformer Gribeauval who prepared the standardised equipment which was to serve the French so well in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
  • French Artillery: Artillerie fran�aise: Franz�sische Artillerie: Uniforms: Organization: Equipment 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Additionally, aerial surveillance came into use for the first time when the French used a hot-air balloon to survey Coalition positions before the Battle of Fleurus, on 26 June 1794. Advances in ordnance and rocketry also occurred in the course of the conflict.^ He took James and I into town and treated us to our first hot meal in days and paid for our lodgings out of his own pocket.
  • The Napoleonic Wars: An Account by an English Officer - Paradox Interactive Forums 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ The battle of Fleurus (26 June 1794) was the decisive battle in the two year long campaign in the Austrian Netherlands between the forces of revolutionary France and the powers of the First Coalition.
  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 88th Foot [Irish] next deployed into line, advancing all the time towards their opponents, who seemed to wait very coolly for them.
  • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

Last veterans

  • Geert Adriaans Boomgaard (1788–1899) was the last surviving veteran. .He fought for France in the 33ème Régiment Léger [18]
  • Louis Victor Baillot (1793–1898) also from France, was the last Battle of Waterloo veteran.^ The battle of Wattignies (15-16 October 1793) was a French victory that forced the Allies to lift the siege of Maubeuge, and removed the threat of an immediate Allied invasion of France.
    • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The battle of the Ourthe (18 September 1794) was the first of two battles that forced the Austrians to abandon their last foothold in the Austrian Netherlands and retreat behind the Rhine.
    • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Battle of Montmirail by Horace Vernet One of Napoleons last successes in France when he defeated the Russian General Sacken on 11th February 1814 at Montmirail near Paris.
    • Military Prints, Battle of Maida 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

    He also saw action at the siege of Hamburg.(See a 1898 photography)
  • Pedro Martinez (1789–1898) was the last Battle of Trafalgar veteran. He served in the Spanish navy on San Juan Nepomuceno.[18]
  • Josephine Mazurkewicz (1784–1896) was the last female veteran. .She was an assistant surgeon in Napoleon's army and later participated in the Crimean War.
  • Pvt Morris Shea (1795–1892) of the 73rd Foot was the last British veteran.^ Costello, pp 12-14 ) After the Napoleonic Wars was published an article about the punishment in the British army.
    • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Uniforms : Napoleonic Wars : French : Russian : Austrian : British : Prussian Uniforms of the Napoleonic Wars 1805 - 1815 "Uniform dress became the norm with the adoption of regimental systems, initially by the French army in the mid 17th century."
    • Uniforms : Napoleonic Wars : French : Russian : Austrian : British : Prussian 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A mailing list for anyone with a genealogical interest in the 74th Regiment of Foot, a British regiment of the American Revolutionary War.
    • Wars/Military Mailing Lists 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [19]
  • Sir Provo Wallis (1791–1892) was the last Royal Navy officer. He saw action on HMS Shannon during the War of 1812.

In fiction

.
  • Leo Tolstoy's epic novel, War and Peace recounts Napoleon's wars between 1805 and 1812 (especially the disastrous 1812 invasion of Russia and subsequent retreat) but from a Russian perspective.
  • Stendhal's novel The Charterhouse of Parma opens with a ground-level recounting of the Battle of Waterloo and the subsequent chaotic retreat of French forces.
  • Les Misérables by Victor Hugo takes place against the backdrop of the Napoleonic War and subsequent decades, and in its unabridged form contains an epic telling of the Battle of Waterloo.
  • William Makepeace Thackeray's novel Vanity Fair takes place during the Napoleonic Wars—one of its protagonists dies at the Battle of Waterloo.
  • The Temeraire series by Naomi Novik takes place in alternate-universe Napoleonic Wars where dragons exist and serve in combat.
  • The Lord Ramage series by Dudley Pope takes place during the Napoleonic Wars.
  • Charlotte Brontë's novel Shirley (1849), set during the Napoleonic Wars, explores some of the economic effects of war on rural Yorkshire.
  • The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas, père starts during the tail-end of the Napoleonic Wars.^ The Russian War of 1812 33 34.
    • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Russian War of 1812 (Borodino and the retreat from Moscow ).
    • Napoleonic Campaigns - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ During the evening of the battle of Waterloo.
    • Napoleonic War Art Prints Special Offers 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.military-art.com [Source type: General]

    .The main character, Edmond Dantès, suffers imprisonment following false accusations of Bonapartist leanings.
  • The novelist Jane Austen lived much of her life during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and two of her brothers served in the Royal Navy.^ During the Napoleonic Wars there were two types of the tall boots.
    • Uniforms : Napoleonic Wars : French : Russian : Austrian : British : Prussian 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Headwears of French troops of the Napoleonic Wars.
    • Uniforms : Napoleonic Wars : French : Russian : Austrian : British : Prussian 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Lieutenant of the Royal Navy commands marines and crew during a sea battle with the French during the battle of Cape St Vincent.
    • Military Prints, Battle of Maida 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

    .Austen almost never refers to specific dates or historical events in her novels, but wartime England forms part of the general backdrop to several of them: in Pride and Prejudice (1813, but possibly written during the 1790s), the local militia (civilian volunteers) has been called up for home defence and its officers play an important role in the plot; in Mansfield Park (1814), Fanny Price's brother William is a midshipman (officer in training) in the Royal Navy; and in Persuasion (1818), Frederic Wentworth and several other characters are naval officers recently returned from service.
  • Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's Brigadier Gerard serves as a French soldier during the Napoleonic Wars
  • Jeanette Winterson's 1987 novel The Passion (book)
  • Fyodor Dostoevsky's book The Idiot had a character, General Ivolgin, who witnessed and recounted his relationship with Napoleon during the Campaign of Russia.
  • The Bloody Jack book series by Louis A. Meyer is set during the Second Coalition of the Napoleonic Wars, and retells many famous battles of the age.^ Headwears of French troops of the Napoleonic Wars.
    • Uniforms : Napoleonic Wars : French : Russian : Austrian : British : Prussian 18 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Second Coalition (formed in 1798) .
    • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Leipzig Campaign : 1813-napoleon and the Battle of the Nations .

    The heroine, Jacky, soon meets none other than Bonaparte himself.
  • The Aubrey–Maturin series of novels is a sequence of 20 historical novels by Patrick O'Brian portraying the rise of Jack Aubrey from Lieutenant to Rear Admiral during the Napoleonic Wars.
  • The Sharpe series by Bernard Cornwell star the character Richard Sharpe, a soldier in the British Army, who fights throughout the Napoleonic Wars.
  • The Hornblower books by C.S. Forester follow the naval career of Horatio Hornblower during the Napoleonic Wars.
  • The Napoleonic Wars provide the backdrop for The Emperor, The Victory, The Regency and The Campaigners, Volumes 11, 12, 13 and 14 respectively of The Morland Dynasty, a series of historical novels by author Cynthia Harrod-Eagles.
  • The Richard Bolitho series by Alexander Kent novels portray this period of history from a naval perspective.
  • Dinah Dean's series of historical novels are set against the background of the Napoleonic Wars and are told from a Russian perspective - "The Road to Kaluga", "Flight From the Eagle", "The Eagle's Fate", "The Wheel of Fortune", "The Green Gallant" - follow a small group of soldiers (and their relatives) over months of campaigning from the fall of Moscow up to the liberation of Paris, the last 3 books - "The Ice King", "Tatya's Story", "The River of Time" - fall some years later but have the same cast of characters.
  • Bryan Talbot's graphic novel Grandville is set in an alternate history in which France won the Napoleonic War, invaded Britain and guillotined the British Royal Family.
  • Julian Stockwin's Thomas Kydd series portrays one man's journey from pressed man to Admiral in the time of the French and Napoleonic Wars

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Ferguson, Niall (2004). Empire, The rise and demise of the British world order and the lessons for global power. Basic Books. ISBN 0465023282. 
  2. ^ McLynn, Frank (1998). Napoleon. Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-6247-2, 215.
  3. ^ Buffinton, Arthur H. The Second Hundred Years' War, 1689–1815. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1929. See also: Crouzet, Francois. "The Second Hundred Years War: Some Reflections". French History 10 (1996), pp. 432–450. and Scott, H. M. Review: "The Second 'Hundred Years War' 1689–1815". The Historical Journal 35 (1992), pp. 443–469.
  4. ^ Kennedy, Paul, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers - economic change and military conflict from 1500 to 2000 (London 1989), pp. 128-9
  5. ^ "Napoleon I - MSN Encarta". Napoleon I - MSN Encarta. Encarta.msn.com. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761566988/napoleon_i.html. Retrieved 15 January 2009. 
  6. ^ The Geopolitics of Anglo-Irish Relations in the Twentieth Century P103
  7. ^ National Maritime Museum
  8. ^ Letter at the time
  9. ^ Riehn, Richard K. pp. 138–140
  10. ^ Reihn, Richard K, p.185
  11. ^ Riehn, pp. 253–254.
  12. ^ With Napoleon in Russia, The Memoirs of General Coulaincourt, Chapter VI 'The Fire' pp. 109–107 Pub. William Morrow and Co 1945
  13. ^ The Wordsworth Pocket Encyclopedia, page 17, Hertfordshire 1993
  14. ^ Hofschroer, pp. 171-191
  15. ^ Hofschroer, pp. 255-257
  16. ^ Hofschroer, pp 325-330
  17. ^ "Napoleon's Total War". HistoryNet.com. http://www.historynet.com/wars_conflicts/napoleonic_wars/6361907.html. Retrieved 18 November 2008. 
  18. ^ a b "Derniers vétérans de l'Armée napoléonienne, Premier Empire". Derniersveterans.free.fr. http://derniersveterans.free.fr/napoleon1.html. Retrieved 15 January 2009. 
  19. ^ "Photos of Napoleonic War Veterans in Wars in History Channel". Boards.historychannel.com. 31 May 2008. http://boards.historychannel.com/thread.jspa?threadID=520002112. Retrieved 15 January 2009. 

References

  • Asprey, Robert (2000). The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-04879-X. 
  • Blanning, T. C. W. (2002). The Culture of Power and the Power of Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198227450. 
  • Cronin, Vincent (1994). Napoleon. HarperCollins. ISBN 0006375219. 
  • Pope, Stephen (1999). .The Cassel Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars.^ Chandler - "Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars" p 90 ) .
    • French Artillery: Artillerie fran�aise: Franz�sische Artillerie: Uniforms: Organization: Equipment 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Cassel. ISBN 0-304-35229-2.
     
  • Schom, Alan (1998). Napoleon Bonaparte: A Life. Perennial. ISBN 0-06-092958-8. 
  • Tombs, Robert and Isabelle (2006). That Sweet Enemy. William Heinemann. ISBN 978-1-4000-4024-7. 
  • Zamoyski, Adam (2004). .Moscow 1812: Napoleon's Fatal March.^ Austin - "1812: The March on Moscow" p 31 ) British prime minister Pitt announced on 31 January 1793 that Britain was involved in a 'war of extermination' with France.
    • British army and infantry : Napoleonic Wars : Uniforms : Tactics : Organization 2 February 2010 16:25 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sergeant Bourgogne - With Napoleon's Imperial Guard in the Russian Campaign and on the Retreat from Moscow 1812 - 13 .

    HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-718489-1.
     

External links

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Simple English

[[File:|right|thumb|200px|Napoléon Bonaparte]] The Napoleonic Wars are wars that people fought during the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte over France. They started after the French Revolution ended and Napoleon Bonaparte became powerful in France in November 1799. War began between the United Kingdom and France in 1803. This happened when the Treaty of Amiens ended in 1802.

These wars changed European armies and artillery. They also changed military systems. They were very big and destructive, mainly because of conscription. The French became powerful very fast, and conquered most of Europe. The French then lost quickly. They invaded Russia, which failed. The Napoleonic Wars ended on 20 November 1815. This was just after the Battle of Waterloo, a big battle that Napoleon lost, and the Second Treaty of Paris in 1815. Napoleon's empire lost the wars. The Bourbon Dynasty ruled France again.

Some people call all the time between April 20 1792 and November 20 1815 "the Great French War". On one side was the First Empire of France, Kingdom of Italy, and others. On the other side was Great Britain, Prussia, Austria, Russia, Sweden, Portugal, Spain, Sicily, and others.

Contents

1805-1812: Napoleonic Conquest of Europe

On 18 May 1804, Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned Emperor of the French at Notre-Dame. The following year, the Third Coalition started. In respond, Napoleon crowned himself King of Italy. The Austrian Emperor, Franz I, was thrown into a rage and declared war on Napoleon, beginning the War of the Third Coalition. Although the British destroyed the French navy at the Battle of Trafalgar, in December, the Austrians and the Russians allied and met with the French at the Battle of Austerlitz. The Russo-Austrian army suffered a devastating defeat and had to sign a treaty with Napoleon. In 1806, the War of the Fourth Coalition started. The Kingdom of Prussia declared war on France first but was crushed by Napoleon's troops at the Battle of Jena. Napoleon captured Berlin before the Russians could help. In 1807, Napoleon defeated the Russian army at the Battle of Ferdinand, ending the Fourth Coalition. In 1809, the War of the Fifth Coalition began when Austria declared war on Napoleon. In the early phases of the war, the Austrians had advantage of the war, but later the French captured Vienna, ending the Fifth Coalition. At the height of his power in 1810, Napoleon had controlled France, Spain, northern Italy, Germany, all the way to Russia. In 1808, the Pennisular War, began when Napoleon crowned his brother Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain and invaded English, Spanish, and Portugese troops. In 1809, the Finnish War began between Russia and Sweden when Sweden and Portugal did not make peace with France. This led to the annexation of Finland by Russia and decisive failure for Sweden. In 1811, France and Russia made disagreements again and Napoleon allied with Prussia and Austria and invaded Russia.

1812: Invasion of Russia

Napoleon staged a French invasion of Russia in 1812 just when the United States and England started the War of 1812. He quickly captured the cities on his way and finally occupied and burned the Russian capital, Moscow. However, he found Moscow to be a city with no people because the Russian general Kutuzov had taken all the Russians out of Moscow. Now that it was winter, Napoleon's [[Grande Armee]] were freezing to death and had to retreat to Paris but was defeated by the Russians. Prussia and Austria later declared war after Napoleon's failure, beginning the War of the Sixth Coalition. In the latter 19th century, Leo Tolstoy's novel War and Peace and Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's music piece 1812 Overture celebrated the invasion of Russia.

1813-1814: Battle of Leipzig and First Restoration

The English, Spanish, and Portugese had pushed Napoleon's forces out of Spain following the Battle of Viotoria. The Allies (consisting of Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria) defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig and captured Paris in 1814. The brother of the formerly-executed Louis XVI and self-proclaimed French king, Louis XVIII, was sent by the Prussian forces to Paris and crowned Bourbon king. Napoleon was forced to abdicate.

1815: Battle of Waterloo and Hundred Days

Napoleon was later exiled to Elba and was nearly assassinated. But then he and 200 other men escaped back to Paris and forced Louis XVIII off the throne, beginning Hundred Days. The former Coalition members formed the Seventh Coalition and the Duke of Wellington of Great Britain defeated Napoleon again at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. Louis XVIII was returned to the throne again, and the Second Restoration began.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

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