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Narcolepsy
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 G47.4
ICD-9 347
OMIM 161400
DiseasesDB 8801
eMedicine neuro/522
MeSH D009290
.Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder, or dyssomnia.^ Narcolepsy is a neurological sleep disorder.

^ I have a neurological sleep disorder called Narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy | LIVESTRONG.COM 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder.
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

.The condition is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in which a person experiences extreme fatigue and possibly falls asleep at inappropriate times, such as while at work or at school.^ Excessive daytime sleepiness.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • OhioHealth - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tough time falling asleep?
  • Narcolepsy Forum - Topix 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

^ Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS).
  • Narcolepsy Pharmacotherapy | September 2006 | Sleep Review 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.sleepreviewmag.com [Source type: Academic]

.A narcoleptic will most likely experience disturbed nocturnal sleep and also abnormal daytime sleep pattern, which is often confused with insomnia.^ A narcoleptic will most likely experience disturbed nocturnal sleep, confused with insomnia , and disorder of REM or rapid eye movement sleep.

^ This is most often from An excess of sleep.

^ Normal teenagers often already experience excessive daytime sleepiness because of a maturational increase in physiological sleep tendency accentuated by multiple educational and social pressures; this may be disabling with the addition of narcolepsy symptoms in susceptible teenagers.

.When a person with narcolepsy falls asleep they will generally experience the REM stage of sleep within 10 minutes; whereas most people do not experience REM sleep until after 30 minutes.^ People suffering from narcolepsy fall into REM before NREM sleep and they may be either asleep or awake.
  • Natural Remedies for the Treatment of Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People with narcolepsy fall asleep without warning, anywhere and at any time.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But, people with narcolepsy frequently enter REM sleep within a few minutes of falling asleep.

.Cataplexy, a sudden muscular weakness brought on by strong emotions (though many people experience cataplexy without having an emotional trigger[citation needed]), is known to be one of the other problems that some narcoleptics will experience.^ Temporary and sudden muscle weakness (called cataplexy ), usually brought on by strong emotions.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ CATAPLEXY A sudden muscular weakness that can afflict some narcoleptics.
  • narcolepsy, MSLT, sleep apnea, wakefulness test, obstructive sleep apnea, polysomnogram, sleep lab, sleep test, REM, Stage 1 sleep, EEG, insomnia, cataplexy, sleepiness, sleep walking, daytime sleepiness, Provigil, Modanfinil, GBH, hypoxemia, date rape dr 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.lakesidepress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cataplexy: a sudden, partial, or complete loss of voluntary muscle tone in response to strong emotion.
  • Narcolepsy Pharmacotherapy | September 2006 | Sleep Review 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.sleepreviewmag.com [Source type: Academic]

.Often manifesting as muscular weaknesses ranging from a barely perceptible slackening of the facial muscles to the dropping of the jaw or head, weakness at the knees, or a total collapse.^ The loss of muscle tone can be barely perceptible, involving no more than a momentary sense of slight weakness in a limited number of muscles, such as mild drooping of the eyelids.

^ Cataplexy can manifest as: Arm weakness Sagging jaw Drooping head Slumping of the shoulders Slurred speech Generalized weakness Knee buckling Cataplexy of Narcolepsy -- Videos from You Tube: Child with cataplexy Adolescent with cataplexy Woman with cataplexy .
  • narcolepsy, MSLT, sleep apnea, wakefulness test, obstructive sleep apnea, polysomnogram, sleep lab, sleep test, REM, Stage 1 sleep, EEG, insomnia, cataplexy, sleepiness, sleep walking, daytime sleepiness, Provigil, Modanfinil, GBH, hypoxemia, date rape dr 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.lakesidepress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This condition, called cataplexy, can cause a range of physical changes, from slurred speech to complete weakness of most muscles, and may last for a few seconds to a few minutes.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • OhioHealth - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Usually only speech is slurred, vision is impaired (double vision, inability to focus), but hearing and awareness remain normal.^ During attacks people are not unconscious: hearing and awareness remain intact.
  • narcolepsy, MSLT, sleep apnea, wakefulness test, obstructive sleep apnea, polysomnogram, sleep lab, sleep test, REM, Stage 1 sleep, EEG, insomnia, cataplexy, sleepiness, sleep walking, daytime sleepiness, Provigil, Modanfinil, GBH, hypoxemia, date rape dr 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.lakesidepress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some rare cases, an individual's body becomes paralyzed and muscles will become stiff.^ In rare cases, some people may remain asleep for an hour or longer.

The term narcolepsy derives from the French word narcolepsie created by the French physician Jean-Baptiste-Édouard Gélineau by combining the Greek narke numbness, stupor and lepsis attack, seizure. [1]

Contents

Symptoms

.The main characteristic of narcolepsy is excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), even after adequate night time sleep.^ Excessive daytime sleepiness.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • OhioHealth - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major symptom of narcolepsy is excessive daytime sleepiness accompanied by sleep attacks.
  • Narcolepsy - Medpedia 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive daytime sleep and cataplexy.
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

.A person with narcolepsy is likely to become drowsy or fall asleep or just be very tired throughout the day, often at inappropriate times and places.^ I will most definitely fall asleep at any place and time if it is warm and quiet.
  • Narcolepsy - A Sleep Disorder 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC cataplexic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tough time falling asleep?
  • Narcolepsy Forum - Topix 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]
  • Narcolepsy Forum - Topix 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

^ People with narcolepsy fall asleep without warning, anywhere and at any time.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • OhioHealth - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.Daytime naps may occur with little warning and may be physically irresistible.^ Daytime naps may occur with or without warning and may be physically irresistible.

^ The other symptoms may begin alone or in combination months or years after the onset of the daytime naps.

^ While cognitive impairment does occur, it may only be a reflection of the excessive daytime somnolence.

.These naps can occur several times a day.^ Such naps can occur several times a day.
  • Narcolepsy: Information, Symptoms and Causes 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.soundsleeping.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This can happen several times a day.
  • Pillwatch.com : Some General Facts about Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.pillwatch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nap at the same time every day.
  • Narcolepsy | Causes, Symptoms, Treatment | PDRHealth 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.pdrhealth.com [Source type: General]

.They are typically refreshing, but only for a few hours.^ They are typically refreshing, but only for a few hours.

^ Patients may sleep for a few minutes, particularly if they are in an awkward position or for a few hours if they are lying down.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ You may sleep for just a few minutes or up to a half-hour before awakening and feeling refreshed, but then you fall asleep again.
  • OhioHealth - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Drowsiness may persist for prolonged periods of time.^ Drowsiness in people suffering from Narcolepsy may persist for prolonged periods of time.
  • Narcolepsy: Information, Symptoms and Causes 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.soundsleeping.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Drowsiness may persist for prolonged periods of time.
  • Narcolepsy Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Symptoms of Narcolepsy - WrongDiagnosis.com 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Article: Narcolepsy: NWHIC - CureResearch.com 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cureresearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.planetpsych.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy� Symptoms Causes Effects Treatment 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC peoples-health.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy | Find Me A Cure 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Welcome to Medceu 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.medceu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Facts About Narcolepsy - Frequently Asked Questions 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.talkaboutsleep.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy Clinical Trials 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy Information 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.disabled-world.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health-net - Narcolepsy - www.999.com.my 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.999.com.my [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sleep Disorders 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.sleep-disorders.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy and Symptoms 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.improve-your-sleep.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ANU - Disability Services Unit - DRSS 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.anu.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attacks of drowsiness may persist only a few minutes or last for hours, and may vary in frequency from a few incidents to several during a single day.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC neurology.health-cares.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Evansville,IN Narcolepsy; Narcolepsy is a rare disorder characterized by ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.stmarys.org [Source type: Academic]
  • CIGNA - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Health.com 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.health.com [Source type: News]
  • MyHealtheVet - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.healthwise.net [Source type: Academic]

.In addition, night time sleep may be fragmented with frequent awakenings.^ In addition, night-time sleep may be fragmented with frequent awakenings.

^ In the meantime I asked her to keep a detailed sleep diary, recording both night time sleep (time to bed, time awake) and any daytime naps, intended or not.
  • narcolepsy, MSLT, sleep apnea, wakefulness test, obstructive sleep apnea, polysomnogram, sleep lab, sleep test, REM, Stage 1 sleep, EEG, insomnia, cataplexy, sleepiness, sleep walking, daytime sleepiness, Provigil, Modanfinil, GBH, hypoxemia, date rape dr 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.lakesidepress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (A person may also suffer sleep apnea and narcolepsy at the same time.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

.Four other classic symptoms of the disorder, often referred to as the "tetrad of narcolepsy," are cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and automatic behavior.^ Doctors often prescribe antidepressant medications, which suppress REM sleep, to help alleviate the symptoms of cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • OhioHealth - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other characteristics Other signs and symptoms of narcolepsy include restless nighttime sleep and occasional automatic behavior.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • OhioHealth - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have a neurological sleep disorder called Narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy | LIVESTRONG.COM 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

[2]. .These symptoms may not occur in all patients.^ A modulating effect of HLA and non-HLA genes on symptoms disease may explain these differences."
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Some, but not all, patients experience other symptoms: .
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Narcolepsy may be more common in men than women and occurs in all racial and ethnic groups.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cataplexy is an episodic condition featuring loss of muscle function, ranging from slight weakness (such as limpness at the neck or knees, sagging facial muscles, or inability to speak clearly) to complete body collapse.^ Cataplexy is an episodic condition featuring loss of muscle function, ranging from slight weakness (such as limpness at the neck or knees, sagging facial muscles, or inability to speak clearly) to complete body collapse.

^ Cataplexy can manifest as: Arm weakness Sagging jaw Drooping head Slumping of the shoulders Slurred speech Generalized weakness Knee buckling Cataplexy of Narcolepsy -- Videos from You Tube: Child with cataplexy Adolescent with cataplexy Woman with cataplexy .
  • narcolepsy, MSLT, sleep apnea, wakefulness test, obstructive sleep apnea, polysomnogram, sleep lab, sleep test, REM, Stage 1 sleep, EEG, insomnia, cataplexy, sleepiness, sleep walking, daytime sleepiness, Provigil, Modanfinil, GBH, hypoxemia, date rape dr 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.lakesidepress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This condition, called cataplexy, can cause a range of physical changes, from slurred speech to complete weakness of most muscles, and may last for a few seconds to a few minutes.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • OhioHealth - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Episodes may be triggered by sudden emotional reactions such as laughter, anger, surprise, or fear, and may last from a few seconds to several minutes.^ Attacks can last from a few seconds to 10 minutes.
  • The Horse | Equine Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.thehorse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The attack may last for a few seconds to a few minutes.

^ Cataplexy is triggered by emotions like extreme anger or even laughter.
  • Narcolepsy - Medical Look 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.medical-look.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The person remains conscious throughout the episode.^ The person remains conscious throughout the episode.
  • Minnesota Sleep Institute 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.minnsleep.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy� Symptoms Causes Effects Treatment 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC peoples-health.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy | Find Me A Cure 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Welcome to Medceu 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.medceu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Facts About Narcolepsy - Frequently Asked Questions 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.talkaboutsleep.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy Clinical Trials 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Health-net - Narcolepsy - www.999.com.my 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.999.com.my [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sleep Disorders 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.sleep-disorders.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy and Symptoms 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.improve-your-sleep.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The person is conscious throughout the episode just unable to move.
  • Narcolepsy - Medical Look 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.medical-look.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cataplexy This is the sudden, temporary loss of muscle tone, which causes paralysis of the head or body while the person remains conscious.
  • Narcolepsy - Narcolepsy Description - Narcolepsy Symptoms - Narcolepsy Prevention - Narcolepsy Treatment 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC symptomchecker.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some cases, cataplexy may resemble epileptic seizures.^ In some cases, their behavior may resemble some forms of epileptic seizures.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some experts believe, however, that some patients with narcolepsy may experience hypnagogic hallucinations and daytime sleepiness and not cataplexy.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In some cases, the patient may need to consult a sleep specialist or go to an accredited sleep disorder center for accurate diagnosis of a sleep disorder.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

[3] .Sleep paralysis is the temporary inability to talk or move when waking (or less often, when falling asleep).^ Sleep paralysis and vivid dreams can occur while falling asleep or waking up.

^ Sleep paralysis (an inability to move on first awakening).
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ People with narcolepsy often experience a temporary inability to move or speak while falling asleep or upon waking.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It may last a few seconds to minutes.^ It may last a few seconds to minutes.

^ Episodes may be triggered by sudden emotional reactions such as laughter, anger, surprise, or fear, and may last from a few seconds to several minutes.

^ This condition, called cataplexy, can cause a range of physical changes, from slurred speech to complete weakness of most muscles, and may last for a few seconds to a few minutes.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is often frightening but is not dangerous.^ This is often frightening but is not dangerous.

.Hypnagogic hallucinations are vivid, often frightening, dreamlike experiences that occur while dozing, falling asleep and/or while awakening.^ Hallucinations: Hallucinations are referred to as hypnagogic hallucinations and are described as vivid dreamlike experiences occurring while falling asleep or upon awakening.
  • Natural Remedies for the Treatment of Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hypnagogic hallucinations are vivid, often frightening, dream-like experiences that occur while dozing, falling asleep and/or while awakening.

^ Sleep paralysis: Paralysis occurs upon falling asleep or awakening.
  • Natural Remedies for the Treatment of Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Automatic behavior means that a person continues to function (talking, putting things away, etc.^ Automatic behavior means that a person continues to function (talking, putting things away, etc.

^ During episodes of automatic behavior, you continue to function during sleep episodes — even talking and putting things away, for example — but you awaken with no memory of performing such activities, and you generally don't perform these tasks well.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Automatic Behavior: During sleep episodes, a person suffering from narcolepsy will perform functions and activities such as talking, walking or putting things away without being aware that he or she is actually doing them.
  • Natural Remedies for the Treatment of Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) during sleep episodes, but awakens with no memory of performing such activities. .It is estimated that up to 40 percent of people with narcolepsy experience automatic behavior during sleep episodes.^ About 70 percent of people with narcolepsy experience cataplexy.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • OhioHealth - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As many as 40 percent of people with narcolepsy experience automatic behavior.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • OhioHealth - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is estimated that up to 40 percent of people with narcolepsy experience automatic behavior during sleep episodes.

.Sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations also occur in people who do not have narcolepsy, but more frequently in people who are suffering from extreme lack of sleep.^ Sleep paralysis was elicited in 45%; hypnagogic hallucinations, in 61%.
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Not everyone with sleep paralysis has narcolepsy, however.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Re: can narcolepsy be acquired from lack of sleep?
  • Sleepnet.com's Narcolepsy Forum1 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.sleepnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cataplexy is generally considered to be unique to narcolepsy and is analogous to sleep paralysis in that the usually protective paralysis mechanism occurring during sleep is inappropriately activated.^ Not everyone with sleep paralysis has narcolepsy, however.
  • OhioHealth - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cataplexy is generally considered to be unique to narcolepsy.

^ Narcolepsy sleep paralysis usually occurs at the onset of sleep and is chronic.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

.The opposite of this situation (failure to activate this protective paralysis) occurs in rapid eye movement behavior disorder.^ OBJECTIVE: Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, and features of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, such as cataplexy, sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations.
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ People who have narcolepsy fall asleep easily and enter into rapid eye movement (REM) sleep quickly.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This sleep paralysis mimics the type of temporary paralysis that normally occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the period of sleep during which most dreaming occurs.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In most cases, the first symptom of narcolepsy to appear is excessive and overwhelming daytime sleepiness.^ The major symptom of narcolepsy is excessive daytime sleepiness with sleep attacks.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Difficulty Staying Awake: Narcolepsy | Womens Health Base 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Causes of excessive daytime sleepiness .
  • Sleep Disoders: Narcolepsy, Apnea and Provigil 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.provigilweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder resulting in excessive daytime sleepiness.

.The other symptoms may begin alone or in combination months or years after the onset of the daytime naps.^ After several months or years, cataplexy and other symptoms of the disorder appear.
  • Narcolepsy - causes, person, people, used, medication, brain, theory, Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Demographics, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.minddisorders.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Narcolepsy may have disruptive daytime symptoms .
  • Narcolepsy - www.Sensational.com Sleep 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.sensational.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other symptoms may begin alone or in combination months or years after the onset of the daytime naps.
  • Narcolepsy� Symptoms Causes Effects Treatment 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC peoples-health.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy | Find Me A Cure 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy Clinical Trials 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Health-net - Narcolepsy - www.999.com.my 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.999.com.my [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are wide variations in the development, severity, and order of appearance of cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations in individuals.^ Xyrem, that is sodium oxybate, controls cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hallucinations.
  • Buy Narcolepsy Medications Online Now! 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.pharmacyescrow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the development and the severity of symptoms are very variable in different individuals.
  • Narcolepsy - A Guide 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC kharm.faithweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These medicines also help prevent cataplexy, hallucinations, and sleep paralysis.

.Only about 20 to 25 percent of people with narcolepsy experience all four symptoms.^ Narcolepsy has four classic symptoms: • cataplexy.
  • Diseases and Conditions Encyclopedia : Discovery Health 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC health.discovery.com [Source type: General]

^ Narcolepsy affects about 1 in 2000 people.
  • Ask an Expert: Narcolepsy and basal ganglia infarction 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.netwellness.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All people with narcolepsy have EDS. This is usually the first symptom of the condition.

.The excessive daytime sleepiness generally persists throughout life, but sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations may not.^ Excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden sleep onset are the hallmarks of narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy - Overview - sleepdisorderchannel 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.sleepdisorderchannel.com [Source type: General]
  • HerbChina2000.com - Herbal Remedies - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.herbchina2000.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sleepiness occurs in spite of a full night's sleep and may persist throughout the day.
  • Narcolepsy and Sleep | National Sleep Foundation - Information on Sleep Health and Safety 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.sleepfoundation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major symptom of narcolepsy is excessive daytime sleepiness with sleep attacks.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although these are the common symptoms of narcolepsy, many people with narcolepsy also suffer from insomnia for extended periods of time.^ Although these are the common symptoms of narcolepsy, many (although less than 40% of people with narcolepsy) also suffer from insomnia for extended periods of time.

^ People suffering from narcolepsy fall into REM before NREM sleep and they may be either asleep or awake.
  • Natural Remedies for the Treatment of Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People with mild narcolepsy symptoms who do not need medication may be able to maintain alertness with sleep scheduling.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

.The symptoms of narcolepsy, especially the excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, often become severe enough to cause serious problems in a person's social, personal, and professional life.^ Symptoms of excessive daytime sleepiness are often present for years before symptoms of cataplexy develop.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Narcolepsy — Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, causes, treatment of overwhelming daytime sleepiness.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive daytime sleep and cataplexy.
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

.Normally, when an individual is awake, brain waves show a regular rhythm.^ Normally, when an individual is awake, brain waves show a regular rhythm.

^ When a person first falls asleep, the brain waves become slower and less regular.

^ After about an hour and a half of NREM sleep, the brain waves begin to show a more active pattern again.

.When a person first falls asleep, the brain waves become slower and less regular.^ When a person first falls asleep, the brain waves become slower and less regular.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC sleep.emedtv.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Article: Narcolepsy: NWHIC - CureResearch.com 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cureresearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.planetpsych.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC neurology.health-cares.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy� Symptoms Causes Effects Treatment 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC peoples-health.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy | Find Me A Cure 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Welcome to Medceu 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.medceu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Facts About Narcolepsy - Frequently Asked Questions 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.talkaboutsleep.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy Clinical Trials 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Health-net - Narcolepsy - www.999.com.my 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.999.com.my [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sleep Disorders 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.sleep-disorders.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When you first fall asleep, those brain waves become slower and less regular.

^ Ssometimes the head drops and the jaw goes slack and, in severe cases, the person may fall down and become completely paralyzed for a short time.
  • Narcolepsy is still a (z-z-z-z-z-z) mystery - GreenwichTime 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.greenwichtime.com [Source type: General]
  • Narcolepsy is still a (z-z-z-z-z-z) mystery - NewsTimes 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.newstimes.com [Source type: General]

.This sleep state is called non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep.^ There are two main types of sleep: rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep.
  • Natural Remedies for the Treatment of Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Normal sleep pattern vs. The normal process of falling asleep begins with a phase called non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This sleep state is called non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep.

.After about an hour and a half of NREM sleep, the brain waves begin to show a more active pattern again.^ After about an hour and a half of NREM sleep, the brain waves begin to show a more active pattern again.

^ Patients take the first dose at the beginning of the night of sleep and the second 3 to 4 hours later when they awake either spontaneously or with the help of an alarm clock.
  • Narcolepsy Pharmacotherapy | September 2006 | Sleep Review 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.sleepreviewmag.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Normally, when an individual is awake, brain waves show a regular rhythm.

.This sleep state, called REM sleep (rapid eye movement sleep), is when most remembered dreaming occurs.^ REM sleep is the active, dreaming phase of sleep.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This sleep state is called non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep.

^ This sleep state, called rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, is when most remembered dreaming occurs.

.Associated with the EEG-observed waves during REM sleep, muscle atonia is present (called REM atonia).^ Patients can show nocturnal sleep disruption, insomnia, nightmares, REM behavior disorder, periodic limb movements during sleep, and automatic (absent-minded) behavior.
  • Narcolepsy Pharmacotherapy | September 2006 | Sleep Review 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.sleepreviewmag.com [Source type: Academic]

^ During normal REM sleep, spinal and brainstem alpha motor neuron depolarization produces almost complete atonia of skeletal muscles via an inhibitory descending reticulospinal pathway.

^ In fact, except for vital organs like lungs and heart, the only muscles not paralyzed during REM are the eye muscles.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

.In narcolepsy, the order and length of NREM and REM sleep periods are disturbed, with REM sleep occurring at sleep onset instead of after a period of NREM sleep.^ Disturbed nighttime sleep frequently occurs in people with narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy | The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.chop.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Disturbed nighttime sleep frequently occurs in children and adolescents with narcolepsy.
  • KIDZZZSLEEP - Narcolepsy Insomnia 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.kidzzzsleep.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you have narcolepsy, you do not have NREM sleep.

.Thus, narcolepsy is a disorder in which REM sleep appears at an abnormal time.^ REM sleep behavior disorder is rare.
  • Sleep Disorders - Types & Symptoms - neurologychannel 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurologychannel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder that causes excessive...
  • DC Health - Narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder that causes excessive... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.whcenter.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Narcolepsy is a disorder of the control of sleep, particularly REM sleep.

.Also, some of the aspects of REM sleep that normally occur only during sleep — lack of muscular control, sleep paralysis, and vivid dreams — occur at other times in people with narcolepsy.^ Sleep paralysis and vivid dreams can occur while falling asleep or waking up.

^ Thus, narcolepsy is a disorder in which REM sleep appears at an abnormal time.

^ REM sleep is the active, dreaming phase of sleep.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

.For example, the lack of muscular control can occur during wakefulness in a cataplexy episode; it is said that there is intrusion of REM atonia during wakefulness.^ Most dreaming occurs during REM sleep.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A sense of paralysis that occurs between wakefulness and sleep (called atonia ).
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Microsleep episodes, in which the patient behaves automatically but without conscious awareness A sense of paralysis that occurs between wakefulness and sleep (called atonia ) Dreamlike states between waking and sleeping (called hypnagogic hallucinations ) Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is abnormal in narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

.Sleep paralysis and vivid dreams can occur while falling asleep or waking up.^ Another symptom of narcolepsy is hallucinations (dreaming while falling asleep or waking up).
  • Narcolepsy - New York Presbyterian Hospital 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC nyp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy | Health Library | Weill Cornell Physicians | Advancing Science. Enhancing Life. 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.weillcornell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy - Weill Cornell Department of Surgery 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cornellsurgery.org [Source type: General]

^ Sleep paralysis is an ability to move on falling asleep or awakening.
  • Narcolepsy - A Guide 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC kharm.faithweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is called cataplexy, and it is similar to the paralysis that occurs during dream sleep.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Difficulty Staying Awake: Narcolepsy | Womens Health Base 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Simply put, the brain does not pass through the normal stages of dozing and deep sleep but goes directly into (and out of) rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.^ This sleep state is called non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep.

^ REM (rapid eye movement) sleep is abnormal in narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Simply put, the brain does not pass through the normal stages of dozing and deep sleep but goes directly into (and out of) rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.

This has several consequences. .Night time sleep does not include as much deep sleep, so the brain tries to "catch up" during the day, hence EDS. People with narcolepsy may visibly fall asleep at unpredicted moments (such motions as head bobbing are common).^ In addition, night-time sleep may be fragmented with frequent awakenings.

^ (A person may also suffer sleep apnea and narcolepsy at the same time.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ People with narcolepsy fall asleep without warning, anywhere and at any time.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.People with narcolepsy fall quickly into what appears to be very deep sleep, and they wake up suddenly and can be disoriented when they do (dizziness is a common occurrence).^ This has several consequences: Nighttime sleep does not include much deep sleep, so the brain tries to "catch up" during the day, hence EDS May visibly fall asleep at any moment (such motions as head bobbing are common) People with narcolepsy fall quickly into what appears to be very deep sleep They wake up suddenly and can be disoriented when they do (dizziness is a common occurrence) They have very vivid dreams, which they often remember People with narcolepsy may dream even when they only fall asleep for a few seconds.

^ The signs and symptoms of narcolepsy can begin anytime up to your 50s, but they most commonly begin between the ages of 10 and 25.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People suffering from narcolepsy fall into REM before NREM sleep and they may be either asleep or awake.
  • Natural Remedies for the Treatment of Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They have very vivid dreams, which they often remember in great detail.^ Because you may be semiawake when you begin dreaming, you experience your dreams as reality, and they may be particularly vivid and frightening.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The vivid dreams have caused an insecurity due to realizing later in the day that something I remember was only in last night’s dream, not reality.
  • The Voices of Narcolepsy - Well Blog - NYTimes.com 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC well.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Hypnagogic hallucinations are vivid, often frightening, dream-like experiences that occur while dozing, falling asleep and/or while awakening.

.People with narcolepsy may dream even when they only fall asleep for a few seconds.^ People with narcolepsy fall asleep without warning, anywhere and at any time.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People who are drowsy may fall asleep in inappropriate...
  • Narcolepsy | LIVESTRONG.COM 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ It may last a few seconds to minutes.

Causes

A depiction of the neuropeptide Orexin A. People with narcolepsy often have a reduced number of neurons that produce this protein.
.Although the cause of narcolepsy was not determined for many years after its discovery, scientists had discovered conditions that seemed to be associated with an increase in an individual's risk of having the disorder.^ Causes: Narcolepsy is a neurological sleep disorder.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The study’s research team seem to have identified an autoantibody associated with narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Narcolepsy can easily be mistaken for epilepsy, a group of disorders that cause seizures.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

.Specifically, there appeared to be a strong link between narcoleptic individuals and certain genetic conditions.^ Specifically, there appears to be a strong link between narcoleptic individuals and certain genetic conditions.

^ There appears to be a correlation between narcoleptic individuals and certain variations in HLA genes, although it is not required for the condition to occur.

^ Researchers are looking for specific genetic mutations that may make individuals susceptible to this disorder.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

.One factor that seemed to predispose an individual to narcolepsy involved an area of Chromosome 6 known as the HLA complex.^ Narcolepsy is a complex disorder involving genetic, immune and environmental factors.
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ One factor that may predispose an individual to narcolepsy involves an area of Chromosome 6 known as the HLA complex.

^ A genetic factor strongly associated with the disorder has been found in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II region: the haplotype, DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602, predisposes to narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

[4] .There appeared to be a correlation between narcoleptic individuals and certain variations in HLA genes, although it was not required for the condition to occur.^ There appears to be a correlation between narcoleptic individuals and certain variations in HLA genes, although it is not required for the condition to occur.

^ Specifically, there appears to be a strong link between narcoleptic individuals and certain genetic conditions.

^ This indicates that HLA alone makes a relatively small contribution to the development of narcolepsy and that a non-HLA gene(s) can contribute to the genetic predisposition even in narcoleptic cases with HLA association.
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

.Certain variations in the HLA complex were thought to increase the risk of an auto-immune response to protein-producing neurons in the brain.^ Certain variations in the HLA complex are thought to increase the risk of an auto-immune response to protein producing neurons in the brain.

^ Research continues to focus on whether an abnormal gene may be responsible for narcolepsy or if the body's immune system may be involved in mistakenly attacking hypocretin-producing cells in the brain.
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In TG rats, CSF HCRT-1 levels significantly increased in response to 6 h of prolonged waking, indicating that the remaining HCRT neurons can be stimulated to release more neuropeptide.
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

.The protein produced, called hypocretin or orexin, is responsible for controlling appetite and sleep patterns.^ Mignot E. Sleep, sleep disorders and hypocretin (orexin).
  • CIGNA - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These proteins control appetite and sleep patterns.

^ What are these so-called hypocretin (orexin) molecules?
  • FAQs - Center for Narcolepsy - Stanford University School of Medicine 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC med.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

[5] .Individuals with narcolepsy often have reduced numbers of these protein-producing neurons in their brains.^ Individuals with Narcolepsy often have reduced numbers of these protein producing neurons in their brains.
  • Narcolepsy: Information, Symptoms and Causes 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.soundsleeping.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Individuals with narcolepsy often have reduced numbers of these protein-producing neurons in their brains.
  • Narcolepsy | Find Me A Cure 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy Clinical Trials 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Health-net - Narcolepsy - www.999.com.my 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.999.com.my [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Individuals with narcolepsy have a decreased number of these protein producing neurons in their brains.

[5] .In 2009 the autoimmune hypothesis was supported by research carried out at Stanford University School of Medicine.^ Center for Narcolepsy - Excellent site from Stanford University...the leader in narcolepsy research and information.
  • Narcolepsy - A Sleep Disorder 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC cataplexic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Medicines - Information from the Stanford University on different medicines used in the treatment of narcolepsy/cataplexy.
  • Narcolepsy - A Sleep Disorder 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC cataplexic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Research - A link to Stanford University's Narcolepsy Research page.
  • Narcolepsy - A Sleep Disorder 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC cataplexic.com [Source type: Original source]

[6][7]
.The neural control of normal sleep states and the relationship to narcolepsy are only partially understood.^ Patients with narcolepsy do not sleep more than normal controls.

^ That is, narcolepsy patients sleep a normal amount but cannot control the timing of sleep.
  • Narcolepsy and Sleep | National Sleep Foundation - Information on Sleep Health and Safety 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.sleepfoundation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The neural control of normal sleep states and the relationship to narcolepsy are only partially understood.
  • Narcolepsy | Find Me A Cure 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy Clinical Trials 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Health-net - Narcolepsy - www.999.com.my 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.999.com.my [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sleep Disorder - Narcolepsy Cause 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC sleepdisordertips.com [Source type: Academic]

.In humans, narcoleptic sleep is characterized by a tendency to go abruptly from a waking state to REM sleep with little or no intervening non-REM sleep.^ Non-REM sleep is also termed quiet sleep.

^ In humans, narcoleptic sleep is characterized by a tendency to go abruptly from a waking state to REM sleep with little or no intervening non-REM sleep.
  • Narcolepsy | Find Me A Cure 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy Clinical Trials 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Health-net - Narcolepsy - www.999.com.my 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.999.com.my [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sleep Disorder - Narcolepsy Cause 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC sleepdisordertips.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Specifically, immediate REM sleep characterizes narcoleptic sleep attacks.
  • MIAMI :: Narcolepsy Assistive Device 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ece.uwaterloo.ca [Source type: Academic]

.The changes in the motor and proprioceptive systems during REM sleep have been studied in both human and animal models.^ Animal genes illuminate human sleep.
  • Pearson - Science News 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.phschool.com [Source type: Academic]

^ REM sleep is the phase of sleep during which we dream.
  • The Horse | Equine Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.thehorse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The changes in the motor and proprioceptive systems during REM sleep have been studied in both human and animal models.
  • Narcolepsy Clinical Trials 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Health-net - Narcolepsy - www.999.com.my 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.999.com.my [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sleep Disorder - Narcolepsy Cause 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC sleepdisordertips.com [Source type: Academic]

.During normal REM sleep, spinal and brainstem alpha motor neuron depolarization produces almost complete atonia of skeletal muscles via an inhibitory descending reticulospinal pathway.^ In fact, except for vital organs like lungs and heart, the only muscles not paralyzed during REM are the eye muscles.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For people without sleep disorders, during REM, the body becomes immobile and conscious thinking ‘paralysis’ occurs.
  • Natural Remedies for the Treatment of Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In PLMD, the leg muscles involuntarily contract every 20 to 40 seconds during sleep, occasionally arousing the patient.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

.Acetylcholine may be one of the neurotransmitters involved in this pathway.^ Acetylcholine may be one of the neurotransmitters involved in this pathway.
  • Narcolepsy | Find Me A Cure 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy Clinical Trials 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Health-net - Narcolepsy - www.999.com.my 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.999.com.my [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One factor that may predispose an individual to narcolepsy involves an area of Chromosome 6 known as the HLA complex.
  • Narcolepsy | Find Me A Cure 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy Clinical Trials 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Health-net - Narcolepsy - www.999.com.my 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.999.com.my [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Either of these genes is a plausible candidate, as CPT1B regulates -oxidation, a pathway involved in regulating theta frequency during REM sleep, and CHKB is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of choline, a precursor of the REM- and wake-regulating neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
  • Variant between : CPT1B: and : CHKB: associated with susceptibility to narcolepsy : Abstract : Nature Genetics 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

.In narcolepsy, the reflex inhibition of the motor system seen in cataplexy is believed identical to that seen in normal REM sleep.^ In narcolepsy, the reflex inhibition of the motor system seen in cataplexy is believed identical to that seen in normal REM sleep.
  • Narcolepsy | Find Me A Cure 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy Clinical Trials 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Health-net - Narcolepsy - www.999.com.my 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.999.com.my [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sleep Disorder - Narcolepsy Cause 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC sleepdisordertips.com [Source type: Academic]

^ REM sleep is part of the normal sleeping cycle.
  • HealthyOntario.com - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.healthyontario.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Idiopathic CNS (Central Nervous System) Hypersomnia probably can result from a number of different brain chemical imbalances with a similar consequence: chronic sleepiness, without the REM sleep-related symptoms typical of narcolepsy.
  • edstiips1.html 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.netwalk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.In 2004 researchers in Australia induced narcolepsy-like symptoms in mice by injecting them with antibodies from narcoleptic humans.^ In 2004 researchers in Australia induced narcolepsy-like symptoms in mice by injecting them with antibodies from narcoleptic humans.
  • Narcolepsy | Find Me A Cure 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy Clinical Trials 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Health-net - Narcolepsy - www.999.com.my 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.999.com.my [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sleep Disorder - Narcolepsy Cause 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC sleepdisordertips.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mice were also injected with antibodies from healthy patients.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The researchers injected mice with antibodies taken from patients with narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

.The research has been published in the Lancet providing strong evidence suggesting that some cases of narcolepsy might be caused by autoimmune disease.^ The research has been published in the Lancet providing strong evidence suggesting that some cases of narcolepsy might be caused by autoimmune disease.
  • Narcolepsy | Find Me A Cure 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy Clinical Trials 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Health-net - Narcolepsy - www.999.com.my 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.999.com.my [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An important research report, published in 2004 in The Lancet , provided the first concrete evidence that autoimmunity may play a role in narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some researchers believe the loss may be caused by an autoimmune disorder.
  • CIGNA - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: Academic]

[8] .Narcolepsy is strongly associated with HLA-DQB1*0602 genotype.^ All patients carried the (HLA)DQB1-0602 genotype.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Narcolepsy is strongly associated with HLA DQB1*0602 genotype.

^ HLAs, particularly a subgroup known as (HLA)DQB1-0602, have been strongly associated with narcolepsy and low levels of hypocretin.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

[9] .There is also an association with HLA-DR2 and HLA-DQ1.^ There is also an association with HLA DR2 and HLA DQ1.

^ "An almost invariable association with HLA-DR2 and DQw1 has previously been reported in Japanese and caucasian narcoleptics.
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ "The discovery of almost 100% association of narcolepsy with human leukocyte antigens (HLA) DR2 antigen prompted molecular biological research of this disorder.
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

.This may represent linkage disequilibrium.^ This may represent linkage disequilibrium.

.Despite the experimental evidence in human narcolepsy that there may be an inherited basis for at least some forms of narcolepsy, the mode of inheritance remains unknown.^ Thus, the cause of human narcolepsy remains unknown.
  • Neuron -- Thannickal et al. 15 September 2009 9:11 UTC www.semel.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There may consequently be some mistakes.

^ Despite the experimental evidence in human narcolepsy that there may be an inherited basis for at least some forms of narcolepsy, the mode of inheritance remains unknown.
  • Narcolepsy | Find Me A Cure 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy Clinical Trials 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Health-net - Narcolepsy - www.999.com.my 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.999.com.my [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sleep Disorder - Narcolepsy Cause 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC sleepdisordertips.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some cases are associated with genetic diseases such as Niemann-Pick disease[10] or Prader-Willi syndrome.^ This indicates that HLA alone makes a relatively small contribution to the development of narcolepsy and that a non-HLA gene(s) can contribute to the genetic predisposition even in narcoleptic cases with HLA association.
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ CONCLUSION: Autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis were associated with a decrease in sub-group of T CD4 and B lymphocytes.
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ CONCLUSIONS: Some pediatric patients with narcolepsy were different from adult patients in that the pediatric cases had a sudden onset and shorter disease course.
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

[11]

Epidemiology

.It is estimated that as many as 3 million people worldwide are affected by narcolepsy.^ Narcolepsy affects around 1 in 2,000 people.

^ Experts estimate that around 8 - 10% of people with narcolepsy have a close relative who has the disorder.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One cannot estimate the many bad implications that Narcolepsy means.
  • The Voices of Narcolepsy - Well Blog - NYTimes.com 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC well.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.In the United States, it is estimated that this condition afflicts as many as 200,000 Americans,[12] but fewer than 50,000 are diagnosed.^ Experts estimate that around 135,000 – 200,000 Americans have narcolepsy, but the number may be higher.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Experts estimate that around 135,000 - 200,000 Americans have narcolepsy, but the number may be higher.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is as widespread as Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis and more prevalent than cystic fibrosis, but it is less well known.^ It is as widespread as Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis ( MS ) and more prevalent than cystic fibrosis , but it is not as well known.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC sleep.emedtv.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is as widespread as Parkinson's Disease or Multiple Sclerosis and more prevalent than Cystic Fibrosis, but it is less well known.

^ It is as widespread as Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis and more prevalent than cystic fibrosis, but it is less well known.

.Narcolepsy is often mistaken for depression, epilepsy, or the side effects of medications.^ Narcolepsy is often mistaken for depression, epilepsy, or the side effects of medications.
  • Article: Narcolepsy: NWHIC - CureResearch.com 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cureresearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC neurology.health-cares.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy Support Group - DailyStrength 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]
  • Facts About Narcolepsy - Frequently Asked Questions 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.talkaboutsleep.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy and Symptoms 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.improve-your-sleep.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Narcolepsy is often mistaken for depression , epilepsy , or the side effects of medications.

^ This is because narcolepsy is often ignored or mistaken for other disorders, such as depression , epilepsy , or side effects of medication.
  • Tufts Medical Center - Conditions InDepth: Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.tufts-nemc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It can also be mistaken for poor sleeping habits, recreational drug use, or laziness.^ [Side Note: The term 'narcoleptic' can be used to refer to a person who suffers from narcolepsy and also to a soporific drug which produces an uncontrollable desire to sleep.
  • Narcolepsy Treatment 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC help-me-to-sleep.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Modafinil (Provigil) is a drug used to treat the excessive sleepiness associated with narcolepsy and other sleep disorders.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]
  • HowStuffWorks "Narcolepsy In-Depth" 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC healthguide.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Strict adherence to good sleep habits and brief scheduled naps throughout the day are helpful when used in conjunction with medications.
  • Daytime Sleepiness and Narcolepsy - Jupiter Medical Center, Jupiter, FL 33458 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.jupitermed.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Narcolepsy can occur in both men and women at any age, although its symptoms are usually first noticed in teenagers or young adults.^ It usually first occurs between the ages of 15 and 30 and affects both men and women.
  • Narcolepsy - Medpedia 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms of narcolepsy usually start during the teenage years.
  • Narcolepsy | Lifescript.com 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]

^ It usually first appears in the teenage years, but can come on at almost any age.
  • Narcolepsy - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis - Herald Times Reporter 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC health.htrnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis - TimesFreePress 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC health.timesfreepress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is strong evidence that narcolepsy may run in families; 8 to 12 percent of people with narcolepsy have a close relative with this neurologic disorder[citation needed].^ People whose close relatives have narcolepsy are more likely to have the sleep disorder themselves.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I have a neurological sleep disorder called Narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy | LIVESTRONG.COM 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Experts estimate that around 8 - 10% of people with narcolepsy have a close relative who has the disorder.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

.Narcolepsy has its typical onset in adolescence and young adulthood.^ Although narcolepsy typically begins in adolescence or young adulthood, it can occur at any age.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Narcolepsy has its typical onset in adolescence and young adulthood.

^ Narcolepsy symptoms usually first appear in adolescence or young adulthood.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

.There is an average 15-year delay between onset and correct diagnosis which may contribute substantially to the disabling features of the disorder.^ In one study, the average number of years between onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 14.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is an average 15-year delay between onset and correct diagnosis, that may contribute substantially to the disabling features of the disorder.

^ Narcolepsy most commonly starts between 15 to 25 years of age and rarely begins after the age of 40.

.Cognitive, educational, occupational, and psychosocial problems associated with the excessive daytime sleepiness of narcolepsy have been documented.^ The major symptom of narcolepsy is excessive daytime sleepiness with sleep attacks.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common symptom of narcolepsy is excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS).

^ All have excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS).
  • Narcolepsy, Sleep Paralysis, Hallucinations: Sleep Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For these to occur in the crucial teen years when education, development of self-image, and development of occupational choice are taking place is especially damaging.^ It usually develops during the teen years.

^ For these to occur in the crucial teen years when education, development of self-image, and development of occupational choice are taking place is especially damaging.

^ Finally, in view of the tremendous advances that have occurred in the past few years in our understanding of the pathophysiology of canine and human narcolepsy, we also highlight these discoveries.
  • Narcolepsy and Syndromes of Primary Excessive Daytime Somnolence: Abstract and Introduction 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.While cognitive impairment does occur, it may only be a reflection of the excessive daytime somnolence.^ While cognitive impairment does occur; it may only be a reflection of the excessive daytime somnolence.

^ While cognitive impairment does occur, it may only be a reflection of the excessive daytime somnolence.

^ Excessive daytime drowsiness, the main symptom of narcolepsy, may be present for years before the condition is diagnosed.

The prevalence of narcolepsy is about 1 per 2,000 persons.[12] .It is a reason for patient visits to sleep disorder centers, and with its onset in adolescence, it is also a major cause of learning difficulty and absenteeism from school.^ Sleep tests are usually done at a sleep disorders center.
  • Narcolepsy - Medpedia 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder that causes ...
  • Health Baltimore - Narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder that causes ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.franklinsquare.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder that causes people ...

.Normal teenagers often already experience excessive daytime sleepiness because of a maturational increase in physiological sleep tendency accentuated by multiple educational and social pressures; this may be disabling with the addition of narcolepsy symptoms in susceptible teenagers.^ The major symptom of narcolepsy is excessive daytime sleepiness with sleep attacks.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms of excessive daytime sleepiness are often present for years before symptoms of cataplexy develop.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy Background - Narcolepsy Health Information - NY Times Health 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common symptom of narcolepsy is excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS).

.In clinical practice, the differentiation between narcolepsy and other conditions characterized by excessive somnolence may be difficult.^ In clinical practice, the differentiation between narcolepsy and other conditions characterized by excessive somnolence may be difficult.

^ Narcolepsy is sometimes a difficult condition to diagnose.

^ How severe it is varies between people; in some, just facial muscles may weaken, others may completely collapse because of leg weakness.
  • Narcolepsy - information, symptoms and treatment 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC hcd2.bupa.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Treatment options are currently limited.^ Treatment options are currently limited.

.There is a paucity in the literature of controlled double-blind studies of possible effective drugs or other forms of therapy.^ Further evidence supporting the use of sodium oxybate for the treatment of cataplexy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 228 patients.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The FTC has sued drugmaker Cephalon of bribing other manufacturers to keep generic forms of narcolepsy drug Provigil off the market.
  • Narcolepsy | LIVESTRONG.COM 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.Mechanisms of action of some of the few available therapeutic agents have been explored but detailed studies of mechanisms of action are needed before new classes of therapeutic agents can be developed.^ Mechanisms of action of some of the few available therapeutic agents have been explored but detailed studies of mechanisms of action are needed before new classes of therapeutic agents can be developed.

^ Generally, the biggest therapeutic concern is the development of tolerance - some clinicians believe that the use of drug holidays may reduce this problem.
  • Narcolepsy - Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.healthscout.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The onset of cataplexy is most frequently simultaneous with or within a few months of the onset of EDS, but in some cases, cataplexy may not develop until many years after the initial onset of EDS. .

.Narcolepsy is an underdiagnosed condition in the general population.^ It is an underdiagnosed condition in the general population.
  • Narcolepsy Support Group - DailyStrength 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

^ Narcolepsy is an underdiagnosed condition in the general population.

^ Narcolepsy is not rare, but it is an underrecognized and underdiagnosed condition.
  • Narcolepsy Fact Sheet: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Facts About Narcolepsy, Part 1 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC counsellingresource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy | Find Me A Cure 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC apneasupport.org [Source type: Academic]

.This is partly because its severity varies from obvious to barely noticeable.^ This is partly because its severity varies from obvious down to barely noticeable.

.Some people with narcolepsy do not suffer from loss of muscle control.^ Cataplexy is a sudden, temporary loss of muscle control in a person with narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment on MedicineNet.com 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This medication controls cataplexy in people with narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • georgiahealthinfo.gov 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC georgiahealthinfo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some narcoleptics do not suffer from loss of muscle control.

.Others may only feel sleepy in the evenings.^ Others may only feel sleepy in the evenings.

^ Patients may describe this symptom as being tired, fatigued, sleepy, feeling lazy, or having low energy.
  • Narcolepsy Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment on MedicineNet.com 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder that causes extreme sleepiness and may even make a person fall asleep suddenly and without warning.
  • Sleep Disorders & Problems: Symptoms, Studies, Treatment & Self-Help 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.helpguide.org [Source type: General]

Diagnosis

.Diagnosis is relatively easy when all the symptoms of narcolepsy are present, but if the sleep attacks are isolated and cataplexy is mild or absent, diagnosis is more difficult.^ Other sleep disorders can share some or all of the symptoms of narcolepsy: .
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In general, cataplexy must also be present for a clear diagnosis of narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nighttime sleep is often disturbed in narcolepsy, but it is usually mild to moderate and does not account for the daytime sleepiness experienced by people with narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is also possible for cataplexy to occur in isolation.^ Occurrence of cataplexy is tightly associated with impairment of hypocretin/orexin neurotransmission, and it rarely occurs as an isolated symptom.

.Two tests that are commonly used in diagnosing narcolepsy are the polysomnogram and the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT).^ The Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) may be used to help diagnose narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy | LIVESTRONG.COM 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Determination of CSF hypocretin-1 concentration to diagnose narcolepsy might be most useful in ambulatory patients with cataplexy but with a normal multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) result, or if MSLT is not interpretable, conclusive, or feasible.
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ PATIENTS AND METHOD: We performed in all patients a clinical interview, a nocturnal polysomnogram and a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), HLA analysis and measurement of CSF Hcrt-1 levels (low < or = 110 pg/mL).
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

These tests are usually performed by a sleep specialist. .The polysomnogram involves continuous recording of sleep brain waves and a number of nerve and muscle functions during nighttime sleep.^ The polysomnogram involves continuous recording of sleep brain waves and a number of nerve and muscle functions during nighttime sleep.

^ During episodes of automatic behavior, you continue to function during sleep episodes — even talking and putting things away, for example — but you awaken with no memory of performing such activities, and you generally don't perform these tasks well.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • OhioHealth - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • georgiahealthinfo.gov 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC georgiahealthinfo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There may also be loss of muscle control during emotional situations, hallucinations, temporary paralysis when they awaken and disrupted nighttime sleep.

.When tested, people with narcolepsy fall asleep rapidly, enter REM sleep early, and may awaken often during the night.^ People who have narcolepsy often fall into REM sleep quickly and wake up directly from it.

^ People who have narcolepsy fall asleep easily and enter into rapid eye movement (REM) sleep quickly.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • OhioHealth - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • georgiahealthinfo.gov 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC georgiahealthinfo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Falling asleep quickly Entering rapid eye movement (REM) sleep soon after falling asleep Waking up often during the night Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT ) .

.The polysomnogram also helps to detect other possible sleep disorders that could cause daytime sleepiness.^ Daytime sleep disorder; Cataplexy .
  • Narcolepsy - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Narcolepsy - NY Times Health Information 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://ssmhealth.adam.com/content.aspx?pid=1&gid=000802 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC ssmhealth.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The polysomnogram also helps to detect other possible sleep disorders that could cause daytime sleepiness.

^ "Narcolepsy is a debilitating sleep disorder characterized by daytime sleepiness and cataplexy.
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

.For the multiple sleep latency test, a person is given a chance to sleep every 2 hours during normal wake times.^ Polysomnogram (PSG) Multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) Hypocretin test Polysomnogram .
  • Narcolepsy - Medpedia 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Multiple sleep latency test.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • OhioHealth - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • georgiahealthinfo.gov 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC georgiahealthinfo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other sleep tests can be done during the day.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.metrohealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Observations are made of the time taken to reach various stages of sleep (sleep onset latency).^ The diagnosis of narcolepsy was confirmed by sleep-onset REM periods in 3 of 4 daytime naps (positive Multiple Sleep Latency Tests) and HLA-DQB1 (alleles *0201, *0602).
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) uses a machine that measures the time it takes to fall asleep lying in a quiet room during the day.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Results indicate shorter REM latency whether or not the latency was adjusted for wake after sleep onset (p = 0.003) and p = 0.02 respectively), increased sleep efficiency (p = 0.06) and decreased percent time spent in stage I sleep (p = 0.02) during nocturnal polysomnography in DQB1*0602 subjects.
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

.This test measures the degree of daytime sleepiness and also detects how soon REM sleep begins.^ This test measures the degree of daytime sleepiness and also detects how soon REM sleep begins.

^ Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterized by excessive sleepiness accompanied by a series of auxiliary symptoms, typically beginning in adolescence or young adulthood.
  • Narcolepsy - Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.healthscout.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Multiple sleep latency test (MSLT)— measures the onset of rapid eye movement sleep, which occurs earlier than normal in narcolepsy General sleep lab study—helps rule out other causes of daytime sleepiness.
  • Narcolepsy | Lifescript.com 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]

.Again, people with narcolepsy fall asleep rapidly and enter REM sleep early.^ People who have narcolepsy fall asleep easily and enter into rapid eye movement (REM) sleep quickly.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • OhioHealth - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • georgiahealthinfo.gov 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC georgiahealthinfo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People with narcolepsy have a different sleep pattern.
  • Narcolepsy - Medpedia 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.metrohealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Normally, when people fall asleep they first have NREM sleep.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Treatment

Treatment is tailored to the individual, based on symptoms and therapeutic response. .The time required to achieve optimal control of symptoms is highly variable, and may take several months or longer.^ The time required to achieve optimal control of symptoms is highly variable, and may take several months or longer.
  • Narcolepsy | Find Me A Cure 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy Clinical Trials 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ How severe it is varies between people; in some, just facial muscles may weaken, others may completely collapse because of leg weakness.
  • Narcolepsy - information, symptoms and treatment 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC hcd2.bupa.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The combination of long-acting and short-acting stimulants may be possible to achieve alertness quickly and for extended periods of time.
  • Pharmacology Options for Narcolepsy | March-April 2003 | Sleep Review 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.sleepreviewmag.com [Source type: Academic]

.Medication adjustments are also frequently necessary, and complete control of symptoms is seldom possible.^ Medication adjustments are also frequently necessary, and complete control of symptoms is seldom possible.
  • Narcolepsy | Find Me A Cure 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy Clinical Trials 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cataplexy is a temporary loss of muscle control that can range from relatively minor symptoms, such as weakness at the knees, to a complete collapse causing you to fall to the ground.
  • Narcolepsy Treatment 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC help-me-to-sleep.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is possible, however, to treat the symptoms with a combination of medication and behavioral therapy.
  • Narcolepsy Treatment 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC help-me-to-sleep.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While oral medications are the mainstay of formal narcolepsy treatment, lifestyle changes are also important.^ While oral medications are the mainstay of formal narcolepsy treatment, lifestyle changes are also important.
  • Narcolepsy | Find Me A Cure 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While oral medications are the mainstay of narcolepsy treatment, lifestyle changes are also important.

^ Lifestyle changes and coping skills are also an important part of treatment for narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy: The Symptoms, Causes and Treatments 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.anapolschwartz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The main treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy is with a group of drugs called central nervous system stimulants such as methylphenidate, racemic - amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine, or modafinil, a new stimulant with a different pharmacologic mechanism, and more recently, armodafinil.^ Drugs that stimulate the central nervous system are the primary treatment to help people with narcolepsy stay awake during the day.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Excessive daytime sleepiness.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Modafinil (Provigil): For excessive daytime sleepiness Sodium oxybate (Xyrem): For cataplexy Drug Treatments for Sleepiness .
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

.In Fall 2007 an alert for severe adverse skin reactions to modafinil was issued by the FDA.^ Rare, but serious, skin reactions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome have been reported with modafinil use.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In October 2007, the FDA added new safety information to the prescribing label of modafinil (Provigil) and Armodafinil (Nuvigil).

^ Rare but serious skin reactions, such as Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, have been reported with modafinil use.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

[13] .Other medications used are codeine[14] and selegiline[15].^ Prazosin is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure.
  • Narcolepsy | LIVESTRONG.COM 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.Another drug that is used is atomoxetine[16] (Strattera), a non-stimulant and Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI), that has little or no abuse potential.^ It has less potential for abuse than stimulant drugs.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In one trial, no patients developed dependence on the drug after 9 weeks of daily use.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antidepressant drugs such as tricyclics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs) are also prescribed for cataplexy.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

[17] .In many cases, planned regular short naps can reduce the need for pharmacological treatment of the EDS to a low or non-existent level.^ In many cases, planned regular short naps can reduce the need for pharmacological treatment of the EDS to a low or non-existent level.
  • Narcolepsy | Find Me A Cure 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy Support Group - DailyStrength 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

^ Treatment may include: Stimulant medications that increase levels of daytime alertness include: Methylphenidate Pemoline (requires regular blood testing for liver function) Dextroamphetamine Methamphetamine Modafinil Antidepressants—to help treat many symptoms of narcolepsy, include: Cataplexy Hallucinations Sleep paralysis Other treatment options include: Planned short naps throughout the day Counseling to cope with issues of self esteem Wearing a medical alert bracelet or pendant .
  • Narcolepsy | Lifescript.com 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]

^ Non-pharmacologic interventions should also play an important role in the treatment plan, including structured nocturnal sleep and daytime naps, avoidance of irregular sleep-wake schedules, adequate diet and exercise, and driving caution for patients with EDS or cataplexy.
  • Narcolepsy Pharmacotherapy | September 2006 | Sleep Review 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.sleepreviewmag.com [Source type: Academic]

.Cataplexy and other REM-sleep symptoms are frequently treated with tricyclic antidepressants such as clomipramine, imipramine, or protriptyline, as well as other drugs that suppress REM sleep.^ Treating other underlying sleep disorders can improve symptoms of narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy | LIVESTRONG.COM 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Antidepressants used for cataplexy and management of REM symptoms include: .
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antidepressants used for cataplexy, hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and management of REM symptoms include: .
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

.Venlafaxine (branded as Effexor XR by Wyeth Pharmaceuticals), an antidepressant which blocks the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine, has shown usefulness in managing symptoms of cataplexy[18], however, it has notable side-effects including sleep disruption.^ Venlafaxine (Effexor) is a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI) that has shown promising results for treatment of cataplexy.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antidepressants used for cataplexy and management of REM symptoms include: .
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antidepressants used for cataplexy, hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and management of REM symptoms include: .
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

.Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), more commonly known on the pharmaceutical market as Sodium Oxybate, or Xyrem (branded by Jazz Pharmaceuticals), is the only medication specifically indicated and approved for narcolepsy and cataplexy.^ In 2002, the FDA approved Xyrem for treatment of cataplexy associated with narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sodium oxybate (Xyrem) is the only approved treatment for narcolepsy-associated cataplexy.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sodium oxybate (Xyrem), also referred to as gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB), helps reduce the frequency of cataplexy attacks and improve daytime sleepiness.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

.Gamma-hydroxybutyrate has been shown to reduce symptoms of EDS associated with narcolepsy.^ "Narcolepsy was first shown to be tightly associated with HLA-DR2 and DQ1 in 1983, suggesting a possible autoimmune mechanism.
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ "Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder that has been shown to be tightly associated with HLA DR15 (DR2).
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ We have reported a sexual dimorphism and a strong effect of the COMT genotype on narcolepsy symptoms and hypothesized that response to modafinil treatment may be associated with the COMT genotype.
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

.While the exact mechanism of action is unknown, GHB is thought to improve the quality of nocturnal sleep by increasing the prevalence of slow wave (delta) sleep (as this is the time when the brain is least active and therefore most at rest and able to rebuild and repair itself physiologically).^ To improve nighttime sleep quality and reduce fatigue, avoid heavy meals before bedtime and limit alcohol and caffeine use.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At least 2 of the naps are REM-onset (the active sleep phase associated dreaming).
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In sleep studies, subjects spend about one-third of their time asleep, suggesting that most people need about 8 hours of sleep each day.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

.GHB appears to help sufferers much more effectively than the hypnotic class of medications typically used for insomnia (hypnotics tend to obstruct delta wave sleep), so it can be vital to be properly diagnosed as narcoleptic rather than insomniac.^ "HLA class II was investigated in eight Jewish narcoleptic patients, representing the total of such patients known in Israel at present, and in three patients suffering from sleep disturbances other than narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Thirdly, the occurrence of DR2-negative cataplectic narcoleptics points to the existence of more than one narcolepsy susceptibility gene."
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ In patients with narcolepsy, polysomnography plus MSLT will show a much shorter duration of time (less than 8 minutes) from wakefulness into sleep.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

GHB was previously available on the open market as a dietary supplement but was reclassified a controlled substance in the United States due to pressure associated with the abuse of the chemical (it is infamously known as the date rape drug). .It can currently only be legally acquired through prescription, after very specific diagnoses (typically for narcolepsy itself).^ Only about 25% of people who have narcolepsy are actually diagnosed with the disorder.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

.Many healthcare providers, such as Welfare prescription plans in the USA, are unwilling to pay for the expensive drug and will instead present patients with stimulants.^ In one study of patients with narcolepsy, such stimulation caused loss of muscle tone in certain areas when patients were off their medication, but had no effect when they were in treatment.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients who switch to modafinil from stimulants such as methylphenidate experience few problems if they gradually taper off the stimulant dose.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This would help avoid inaccurate diagnoses such as epilepsy or psychosis, which require potent drugs that have significant side effects and are not helpful for patients with narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

.Using stimulants to mask daytime sleepiness does not address the actual cause of the problem.^ It does not cause a rebound effect as stimulants do.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nighttime sleep is often disturbed in narcolepsy, but it is usually mild to moderate and does not account for the daytime sleepiness experienced by people with narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) uses a simple questionnaire to measure excessive sleepiness and differentiate it from normal daytime sleepiness.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

.Stimulants may provide some assistance with daytime activity, but the underlying cause will remain and potentially worsen over time due to the stimulant itself becoming an obstruction to delta wave sleep periods.^ Some research suggests that problems may be due to the abnormalities in the brain that cause the narcolepsy itself.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some experts believe, however, that some patients with narcolepsy may experience hypnagogic hallucinations and daytime sleepiness and not cataplexy.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The diagnosis of narcolepsy was confirmed by sleep-onset REM periods in 3 of 4 daytime naps (positive Multiple Sleep Latency Tests) and HLA-DQB1 (alleles *0201, *0602).
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

.Lifestyle changes involving reduced stress, more exercise (especially for overweight persons experiencing narcolepsy caused by sleep apnea and snoring) and less stimulant intake (such as coffee and nicotine) are likely to be ideal forms of assistive treatment.^ (A person may also suffer sleep apnea and narcolepsy at the same time.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Causes: Narcolepsy is a neurological sleep disorder.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some people with narcolepsy have a nocturnal body clock and are helped by selecting an occupation that properly coincides with their body's natural sleep cycle (such as sleeping in the day and working at night).^ Nighttime sleep is often disturbed in narcolepsy, but it is usually mild to moderate and does not account for the daytime sleepiness experienced by people with narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In sleep studies, subjects spend about one-third of their time asleep, suggesting that most people need about 8 hours of sleep each day.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lifestyle treatment of narcolepsy includes taking three or more scheduled sleep-times throughout the day.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

.This allows sufferers to avoid the need to force themselves into the more common 9 to 5 schedule that their body is unable to maintain, and avoids the need to take stimulants to remain active during the times when their bodies are inclined to rest.^ People with mild narcolepsy symptoms who do not need medication may be able to maintain alertness with sleep scheduling.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lifestyle treatment of narcolepsy includes taking three or more scheduled sleep-times throughout the day.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients with narcolepsy should try to take three or more short naps on a regular basis during the day, and avoid caffeine, heavy meals before bedtime, and alcohol.

.In addition to drug therapy, an important part of treatment is scheduling short naps (10 to 15 minutes) two to three times per day to help control excessive daytime sleepiness and help the person stay as alert as possible.^ Excessive daytime sleepiness.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • OhioHealth - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Narcolepsy - information, symptoms and treatment 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC hcd2.bupa.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • georgiahealthinfo.gov 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC georgiahealthinfo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Short naps of 20 minutes at strategic times during the day may be refreshing and reduce sleepiness for one to three hours.
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Narcolepsy - Valley Health System 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • OhioHealth - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • georgiahealthinfo.gov 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC georgiahealthinfo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If possible, taking regular naps during the day may help to control excessive daytime sleepiness.
  • CIGNA - Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: Academic]

.Daytime naps are not a replacement for nighttime sleep, especially if a person's body is natively inclined towards a nocturnal life cycle.^ Nighttime sleep is often disturbed in narcolepsy, but it is usually mild to moderate and does not account for the daytime sleepiness experienced by people with narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, studies suggest that it does not interfere with voluntary naps during the day or with the quantity or quality of nighttime sleep.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The daily cycle of life, which includes sleeping and waking, is called a circadian (meaning "about a day") rhythm, commonly referred to as the biologic clock.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

.Ongoing communication between the health care provider, patient, and the patient's family members is important for optimal management of narcolepsy.^ Family members with narcolepsy .
  • Narcolepsy | Lifescript.com 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]

^ Ongoing communication between the health care provider, patient, and the patient’s family members is important for optimal management of narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy | Find Me A Cure 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Provide emotional support and resources to patients, family members, and friends.
  • MySpace - Narcolepsy Network - 24 - Female - NORTH KINGSTOWN, Rhode Island - myspace.com/narcolepsynetwork 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Finally, a recent study reported that transplantation of hypocretin neurons into the pontine reticular formation in rats is feasible, indicating the development of alternative therapeutic strategies in addition to pharmacological interventions.^ Finally, recent result suggests that human narcolepsy is associated with the destruction of a small number of hypothalamic neurons containing the peptide hypocretins (orexins).
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent autopsy studies have shown a reduced amount of hyprocretin mRNA and hypocretin-positive neurons in patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy.

^ Recent studies have indicated that TNF alpha plays an important role in the regulation of normal human sleep, and regulation of this cytokine may be disturbed in narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

[19]

Portrayal of narcolepsy in popular culture

Depictions of the disorder in fiction and pop culture can range greatly in the accuracy of how they depict the symptoms. Narcolepsy is often depicted in an exaggerated fashion in comedy films or TV shows. .In the movie Rat Race, one of the main characters (Enrico Pollini, played by Rowan Atkinson) has narcolepsy and is very eccentric.^ It’s very possible that my stepson, The Tall One, may be suffering from narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy | LIVESTRONG.COM 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

This portrayal has been criticized for its inaccuracy and insensitivity to the disorder.[citation needed]
The Little Sleep, a detective novel by Paul Tremblay, portrayed the main character, Mark G. as having narcolepsy. .In relating Mark's thoughts and experiences the author captures many esoteric nuances of the experience of narcolepsy.^ Many patients with narcolepsy experience periodic limb movement disorder, also called PLMD (formerly known as nocturnal myoclonus).
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

.As narcolepsy is an "invisible" disease, most people don’t really understand how pervasive the symptoms are-how the symptoms alter your perception of events, and may at times blur the boundaries between what is experienced when awake, and what was experienced in sleep.^ (A person may also suffer sleep apnea and narcolepsy at the same time.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most people need about 8 hours of sleep each day.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nighttime sleep is often disturbed in narcolepsy, but it is usually mild to moderate and does not account for the daytime sleepiness experienced by people with narcolepsy.
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

The character deals with daily, even hourly frustrations due to the general cognitive fog, not being able to trust his own memory and even not being able to drive. Many of these situations are presented as humorous, but the reader is always laughing with Mark, rather than at him. .Mark shares the frustration felt by many with narcolepsy, that his disease isn’t taken seriously and that he is "the punch line in a joke". In the "Mysterious Benedict Society" books, two of the main Characters have narcolepsy.^ The two main drug treatments for narcolepsy are: .
  • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Narcolepsy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

Mr. Benedict, and his twin, Mr. Curtain.

See also

References

  1. ^ Entry Narcolepsy. in the Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper, Historian. 18 Sep 2007.
  2. ^ Kandel, Eric R.; James H. Schwartz, Thomas M. Jessell. Principles of Neural Science (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. 949. ISBN 0-8385-7701-6. 
  3. ^ http://www.taumed.com/content/adam/browse.jsp?pid=10&cid=000098
  4. ^ Klein J, Sato A (September 2000). "The HLA system. Second of two parts". N. Engl. J. Med. 343 (11): 782–6. doi:10.1056/NEJM200009143431106. PMID 10984567. 
  5. ^ a b Mignot, E., E (2001). "A commentary on the neurobiology of the hypocretin/orexin system". Neuropsychopharmacology 25 (5 Suppl): S5-13. doi:10.1016/S0893-133X(01)00316-5. PMID 11682267. 
  6. ^ Hallmayer J, Faraco J, Lin L, et al. (June 2009). "Narcolepsy is strongly associated with the T-cell receptor alpha locus". Nat. Genet. 41 (6): 708–11. doi:10.1038/ng.372. PMID 19412176. 
  7. ^ "Narcolepsy is an autoimmune disorder, Stanford researcher says". EurekAlert. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2009-05-03. http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2009-05/sumc-nia042809.php. Retrieved 2009-05-31. 
  8. ^ "BBC News article". 2004-12-13. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/4081225.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-06. 
  9. ^ Maret, S; Tafti M (November 2005). "Genetics of narcolepsy and other major sleep disorders" (PDF). Swiss Medical Weekly (EMH Swiss Medical Publishers Ltd.) 135 (45-46): 662–5. PMID 16453205. http://www.smw.ch/docs/pdf200x/2005/45/smw-11162.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  10. ^ Vankova J, Stepanova I, Jech R, et al. (June 2003). "Sleep disturbances and hypocretin deficiency in Niemann-Pick disease type C". Sleep 26 (4): 427–30. PMID 12841368. 
  11. ^ Manni R, Politini L, Nobili L, et al. (May 2001). "Hypersomnia in the Prader Willi syndrome: clinical-electrophysiological features and underlying factors". Clin Neurophysiol 112 (5): 800–5. doi:10.1016/S1388-2457(01)00483-7. PMID 11336895. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1388-2457(01)00483-7. 
  12. ^ a b "Who Is At Risk for Narcolepsy?". http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/nar/nar_who.html. 
  13. ^ Modafinil (marketed as Provigil): Serious Skin Reactions; FDA Drug Safety Newsletter
  14. ^ Fry JM, Pressman MR, DiPhillipo MA, Forst-Paulus M, JM; Pressman, MR; Diphillipo, MA; Forst-Paulus, M (1986). "Treatment of narcolepsy with codeine". Sleep 9 (1 Pt 2): 269–74. PMID 3518019. 
  15. ^ Mayer G, Ewert Meier K, Hephata K, G; Ewert Meier, K; Hephata, K (1995). "Selegeline hydrochloride treatment in narcolepsy. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study". Clin Neuropharmacol 18 (4): 306–19. PMID 8665543. 
  16. ^ "Stanford Center for Narcolepsy article". http://med.stanford.edu/school/Psychiatry/narcolepsy/medications.html. 
  17. ^ "Curtin University of Technology Article" (PDF). http://adhdproject.curtin.edu.au/forms/STRATTERA%20PI%20(marketed%20products).pdf. 
  18. ^ Caputo, Fabio, and Giorgio Zoli, F; Zoli, G; Provini, Federica; Albani, Fiorenzo; Riva, Roberto (March 2007). "Treatment of narcolepsy with cataplexy". Lancet 369 (9567): 1080–1081. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60523-6. PMID 17398302. 
  19. ^ Arias-Carrión O, Murillo-Rodriguez E, Xu M, Blanco-Centurion C, Drucker-Colín R, Shiromani PJ (December 2004). "Transplantation of hypocretin neurons into the pontine reticular formation: preliminary results". Sleep 27 (8): 1465–70. PMID 15683135. 

Sources

  • Mitler, M M; Hajdukovic, R (June 1991). ."Relative Efficacy of Drugs for the treatment of Sleepiness in Narcolepsy".^ The two main drug treatments for narcolepsy are: .
    • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Modafinil (Provigil) is a drug used to treat the excessive sleepiness associated with narcolepsy and other sleep disorders.
    • Narcolepsy: the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Drug Warning ... 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]
    • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A new drug, armodafinil (NuVigil), which is related to modafinil, is being investigated for treatment of narcolepsy-associated excessive sleepiness.
    • Narcolepsy 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: Academic]

    Sleep 14 (3): 218. PMID 1680245.
     
  • Chabas, D; Taheri, S; Renier, C; Mignot, E (October 2003). ."The Genetics of Narcolepsy". Annual Review of Genomics & Human Genetics 4: 459. doi:10.1146/annurev.genom.4.070802.110432.^ CONCLUSION: This result supports existing evidence which indicates that mutations of the prepro-orexin gene are rare and that the genetic contribution to the aetiology of human narcolepsy is likely to be complex.
    • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Results indicate that complex HLA-DR and -DQ interactions contribute to the genetic predisposition to human narcolepsy but that additional susceptibility loci are also most likely involved.
    • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "The HLA class II region genes DQB1*0602 and DQA1*0102 are currently the best genetic predictors for narcolepsy in humans (1(.
    • Narcolepsy Genetic Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 16 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

    PMID 14527309.
     
  • Smith AJ, Jackson MW, Neufing P, McEvoy RD, Gordon TP (2004). "A functional autoantibody in narcolepsy". Lancet 364 (9451): 2122–4. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17553-3. PMID 15589310. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0140673604175533. 

External links


Simple English

waiting for cataplexy to pass]]

Narcolepsy is a neurological condition. Those who suffer from it tend to fall asleep during the daytime, even if they do not want to.

Contents

Symptoms

Things that people with narcolepsy may experience:

  • Cataplexy: Suddenly having a muscle fail them. This can range from a slight weakness, and problems speaking clearly, to completely collapsing.
  • Sleep paralysis: When waking up, people are paralysed (unable to move) for a certain time. The paralysis eventually goes away.
  • Hallucinations, while falling asleep or waking up.
  • Automatic behaviour: People continue doing things while they are asleep. Later on they do not remember.

Hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and automatic behaviour can also occur in people who are not narcoleptics. This usually happens when people are very tired, and have not slept for a long time.

Causes

It is not yet known what causes narcolepsy. However, quite a few sufferers also have another family member with the disease. This may point to the fact that some of the things that cause the disease may be passed from the parents to the children through genes.

Treatments

There are certain drugs that can treat the effects of narcolepsy. They can not treat the cause, since it is unknown. In general those drugs are special kinds of stimulants. General stimulants, like coffee, usually do not help.

Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 11, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Narcolepsy, which are similar to those in the above article.








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