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Nation branding is a field of theory and practice which aims to measure, build and manage the reputation of countries (closely related to place branding). Some approaches applied, such as an increasing importance on the symbolic value of products, have led countries to emphasise their distinctive characteristics. The branding and image of a nation-state "and the successful transference of this image to its exports - is just as important as what they actually produce and sell."[1]

Simon Anholt is credited as a pioneer in the field. He regularly conducts two global surveys known as the Anholt-GfK Roper Nation Brands Index and Anholt-GfK Roper City Brands Index. There is one professional/academic journal in the field, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, published by Palgrave Macmillan and edited by Simon Anholt. Simon Anholt also conducts the Nation Branding Masterclass, a series of one-day events designed to support the more effective stewardship of the national identity.

Nation branding appears to be practised by many states, including the United States and United Kingdom (where it is officially referred to as public diplomacy), South Africa, Canada, New Zealand, and most Western European countries. An early example of this was the Cool Britannia approach of the early days of the New Labour government (following the Britain (TM) pamphlet by Demos's Mark Leonard), though this has since been replaced by a more credible Public Diplomacy Board. There is increasing interest in the concept from poorer states on the grounds that an enhanced image might create more favorable conditions for foreign direct investment, tourism, trade and even political relations with other states.

Scholars such as Evan H. Potter at the University of Ottawa have conceptualized nation brands as a form of national soft power. All efforts by government (at any level) to support the nation brand - either directly or indirectly - becomes public diplomacy.

Anti-globalisation proponents often claim that globalisation diminishes and threatens local diversity, but there is evidence that in order to compete against the backdrop of global cultural homogenity, nations strive to accentuate and promote the distinctiveness of local characteristics and competitive advantages.[2]

Contents

Nation Brands Index

Rank Country (NBI 2008)[3] Score
1 Germany Germany 67.4
2 France France 67.3
3 United Kingdom United Kingdom 66.8
4 Canada Canada 66.3
5 Japan Japan 66.1
6 Italy Italy 65.9
7 United States United States 65.5
8 Switzerland Switzerland 64.9
9 Australia Australia 64.6
10 Sweden Sweden 64.1
11 Spain Spain 63.3
12 Netherlands Netherlands 61.6
13 Norway Norway 60.6
13 Austria Austria 60.6
15 Denmark Denmark 60.3
16 New Zealand New Zealand 60.1
17 Finland Finland 59.2
18 Republic of Ireland Ireland 58.7
19 Belgium Belgium 58.1
20 Brazil Brazil 56.6
21 Russia Russia 55.7
22 Iceland Iceland 55.0
23 Singapore Singapore 53.7
23 Argentina Argentina 53.7
25 Mexico Mexico 53.2
26 India India 52.9
27 Hungary Hungary 52.8
27 People's Republic of China China, PR 52.8
29 Poland Poland 52.7
30 Czech Republic Czech Republic 52.5
30 Egypt Egypt 52.5
32 South Korea South Korea 51.6
33 Thailand Thailand 50.7
34 Republic of China China, Rep. of 50.6
35 Turkey Turkey 50.5
36 South Africa South Africa 49.6
37 Chile Chile 49.4
37 Malaysia Malaysia 49.4
39 Peru Peru 49.1
40 Romania Romania 48.9
41 Lithuania Lithuania 48.0
42 Indonesia Indonesia 47.7
43 Estonia Estonia 47.6
43 United Arab Emirates UA Emirates 47.6
45 Cuba Cuba 46.6
45 Ecuador Ecuador 46.6
47 Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 45.5
48 Nigeria Nigeria 40.9
49 Iran Iran 38.0

The concept of measuring the global perception of a country in several spheres has been developed by Simon Anholt. A subsequent ranking of nations following his surveys was first released in 2005 known as the Anholt Nation Brands Index and was initially published four times a year.

Since 2008 research activities from GfK Roper Public Affairs & Media and Simon Anholt are joined and resulted in an expanded version of the index which is since then known as the Anholt-GfK Roper Nation Brands Index (NBI).

Published on an annual basis, 20,157 interviews have been conducted with approximately 1,000 interviews per country for the 2008 Index to determine how countries are perceived by others. People over the age of seventeen have been interviewed in twenty core countries such as the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Sweden, Russia, Poland, Turkey, Japan, China, India, South Korea, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Egypt, South Africa. The criteria underlying the NBI ranking are:

People: Measures the population's reputation for competence, education, openness and friendliness and other qualities, as well as perceived levels of potential hostility and discrimination.

Governance: Measures public opinion regarding the level of national government competency and fairness and describes individuals' beliefs about each country's government, as well as its perceived commitment to global issues such as democracy, justice, poverty and the environment.

Exports: Determines the public's image of products and services from each country and the extent to which consumers proactively seek or avoid products from each country-of-origin.

Tourism: Captures the level of interest in visiting a country and the draw of natural and man-made tourist attractions.

Culture & Heritage: Reveals global perceptions of each nation's heritage and appreciation for its contemporary culture, including film, music, art, sport and literature.

Investment & Immigration Determines the power to attract people to live, work or study in each country and reveals how people perceive a country's economic and social situation.[4]

Rank Cult./her. Brand 2008 Score
1 France France 71.4
2 Italy Italy 70.9
3 United Kingdom United Kingdom 69.0
4 Germany Germany
5 United States United States
6 Spain Spain
7 Russia Russia
8 Japan Japan
9 People's Republic of China PR China
10 Brazil Brazil
11 Australia Australia
12 Canada Canada
13 Sweden Sweden
14 Netherlands Netherlands
15 Austria Austria
Rank People Brand 2008 Score
1 Canada Canada 70.1
2 Australia Australia 68.9
3 Italy Italy 67.7
4 Sweden Sweden
5 Switzerland Switzerland
6 United Kingdom United Kingdom
7 Germany Germany
8 Japan Japan
9 Spain Spain
10 New Zealand New Zealand
11 France France
12 Netherlands Netherlands
13 United States United States
14 Norway Norway
- Scotland Scotland
Rank Export Brand 2008 Score
1 Japan Japan 77.0
2 United States United States 74.8
3 Germany Germany 72.7
4 United Kingdom United Kingdom
5 France France
6 Canada Canada
7 Switzerland Switzerland
8 Sweden Sweden
9 Italy Italy
10 Australia Australia
11 Netherlands Netherlands
12 Spain Spain
13 Norway Norway
14 Denmark Denmark
15 South Korea South Korea
Rank Tourism Brand 2008 Score
1 Italy Italy 77.2
2 France France 75.9
3 Spain Spain 73.3
4 United Kingdom United Kingdom
5 Australia Australia
6 United States United States
7 Canada Canada
8 Japan Japan
8 Switzerland Switzerland
10 Germany Germany
10 Egypt Egypt
- Scotland Scotland
13 Brazil Brazil
14 Sweden Sweden
15 Austria Austria
Rank Governance Brand 2008 Score
1 Switzerland Switzerland 67.3
2 Canada Canada 67.2
3 Sweden Sweden 66.5
4 Germany Germany
5 Australia Australia
6 Norway Norway
7 Netherlands Netherlands
7 Denmark Denmark
9 United Kingdom United Kingdom
10 France France
11 Finland Finland
12 New Zealand New Zealand
13 Austria Austria
- Scotland Scotland
15 Belgium Belgium
Rank Immi./ Inv. Brand 2008 Score
1 Canada Canada 62.3
2 United Kingdom United Kingdom 62.1
2 United States United States 62.1
4 Switzerland Switzerland
5 Germany Germany
6 France France
7 Australia Australia
8 Sweden Sweden
9 Italy Italy
10 Japan Japan
11 Netherlands Netherlands
12 Spain Spain
13 Denmark Denmark
14 Norway Norway
15 New Zealand New Zealand


In 2009, the United States was ranked the most popular nation by the NBI only a year after being ranked seventh. The jump in rankings was unprecedented. According to Simon Anholt, "What’s really remarkable is that in all my years studying national reputation, I have never seen any country experience such a dramatic change in its standing as we see for the United States in 2009."[citation needed]

References

  1. ^ True, Jacqui (2006). "Globalisation and Identity". in Raymond Miller. Globalisation and Identity. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-19-558492-9. 
  2. ^ True, Jacqui (2006). "Globalisation and Identity". in Raymond Miller. Globalisation and Identity. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. pp. 73–74. ISBN 978-0-19-558492-9. 
  3. ^ 2008 Anholt-GfK Roper Nation Brands IndexSM Ranking GfK Custom Research North America, Retrieved 2008, 10-03.
  4. ^ Nation Brands Index Site for information about Simon Anholt, Retrieved 2008, 07-05.

Further reading

External links

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Nation branding is a field of theory and practice which aims to measure, build and manage the reputation of countries (closely related to place branding). Some approaches applied, such as an increasing importance on the symbolic value of products, have led countries to emphasise their distinctive characteristics. The branding and image of a nation-state "and the successful transference of this image to its exports - is just as important as what they actually produce and sell."[1]

Simon Anholt is credited as a pioneer in the field. He regularly conducts two global surveys known as the Anholt-GfK Roper Nation Brands Index and Anholt-GfK Roper City Brands Index. There is one professional/academic journal in the field, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, published by Palgrave Macmillan and edited by Simon Anholt. Simon Anholt also conducts the Nation Branding Masterclass, a series of one-day events designed to support the more effective stewardship of the national identity.

Nation branding appears to be practised by many states, including Canada, the United States, France, United Kingdom (where it is officially referred to as public diplomacy), Japan, China, South Korea, South Africa, New Zealand, and most Western European countries. An early example of this was the Cool Britannia approach of the early days of the New Labour government (following the Britain (TM) pamphlet by Demos's Mark Leonard), though this has since been replaced by a more credible Public Diplomacy Board. There is increasing interest in the concept from poorer states on the grounds that an enhanced image might create more favorable conditions for foreign direct investment, tourism, trade and even political relations with other states.

Scholars such as Evan H. Potter at the University of Ottawa have conceptualized nation brands as a form of national soft power. All efforts by government (at any level) to support the nation brand - either directly or indirectly - becomes public diplomacy.

Countries such as Colombia working with nation branding expert Richard H. Griffiths have developed programs such as handing out 100,000 Colombian Roses to highlight the country's positive elements. New and innovative programs are being adapted by Tanzania and smaller nations to markets such as the United States and Europe. [2]

Anti-globalisation proponents often claim that globalisation diminishes and threatens local diversity, but there is evidence that in order to compete against the backdrop of global cultural homogeneity, nations strive to accentuate and promote the distinctiveness of local characteristics and competitive advantages.[3]

Contents

Nation Brands Index

Rank Country (NBI 2008)[dead link][4] Score
1 Germany 67.4
2 France 67.3
3 United Kingdom 66.8
4 Canada 66.3
5 Template:Country data Japan Japan 66.1
6 Italy 65.9
7 United States 65.5
8 Switzerland 64.9
9 Australia 64.6
10 Sweden 64.1
11 Spain 63.3
12 Netherlands 61.6
13 Norway 60.6
13 Austria 60.6
15 Denmark 60.3
16 New Zealand 60.1
17 Finland 59.2
18 Ireland 58.7
19 File:Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium 58.1
20 Brazil 56.6
21 Russia 55.7
22 Template:Country data Iceland Iceland 55.0
23 Singapore 53.7
23 Argentina 53.7
25 Mexico 53.2
26 Template:Country data India India 52.9
27 Hungary 52.8
27 File:Flag of the People' China, PR 52.8
29 Poland 52.7
30 Czech Republic 52.5
30 Egypt 52.5
32 Template:Country data South Korea South Korea 51.6
33 Thailand 50.7
34 China, Rep. of 50.6
35 Turkey 50.5
36 South Africa 49.6
37 Chile 49.4
37 Malaysia 49.4
39 Peru 49.1
40 Romania 48.9
41 Lithuania 48.0
42 Template:Country data Indonesia Indonesia 47.7
43 Estonia 47.6
43 UA Emirates 47.6
45 Cuba 46.6
45 Ecuador 46.6
47 Saudi Arabia 45.5
48 Nigeria 40.9
49 Template:Country data Iran Iran 38.0

The concept of measuring the global perception of a country in several spheres has been developed by Simon Anholt. A subsequent ranking of nations following his surveys was first released in 2005 known as the Anholt Nation Brands Index and was initially published four times a year.

Since 2008 research activities from GfK Roper Public Affairs & Media and Simon Anholt are joined and resulted in an expanded version of the index which is since then known as the Anholt-GfK Roper Nation Brands Index (NBI).

Published on an annual basis, 20,157 interviews have been conducted with approximately 1,000 interviews per country for the 2008 Index to determine how countries are perceived by others. People over the age of seventeen have been interviewed in twenty core countries such as the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Sweden, Russia, Poland, Turkey, Japan, China, India, South Korea, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Egypt, South Africa. The criteria underlying the NBI ranking are:

People: Measures the population's reputation for competence, education, openness and friendliness and other qualities, as well as perceived levels of potential hostility and discrimination.

Governance: Measures public opinion regarding the level of national government competency and fairness and describes individuals' beliefs about each country's government, as well as its perceived commitment to global issues such as democracy, justice, poverty and the environment.

Exports: Determines the public's image of products and services from each country and the extent to which consumers proactively seek or avoid products from each country-of-origin.

Tourism: Captures the level of interest in visiting a country and the draw of natural and man-made tourist attractions.

Culture & Heritage: Reveals global perceptions of each nation's heritage and appreciation for its contemporary culture, including film, music, art, sport and literature.

Investment & Immigration Determines the power to attract people to live, work or study in each country and reveals how people perceive a country's economic and social situation.[5]

Rank Cult./her. Brand 2008 Score
1 France 71.4
2 Italy 70.9
3 United Kingdom 69.0
4 Germany
5 United States
6 Spain
7 Russia
8 Template:Country data Japan Japan
9 File:Flag of the People' PR China
10 Brazil
11 Australia
12 Canada
13 Sweden
14 Netherlands
15 Austria
Rank People Brand 2008 Score
1 Canada 70.1
2 Australia 68.9
3 Italy 67.7
4 Sweden
5 Switzerland
6 United Kingdom
7 Germany
8 Template:Country data Japan Japan
9 Spain
10 New Zealand
11 France
12 Netherlands
13 United States
14 Norway
- Scotland
Rank Export Brand 2008 Score
1 Template:Country data Japan Japan 77.0
2 United States 74.8
3 Germany 72.7
4 United Kingdom
5 France
6 Canada
7 Switzerland
8 Sweden
9 Italy
10 Australia
11 Netherlands
12 Spain
13 Norway
14 Denmark
15 Template:Country data South Korea South Korea
Rank Tourism Brand 2008 Score
1 Italy 77.2
2 France 75.9
3 Spain 73.3
4 United Kingdom
5 Australia
6 United States
7 Canada
8 Template:Country data Japan Japan
8 Switzerland
10 Germany
10 Egypt
- Scotland
13 Brazil
14 Sweden
15 Austria
Rank Governance Brand 2008 Score
1 Switzerland 67.3
2 Canada 67.2
3 Sweden 66.5
4 Germany
5 Australia
6 Norway
7 Netherlands
7 Denmark
9 United Kingdom
10 France
11 Finland
12 New Zealand
13 Austria
14 Chile
15 File:Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium
Rank Immi./ Inv. Brand 2008 Score
1 Canada 62.3
2 United Kingdom 62.1
2 United States 62.1
4 Switzerland
5 Germany
6 France
7 Australia
8 Sweden
9 Italy
10 Template:Country data Japan Japan
11 Netherlands
12 Spain
13 Denmark
14 Norway
15 New Zealand


References

  1. ^ True, Jacqui (2006). "Globalisation and Identity". In Raymond Miller. Globalisation and Identity. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-19-558492-9. 
  2. ^ http://nation-branding.info/2009/05/27/colombia-land-of-flowers-new-imagery-blooming-for-colombias-brand/
  3. ^ True, Jacqui (2006). "Globalisation and Identity". In Raymond Miller. Globalisation and Identity. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. pp. 73–74. ISBN 978-0-19-558492-9. 
  4. ^ 2008 Anholt-GfK Roper Nation Brands IndexSM Ranking GfK Custom Research North America, Retrieved 2008, 10-03.
  5. ^ Nation Brands Index Site for information about Simon Anholt, Retrieved 2008, 07-05.

Further reading

External links


The Nation Brands Index (officially Anholt-GfK Roper Nation Brands Index) is an analytical ranking deriving from a global survey in order to estimate national reputation and image. The concept of measuring the global perception of a country in several dimensions has been developed by the British consultant Simon Anholt. A subsequent ranking of nations following his surveys was first released in 2005 known as Anholt Nation Brands Index and was initially published four times a year.

Since 2008 research activities from GfK Roper Public Affairs & Media and Simon Anholt are joined and resulted in an expanded version of the index which is since then known as the Anholt-GfK Roper Nation Brands Index (NBI).

Published on an annual base, 20,157 interviews have been conducted with approximately 1,000 interviews per country for the 2008 Index to determine how countries are perceived by others. Adults at the age 18 or over have been interviewed in twenty core countries such as U.S.A, Canada, U.K., Germany, France, Italy, Sweden, Russia, Poland, Turkey, Japan, China, India, South Korea, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Egypt, South Africa.

The Index score is made up of six categories ― tourism, people, exports, governance, investment and immigration, culture and heritage. The NBI ranking is based on the average of these six scores and ranges from 1 - 100.

Contents

Brand categories

People: Measures the population's reputation for competence, education, openness and friendliness and other qualities, as well as perceived levels of potential hostility and discrimination.

Governance: Measures public opinion regarding the level of national government competency and fairness and describes individuals' beliefs about each country's government, as well as its perceived commitment to global issues such as democracy, justice, poverty and the environment.

Exports: Determines the public's image of products and services from each country and the extent to which consumers proactively seek or avoid products from each country-of-origin.

Tourism: Captures the level of interest in visiting a country and the draw of natural and man-made tourist attractions.

Culture & Heritage: Reveals global perceptions of each nation's heritage and appreciation for its contemporary culture, including film, music, art, sport and literature.

Investment & Immigration Determines the power to attract people to live, work or study in each country and reveals how people perceive a country's economic and social situation.[1]

Overall rankings

Rank Country (NBI 2008)[2] Score
1 Germany 67.4
2 France 67.3
3 United Kingdom 66.8
4 Canada 66.3
5 Template:Country data Japan Japan 66.1
6 Italy 65.9
7 United States 65.5
8 Switzerland 64.9
9 Australia 64.6
10 Sweden 64.1
11 Spain 63.3
12 Netherlands 61.6
13 Norway 60.6
13 Austria 60.6
15 Denmark 60.3
- Scotland 60.2
17 New Zealand 60.1
18 Finland 59.2
19 Ireland 58.7
20 File:Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium 58.1
21 Brazil 56.6
22 Russia 55.7
23 Template:Country data Iceland Iceland 55.0
24 Singapore 53.7
24 Argentina 53.7
26 Mexico 53.2
27 Template:Country data India India 52.9
28 Hungary 52.8
28 Template:Country data People's Republic of China PR China 52.7
30 Poland 52.7
31 Czech Republic 52.5
32 Egypt 52.1
33 Template:Country data South Korea South Korea 51.6
34 Thailand 50.7
35 Taiwan 50.6
36 Turkey 50.5
37 South Africa 49.6
38 Chile 49.4
38 Malaysia 49.4
40 Peru 49.1
41 Romania 48.9
42 Lithuania 48.0
43 Template:Country data Indonesia Indonesia 47.7
44 Estonia 47.6
44 UA Emirates 47.6
46 Cuba 46.6
46 Ecuador 46.6
48 Saudi Arabia 45.5
48 Nigeria 40.9
50 Template:Country data Iran Iran 38.0

Category rankings

Rank Export Brand 2008 Score
1 Template:Country data Japan Japan 77.0
2 United States 74.8
3 Germany 72.7
4 United Kingdom
5 France
6 Canada
7 Switzerland
8 Sweden
9 Italy
10 Australia
11 Netherlands
12 Spain
13 Norway
14 Denmark
15 Finland
Rank Culture Brand 2008 Score
1 France 71.4
2 Italy 70.9
3 United Kingdom 69.0
4 Germany
5 United States
6 Spain
7 Russia
8 Template:Country data Japan Japan
9 Template:Country data People's Republic of China PR China
10 Brazil
11 Australia
12 Canada
13 Sweden
14 Netherlands
15 Austria


Rank Immi./ Inv. Brand 2008 Score
1 Canada 62.3
2 United Kingdom 62.1
3 United States 62.1
4 Switzerland
5 Germany
6 France
7 Australia
8 Sweden
9 Italy
10 Template:Country data Japan Japan
11 Netherlands
12 Spain
13 Denmark
14 Norway
15 New Zealand
Rank Tourism Brand 2008 Score
1 Italy 77.2
2 France 75.9
3 Spain 73.3
4 United Kingdom
5 Australia
6 United States
7 Canada
8 Template:Country data Japan Japan
8 Switzerland
10 Germany
10 Egypt
- Scotland
13 Brazil
14 Sweden
15 Austria
Rank People Brand 2008 Score
1 Canada 70.1
2 Australia 68.9
3 Italy 67.7
4 Sweden
5 Switzerland
6 United Kingdom
7 Germany
8 Template:Country data Japan Japan
9 Spain
10 New Zealand
11 France
12 Netherlands
13 United States
14 Norway
- Scotland


References

  1. Nation Brands Index Site for information about Simon Anholt, Retrieved 2008, 07-05.
  2. 2008 Anholt-GfK Roper Nation Brands IndexSM Ranking GfK Custom Research North America, Retrieved 2008, 10-03.

See also

External links


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