The National Defense Act of 1935 (Commonwealth Act No. 1) was passed by the Philippine National Assembly on December 21, 1935. The purpose of this act was to create an independent Philippine Army, this was interrupted by World War II.
The National Assembly was guided by the Office of the Military Advisor to the Commonwealth Government under the U.S. General Douglas MacArthur.
The act divided the Commonwealth of the Philippines into ten military districts, similar to the prewar corps areas within the US. Each district had a roughly equal population and each was to initially provide 1 reserve division, and ultimately three.
The Act provided for the drafting of Filipino men, between the ages of 21 and 50, into the 30 reserve divisions. This force was to be raised through 2 training camps, of 20,000 men each, lasting 22 weeks. The camps would be staffed by members of the regular army.
For the training of junior officers, the Act provided for the establishment of a military academy, patterned after the United States Military Academy, which shall be located at Baguio, Luzon and graduate about 100 officers per year. As graduates could not be expected until they had completed 4 years of training, selected reservists were selected for training as noncommissioned officers. The best of these were then given basic office training and commissioned as 3rd Lieutenants. Officers were also created through senior-level ROTC courses in colleges and universities.