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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that offers support and funding for projects exhibiting artistic excellence.[1] It was created by an act of the U.S. Congress in 1965 as an independent agency of the federal government. Its current Chairman is Broadway theatre producer Rocco Landesman.[2][3][4] The NEA has its offices in the Old Post Office building, in Washington, D.C. It was awarded Tony Honors for Excellence in Theatre in 1995.

Contents

Background

The NEA is "dedicated to supporting excellence in the arts, both new and established; bringing the arts to all Americans; and providing leadership in arts education".[1] Its slogan is "A great country deserves great art."

Between 1965 and 2008, the agency has made in excess of 128,000 grants, totaling more than $4 billion. From the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s, Congress granted the NEA an annual funding of between US$160 and US$180 million. In 1996, Congress cut the NEA funding to US$99.5 million as a result of pressure from conservative groups, including the American Family Association, who criticized the agency for using tax dollars to fund highly controversial artists such as Robert Clark Young, Barbara Degenevieve, Andres Serrano, Robert Mapplethorpe, and the so-called "NEA Four." Since 1996, the NEA has partially rebounded with a 2004 budget of US$121 million.[5] For FY 2008, the budget is US$144.7 million.[6] For FY 2009, the budget is US$155 million.[7]

Governance

The NEA is governed by a Chairman appointed by the President. The National Council on the Arts advises the Chairman on policies and programs, as well as reviewing grant applications, fundraising guidelines, and leadership initiative. This body consists of fourteen individuals appointed by the President for their expertise and knowledge in the arts, in addition to six ex officio members of congress who serve in a non-voting capacity.

Grantmaking

The NEA offers grants in the categories of: 1) Grants for Arts Projects, 2) National Initiatives, and 3) Partnership Agreements. Grants for Arts Projects support exemplary projects in the discipline categories of artist communities, arts education, dance, design, folk and traditional arts, literature, local arts agencies, media arts, museums, music, musical theater, opera, presenting (including multidisciplinary art forms), theater, and visual arts. The NEA also grants individual fellowships in literature to creative writers and translators of exceptional talent in the areas of prose and poetry. The NEA has partnerships in the areas of state and regional, federal, international activities, and design. The state arts agencies and regional arts organizations are the NEA’s primary partners in serving the American people through the arts. Forty percent of all NEA funding goes to the state arts agencies and regional arts organizations. Additionally, the NEA awards three Lifetime Honors: NEA National Heritage Fellowships to master folk and traditional artists, NEA Jazz Masters Fellowships to jazz musicians and advocates, and NEA Opera Honors to individuals who have made extraordinary contributions to opera in the United States. The NEA also manages the National Medal of Arts, awarded annually by the President.

The NEA is the largest grantmaker to arts organizations in the nation. Its budget is roughly equivalent to the Canada Council on the Arts despite Canada's population being approximately one tenth of the United States population.

Controversy

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1981 attempts to abolish

Ronald Reagan intended to push congress to abolish the NEA completely over a three-year period upon entering the office in 1981. However, this plan was abandoned when the president's special task force on the arts and humanities, which included close Reagan allies such as conservatives Charlton Heston and Joseph Coors discovered "the needs involved and benefits of past assistance", concluding that continued federal support was important.[8]

1989 objections

In 1989, Donald Wildmon of the American Family Association held a press conference attacking what he called "anti-Christian bigotry," in an exhibition by photographer Andres Serrano. The work at the center of the controversy was Piss Christ, a photo of a plastic crucifix submerged in a vial of the artists' urine. Republican Senators Jesse Helms and Al D'Amato began to rally against the NEA, and expanded the attack to include other artists. Prominent conservative Christian figures including Pat Robertson of the 700 Club and Pat Buchanan joined the attacks. Republican representative Dick Armey, an opponent of federal arts funding, began to attack a planned exhibition of photographs by Robert Mapplethorpe at the Corcoran Museum of Art that was to receive NEA support.

On June 12, 1989, The Corcoran cancelled the Mapplethorpe exhibition. Museum director Christina Orr-Cahill said she did not want to imperil the NEA's future funding allocation. Orr-Cahill was criticized and picketed by artists, civil liberties activists, and gay leaders for her act of censorship; she later apologized.[9]

Though this controversy inspired congressional debate about appropriations to the NEA, including proposed restrictions on the content of NEA-supported work and their grantmaking guidelines, efforts to defund the NEA failed.[10]

1990 performance artists vetoed

Conservative media continued to attack individual artists whose NEA-supported work was deemed controversial. The "NEA Four", Karen Finley, Tim Miller, John Fleck, and Holly Hughes, were performance artists whose proposed grants from the United States government's National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) were vetoed by John Frohnmayer in June 1990. Grants were overtly vetoed on the basis of subject matter after the artists had successfully passed through a peer review process. The artists won their case in court in 1993 and were awarded amounts equal to the grant money in question, though the case would make its way to the United States Supreme Court in National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley.[11] The case centered on subsection (d)(1) of 20 U.S.C. § 954 which provides that the NEA Chairperson shall ensure that artistic excellence and artistic merit are the criteria by which applications are judged. The court ruled in 524 U.S. 569 (1998), that Section 954(d)(1) is facially valid, as it neither inherently interferes with First Amendment rights nor violates constitutional vagueness principles.

1995-1997 congressional attacks

The Republican revolution of 1994 cleared the way for House Speaker Newt Gingrich to lead a renewed attack on the NEA. Gingrich had called for the NEA to be eliminated completely along with the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. While some in congress attacked the funding of controversial artists, others argued the endowment was wasteful and elitist.[12] However, despite massive budget cutbacks and the end of grants to individual artists, Gingrich ultimately failed in his push to eliminate the endowment.

2009 Conference call

In mid-2009, the NEA came under controversy again when it was revealed that then-Communications Director Yosi Sergant had participated in an August 21, 2009 conference call that allegedly directed artists to create works of art promoting President Barack Obama's domestic agenda[13][14]. "I would encourage you to pick something, whether it’s health care, education, the environment, you know, there’s four key areas that the corporation has identified as the areas of service," Sergant said on the call, making reference to the four areas of focus earlier outlined by Nell Abernathy, Director of Outreach for United We Serve. Suggested areas of focus mentioned in the call included preventative care, child nutrition, community cleanups, trail maintenance, reading tutoring, and homelessness. At another point he said, "This is just the beginning. This is the first telephone call of a brand new conversation. We are just now learning how to really bring this community together to speak with the government. What that looks like legally. We're still trying to figure out the laws of putting government websites of Facebook and the use of Twitter. This is all being sorted out. We are participating in history as it's being made, so bear with us as we learn the language so that we can speak to each other safely. And we can really work together to move the needle to get stuff done."[15][16] Some journalists speculated that this was evidence that Sergant was aware of the possibility he might be crossing the line into advocacy. At the time of the call, the federal government was drafting new policies concerning federal agencies' use of social media; these were released the following month.[17]

The NEA countered the allegations by asserting that Sergant had acted unilaterally and without the approval of then-Acting Chairman Patrice Walker Powell, and that the call was not a means to promote any legislative agenda but rather to inform members of the arts community of an opportunity to become involved in volunteerism through the United We Serve program. They also noted that the call had nothing to do with grantmaking.[18]

Chairpersons

See also

References

  1. ^ a b National Endowment for the Arts. "About Us". http://www.nea.gov/about/index.html. Retrieved 2009-03-13.  
  2. ^ Robin Pogrebin, "Producer Is Chosen to Lead Arts Endowment", New York Times, May 13, 2009.
  3. ^ Davi Napoleon, "Mr. Landesman Goes to Washington", The Faster Times, June 13, 2009.
  4. ^ a b Robin Pogrebin, "Rocco Landesman Confirmed as Chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts", New York Times, August 7, 2009.
  5. ^ Backstage.com The Actor's Resource: Casting Calls, Movie Auditions and Actor's Union News
  6. ^ President Bush Signs Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2008 with $144.7 Million for National Endowment for the Arts, NEA, December 27, 2007
  7. ^ National Endowment for the Arts Appropriations History, NEA
  8. ^ William H. Honan (May 15, 1988). "Book Discloses That Reagan Planned To Kill National Endowment for Arts". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1988/05/15/arts/book-discloses-that-reagan-planned-to-kill-national-endowment-for-arts.html?scp=1&sq=Reagan%20National%20Endowment&st=cse.  
  9. ^ Quigley, Margaret, [hhttp://www.publiceye.org/theocrat/Mapplethorpe_Chrono.html The Mapplethorpe Censorship Controversy], hhttp://www.publiceye.org/theocrat/Mapplethorpe_Chrono.html, retrieved 2 October 2009  
  10. ^ C. Carr, Timeline of NEA 4 events, franklinfurnace.org
  11. ^ National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley, 524 U.S. 569, (1998).
  12. ^ Hughes, Robert (1995-08-07). "Pulling the Fuse on Culture". TIME. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,983279,00.html. Retrieved 2009-10-03.  
  13. ^ "NEA Reassigns Communications Director Following Uproar Over Obama Initiative". FOX News. 11 September 2009. http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2009/09/11/nea-reassigns-communications-director-following-uproar-obama-initiative/. Retrieved 21 September 2009.  
  14. ^ "Audiotape Reveals Artists Being Asked to Support Obama's Agenda". FOX News. 21 September 2009. http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2009/09/21/audiotape-controversial-nea-conference-revealed/. Retrieved 21 September 2009.  
  15. ^ Patrick Courrielche, Full NEA Conference Call Transcript and Audio, Breitbart.com
  16. ^ "After 'Inappropriate' NEA Conference Call, White House Pushes New Guidelines". AMC News. September 22, 2009. http://blogs.abcnews.com/politicalpunch/2009/09/after-inappropriate-nea-conference-call-white-house-pushes-new-guidelines.html.  
  17. ^ (pdf) Guidelines for Secure Use of Social Media by Federal Departments and Agencies, v1.0, Federal Chief Information Officers' Council, September 17, 2009, http://www.cio.gov/Library/documents_details.cfm?id=Guidelines%20for%20Secure%20Use%20of%20Social%20Media%20by%20Federal%20Departments%20and%20Agencies,%20v1.0&structure=Information%20Technology&category=Best%20Practices  
  18. ^ STATEMENT FROM NEA CHAIRMAN ROCCO LANDESMAN, September 22, 2009
  19. ^ "National Endowment for the Arts Announces New Acting Chairman," NEA press release dated February 2, 2009 at NEA website.
  20. ^ Robin Pogrebin, "Saving Federal Arts Funds: Selling Culture as an Economic Force," New York Times, February 16, 2009.

Further reading

  • Alexander, Jane. Command Performance: an Actress in the Theater of Politics. Public Affairs, a member of the Perseus Book Group; New York, NY, 2000. ISBN 0306810441
  • Binkiewicz, Donna M. Federalizing the Muse: United States Arts Policy and the National Endowment for the Arts, 1965-1980, University of North Carolina Press, 312pp., 2004. ISBN 0807828785.
  • Napoleon, Davi. Chelsea on the Edge: The Adventures of an American Theater This history of a theater in Brooklyn that won critical acclaim but could not always get funding to finish planned seasons is in part a case study of the arts funding crisis in America. Iowa State University Press.

External links


The National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that offers support and funding for projects exhibiting artistic excellence.[1] It was created by an act of the U.S. Congress in 1965 as an independent agency of the federal government. Its current Chairman is Broadway theatre producer Rocco Landesman.[2][3][4] The NEA has its offices in the Old Post Office building, in Washington, D.C. It was awarded Tony Honors for Excellence in Theatre in 1995.

Contents

Background

The NEA is "dedicated to supporting excellence in the arts, both new and established; bringing the arts to all Americans; and providing leadership in arts education".[1]

Between 1965 and 2008, the agency has made in excess of 128,000 grants, totaling more than $4 billion. From the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s, Congress granted the NEA an annual funding of between US$160 and US$180 million. In 1996, Congress cut the NEA funding to US$99.5 million as a result of pressure from conservative groups, including the American Family Association, who criticized the agency for using tax dollars to fund highly controversial artists such as Robert Clark Young, Barbara Degenevieve, Andres Serrano, Robert Mapplethorpe, and the so-called "NEA Four". Since 1996, the NEA has partially rebounded with a 2004 budget of US$121 million.[5] For FY 2008, the budget is US$144.7 million.[6] For FY 2009, the budget is US$155 million.[7]

Governance

The NEA is governed by a Chairman appointed by the President. The National Council on the Arts advises the Chairman on policies and programs, as well as reviewing grant applications, fundraising guidelines, and leadership initiative. This body consists of fourteen individuals appointed by the President for their expertise and knowledge in the arts, in addition to six ex officio members of Congress who serve in a non-voting capacity.

Grantmaking

The NEA offers grants in the categories of: 1) Grants for Arts Projects, 2) National Initiatives, and 3) Partnership Agreements. Grants for Arts Projects support exemplary projects in the discipline categories of artist communities, arts education, dance, design, folk and traditional arts, literature, local arts agencies, media arts, museums, music, musical theater, opera, presenting (including multidisciplinary art forms), theater, and visual arts. The NEA also grants individual fellowships in literature to creative writers and translators of exceptional talent in the areas of prose and poetry. The NEA has partnerships in the areas of state and regional, federal, international activities, and design. The state arts agencies and regional arts organizations are the NEA’s primary partners in serving the American people through the arts. Forty percent of all NEA funding goes to the state arts agencies and regional arts organizations. Additionally, the NEA awards three Lifetime Honors: NEA National Heritage Fellowships to master folk and traditional artists, NEA Jazz Masters Fellowships to jazz musicians and advocates, and NEA Opera Honors to individuals who have made extraordinary contributions to opera in the United States. The NEA also manages the National Medal of Arts, awarded annually by the President.

The NEA is the largest grantmaker to arts organizations in the nation. Its budget is roughly equivalent to the Canada Council on the Arts despite Canada's population being approximately one tenth of the United States population.

Controversy

1981 attempts to abolish

Ronald Reagan intended to push Congress to abolish the NEA completely over a three-year period upon entering the office in 1981. However, this plan was abandoned when the president's special task force on the arts and humanities, which included close Reagan allies such as conservatives Charlton Heston and Joseph Coors discovered "the needs involved and benefits of past assistance", concluding that continued federal support was important.[8]

1989 objections

In 1989, Donald Wildmon of the American Family Association held a press conference attacking what he called "anti-Christian bigotry," in an exhibition by photographer Andres Serrano. The work at the center of the controversy was Piss Christ, a photo of a plastic crucifix submerged in a vial of the artists' urine. Republican Senators Jesse Helms and Al D'Amato began to rally against the NEA, and expanded the attack to include other artists. Prominent conservative Christian figures including Pat Robertson of the 700 Club and Pat Buchanan joined the attacks. Republican representative Dick Armey, an opponent of federal arts funding, began to attack a planned exhibition of photographs by Robert Mapplethorpe at the Corcoran Museum of Art that was to receive NEA support.

On June 12, 1989, The Corcoran cancelled the Mapplethorpe exhibition. Museum director Christina Orr-Cahill said she did not want to imperil the NEA's future funding allocation. Orr-Cahill was criticized and picketed by artists, civil liberties activists, and gay leaders for her act of censorship; she later apologized.[9]

Though this controversy inspired congressional debate about appropriations to the NEA, including proposed restrictions on the content of NEA-supported work and their grantmaking guidelines, efforts to defund the NEA failed.[10]

1990 performance artists vetoed

Conservative media continued to attack individual artists whose NEA-supported work was deemed controversial. The "NEA Four", Karen Finley, Tim Miller, John Fleck, and Holly Hughes, were performance artists whose proposed grants from the United States government's National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) were vetoed by John Frohnmayer in June 1990. Grants were overtly vetoed on the basis of subject matter after the artists had successfully passed through a peer review process. The artists won their case in court in 1993 and were awarded amounts equal to the grant money in question, though the case would make its way to the United States Supreme Court in National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley.[11] The case centered on subsection (d)(1) of 20 U.S.C. § 954 which provides that the NEA Chairperson shall ensure that artistic excellence and artistic merit are the criteria by which applications are judged. The court ruled in 524 U.S. 569 (1998), that Section 954(d)(1) is facially valid, as it neither inherently interferes with First Amendment rights nor violates constitutional vagueness principles.

1995-1997 congressional attacks

The Republican revolution of 1994 cleared the way for House Speaker Newt Gingrich to lead a renewed attack on the NEA. Gingrich had called for the NEA to be eliminated completely along with the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. While some in Congress attacked the funding of controversial artists, others argued the endowment was wasteful and elitist.[12] However, despite massive budget cutbacks and the end of grants to individual artists, Gingrich ultimately failed in his push to eliminate the endowment.[citation needed]

2009 Conference call

In mid-2009, the NEA came under controversy again when it was revealed on a website run by conservative activist Andrew Breitbart that then-Communications Director Yosi Sergant had participated in an August 10, 2009 conference call that allegedly directed artists to create works of art promoting President Barack Obama's domestic agenda.[13][14] "I would encourage you to pick something, whether it’s health care, education, the environment, you know, there’s four key areas that the corporation has identified as the areas of service," Sergant said on the call, making reference to the four areas of focus earlier outlined by Nell Abernathy, Director of Outreach for United We Serve. Suggested areas of focus mentioned in the call included preventative care, child nutrition, community cleanups, trail maintenance, reading tutoring, and homelessness. At another point he said, "This is just the beginning. This is the first telephone call of a brand new conversation. We are just now learning how to really bring this community together to speak with the government. What that looks like legally. We're still trying to figure out the laws of putting government websites of Facebook and the use of Twitter. This is all being sorted out. We are participating in history as it's being made, so bear with us as we learn the language so that we can speak to each other safely. And we can really work together to move the needle to get stuff done."[15][16] Some journalists speculated that this was evidence that Sergant was aware of the possibility he might be crossing the line into advocacy. At the time of the call, the federal government was drafting new policies concerning federal agencies' use of social media; these were released the following month.[17]

The NEA countered the allegations by asserting that Sergant had acted unilaterally and without the approval of then-Acting Chairman Patrice Walker Powell, and that the call was not a means to promote any legislative agenda but rather to inform members of the arts community of an opportunity to become involved in volunteerism through the United We Serve program. They also noted that the call had nothing to do with grantmaking.[18]

Chairpersons

See also

References

  1. ^ a b National Endowment for the Arts. "About Us". http://www.nea.gov/about/index.html. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  2. ^ Robin Pogrebin, "Producer Is Chosen to Lead Arts Endowment", New York Times, May 13, 2009.
  3. ^ Davi Napoleon, "Mr. Landesman Goes to Washington", The Faster Times, June 13, 2009.
  4. ^ a b Robin Pogrebin, "Rocco Landesman Confirmed as Chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts", New York Times, August 7, 2009.
  5. ^ Backstage.com The Actor's Resource: Casting Calls, Movie Auditions and Actor's Union News
  6. ^ President Bush Signs Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2008 with $144.7 Million for National Endowment for the Arts, NEA, December 27, 2007
  7. ^ National Endowment for the Arts Appropriations History, NEA
  8. ^ William H. Honan (May 15, 1988). "Book Discloses That Reagan Planned To Kill National Endowment for Arts". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1988/05/15/arts/book-discloses-that-reagan-planned-to-kill-national-endowment-for-arts.html?scp=1&sq=Reagan%20National%20Endowment&st=cse. 
  9. ^ Quigley, Margaret. [hhttp://www.publiceye.org/theocrat/Mapplethorpe_Chrono.html "The Mapplethorpe Censorship Controversy"]. hhttp://www.publiceye.org/theocrat/Mapplethorpe_Chrono.html. Retrieved 2 October 2009 
  10. ^ C. Carr, Timeline of NEA 4 events, franklinfurnace.org
  11. ^ National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley, 524 U.S. 569, (1998).
  12. ^ Hughes, Robert (1995-08-07). "Pulling the Fuse on Culture". TIME. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,983279,00.html. Retrieved 2009-10-03. 
  13. ^ "NEA Reassigns Communications Director Following Uproar Over Obama Initiative". FOX News. 11 September 2009. http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2009/09/11/nea-reassigns-communications-director-following-uproar-obama-initiative/. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  14. ^ "Audiotape Reveals Artists Being Asked to Support Obama's Agenda". FOX News. 21 September 2009. http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2009/09/21/audiotape-controversial-nea-conference-revealed/. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  15. ^ Patrick Courrielche, Full NEA Conference Call Transcript and Audio, Breitbart.com
  16. ^ "After 'Inappropriate' NEA Conference Call, White House Pushes New Guidelines". AMC News. September 22, 2009. http://blogs.abcnews.com/politicalpunch/2009/09/after-inappropriate-nea-conference-call-white-house-pushes-new-guidelines.html. 
  17. ^ (pdf) Guidelines for Secure Use of Social Media by Federal Departments and Agencies, v1.0. Federal Chief Information Officers' Council. September 17, 2009. http://www.cio.gov/Library/documents_details.cfm?id=Guidelines%20for%20Secure%20Use%20of%20Social%20Media%20by%20Federal%20Departments%20and%20Agencies,%20v1.0&structure=Information%20Technology&category=Best%20Practices 
  18. ^ STATEMENT FROM NEA CHAIRMAN ROCCO LANDESMAN, September 22, 2009
  19. ^ "National Endowment for the Arts Announces New Acting Chairman," NEA press release dated February 2, 2009 at NEA website.
  20. ^ Robin Pogrebin, "Saving Federal Arts Funds: Selling Culture as an Economic Force," New York Times, February 16, 2009.

Further reading

  • Alexander, Jane. Command Performance: an Actress in the Theater of Politics. Public Affairs, a member of the Perseus Book Group; New York, NY, 2000. ISBN 0-306-81044-1
  • Binkiewicz, Donna M. Federalizing the Muse: United States Arts Policy and the National Endowment for the Arts, 1965-1980, University of North Carolina Press, 312pp., 2004. ISBN 0-8078-2878-5.
  • Napoleon, Davi. Chelsea on the Edge: The Adventures of an American Theater This history of a theater in Brooklyn that won critical acclaim but could not always get funding to finish planned seasons is in part a case study of the arts funding crisis in America. Iowa State University Press.

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Simple English

The National Endowment for the Arts is a branch of the United States government that gives money for art, music, television, and film projects. It is supposed to promote enjoyment and participation in the arts.


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