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National Geographic

January 1915 cover of The National Geographic Magazine
Editor Chris Johns
Categories Geography, Science, History, Nature
Frequency Monthly
First issue October 1888[1]
Company National Geographic Society
Country  United States
Language English
Website www.nationalgeographic.com
ISSN 0027-9358

The National Geographic Magazine, later shortened to National Geographic, is the official journal of the National Geographic Society. It published its first issue in 1888, just nine months after the Society itself was founded. It is immediately identifiable by the characteristic yellow frame that surrounds its front cover.

There are 12 monthly issues of the National Geographic per year, plus additional map supplements. On rare occasions, special editions are also issued. It contains articles about geography, popular science, history, culture, current events, and photography. The current Editor-in-Chief of the National Geographic Magazine is Chris Johns, who was named Editor of the Year in October 2008 by Advertising Age magazine at the American Magazine Conference.

Society Executive Vice President and President of the Magazine Group John Q. Griffin, who also is Chairman of the Magazine Publishers of America, has overall responsibility for the English language magazines at the National Geographic Society. He reports to Tim Kelly, President, National Geographic Global Media. Terry B. Adamson, Executive Vice President of the Society and the Society's chief legal officer and heads governmental relations, has overall responsibility for the Society's international publications, including National Geographic Magazine.

With a worldwide circulation in thirty-two language editions of nearly nine million, more than fifty million people receive the magazine every month. In May 2007 and 2008, National Geographic magazine won the American Society of Magazine Editors' General Excellence Award in the over two million circulation category and the best photography award for three issues of the magazine in 2006. A nominee for the General Excellence award in 2009, National Geographic won the top award for editorial photography.

Contents

History

The first issue of National Geographic Magazine was published in 1888, just nine months after the Society itself was founded. The hallmark of National Geographic, reinventing it from a text-oriented entity closer to a scientific journal, to a magazine famous for exclusive pictorial footage, was its January 1905 publication of several full-page pictures made in Tibet in 1900–1901 by two explorers from the Russian Empire, Gombojab Tsybikov and Ovshe Norzunov. The June 1985 cover portrait of 13-year-old Afghan girl Sharbat Gula became one of the magazine's most recognizable images.

In the late 1990s and 2000s, prolonged litigation over copyright of the magazine as a collective work in Greenberg v. National Geographic and other cases caused National Geographic to withdraw from the market a digital compilation of all its past issues of the magazine. Two different federal appellate courts have now ruled in National Geographic's favor in permitting an electronic reproduction of the paper magazine and the U.S. Supreme Court denied certiorari in December 2008. In July 2009 National Geographic announced that it will release a new electronic version of the magazine's 120 year archive on six DVDs and a hard drive at a MSRP of $69.95 and $199.95 respectively. Both sets are scheduled to be released on November 1, 2009. More information at www.completenatgeo.com.

In 2006, National Geographic writer Paul Salopek was arrested and charged with espionage, entering Sudan without a visa, and other crimes by the government of Sudan while on assignment for a feature article. After National Geographic and the Chicago Tribune, for whom Salopek also wrote, mounted a legal defense and led an international appeal to Sudan, Salopek was eventually released.

Articles

During the Cold War, the magazine committed itself to presenting a balanced view of the physical and human geography of nations beyond the Iron Curtain. The magazine printed articles on Berlin, de-occupied Austria, the Soviet Union, and Communist China that deliberately downplayed politics to focus on culture. In its coverage of the Space Race, National Geographic focused on the scientific achievement while largely avoiding reference to the race's connection to nuclear arms buildup.

In later years articles became outspoken on issues such as environment, deforestation, chemical pollution, global warming, and endangered species. Series of articles were included focusing on the history and varied uses of specific products such as a single metal, gem, food crop, or agricultural product, or an archaeological discovery. Occasionally an entire month's issue would be devoted to a single country, past civilization, a natural resource whose future is endangered, or other theme. In recent decades, the National Geographic Society has unveiled other magazines with different focuses.

Photography

Color photograph of the Taj Mahal. Source: The National Geographic Magazine, March 1921

In addition to being well-known for articles about scenery, history, and the most distant corners of the world, the magazine has been recognized for its book-like quality and its standard of photography. This standard makes it the home to some of the highest-quality photojournalism in the world. The magazine began to feature color photography in the early 20th century, when this technology was still rare. During the 1930s, Luis Marden (1913–2003), a writer and photographer for National Geographic, convinced the magazine to allow its photographers to use small 35 mm cameras loaded with Kodachrome film over bulkier cameras with tripods and glass plates. In 1959, the magazine started publishing small photographs on its covers, later becoming larger photographs. National Geographic photography has quickly shifted to digital photography for both its magazine on paper and its website. In subsequent years, the magazine cover, while keeping its yellow border, shed its oak leaf trim and bare table of contents, for a large photograph taken from one of the month's articles inside. Issues of National Geographic are often kept by subscribers for years and re-sold at thrift stores as collectible back-issues. In 2006, National Geographic began an international photography competition with over eighteen countries participating.

See also: Red Shirt School of Photography

Map supplements

Supplementing the articles, the magazine sometimes provides maps of the regions visited.

National Geographic Maps (originally the Cartographic Division) became a division of the National Geographic Society in 1915. The first supplement map, which appeared in the May 1918 issue of the magazine, titled The Western Theatre of War, served as a reference for overseas military personnel and soldier's families alike.[2] On some occasions, the Society's map archives have been used by the United States government in instances where its own cartographic resources were limited.[3] President Franklin D. Roosevelt's White House map room was filled with National Geographic maps. A National Geographic map of Europe is featured in the displays of the Winston Churchill museum in London showing Churchill's markings at the Yalta Conference where the Allied leaders divided post-war Europe.

In 2001, National Geographic released an eight-CD-ROM set containing all its maps from 1888 to December 2000. Printed versions are also available from NGMapcollection.com.

Language editions

In 1995, National Geographic began publishing in Japanese, its first local language edition. The magazine is now published in thirty-two (32) different language editions around the world, including: English on a worldwide basis: Bulgarian, traditional and simplified character Chinese, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hebrew and an Orthodox Hebrew edition, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, two Portuguese language editions, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovene, two Spanish language editions, Swedish, Thai, and Turkish. The 33rd language edition was launched in Lithuania on September 24, 2009.

Language Website Editor-in-chief First issue
English www.nationalgeographic.com/ngm Chris Johns October 1888
Bulgarian www.nationalgeographic.bg Krassimir Drumev November 2005
Chinese (Mainland China) www.huaxia-ng.com Ye Nan July 2007
Chinese (Taiwan) www.nationalgeographic.com.tw Roger Pan January 2001
Croatian www.nationalgeographic.com.hr Hrvoje Prćić November 2003
Czech www.national-geographic.cz Tomáš Tureček October 2002
Danish www.nationalgeographic.dk Karen Gunn September 2000
Dutch (Netherlands/Belgium) www.nationalgeographic.nl Aart Aarsbergen October 2000
Finnish www.nationalgeographic-suomi.com Karen Gunn January 2001
French www.nationalgeographic.fr François Marot October 1999
German www.nationalgeographic.de Erwin Brunner October 1999
Greek www.nationalgeographic.gr Maria Atmatzidou October 1998
Hungarian www.geographic.hu Tamás Schlosser March 2003
Hebrew Daphne Raz June 1998 (Orthodox Hebrew edition: April 2007)
Indonesian www.nationalgeographic.co.id Tantyo Bangun March 2005
Italian www.nationalgeographic.it Guglielmo Pepe February 1998
Japanese www.nationalgeographic.jp Hiroyuki Fujita April 1995
Korean (South Korea) www.nationalgeographic.co.kr Kay Wang January 2000
Lithuanian www.nationalgeographic.lt Frederikas Jansonas October 2009
Norwegian www.nationalgeographic.no Karen Gunn September 2000
Polish www.nationalgeographic.pl Martyna Wojciechowska October 1999
Portuguese (Brazil) nationalgeographic.abril.com.br Matthew Shirts May 2000
Portuguese (Portugal) www.nationalgeographic.pt Gonçalo Pereira April 2001
Romanian www.national-geographic.ro Cristian Lascu May 2003
Russian www.national-geographic.ru Andrei Doubrovski October 2003
Serbian www.nationalgeographic-srbija.com Igor Rill November 2006
Slovene www.nationalgeographic.si Marija Javornik April 2006
Spanish (Latin America) www.ngenespanol.com Omar Lopez November 1997
Spanish (Spain) www.nationalgeographic.com.es Josep Cabello October 1997
Swedish www.nationalgeographic.se Karen Gunn September 2000
Thai www.ngthai.com Kowit Phadungruangkij August 2001/2544
Turkish www.nationalgeographic.com.tr Nesibe Bat May 2001

In April 2005, an Indonesian edition launched, published by Gramedia Majalah. A Bulgarian edition of the magazine published by a Sanoma Publishing joint venture launched in November, 2005 and a Slovenian edition published by Rokus launched in May, 2006. In association with Trends Publications in Beijing and IDG Asia, National Geographic has been authorized for "copyright cooperation" in China to publish the yellow border magazine, which launched with the July 2007 issue of the magazine with an event in Beijing on July 10, 2007 and another event on December 6, 2007 in Beijing also celebrating the 29th anniversary of normalization of U.S.–China relations featuring former President Jimmy Carter. A Serbian edition of National Geographic was launched with the November 2006 issue in partnership with a joint venture of Sanoma and Gruner + Jahr. A Hebrew edition has recently launched in Israel.

In contrast to the United States, where membership in the National Geographic Society was until recently the only way to receive the magazine, the worldwide editions are sold on newsstands in addition to regular subscriptions. In several countries, such as Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia, and Turkey, National Geographic paved the way for a subscription model in addition to traditional newsstand sales.

Awards

On May 1, 2008, National Geographic won three National Magazine Awards—an award solely for its written content—in the reporting category for an article by Peter Hessler on the Chinese economy; an award in the photojournalism category for work by John Stanmeyer on malaria in the Third World; and a prestigious award for general excellence.[4]

Criticism

Linda Steet in her book Veils and Daggers: A Century of National Geographic's Representation of the Arab World criticizes National Geographic for its "masculinist rhetoric, the one-directionality of its cross-cultural contact, its claim of objectivity and representations that build layers of a... world hierarchy".[5] Lutz and Collins in their book Reading National Geographic argue that National Geographic is intimately tied to the American establishment and "cultivates ties to government officials and corporate interests".[6] Rothenberg suggests that National Geographic, as a part of mainstream popular culture, has historically helped to articulate a particularly American identity in opposition to "both old Europe and primitive non-Western regions... an identity of civic and technological superiority but yet, a distinctly benign and friendly identity".[7]

The book Reading National Geographic notes how photos are sometimes electronically manipulated.[8] In one photo of bare-breasted Polynesian women, the skin color was darkened.[8] Women with light skin have not appeared topless in the magazine.[8] The book also documents how NG photographers have encouraged their subjects to change costumes when their clothing was seen as "too drab" for the magazine.[8] Summarizing an analysis of NG photographs from 1950-1986, the authors argue the following themes: "The people of the third and fourth worlds are portrayed as exotic; they are idealized; they are naturalized and taken out of all but a single historical narrative; and they are sexualized. Several of these themes wax and wane in importance through the postwar period, but none is ever absent."[9]

Gallery

See also

Notes

  1. ^ National Geographic Fact Sheet
  2. ^ "Maps of the News - December 2009 Edition", Contours, The Official National Geographic Maps Blog, posted December 17, 2009, accessed at http://natgeomaps.blogspot.com/2009/12/maps-of-news-december-2009-edition.html
  3. ^ Grosvenor, Gilbert (1950). Map Services of the National Geographic Society. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.  
  4. ^ Pérez-Peña, Richard. "National Geographic Wins 3 Awards, Honored Beyond Photography". The New York Times, May 2, 2008. Accessed 8 January 2010.
  5. ^ Steet, Linda (2000), Veils and Daggers: A Century of National Geographic's Representation of the Arab World, p. 5.
  6. ^ Lutz, Catherine and Jane Collins (1993), Reading National Geographic, p. 5.
  7. ^ Rothenberg, Tamar (2007), Presenting America's World: Strategies of Innocence in National Geographic Magazine, 1888–1945, p. 5.
  8. ^ a b c d Iezza, Cora McGovern. "Reading Reading National Geographic". 1997. (Via the Internet Archive.)
  9. ^ Lutz, Catherine and Jane Collins (1993), Reading National Geographic, p. 89.

External links

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National Geographic
File:Jan
January 2007 Cover of the National Geographic Magazine
Editor Chris Johns
Categories Geography, Science, History, Nature
Frequency Monthly
First issue October 1888[1]
Company National Geographic Society
Country  United States
Language English
Website www.nationalgeographic.com
ISSN 0027-9358

The National Geographic Magazine, later shortened to National Geographic, is the official journal of the National Geographic Society. It published its first issue in 1888, just nine months after the Society itself was founded. It is immediately identifiable by the characteristic yellow frame that surrounds its front cover.

There are 12 monthly issues of the National Geographic per year, plus additional map supplements. On rare occasions, special editions are also issued. It contains articles about geography, popular science, history, culture, current events, and photography. The current Editor-in-Chief of the National Geographic Magazine is Chris Johns, who was named Editor of the Year in October 2008 by Advertising Age Magazine at the American Magazine Conference.

Society Executive Vice President and President of the Magazine Group John Q. Griffin, who also is Chairman of the Magazine Publishers of America, has overall responsibility for the English language magazines at National Geographic. He reports to Tim Kelly, President, National Geographic Global Media. Terry B. Adamson, Executive Vice President of the Society and the Society's chief legal officer and heads governmental relations, has overall responsibility for the Society's international publications, including National Geographic Magazine.

With a worldwide circulation in thirty-two language editions of nearly nine million, more than fifty million people receive the magazine every month[citation needed]. In May 2007 and 2008, National Geographic magazine won the American Society of Magazine Editors' General Excellence Award in the over two million circulation category and the best photography award for three issues of the magazine in 2006. A nominee for the General Excellence award in 2009, National Geographic won the top award for editorial photography.

Contents

History

The first issue of National Geographic Magazine was published in 1888, just nine months after the Society itself was founded. The hallmark of National Geographic, reinventing it from a text-oriented entity closer to a scientific journal, to a magazine famous for exclusive pictorial footage, was its January 1905 publication of several full-page pictures made in Tibet in 1900–1901 by two explorers from the Russian Empire, Gombojab Tsybikov and Ovshe Norzunov. The June 1985 cover portrait of 13-year-old Afghan girl Sharbat Gula became one of the magazine's most recognizable images.

In the late 1990s and 2000s, prolonged litigation over copyright of the magazine as a collective work in Greenberg v. National Geographic and other cases caused National Geographic to withdraw from the market a digital compilation of all its past issues of the magazine. Two different federal appellate courts have now ruled in National Geographic's favor in permitting an electronic reproduction of the paper magazine and the U.S. Supreme Court denied certiorari in December 2008. National Geographic is expected to release a new electronic version of the magazine's 120 year archive sometime in 2009.

In 2006, National Geographic writer Paul Salopek was arrested and charged with espionage, entering Sudan without a visa, and other crimes by the Government of Sudan while on assignment for a feature article. After National Geographic and the Chicago Tribune, for whom Salopek also wrote, mounted a legal defense and led an international appeal to Sudan, Salopek was eventually released.

Articles

During the Cold War, the magazine committed itself to presenting a balanced view of the physical and human geography of nations beyond the Iron Curtain. The magazine printed articles on Berlin, de-occupied Austria, the Soviet Union, and Communist China that deliberately downplayed politics to focus on culture. In its coverage of the Space Race, National Geographic focused on the scientific achievement while largely avoiding reference to the race's connection to nuclear arms buildup.

In later years articles became outspoken on issues such as environment, deforestation, chemical pollution, global warming, and endangered species. Series of articles were included focusing on the history and varied uses of specific products such as a single metal, gem, food crop, or agricultural product, or an archaeological discovery. Occasionally an entire month's issue would be devoted to a single country, past civilization, a natural resource whose future is endangered, or other theme. In recent decades, the National Geographic Society has unveiled other magazines with different focuses.

Photography

. Source:The National Geographic Magazine, March 1921]] In addition to being well-known for articles about scenery, history, and the most distant corners of the world, the magazine has been recognized for its book-like quality and its standard of photography. This standard makes it the home to some of the highest-quality photojournalism in the world. The magazine began to feature color photography in the early 20th century, when this technology was still rare. During the 1930s, Luis Marden (1913-2003), a writer and photographer for National Geographic, convinced the magazine to allow its photographers to use small 35 mm cameras loaded with Kodachrome film over bulkier cameras with tripods and glass plates. In 1959, the magazine started publishing small photographs on its covers, later becoming larger photographs. National Geographic photography has quickly shifted to digital photography for both its magazine on paper and its website. In subsequent years, the magazine cover, while keeping its yellow border, shed its oak leaf trim and bare table of contents, for a large photograph taken from one of the month's articles inside. National Geographic are often kept by subscribers for years and re-sold at thrift stores as collectible back-issues. In 2006, National Geographic began an international photography competition with over eighteen countries participating

See also: Red Shirt School of Photography

Map supplements

of a polar bear.]]

Supplementing the articles, the magazine sometimes provides maps of the regions visited. The Society's map archives have been used by the United States government in instances where its own cartographic resources were limited.[citation needed] President Franklin Roosevelt's White House map room was filled with National Geographic maps. A National Geographic map of Europe is featured in the displays of the Winston Churchill museum in London showing Churchill's markings at the Yalta Conference where the Allied and Russian leaders divided post-war Europe. In 2001, National Geographic released an eight-CD-ROM set containing all its maps from 1888 to December 2000. Printed versions are also available from NGMapcollection.com - [1]

Language editions

In 1995, National Geographic began publishing in Japanese, its first local language edition. The magazine is now published in thirty-two (32) different language editions around the world, including: English on a worldwide basis: Bulgarian, traditional and simplified character Chinese, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hebrew and an Orthodox Hebrew edition, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, two Portuguese language editions, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovene, two Spanish language editions, Swedish, Thai, and Turkish.

Language Website Editor-in-chief
English http://www.nationalgeographic.com/ngm Chris Johns
Bulgarian http://www.nationalgeographic.bg Krassimir Drumev
Chinese (Mainland China) http://www.natgeo.com.cn/ Yungshih Lee
Chinese (Taiwan) http://www.nationalgeographic.com.tw/ Roger Pan
Croatian http://www.nationalgeographic.com.hr/ Hrvoje Prćić
Czech http://www.national-geographic.cz/ Tomáš Tureček
Danish http://www.nationalgeographic.dk/ Karen Gunn
Dutch (Netherlands/Belgium) http://www.nationalgeographic.nl/ Aart Aarsbergen
Finnish http://www.nationalgeographic-suomi.com/ Karen Gunn
French http://www.nationalgeographic.fr/ François Marot
German http://www.nationalgeographic.de/ Klaus Liedtke
Greek http://www.nationalgeographic.gr/ Maria Atmatzidou
Hungarian http://www.geographic.hu/ Tamás Schlosser
Hebrew Daphne Raz
Indonesian http://www.nationalgeographic.co.id/ Tantyo Bangun
Italian http://www.nationalgeographic.it/ Guglielmo Pepe
Japanese http://www.nationalgeographic.jp/ Hiroyuki Fujita
Korean (South Korea) http://www.nationalgeographic.co.kr/ Kay Wang
Norwegian http://www.nationalgeographic.no/ Karen Gunn
Polish http://www.nationalgeographic.pl/ Martyna Wojciechowska
Portuguese (Brazil) http://nationalgeographic.abril.com.br/ Matthew Shirts
Portuguese (Portugal) http://www.nationalgeographic.pt/ Gonçalo Pereira
Romanian http://www.national-geographic.ro/ Cristian Lascu
Russian http://www.national-geographic.ru/ Andrei Doubrovski
Serbian http://www.nationalgeographic-srbija.com/index.php Igor Rill
Slovene http://www.nationalgeographic.si/ Miha Kovač
Spanish (Latin America) http://www.ngenespanol.com/ Omar Lopez
Spanish (Spain) http://www.nationalgeographic.com.es/ Josep Cabello
Swedish http://www.nationalgeographic.se/ Karen Gunn
Thai http://www.ngthai.com/ Kowit Phadungruangkij
Turkish http://www.nationalgeographic.com.tr Nesibe Bat

A Ukrainian edition in the Ukrainian language was to be launched as the thirty-third language edition in December 2008, but has been postponed due to the global economic crisis. National Geographic has announced plans to launch a Lithuanian language edition in October 2009. In April 2005, an Indonesian edition launched, published by Gramedia Majalah - Jakarta. A Bulgarian edition of the magazine published by a Sanoma Publishing joint venture launched in November, 2005 and a Slovenian edition published by Rokus launched in May, 2006. In association with Trends Publications in Beijing and IDG Asia, National Geographic has been authorized for "copyright cooperation" in China to publish the yellow border magazine, which recently launched with the July 2007 issue of the magazine with an event in Beijing on July 10, 2007 and another event on December 6, 2007 in Beijing also celebrating the 29th anniversary of normalization of U.S. - China relations featuring former President Jimmy Carter. A Serbian edition of National Geographic was launched with the November 2006 issue in partnership with a joint venture of Sanoma and Gruner + Jahr. A Hebrew edition has recently launched in Israel.

In contrast to the United States, where membership in the National Geographic Society was until recently the only way to receive the magazine, the worldwide editions are sold on newsstands in addition to regular subscriptions. In several countries, such as Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia, and Turkey, National Geographic paved the way for a subscription model in addition to traditional newsstand sales.

Awards

On May 1, 2008, National Geographic won 3 National Magazine Awards: an award solely for its written content — in the reporting category for an article by Peter Hessler on the Chinese economy; an award in the photojournalism category for work by John Stanmeyer on malaria in the third world; and a prestigious award for general excellence.[2]

See also

References and footnotes

External links


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

The National Geographic Magazine
published by the National Geographic Society

The National Geographic Magazine is published by the National Geographic Society. This is a partial list of the volumes which are currently in the public domain. The articles are listed in order of appearance by volume.

Note: The word “The” appeared in the title of earlier editions of this magazine, but that is no longer the case.
Volumes
31. January–June, 1917
32. July–December, 1917
35. January–June, 1919

See also


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