The Full Wiki

National Mall: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on National Mall

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

National Mall
U.S. National Register of Historic Places
Facing east across the Mall towards the Capitol
Location: Between Independence and Constitution Avenues from the Capitol to the Lincoln Memorial
Architect: Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant; McMillan Commission
Governing body: National Park Service
Added to NRHP: October 15, 1966
NRHP Reference#: 66000031[1]

The National Mall is an open-area national park in downtown Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. The National Mall is a unit of the National Park Service (NPS), and is administered by the National Mall and Memorial Parks unit.[2] The term "National Mall" commonly includes areas that are officially part of West Potomac Park and Constitution Gardens to the west, and often is taken to refer to the entire area between the Lincoln Memorial and the United States Capitol, with the Washington Monument providing a division slightly west of the center. The National Mall receives approximately 24 million visitors each year.[3]

Contents

History

The National Mall was the centerpiece of the 1901 McMillan Plan. A central pathway traversed the length of the Mall.

In his 1791 plan for the future city of Washington, D.C., Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant envisioned a garden-lined "grand avenue" approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) in length and 400 feet (120 m) wide, in an area that would lie between the Capitol building and an equestrian statue of George Washington to be placed directly south of the White House.[4][5][6] The National Mall occupies the site of this planned "grand avenue", which was never constructed. The Washington Monument stands near the planned site of its namesake's equestrian statue.

During the early 1850s, horticulturist Andrew Jackson Downing designed a landscape plan for the Mall. Over the next half century, federal agencies developed several naturalistic parks within the Mall in accordance with Downing's plan. In addition, railroad tracks crossed the Mall west of the Capitol. Near the tracks, a large market (Central Market) and a railroad station rose on the north side of the Mall. Greenhouses belonging to the U.S. Botanic Garden appeared near the east end of the Mall.[7]

In 1901, the McMillan Commission's plan, which was partially inspired by the City Beautiful Movement and which purportedly extended L'Enfant's plan, called for a radical redesign of the Mall that would replace its greenhouses, gardens, trees and commercial/industrial facilities with an open space. The plan differed from L’Enfant’s by replacing the 400 feet (120 m) wide "grand avenue" with a 300 feet (91 m) wide expanse of grass lined on either side by symmetrical rows of American elms bordered by streets and buildings. A path reminiscent of L'Enfant's "grand avenue", but of lesser width, would traverse the length of the mall at its center.[8][9] However, in 2002, the National Mall had instead as its central feature a grassy lawn flanked on each side by unpaved tree-lined paths.[10]

In 1918, contractors for the United States Navy's Bureau of Yards and Docks constructed the "Main Navy" and "Munitions" Buildings along nearly a third of a mile of the south side of Constitution Avenue (then known as B Street), from 17th Street Northwest (NW) to 21st Street NW.[11][12][13] Although the Navy intended the buildings to provide temporary quarters for the United States military during World War I, the reinforced concrete structures remained in place until 1970.[11][12] Much of the buildings' area then became Constitution Gardens, which was dedicated in 1976.[12][14]

On October 15, 1966, the National Mall was listed on National Register of Historic Places.[15] In 1981, the NPS prepared a National Register nomination form that documented the Mall's historical significance.[4] More recently, the 108th United States Congress enacted the Commemorative Works Clarification and Revision Act of 2003, which prohibits the siting of new commemorative works and visitor centers in a designated reserve area within the cross-axis of the Mall.[16]

Dimensions

Boundaries of the National Mall

The official boundaries of the National Mall (National Mall proper) are Constitution and Pennsylvania Avenues on the north, 1st Street, NW on the east, Independence and Maryland Avenues on the south, and 14th Street, NW on the west, with the exception of the section of land bordered by Jefferson Drive on the north, Independence Avenue on the south, and by 12th and 14th Streets respectively on the east and west, which the U.S. Department of Agriculture administers.[4] However, people often consider areas outside of these boundaries to be part of the Mall.

Landmarks, museums and other features

United States Geological Survey satellite images of National Mall (April 2002)
2002 satellite image of National Mall (west)
West end of National Mall, showing Lincoln Memorial (#1 on image), Vietnam Veterans Memorial (#2 on image), Constitution Gardens (above the Reflecting Pool) and construction site for the National World War II Memorial (#3 on image). The Washington Monument (#1 on image below) is to the right of the construction site. Below the Reflecting Pool (outside of the image) are the Korean War Veterans Memorial and the District of Columbia War Memorial.[17]
2002 satellite image of National Mall (east)
National Mall (proper). The Mall had a grassy lawn flanked on each side by unpaved paths as its central feature. (Numbers in image correspond to numbers in list of landmarks and features below.)[18]
View from the United States Capitol, facing west across the National Mall

The National Mall (proper) contains the following landmarks, museums and other features:[4]

2. National Museum of American History[19]
3. National Museum of Natural History
4. National Gallery of Art Sculpture Garden
5. West Building of the National Gallery of Art
6. East Building of the National Gallery of Art
8. Ulysses S. Grant Memorial
10. National Museum of the American Indian[20]

 

11. National Air and Space Museum
12. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
13. Arts and Industries Building
14. Smithsonian Institution Building ("The Castle")
15. Freer Gallery of Art
16. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
17. National Museum of African Art

 

Capitol Reflecting Pool (see United States Capitol Complex)
Peace Monument[21]
James A. Garfield Monument[22]
Andrew Jackson Downing Memorial Urn[23][24]
Joseph Henry Statue[25]
Smithsonian Carousel[26]

With the exception of the National Gallery of Art, all of the museums on the National Mall (proper) are part of the Smithsonian Institution. The Smithsonian maintains a number of gardens near its museums.[27] These gardens include:

Mary Livingston Ripley Garden[28][29]
Enid A. Haupt Garden[30][31]
Kathrine Dulin Folger Rose Garden[32]
Butterfly Habitat Garden[33]

 

Victory Garden at the National Museum of American History[34]
Heirloom Garden at the National Museum of American History, Behring Center[35]
Native Landscape at the National Museum of the American Indian[36]
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden[37]

West side of Jefferson Pier

As popularly understood, the Mall also contains landmarks and features that are east of 1st Street, such as the United States Capitol and its grounds (#7 on image) and some that are south of Maryland Avenue, such as the United States Botanic Garden (#9 on image). Many people also believe that the Mall contains landmarks and features that are west of 14th Street, NW, including the Washington Monument (#1 on image), the Monument's grounds and the following:

National Sylvan Theater
Lincoln Memorial
Lincoln Memorial Reflecting Pool

 

National World War II Memorial
Korean War Veterans Memorial
Vietnam Veterans Memorial

 

Constitution Gardens
District of Columbia War Memorial
Jefferson Pier

 

The Smithsonian Institution is planning to construct the National Museum of African American History and Culture on a 5 acres (2.0 ha) site between the grounds of the Washington Monument and the National Museum of American History. The boundaries of the museum site are Constitution Avenue on the north, Madison Drive on the south, 14th Street, NW on the east, and 15th Street, NW on the west. Construction is expected to begin in 2012.[38]

Other nearby attractions

Aerial view of the National Mall and Capitol Hill

Other attractions within walking distance of the National Mall include the Library of Congress and the United States Supreme Court Building east of the Capitol; the White House (on a line directly north of the Washington Monument), the National Archives, the Old Post Office Pavilion, the National Theatre, Ford's Theatre, and the Albert Einstein Memorial to the north; the National Postal Museum and Union Station to the northeast; and the Jefferson Memorial, the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial, the George Mason Memorial, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, and the Bureau of Engraving and Printing to the south.

The Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial, scheduled for completion in 2011, will be located on a 4 acres (1.6 ha) site south of the Mall on the northeast corner of the Tidal Basin. The site is within the sightline between the Jefferson and Lincoln Memorials.[39][40]

Usage of the National Mall

The National Mall, in combination with the other attractions in the Washington Metropolitan Area, makes the nation's capital city one of the most popular tourist destinations in the country. However, it has uses other than as a tourist focal point.

Advertisements

Protests and rallies

The 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on the National Mall

The National Mall's status as a wide, open expanse at the heart of the capital makes it an attractive site for protests and rallies of all types. One notable example is the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, a political rally for African American civil rights, at which Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his famous "I Have a Dream" speech.

The largest officially recorded rally was the Vietnam War Moratorium Rally on October 15, 1969. Although larger rallies may have occurred since that time, the United States Park Police no longer releases official estimates of crowd sizes on the Mall. One later rally that is claimed to have been the largest rally on the Mall was the 2004 March for Women's Lives. On January 27, 2007, tens of thousands of protesters opposed to the Iraq War, converged on the Mall, drawing comparisons by participants to the Vietnam War protest.[41][42][43][44]

Presidential inaugurations

Inauguration of Barack Obama on January 20, 2009

During presidential inaugurations, people without official tickets gather at the National Mall. Normally, the Mall between 7th and 14th Streets, NW is used as a staging ground for the parade.[45]

On December 4, 2008, the Presidential Inaugural Committee (see United States presidential inauguration#Organizers) announced that "for the first time, the entire length of the National Mall will be opened to the public so that more people than ever before will be able to witness the swearing-in of the President from a vantage point in sight of the Capitol."[46] This arrangement was made because of the massive turnout – projected to be as many 2 million people – expected for the inauguration of Barack Obama on January 20, 2009. Despite the arrangement, thousands of people with tickets were denied entrance to the event, including over 1000 who missed the event while being stranded in the I-395 Third Street Tunnel beneath the Mall after police directed them there (see Purple Tunnel of Doom).[47][48][49] The Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies subsequently announced that ticket holders that were not admitted would receive copies of the swearing-in invitation and program, photos of Obama and Vice President Joe Biden, and a color print of the ceremony.[50]

Other events and recreational activities

Independence Day fireworks display between the Washington Monument and the Lincoln Memorial, July 4, 1986

The National Mall has long served as a spot for jogging, picnics, and light recreation for the Washington population. The Smithsonian Carousel, located on the Mall in front of the Arts and Industry Building, is a popular attraction that operates seasonally.[51] The carousel was constructed in Gwynn Oak Park near Baltimore, Maryland, in 1947 and was moved to the Mall in 1975.[26]

Annual events

The Mall is host to several large annual events. On the last Saturday of March each year, the Smithsonian Kite Festival takes place on the Washington Monument grounds during the first day of the National Cherry Blossom Festival.[52][53]

An Earth Day celebration takes place on the Mall each year around April 22.[54][55] A week-long series of rallies, exhibits, observances and performances will occur on the Mall from April 17 to April 25, 2010 to commemorate Earth Day's 40th anniversary.[56]

A four-day exhibition takes place each year on the Mall during Public Service Recognition Week in early May. During that event, government agencies sponsor exhibits that display the works of public employees and that enable visitors to learn about government programs and initiatives, discuss employee benefits, and interact with agency representatives.[57][58]

Components of the United States Navy Band, the United States Air Force Band and the United States Army Band perform on the west steps of the United States Capitol on Monday, Wednesday and Friday evenings, respectively, during June, July and August.[59][60][61] On Monday nights during July and August, the Mall hosts the annual Screen on the Green movie festival.[62] The free classic movies are projected on large portable screens and typically draw crowds of thousands of people.

The Smithsonian Folklife Festival takes place on the Mall each year for two weeks around Independence Day (July 4).[63] On that holiday, the A Capitol Fourth concert takes place in the late afternoon and early evening on the west lawn of the Capitol.[64] This and other Independence Day celebrations on and near the Mall end after sunset with a fireworks display between the Washington Monument and the Lincoln Memorial.[65]

The National Book Festival takes place on the Mall each year in late September or early October.[66]

Other events

From 1980 through 1982, The Beach Boys and The Grass Roots performed Independence Day concerts on the Mall, attracting large crowds.[67][68] However, in April 1983, James G. Watt, President Ronald Reagan's Secretary of the Interior, banned Independence Day concerts on the Mall by such groups. Watt said that "rock bands" that had performed on the Mall on Independence Day in 1981 and 1982 had encouraged drug use and alcoholism and had attracted the "the wrong element", who would mug individuals and families attending any similar events in the future.[68] Watt then announced that Las Vegas crooner Wayne Newton, a friend and supporter of President Reagan and a contributor to Republican Party political campaigns, would perform at the Mall's 1983 Independence Day celebration.[68][69] During the ensuing uproar, Rob Grill, lead singer of The Grass Roots, stated that he felt "highly insulted" by Watt's remarks, which he called "nothing but un-American".[68] The Beach Boys stated that the Soviet Union, which had invited them to perform in Leningrad in 1978, "obviously .... did not feel that the group attracted the wrong element".[68] Vice President George H. W. Bush said of The Beach Boys, "They're my friends and I like their music".[68] When Newton entered an Independence Day stage on the Mall on July 4, 1983, members of his audience booed.[70][71][72] Watt apologized to The Beach Boys, First Lady Nancy Reagan apologized for Watt, and in 1984 The Beach Boys gave an Independence Day concert on the Mall to an audience of 750,000 people.[70][73][74][75]

On September 4, 2003, Britney Spears, Mary J. Blige, Aretha Franklin, Aerosmith and others performed in a nationally-televised "NFL Kickoff Live from the National Mall Presented by Pepsi Vanilla".[76] Preceded by a three-day National Football League "interactive Super Bowl theme park", the event had primarily commercial purposes, unlike earlier major activities on the Mall.

On July 7, 2007, one leg of Live Earth was held outdoors at the National Museum of the American Indian on the Mall. Former Vice President Al Gore presented, and artists such as Garth Brooks and Trisha Yearwood performed.[77]

The inaugural USA Science & Engineering Festival Expo will take place on the National Mall on October 23 and 24, 2010. The event organizers expect that over 300 organizations will host exhibits.[78]

Transportation

Public Transportation

The National Mall is accessible via Washington Metro, with the Smithsonian station located on the south side of the Mall, near the Smithsonian Institution Building between the Washington Monument and the United States Capitol.[79][80] The Federal Triangle, Archives–Navy Memorial–Penn Quarter, and Union Station Metro stations are also located near the Mall, to the north.[81][82][83] The L'Enfant Plaza, Federal Center Southwest and Capitol South Metro stations are located several blocks south of the Mall.[84][85][86] Metrobus and the DC Circulator make scheduled stops around the Mall.[87][88]

Bicycles

The NPS provides parking facilities for bicycles near each of the major memorials as well as along the National Mall.[89] From March to October, an NPS concessionaire rents out bicycles at the Thompson Boat Center, located near the intersection of Virginia Avenue, Northwest and Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway, 1 mile (1.6 km) north of the Lincoln Memorial along the Potomac River-Rock Creek Trail.[89][90][91]

Motor vehicle parking

General visitor parking is available along Ohio Drive, Southwest (SW), between the Lincoln and Thomas Jefferson Memorials. Bus parking is available primarily along Ohio Drive, SW, near the Lincoln and Thomas Jefferson Memorials and along Ohio Drive, SW, in East Potomac Park. There is limited handicapped parking at the Franklin Delano Roosevelt and World War II Memorials and near the Washington Monument and the Thomas Jefferson, Lincoln, Korean War Veterans, and Vietnam Veterans Memorials; otherwise, parking is extremely scarce in and near the Mall.[92]

National Mall Plan

The NPS is currently sponsoring a public process that will create a plan for the future of the National Mall. In 2009, the NPS issued a draft environmental impact statement (EIS) for the plan. The public comment period for the draft EIS will end on March 18, 2010.[93]

Notes and references

  1. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2007-01-23. http://www.nr.nps.gov/. 
  2. ^ National Mall & Memorial Parks - National Mall & Memorial Parks (U.S. National Park Service)
  3. ^ U.S. National Park Service
  4. ^ a b c d "National Register of Historic Places Inventory Registration Form: National Mall". National Park Service. 1981-05-19. http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NRHP/Text/66000031.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  5. ^ "Map 1: The L'Enfant Plan for Washington". National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/62wash/62locate1.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-27. 
  6. ^ L'Enfant identified himself as "Peter Charles L'Enfant" during most of his life, while residing in the United States. He wrote this name on his "Plan of the city intended for the permanent seat of the government of t(he) United States ...." (Washington, D.C.) and on other legal documents. However, during the early 1900's, a French ambassador to the U.S., Jean Jules Jusserand, popularized the use of L'Enfant's birth name, "Pierre Charles L'Enfant". (See: Bowling, Kenneth R (2002). Peter Charles L'Enfant: vision, honor, and male friendship in the early American Republic. George Washington University, Washington, D.C.) The National Park Service identifies L'Enfant as Major Peter Charles L'Enfant and as Major Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant on its website. The United States Code states in 40 U.S.C. § 3309: "(a) In General.—The purposes of this chapter shall be carried out in the District of Columbia as nearly as may be practicable in harmony with the plan of Peter Charles L'Enfant."
  7. ^ Chronological tour of the Mall in The Mall: The Grand Avenue, The Government, and The People. University of Virginia website created by Mary Halnon. Retrieved 2009-11-05.
  8. ^ "The L'Enfant and McMillan Plans", Washington, D.C.: A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary. (National Park Service) Retrieved 2009-10-27
  9. ^ A HISTORY OF THE NATIONAL MALL AND PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE NATIONAL HISTORIC PARK in official website of the National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-11-05.
  10. ^ April 26, 2002, USGS satellite image of National Mall.
  11. ^ a b "Main Navy Building: Its Construction and Original Occupants". Naval Historical Foundation. 1970-08-01. http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/main_navy_bldg.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  12. ^ a b c ""Main Navy" and "Munitions" Buildings". Naval Historical Center. 2001-09-22. http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/pl-usa/pl-dc/nav-fac/mn-mun.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  13. ^ United States Bureau of Yards and Docks (1921). Activities of the Bureau of Yards and Docks. Government Printing Office. pp. p. 480. http://www.archive.org/details/activitiesofbure00unit. 
  14. ^ "Constitution Gardens". National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/coga. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  15. ^ [http://planning.dc.gov/planning/frames.asp?doc=/planning/lib/planning/preservation/inventory/2009_alpha_version.pdf "DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA INVENTORY OF HISTORIC SITES: ALPHABETICAL VERSION"]. Historic Preservation Office, Office of Planning, Government of the District of Columbia. 2009. http://planning.dc.gov/planning/frames.asp?doc=/planning/lib/planning/preservation/inventory/2009_alpha_version.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  16. ^ Commemorative Works Clarification and Revision Act of 2003, in Public Law 108-126, November 17, 2003, Title II (117 Stat. 1349 - 117 Stat. 1353). Retrieved 2010-02-04.
  17. ^ Date of image: April 22, 2002.
  18. ^ Date of image: April 26, 2002.
  19. ^ Numbers preceding names of landmarks correspond to numbers in 2002 satellite image of the National Mall (proper).
  20. ^ 2002 satellite image shows construction site of National Museum of the American Indian
  21. ^ {cite web|url=http://www.aoc.gov/cc/grounds/art_arch/peace.cfm Peace Monument |publisher=Architect of the Capitol |access date=2010-03-18}}
  22. ^ "GARFIELD, James Abram: Memorial west of the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C., by John Quincy Adams Ward". dcMemorials.com. http://dcmemorials.com/index_indiv0000280.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  23. ^ "The Downing Urn in the Enid A. Haupt Garden". Smithsonian Institution. http://www.gardens.si.edu/horticulture/gardens/Haupt/Downing/down.html. Retrieved 2010-03-18. 
  24. ^ "DOWNING, Andrew Jackson: Urn on the east side of the Arts & Industries Bldg in Washington, D.C. by Robert E Launitz, Calvert Vaux". dcMemorials.com. 2008. http://dcmemorials.com/index_indiv0000453.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  25. ^ "Statue of Joseph Henry on National Mall". KittyTours, by Jean K. Rosales, Ph.D. and Michael R. Jobe. http://www.kittytours.org/thatman2/search.asp?subject=6. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  26. ^ "Smithsonian Gardens". Smithsonian Institute. http://www.gardens.si.edu/horticulture/gardens1.htm. Retrieved 2010-10-13. 
  27. ^ "Mary Livingston Ripley Garden". Smithsonian Institution. http://www.gardens.si.edu/horticulture/gardens/Ripley/ripley1.html. Retrieved 2010-10-23. 
  28. ^ Marie Nesius (2004). "Mary Livingston Ripley Garden". Kanawha County Master Gardeners, West Virginia. http://wvgardengate.homestead.com/Mary_Livingston_Ripley_Garden.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-18. 
  29. ^ "Enid A. Haupt Garden". Smithsonian Institution. http://www.gardens.si.edu/horticulture/gardens/Haupt/hpt_home.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-18. 
  30. ^ "Enid A. Haupt Garden". Frommer's Review: Wiley Publishing, Inc.. http://www.frommers.com/destinations/washingtondc/A21275.html. Retrieved 10-03-18. 
  31. ^ "Kathrine Dulin Folger Rose Garden". Smithsonian Institution. http://www.gardens.si.edu/horticulture/gardens/folger/folger1.html. Retrieved 2010-03-18. 
  32. ^ "Butterfly Habitat Garden". Smithsonian Institution. http://www.gardens.si.edu/horticulture/gardens/nmnh/butterfly.html. Retrieved 2010-03-18. 
  33. ^ "Victory Garden at National Museum of American History". Smithsonian Institution. http://www.gardens.si.edu/horticulture/gardens/nmah/victory.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-18. 
  34. ^ "Heirloom Garden at the National Museum of American History, Behring Center". Smithsonian Institution. http://www.gardens.si.edu/horticulture/gardens/nmah/heir_homepage.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-18. 
  35. ^ "Native Landscape at the National Museum of the American Indian". Smithsonian Institution. http://www.gardens.si.edu/horticulture/gardens/nmai/nmai.html. Retrieved 2010-03-18. 
  36. ^ "Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden". Smithsonian Institution. http://www.gardens.si.edu/horticulture/gardens/hirshhorn/hirshhorn.html. Retrieved 2010-03-18. 
  37. ^ "Building Design Update: Building the National Museum of African American History and Culture". Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture. http://nmaahc.si.edu/section/about_us/view/63. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  38. ^ "Washington, D.C. Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial: About the Memorial: Site Location". Washington, DC Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial Project Foundation, Inc.. http://www.mlkmemorial.org/site/c.hkIUL9MVJxE/b.1190619/k.932C/Site_Location.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  39. ^ Quinn, Christopher (2010-01-17). "King Memorial done by 2011, construction started". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. http://www.ajc.com/news/king-memorial-done-by-277144.html. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  40. ^ Ian Urbina (2007-01-28). "Wide opposition to war energizes protests / Washington: Jane Fonda among celebrity protesters joining veterans, politicians in calling for end to war". San Francisco Chronicle. http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/01/28/MNGASNQDO81.DTL. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
  41. ^ Calvin Woodward and Larry Margasak (2007-01-28). "Crowds on Both Coasts Protest Iraq War". Guardian Unlimited. http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,,-6376579,00.html. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
  42. ^ Ian Urbina (2007-01-28). "Protest Focuses on Iraq Troop Increase". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/28/washington/28protest.html?hp&ex=1170046800&en=defcbb536a8a2453&ei=5094&partner=homepage. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
  43. ^ Deborah Charles (2007-01-28). "Tens of thousands demand U.S. get out of Iraq". The Star. http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2007/1/28/worldupdates/2007-01-28T093422Z_01_NOOTR_RTRJONC_0_-285278-1&sec=Worldupdates. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
  44. ^ "Entire Mall To Be Open To Public". The Washington Post. 2008-12-05. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/12/04/AR2008120403719.html?hpid=topnews. Retrieved 2008-12-05. 
  45. ^ "National Mall Will Be Open to the Public on Inauguration Day". Presidential Inauguration Committee. 2008-12-04. http://www.pic2009.org/pressroom/entry/open_inauguration/. Retrieved 2008-12-06. 
  46. ^ Constable, Pamela; Sheridan, Mary Beth (2009-01-22). "Ticket and Travel Troubles Cloud Inauguration Success". The Washington Post: p. A01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/01/21/AR2009012104248.html?sid=ST2009012003386&s_pos=. Retrieved 2009-01-22. 
  47. ^ "Surviving the Purple Tunnel of Doom: Ticketed paradegoers stranded in tunnel". NBC Washington. 2009-01-21. http://www.nbcwashington.com/news/local-beat/Surviving-the-Purple-Tunnel-of-Doom.html. Retrieved 2010-03-01. 
  48. ^ Coordinates of Third Street Tunnel: 38°53′23″N 77°00′52″W / 38.8897468°N 77.0143747°W / 38.8897468; -77.0143747 (I-395 Third Street Tunnel)
  49. ^ Stabley, Matthew (2009-01-29). "No Consolation: Parting gifts for blocked ticket holders". NBC Washington. http://www.nbcwashington.com/news/local/No-Consolation-Blocked-Ticket-Holders-Get-Parting-Gifts.html. Retrieved 2009-04-16. 
  50. ^ "Welcome to the Smithsonian". Smithsonian Institution. August 2006. http://www.si.edu/guides/english.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-22. 
  51. ^ "Smithsonian Kite Festival". The Smithsonian Associates. http://kitefestival.org/start.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  52. ^ "National Cherry Blossom Festival". National Cherry Blossom Festival. http://www.nationalcherryblossomfestival.org/cms/index.php?id=390. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  53. ^ Valerie Strauss, "Raining on Her Own Parade: Earth Day Festival 'Great' Despite Mother Nature's Whims", The Washington Post, April 21, 2008, p. B1. Retrieved 2010-02-25.
  54. ^ J. Freedom du Lac, "Talking a Green Streak: Music & Antics Lift Earth Day Concert, but Too Much Hot Air Drains Energy From Its Message", The Washington Post, April 20, 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-25.
  55. ^ "Earth Day 2010 – The 40th Anniversary" in website of Earth Day Network. Retrieved 2010-02-25.
  56. ^ "Public Service Recognition Week" in official website of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Retrieved 2010-02-25.
  57. ^ "Public Service Recognition Week" in website of Partnership for Public Service. Retrieved 2010-02-25.
  58. ^ "Performance Schedule for U.S. Navy Band and specialty units" in website of the United States Navy Band. Retrieved 10-03-08.
  59. ^ "The United States Air Force Band events" in website of The United States Air Force Band.
  60. ^ "Event Calendar" in official website of The United States Army Band “Pershing's Own”. Retrieved 2010-03-01.
  61. ^ Screen on the Green 2009 in Washington DC. Retrieved 2009-11-05.
  62. ^ Smithsonian Folklife Festival in official website of the Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2009-11-05.
  63. ^ A Capitol Fourth in website of Public Broadcasting System (PBS). Retrieved 2009-11-05.
  64. ^ Fourth of July Fireworks 2009 in Washington DC. Retrieved 2009-11-05.
  65. ^ 2009 National Book Festival in official website of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 2009-11-05.
  66. ^ "July 4: Day of Music, Parades, Fireworks", The Washington Post, Washington, D.C., July 3, 1982, p. D1.
  67. ^ a b c d e f Phil McCombs, "Watt Outlaws Rock Music on Mall for July 4", The Washington Post, Washington, D.C., April 6, 1983, p. A1; Phil McCombs and Richard Harrington, "Watt Sets Off Uproar with Music Ban", The Washington Post, Washington, D.C., April 7, 1983, pp. A1, A17.
  68. ^ Campaign contributions of Wayne Newton in website of NEWSMEAT by Polity Media, Inc. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
  69. ^ a b Tim Ahern, Associated Press, "Newton concert goes off despite rain", Gettysburg Times, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 5, 1983, p. 7 in Google news. Retrieved 2010-02-18.
  70. ^ Associated Press, "Newton Performance Dampened by Rain", Reading Eagle, Reading, Pennsylvania, July 5, 1983, p. 27,in Google news. Retrieved 2010-02-18.
  71. ^ John Katsilometes,"Newton’s recounting of Beach Boys controversy a telling moment in ‘Once Before I Go’", in "The Kats Report", October 30, 2009, in website of the Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved 2009-01-29.
  72. ^ Timeline on website of The Beach Boys by Capitol Records. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
  73. ^ "The Beach Boys Bio" in website of yuddy.com by Yuddy, LLC. © and TM Yuddy, LLC. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
  74. ^ Richard Harrington, "Back to the Beach Boys: Rock Returns to Mall For the Fourth of July; Beach Boys to Perform On the Mall July 4", The Washington Post, Washington, D.C., June 6, 1984, p. B1.
  75. ^ "NFL Kickoff Live from the National Mall Presented by Pepsi Vanilla" Featuring Aerosmith, Mary J. Blige, Aretha Franklin, Britney Spears and Others Thursday, September 4. Retrieved 2009-11-05.
  76. ^ "Live Earth Special Broadcast Event in Washington, DC Announced -- Al Gore To Attend; Garth Brooks & Trisha Eastwood To Perform" (Washington, July 6, 2007) in website of Live Earth. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
  77. ^ USA Science & Engineering Festival. Retrieved 2010-02-24.
  78. ^ Public Transportation for National Mall in website of the National Park Service. Retrieved 10-03-12
  79. ^ Smithsonian Station in website of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  80. ^ Federal Triangle Station in website of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  81. ^ Archives–Navy Memorial–Penn Quarter Station in website of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  82. ^ Union Station in website of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  83. ^ L'Enfant Plaza Station in website of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  84. ^ Federal Center SW Station in website of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  85. ^ Capitol South Station in website of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  86. ^ Map of Central Washington, DC, Area in Metrobus Route Map: Washington, DC in website of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  87. ^ Circulator System Map in website of DC Circulator. Retrieved 2010-03-12.
  88. ^ a b Bicycling Information for National Mall in website of National Park Service. Retrieved 2010-03-12.
  89. ^ "Bicycle Rentals at Thompson Boat Center" in website of Thompson Boat Center. Retrieved 2010-03-12.
  90. ^ Coordinates of Thompson Boat Center: 38°54′01″N 77°03′29″W / 38.9003057°N 77.0580733°W / 38.9003057; -77.0580733 (Thompson Boat Center)
  91. ^ Parking for National Mall in website of National Park Service. Retrieved 2010-03-12.
  92. ^ "Enriching Your American Experience: The National Mall Plan" in official website of the National Park Service. Retrieved 2010-03-01.

Further reading

External links

See also

Coordinates: 38°53′24″N 77°01′25″W / 38.89°N 77.02361°W / 38.89; -77.02361


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Simple English

, facing west across the Mall. In front of the statue of the horse is the Ulysses S. Grant Memorial. The Washington Monument in the background.]]

The National Mall is an open park in downtown Washington, D.C.. It has many museums, like the Smithsonian and the National Gallery of Art. It is found between the United States Capitol and the Washington Monument, which are about one mile apart. It is a popular place, and is used for exercise, recreation, music concerts, festivals, and protests. It is also visited by many tourists - over 25 million people come to the Mall each year.[1]

Contents

Area

Officially, the Mall is the area between the U.S. Capitol and the Washington Monument. However, there is another park that is right next to the Mall, which is from the Washington Monument to the Lincoln Memorial. The Reflecting Pool is in this park, as well as many monuments and museums. Many people say that this park is also part of the National Mall.

The National Mall has many trees. Most of these trees are elm and cherry blossoms. The cherry blossom trees were given to the United States by Japan in 1912.[2]

History

Pierre L'Enfant, the man who planned Washington D.C., wanted to have a park in the middle of the city. However, the National Mall was not always a park. In the 19th century, there was a railroad that ran through the Mall. Cows also grazed (ate grass) on the Mall.[3] There was a large market on one side of the Mall. During the American Civil War, there were many buildings on the Mall. There were even slaughterhouses on the Mall - places where animals are killed and turned into meat.[4] In 1901, the Senate passed the McMillan Plan. This cleaned up the National Mall and moved the railroad to Union Station.

Events

and the reflecting pool from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.]]

Many events happen at the National Mall. The National Park Service says that over 3,000 events happen each year, but most of these are tours.[5] Some of the biggest events that happen each year are the Cherry Blossom Festival, the National Book Festival, an Earth Day festival, and parades on Veteran's Day and Independence Day.

Protests and rallies also happen at the National Mall. One of the most famous was the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in 1963, where Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his I Have a Dream speech. A rally in 1969 to end the Vietnam War was the biggest protest on the Mall. Over 2 million people came and marched to the White House.[6] In 1995, the Million Man March was held on the Mall.

Museums and Monuments in the Mall

See also: Category:Buildings on the National Mall

1. Washington Monument
2. National Museum of American History
3. National Museum of Natural History
4. National Gallery of Art
5. West Building of the National Gallery of Art
6. East Building of the National Gallery of Art
7. United States Capitol
8. Ulysses S. Grant Memorial
9. United States Botanic Garden

10. National Museum of the American Indian
11. National Air and Space Museum
12. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
13. Arts and Industries Building
14. Smithsonian Institution Building
15. Freer Gallery of Art
16. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
17. National Museum of African Art

picture of the National Mall was taken by a satellite on April 26, 2002.  The Capitol on the right was pixelated before release for security reasons.]]

Nearby the Mall

There are many places very close to the Mall. The Library of Congress and the United States Supreme Court building are just east of the Capitol. The White House, the National Archives, the Old Post Office, and, Ford's Theater (where Abraham Lincoln was killed) are just north. The National Postal Museum, and Union Station are northeast. The Jefferson Memorial, the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, and the Bureau of Engraving and Printing to the south.

References


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message