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The National Medal of Technology and Innovation (formerly known as the National Medal of Technology) is an honor granted by the President of the United States to American inventors and innovators that have made significant contributions to the development of new and important technology. The award may be granted to a specific person, to a group of people or to an entire organization or corporation. It is the highest honor the United States can confer to a US citizen for achievements related to technological progress.

Contents

History

The National Medal of Technology was created in 1980 by the United States Congress under the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act. It was a bipartisan effort to foster technological innovation and the technological competitiveness of the United States in the international arena. The first National Medals of Technology were issued in 1985 by then-U.S. President Ronald Reagan to 14 individuals and one company. Among the first recipients were technology giants like Steve Jobs and Stephen Wozniak, founders of Apple Computer, and AT&T Bell Laboratories, a veritable powerhouse in technological innovation. The medal has since been awarded annually.

On August 9, 2007, President George Bush signed the America COMPETES (Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science) Act of 2007. The Act amended Section 16 of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980, changing the name of the Medal to the "National Medal of Technology and Innovation."[1]

Award process

Each year the Technology Administration under the U.S. Department of Commerce calls for the nomination of new candidates for the National Medal of Technology. Candidates are nominated by their peers that have direct, first-hand knowledge of the candidates achievements. Candidates may be individuals, teams of individuals (up to 4), organizations or corporations. Individuals and all members of teams nominated must be U.S. citizens and organizations and corporations must be U.S.-owned (i.e. 50% of their assets or shares must be currently held by U.S. citizens).

All nominations are referred to the National Medal of Technology Evaluation Committee which issues recommendations to the U.S. Secretary of Commerce. All nominees selected as finalists through the merit review process will be subject to an FBI security check. Information collected through the security check may be considered in the final selection of winners. The Secretary of Commerce is then able to advise the President of the United States as to which candidates ought to receive the National Medal of Technology. The new National Medal of Technology laureates are then announced by the U.S. President once the final selections have been made.

Laureates

Ralph Baer receives the National Medal of Technology

As of 2005, there have been more than 135 individuals and 12 companies recognized. Summarized here is a list of the most notable laureates and a summary of their accomplishments.

Eminent Laureates of the National Medal of Technology and Innovation
Year Name Topic
2008 John Warnock and Charles Geschke "For their pioneering contributions that spurred the desktop publishing revolution and for changing the way people create and engage with information and entertainment across multiple mediums including print, Web and video."[1]
2004 Ralph Baer "For inventing the first video game console."
2004 Roger Easton, Sr. "For his extensive pioneering achievements in spacecraft tracking, navigation and timing technology that led to the development of the NAVSTAR-Global Positioning System (GPS)." [2]
2003 Watts Humphrey "For his vision of a discipline for software engineering, for his work toward meeting that vision, and for the resultant impact on the U.S. Government, industry, and academic communities."
2003 Robert Metcalfe "For leadership in the invention, standardization, and commercialization of Ethernet."
2002 Carl D. Keith and John J. Mooney For inventing the three-way catalytic converter
2002 Nick Holonyak For inventing the LED
2001 Arun Netravali "pioneering contributions that transformed TV from analog to digital, enabling numerous integrated circuits, systems and services in broadcast TV, CATV, DBS, HDTV, and multimedia over the Internet; and for technical expertise and leadership, which have kept Bell Labs at the forefront in communications technology."
2000 Douglas Engelbart For inventing the computer mouse and helping develop hypertext
2000 Dean Kamen "For inventions that have advanced medical care worldwide, and for ... awakening America to the excitement of science and technology."
1999 Robert W. Taylor "For visionary leadership in the development of modern computing technology, including computer networks, the personal computer and the graphical user interface."
1998 Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie "For co-inventing the UNIX operating system and the C programming language which together have led to enormous advance to computer hardware, software and networking systems. And assimilated the growth of an entire industry thereby enhancing American leadership in the information age."
1997 Vinton Cerf and Robert E. Kahn "For creating and sustaining development of Internet Protocols"
1997 Ray Dolby "For his inventions and for fostering their adoption worldwide through the products and programs of his company"
1996 Stephanie Kwolek "For her contributions to the discovery, development and liquid crystal processing of high-performance aramid fibers (Kevlar)"
1995 Alejandro Zaffaroni "For his contributions to time released medicine and serial entrepreneurship in the field of biotechnology."
1994 Irwin M. Jacobs "For his development of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) as a commercial technology adopted as a U.S. digital cellular standard"
1993 Kenneth H. Olsen "For his contributions to the development and use of computer technology" (Digital Equipment Corporation - DEC)
1992 Bill Gates "For his early vision of universal computing at home and in the office..."
1991 Grace Murray Hopper "For her pioneering accomplishments in the development of computer programming languages..."
1990 John Atanasoff "For his invention of the electronic digital computer..."
1990 Marvin Camras "For the development and commercialization of magnetic recording..."
1990 Jack Kilby "For his invention and contributions to the commercialization of the integrated circuit and the silicon thermal print-head; for his contributions to the development of the first computer using integrated circuits; and for the invention of the hand-held calculator, and gate array."
1990 Gordon Moore "For his seminal leadership in ... large-scale integrated memory and the microprocessor..."
1989 Herbert W. Boyer and Stanley N. Cohen "For their fundamental invention of gene splicing techniques ... and discovery of recombinant DNA technology"
1989 Helen T. Edwards, Richard A. Lundy, J. Ritchie Orr and Alvin Tollestrup "For their contributions to the design, construction and initial operation of the Tevatron particle accelerator"
1988 Arnold O. Beckman "For exceptional creativity in designing analytical instruments" (spectrophotometry)
1988 Edwin H. Land "For the invention, development and marketing of instant photography."
1988 David Packard "For extraordinary and unselfish leadership in both industry and government, particularly in widely diversified technological fields..."
1987 Robert N. Noyce "For his inventions in the field of semiconductor integrated circuits..."
1986 Bernard M. Gordon "For his invention and development of D/A and A/D conversion..."
1986 Reynold B. Johnson "For his invention and development of magnetic disk storage..."
1985 Fred Brooks, Erich Bloch and Bob Evans "For their contributions to the IBM System/360, a computer system and technologies which revolutionized the data processing industry..."
1985 Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak "For their development and introduction of the personal computer..."

See also

References

External links

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The National Medal of Technology and Innovation (formerly known as the National Medal of Technology) is an honor granted by the President of the United States to American inventors and innovators that have made significant contributions to the development of new and important technology. The award may be granted to a specific person, to a group of people or to an entire organization or corporation. It is the highest honor the United States can confer to a US citizen for achievements related to technological progress.

Contents

History

The National Medal of Technology was created in 1980 by the United States Congress under the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act. It was a bipartisan effort to foster technological innovation and the technological competitiveness of the United States in the international arena. The first National Medals of Technology were issued in 1985 by then-U.S. President Ronald Reagan to 14 individuals and one company. Among the first recipients were technology giants like Steve Jobs and Stephen Wozniak, founders of Apple Computer, and AT&T Bell Laboratories, a veritable powerhouse in technological innovation. The medal has since been awarded annually.

On August 9, 2007, President George Bush signed the America COMPETES (Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science) Act of 2007. The Act amended Section 16 of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980, changing the name of the Medal to the "National Medal of Technology and Innovation."[1]

Award process

Each year the Technology Administration under the U.S. Department of Commerce calls for the nomination of new candidates for the National Medal of Technology. Candidates are nominated by their peers that have direct, first-hand knowledge of the candidates achievements. Candidates may be individuals, teams of individuals (up to 4), organizations or corporations. Individuals and all members of teams nominated must be U.S. citizens and organizations and corporations must be U.S.-owned (i.e. 50% of their assets or shares must be currently held by U.S. citizens).

All nominations are referred to the National Medal of Technology Evaluation Committee which issues recommendations to the U.S. Secretary of Commerce. All nominees selected as finalists through the merit review process will be subject to an FBI security check. Information collected through the security check may be considered in the final selection of winners. The Secretary of Commerce is then able to advise the President of the United States as to which candidates ought to receive the National Medal of Technology. The new National Medal of Technology laureates are then announced by the U.S. President once the final selections have been made.

Laureates

receives the National Medal of Technology]] 

As of 2005, there have been more than 135 individuals and 12 companies recognized. Summarized here is a list of the most notable laureates and a summary of their accomplishments.

Eminent Laureates of the National Medal of Technology, 1985-2005
Year Name Topic
2005 Ralph Baer "For inventing the first video game console."
2004 Roger Easton, Sr. "For his extensive pioneering achievements in spacecraft tracking, navigation and timing technology that led to the development of the NAVSTAR-Global Positioning System (GPS)." [1]
2003 Watts Humphrey " For his vision of a discipline for software engineering, for his work toward meeting that vision, and for the resultant impact on the U.S. Government, industry, and academic communities."
2003 Robert Metcalfe "For leadership in the invention, standardization, and commercialization of Ethernet."
2002 Carl D. Keith and John J. Mooney For inventing the three-way catalytic converter
2002 Nick Holonyak For inventing the LED
2001 Arun Netravali "pioneering contributions that transformed TV from analog to digital, enabling numerous integrated circuits, systems and services in broadcast TV, CATV, DBS, HDTV, and multimedia over the Internet; and for technical expertise and leadership, which have kept Bell Labs at the forefront in communications technology."
2000 Douglas Engelbart For inventing the computer mouse and helping develop hypertext
2000 Dean Kamen "For inventions that have advanced medical care worldwide, and for ... awakening America to the excitement of science and technology."
1999 Robert W. Taylor "For visionary leadership in the development of modern computing technology, including computer networks, the personal computer and the graphical user interface."
1998 Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie "For co-inventing the UNIX operating system and the C programming language which together have led to enormous advance to computer hardware, software and networking systems. And assimilated the growth of an entire industry thereby enhancing American leadership in the information age."
1997 Vinton Cerf and Robert E. Kahn "For creating and sustaining development of Internet Protocols"
1997 Ray Dolby "For his inventions and for fostering their adoption worldwide through the products and programs of his company"
1996 Stephanie Kwolek "For her contributions to the discovery, development and liquid crystal processing of high-performance aramid fibers (Kevlar)"
1995 Alejandro Zaffaroni "For his contributions to time released medicine and serial entrepreneurship in the field of biotechnology."
1994 Irwin M. Jacobs "For his development of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) as a commercial technology adopted as a U.S. digital cellular standard"
1993 Kenneth H. Olsen "For his contributions to the development and use of computer technology" (Digital Equipment Corporation - DEC)
1992 Bill Gates "For his early vision of universal computing at home and in the office..."
1991 Grace Murray Hopper "For her pioneering accomplishments in the development of computer programming languages..."
1990 John Atanasoff "For his invention of the electronic digital computer..."
1990 Marvin Camras "For the development and commercialization of magnetic recording..."
1990 Jack Kilby "For his invention and contributions to the commercialization of the integrated circuit and the silicon thermal print-head; for his contributions to the development of the first computer using integrated circuits; and for the invention of the hand-held calculator, and gate array."
1990 Gordon Moore "For his seminal leadership in ... large-scale integrated memory and the microprocessor..."
1989 Herbert W. Boyer and Stanley N. Cohen "For their fundamental invention of gene splicing techniques ... and discovery of recombinant DNA technology"
1989 Helen T. Edwards,Richard A.Lundy,J.Ritchie Orr and Alvin Tollestrup "For their contributions to the design, construction and initial operation of the Tevatron |particle accelerator"
1988 Arnold O. Beckman "For exceptional creativity in designing analytical instruments" (spectrophotometry)
1988 Edwin H. Land "For the invention, development and marketing of instant photography."
1988 David Packard "For extraordinary and unselfish leadership in both industry and government, particularly in widely diversified technological fields..."
1987 Robert N. Noyce "For his inventions in the field of semiconductor integrated circuits..."
1986 Bernard M. Gordon "For his invention and development of D/A and A/D conversion..."
1986 Reynold B. Johnson "For his invention and development of magnetic disk storage..."
1985 Fred Brooks, Eric Bloch and Bob Evans "For their contributions to the IBM System/360, a computer system and technologies which revolutionized the data processing industry..."
1985 Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak "For their development and introduction of the personal computer..."

See also

References

External links


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