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.Nationalism generally involves the identification of an ethnic identity with a state.^ Kirt Higdon’s remark sounds like another lame excuse for not attempting to work towards a state that has a “mono-ethnic” identity for white people.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ethnic nationalism and state power : the rise of Irish nationalism, Afrikaner nationalism, and zionism / Mark Suzman.

^ As far as working toward a state which has a “mono-ethnic identity for white people”, I need no excuse not to work for that – it’s a stupid idea.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

[1] The subject can include the belief that one's nation is of primary importance.[2] .It is also used to describe a movement to establish or protect a homeland (usually an autonomous state) for an ethnic group.^ Most Asian states allow zero immigration by people not of the home ethnic group.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nation state by accident : the politicization of ethnic groups and the ethnicization of politics : Bosnia, India, Pakistan / Carsten Wieland.

.In some cases the identification of a homogeneous national culture is combined with a negative view of other races or cultures.^ Such groups would promulgate love and protection for Western nations and likely not welcome Islamic appreciation and denounce the other race based groups lightly.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But this struggle for economic control of their own affairs cannot in turn be divorced from any other aspect of the struggle for national sovereignty , whether cultural or terroitorial .
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Regarding culturalism, I like this new viewpoint very much – it’s certainly far preferable to some other alternatives.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

[3]
.In former eras, people were generally loyal to a city or to a particular leader rather than to their nation.^ Rather, if White people ever got the stones to throw the non-Whites out of their living space then we would no longer have to deal with their disproportionate poverty, crime, and general barbarity.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ 'Sovereignty ' is not something I address in itself because to me to talk of 'Sovereignty' rather than Freedom is to enter the terrain of mystical nationalism.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Cultural nationalism in the aftermath of the near annihilation of a nation and its language is dismissed as catholic supremacism rather than a necessary attempt at national revival by a pretty much devastated nation.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

.Encyclopedia Britannica identifies the movement's genesis with the late-18th century American Revolution and French Revolution; other historians point specifically to the ultra-nationalist party in France during the French Revolution.^ Together there are 8 nations which led by USA, France, Britain, and Germany invaded China when it was at the weakest point in history during the late 1800's and early 1900.
  • (L) China: Nationalist netizens on MSN Messenger "heart" China - Shanghaiist 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC shanghaiist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An example was the transformation of the portraits of Edward Fitzgerald so that the original red necktie (which in the 1790's signified support for the execution of the King during the French revolution) was painted white.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, Russia was completely white during the Revolution, just as France during the Jacobins, Italy during the Borgia’s, America during the civil war, etc.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

[4][5][6] Nationalism is sometimes reactionary, calling for a return to an idealized version of the national past and sometimes for the expulsion of foreigners. .Other forms of nationalism are revolutionary, calling for the establishment of an independent state as a homeland for an ethnic underclass.^ Many responded instead to the calls of the Italian, German, and Bulgarian occupation authorities and of Vanco Mihailov's Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO), who promised them liberation from Greek rule in the form of a "free," "autonomous" "independent" or "united" Macedonian state.
  • Greek Communism and Macedonian Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gate.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Given the existence of this ideology of “a state for our nation”, it’s true that ethnic wars solve the problem, except when they don’t (cf.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But, surely, as a scholar, you can’t believe that any other “nations” have any more rational claims to “their own” states, can you?
  • Dissident Voice : Zionism: An “Abnormal” Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

.Nationalism emphasizes collective identity - a 'people' must be autonomous, united, and express a single national culture.^ Cultural identity and the nation-state / edited by Carol C. Gould and Pasquale Paquino.

^ Peoples, cultures, and nations in political philosophy / Paul Gilbert.

^ Nations having a clear racial as well as cultural identity is a norm that we deviate from at our peril.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

[7] .However, some nationalists stress individualism as an important part of their own national identity.^ Atlantic Charter on the self-determination of nations, to demand, together with the other two parts under Serbia and Bulgaria, to establish their own Slavmacedonian people's republic?!
  • Greek Communism and Macedonian Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gate.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This alternative history however suffers from a failure to understand why the nationalist movement had moved in the 1880's to a promotion of mystical nationalism over radical republicanism.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ In Ireland individual catholic priests played an important part in the suppression of the international, mobilising mobs to attack the internationalists.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

[8]

Contents

Origin

The term was coined by Johann Gottfried Herder (nationalismus) during the late 1770s.[9] .Precisely where and when nationalism emerged is difficult to determine, but its development is closely related to that of the modern state and the push for popular sovereignty that came to a head with the French Revolution and the American Revolution in the late 18th century.^ In Ireland as elsewhere the imagining of a unified Irish nation was a project of the capitalist period, really only getting underway in the last decades of the 18th century.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Ethnic challenges to the modern nation state / edited by Shlomo Ben-Ami, Yoav Peled, and Alberto Spektorowski.

^ Social theory of the nation-state : the political forms of modernity beyond methodological nationalism / Daniel Chernilo.

[4] .Since that time, nationalism has become one of the most significant political and social forces in history, perhaps most notably as a major influence or postulate of World War I and especially World War II.^ Great powers in world politics; international relations and economic nationalism, by Frank H. Simonds ...

^ I am not one of those who believe that Europe is dead, but unfortunately, I believe that it may take a long time for it to have again the opportunity that was lost last year, that is to become a real political and democratic power.
  • Globalclashes: nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.globalclashes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I The roots of the alliance between Greek communism and Macedonian nationalism went as far back as the immediate post-World War I years.
  • Greek Communism and Macedonian Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gate.net [Source type: Original source]

.Fascism, is a form of authoritarian civic nationalism which stresses absolute loyalty and obedience to the state, whose purpose is to serve the interests of its nation alone.^ Social theory of the nation-state : the political forms of modernity beyond methodological nationalism / Daniel Chernilo.

^ Loyalty to one’s nation (ethnos) is probably natural, but the desire for political self-determination or even for a nation-state is a modern European invention.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So, again, which nation-states were NOT formed in this manner?
  • Dissident Voice : Zionism: An “Abnormal” Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

[10][11][12][13]

Varieties of nationalism

Ultra-nationalism

.When nationalism is pushed to an extreme, it not only justifies wars against other nations, as in the German invasion of Poland at the beginning of World War II, but it is also used to justify attacks against ones fellow citizens, as in the Nazi assertion that Jews are not really citizens.^ Napoleonic wars and German nationalism in Austria.

^ In Ireland as elsewhere the imagining of a unified Irish nation was a project of the capitalist period, really only getting underway in the last decades of the 18th century.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ The war criminal Blair and Quartet Envoy doesn’t seem to feature – he has been on the other side of the world working in China for his bosses J.P. Morgan Climate Care.
  • Dissident Voice : Zionism: An “Abnormal” Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

.This kind of nationalism often has as its avowed goal racial, ethnic, or religious purity.^ Language and identity : national, ethnic, religious / John E. Joseph.

.Since most states are multicultural, nationalism often leads to conflict within a state, as well as between states, and in its extreme form leads to war, secession, or genocide.^ Goat and the butcher : nationalism and state formation in Kurdistan-Iraq since the Iraqi war / Robert Olson.

^ Europeans are well-acquainted with the problems of both identity-based religious conflict and of unrestrained nationalism .
  • Nationalism, Patriotism, and Nativism | Immigration | Change.org 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC immigration.change.org [Source type: General]

^ Most veteran NOF leaders had participated in the armed struggle since the very beginning of World War II. Their names were well known in their native regions.
  • Greek Communism and Macedonian Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gate.net [Source type: Original source]

[14][15] .National flags, national anthems, and other symbols of national identity are often considered sacred, as if they were religious rather than political symbols.^ De hde was more of a cultural nationalist than political nationalist, but it's disingenuous to infer that they were all raving catholics.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ So what had happened between 1798 and 1916 to strip much of the radical politics of nationalism on the one had and alienate radical northern protestants on the other.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ International law and self-determination : the interplay of the politics of territorial possession with formulations of post-colonial national identity / Joshua Castellino.

Deep emotions are aroused.[16][17][18][19] .Some scholars see the word "nationalism" as pejorative, standing in opposition to a more positive term, patriotism.^ But, surely, as a scholar, you can’t believe that any other “nations” have any more rational claims to “their own” states, can you?
  • Dissident Voice : Zionism: An “Abnormal” Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If "postmodern" is a troublesome term for discussing Husain's art, two others--"national" and "postcolonial" are even more so.
  • Shyamal Bagchee: Augmented Nationalism, The Nomadic Eye of Painter M.F.Husain 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.asianart.com [Source type: Original source]

[20][21]
.Fascism is a form of authoritarian ultra-nationalism[10][11][12][22] which promotes national revolution, national collectivism, a totalitarian state, and irredentism or expansionism to unify and allow the growth of a nation.^ B, pp.3-5, 11-13, 16-17 (all State Department documents cited here-after are found in the National Archives); and McNeill, pp.
  • Greek Communism and Macedonian Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gate.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Nationalism in the U.S. is similar to religion in that its adherents sometimes promote it as a unifying universal ideology.
  • Nationalism, Patriotism, and Nativism | Immigration | Change.org 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC immigration.change.org [Source type: General]

^ Social theory of the nation-state : the political forms of modernity beyond methodological nationalism / Daniel Chernilo.

.Fascists often promote ethnic nationalism but have at times promoted cultural nationalism including cultural assimilation of people outside a specific ethnic group.^ Most Asian states allow zero immigration by people not of the home ethnic group.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The language and cultural aspects of the national movemnt were not there in any manner to promote sectarianism .
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ And while I, to, have encountered many genuinely good people of various races, on the whole it is into this decadent culture that the immigrants are assimilating.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

Fascism stresses the subservience of the individual to the state, and the need to absolute and unquestioned loyalty to a strong ruler.[23]

National purity

Some nationalists exclude certain groups. .They view people who are, in fact, citizens of their nation, as being not really citizens, in some sense, and therefore not protected by the rights afforded "real" citizens.^ Do people who speak English all have the same exact same opinion, but those restricted only to Chinese have widely different views?
  • (L) China: Nationalist netizens on MSN Messenger "heart" China - Shanghaiist 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC shanghaiist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Immigrants will never be able to win this argument for they will never be able to prove their patriotism in a convincing enough manner for some who believe that they have no right to be in a place where they invited themselves in meaning that they are thieves and can never become legitimate Americans.
  • Globalclashes: nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.globalclashes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some sense of Husain's high public profile can be had from the fact that the President of India appointed him a member of Rajya Sabha, the Upper House of the Parliament.
  • Shyamal Bagchee: Augmented Nationalism, The Nomadic Eye of Painter M.F.Husain 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.asianart.com [Source type: Original source]

.For example, George H. W. Bush said, "No, I don't know that atheists should be considered as citizens, nor should they be considered patriots.^ I make no compromises, those who don’t wish to be part of our culture should reconsider their immigration to the West.” .
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I make no compromises, those who don’t wish to be part of our culture should reconsider their immigration to the West.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He said after the 7/7 bombings, while he was in Britain: 'If they could only see into our hearts they would know how good we are', and he honestly believes that.
  • Globalclashes: nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.globalclashes.com [Source type: Original source]

This is one nation under God."[24]
Liberty Leading the People (Eugène Delacroix, 1830) is a famous example of nationalist art
.Sometimes a mythic homeland is more important for the national identity than the actual territory occupied by the nation.^ But in an international political system comprised of sovereign states, an immigration policy cannot be based on anything other than national identity.
  • Nationalism, Patriotism, and Nativism | Immigration | Change.org 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC immigration.change.org [Source type: General]

^ Subtexts and precursor texts are never more important to an assessment of Husains art than in a consideration of his "The Raj" paintings.
  • Shyamal Bagchee: Augmented Nationalism, The Nomadic Eye of Painter M.F.Husain 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.asianart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ International law and self-determination : the interplay of the politics of territorial possession with formulations of post-colonial national identity / Joshua Castellino.

[25]
.Nationalism may manifest itself as part of official state ideology or as a populist movement independent of or even in conflict with the government.^ Its in our nations sovereingty and national consciousness that movement for progressive revolutionary politics in this country will derive itself from .
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ In May 1956 it officially rehabilitated them, declared them once again to be national liberationist movements, and credited them with the mass participation of the Macedonians in the struggle.
  • Greek Communism and Macedonian Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gate.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Given the existence of this ideology of “a state for our nation”, it’s true that ethnic wars solve the problem, except when they don’t (cf.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

Civic nationalism

.Civic nationalism defines the nation as an association of people with equal and shared political rights, and allegiance to similar political procedures.^ It was rather an attempt on their part to force the KKE and EAM-ELAS to accept the Macedonians as equals and to respect their national rights.
  • Greek Communism and Macedonian Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gate.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Peoples, cultures, and nations in political philosophy / Paul Gilbert.

^ However, it defended the right of the Macedonians to national unification: "The Macedonian people in Aegean Macedonia with full justice seek to unite with their mother-land ( matica ), with their Piedmont, Vardar Macedonia.
  • Greek Communism and Macedonian Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gate.net [Source type: Original source]

[26] .According to the principles of civic nationalism the nation is not based on common ethnic ancestry, but is a political entity, whose core is not ethnicity.^ Politics of nationalism and ethnicity / James G. Kellas.

^ A common defense of patriotism in the U.S.-coming both from the native-born and from immigrants-is the argument that the U.S. embraces a nationalism that transcends traditional allegiances to race, religion, or ethnicity.
  • Nationalism, Patriotism, and Nativism | Immigration | Change.org 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC immigration.change.org [Source type: General]

^ But in an international political system comprised of sovereign states, an immigration policy cannot be based on anything other than national identity.
  • Nationalism, Patriotism, and Nativism | Immigration | Change.org 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC immigration.change.org [Source type: General]

This civic concept of nationalism is exemplified by Ernest Renan in his lecture in 1882 "Where is the nation?", where he defined the nation as a "daily plebiscite dependent on the will of its people to continue living together".[26]
.Civic nationalism (or civil nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from the active participation of its citizenry, from the degree to which it represents the "will of the people". It is often seen as originating with Jean-Jacques Rousseau and especially the social contract theories which take their name from his 1762 book The Social Contract.^ Social theory of the nation-state : the political forms of modernity beyond methodological nationalism / Daniel Chernilo.

^ Loyalty to one’s nation (ethnos) is probably natural, but the desire for political self-determination or even for a nation-state is a modern European invention.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But in an international political system comprised of sovereign states, an immigration policy cannot be based on anything other than national identity.
  • Nationalism, Patriotism, and Nativism | Immigration | Change.org 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC immigration.change.org [Source type: General]

.Civic nationalism lies within the traditions of rationalism and liberalism, but as a form of nationalism it is contrasted with ethnic nationalism.^ Many, including loyal members of the KKE and followers of EAM-ELAS, were impressed by its apparent autonomy status within Tito's national liberation movement in Yugoslavia.
  • Greek Communism and Macedonian Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gate.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But it needs more than that, and by virtue of its constitutionalist liberal heresy (which is what the condemned American nationalism is based on, NOT traditional ethnic ties or kinship) it may not be capable of producing what it needs to survive.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

Membership of the civic nation is considered voluntary. .Civic-national ideals influenced the development of representative democracy in countries such as the United States and France.^ From Wikipedia: "As of 2006, the United States had one of the highest levels of income inequality, as measured through the Gini index, among high income countries, comparable to that of some middle income countries such as Russia or Turkey, being one of only few developed countries where inequality has increased since 1980."
  • (L) China: Nationalist netizens on MSN Messenger "heart" China - Shanghaiist 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC shanghaiist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First, is India going to be the only country which gets special treatment from the United States on the Nuclear issue?
  • Globalclashes: nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.globalclashes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They should be entitled for a country (nation-state) in this world.
  • Dissident Voice : Zionism: An “Abnormal” Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

Ethnic nationalism

Ethnic nationalism is based on the hereditary connections of people. .Ethnic nationalism specifically seeks to unite all people of a certain ethnicity heritage together.^ People, nation and state : the meaning of ethnicity and nationalism / edited by Edward Mortimer ; with Robert Fine.

^ However, it defended the right of the Macedonians to national unification: "The Macedonian people in Aegean Macedonia with full justice seek to unite with their mother-land ( matica ), with their Piedmont, Vardar Macedonia.
  • Greek Communism and Macedonian Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gate.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They believed that their specific ethnicity, and therefore their ethnostate, was the best of all Europe and should be leading.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

.Ethnic nationalism does not seek to include people of other ethnicities.^ Other tongue : nation and ethnicity in the linguistic borderlands / edited by Alfred Arteaga.

^ People, nation and state : the meaning of ethnicity and nationalism / edited by Edward Mortimer ; with Robert Fine.

^ However, it defended the right of the Macedonians to national unification: "The Macedonian people in Aegean Macedonia with full justice seek to unite with their mother-land ( matica ), with their Piedmont, Vardar Macedonia.
  • Greek Communism and Macedonian Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gate.net [Source type: Original source]

Expansionist nationalism

.Expansionist nationalism promotes expansion into new territories, usually with the claim that the existing territory is too small or is not able to physically or economically sustain the nation's population.^ Blood and belonging : journeys into the new nationalism / Michael Ignatieff.

^ Imperialism and nationalism : a study of conflict in the Near East, and of the territorial and economic expansion of the United States / by Kirby Page.

One example of this is Adolf Hitler's territorial demands.

Left-wing nationalism

.Many nationalist movements in the world are dedicated to national liberation, in the view that their nations are being persecuted by other nations and thus need to exercise self-determination by liberating themselves from the accused persecutors.^ Nationalist movements, a comparative view.

^ The temptation in too many countries to the current struggle against extremism and violence is to close themselves to the world and to protect their "acquis" and the purity of their race and culture by saying No to others, to strangers.
  • Globalclashes: nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.globalclashes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ National question : nationalism, ethnic conflict, and self-determination in the 20th century / Berch Berberoglu, editor.

.Anti-revisionist Marxist-Leninism is closely tied with this ideology, and practical examples include Stalin's early work Marxism and the National Question and his Socialism in One Country edict, which declares that nationalism can be used in an internationalist context, fighting for national liberation without racial or religious divisions.^ As a culturist I am not for racial division in our nation.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Stalin teaches us that the national question should be subordinated to the more general interests of the revolution and [the policy on the national question] should change whenever it is required by wider interests of the party.
  • Greek Communism and Macedonian Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gate.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The success of each depended on the other The Macedonians could not even conceive of national liberation without the victory of the KKE, the only party in Greece that had recognized their existence and national identity.
  • Greek Communism and Macedonian Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gate.net [Source type: Original source]

.Left-wing nationalism (also occasionally known as "socialist nationalism")[27] refers to any political movement that combines left-wing politics with nationalism.^ Johann Gottlieb Fichte; a study of his political writings with special reference to his nationalism, by H.C. Engelbrecht.

^ Posted by Kiki on Monday, 27 March 2006 at 12:02 AM in America , Current Affairs , disintegration , globalization , identity , immigration , nationalism , politics , trends .
  • Globalclashes: nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.globalclashes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Whats dismal and depressing is that elements among Irelands left still today seek to dismiss the role of national sovereignty as a progressive element within Irish revolutionary politics .
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

.Notable examples include Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement that launched the Cuban Revolution ousting the American-backed Fulgencio Batista in 1959, Ireland's Sinn Fein, Labor Zionism in Israel and the African National Congress in South Africa.^ Somewhat later Sinn Fein wrote of the strikes of 1911 that "Against the Red Flag of Communism...we raise the flag of an Irish nation.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Israel can no more deny that in the long run than than did Apartheid South Africa to its rightful owners.
  • Dissident Voice : Zionism: An “Abnormal” Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The empire which ruled Africa and Scotland, Ireland and Hong Kong with remarkable ideological and cultural consistency is not the super-national structure we treat upon on combatting today.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

Ethnocentrism

.Nationalism does not necessarily imply a belief in the superiority of one ethnicity over others, but some people believe that some so-called nationalists support ethnocentric protectionism or ethnocentric supremacy.^ But, surely, as a scholar, you can’t believe that any other “nations” have any more rational claims to “their own” states, can you?
  • Dissident Voice : Zionism: An “Abnormal” Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ People, nation and state : the meaning of ethnicity and nationalism / edited by Edward Mortimer ; with Robert Fine.

^ Atlantic Charter on the self-determination of nations, to demand, together with the other two parts under Serbia and Bulgaria, to establish their own Slavmacedonian people's republic?!
  • Greek Communism and Macedonian Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gate.net [Source type: Original source]

Studies have yielded evidence that such behaviour may be derived from innate preferences in humans from infancy[28].
.In the USA for example, non-indigenous ethnocentric nationalist movements exist for both so-called "black" and "white" peoples.^ With a few exceptions (Mormons, for example), the whites are older and non-reproductive.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rather, if White people ever got the stones to throw the non-Whites out of their living space then we would no longer have to deal with their disproportionate poverty, crime, and general barbarity.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I’m not sure you call all that much about even preserving traditional American culture (much less white people).
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

.These forms of "nationalism" often promote or glorify foreign nations that they believe can serve as an example for their own nation, see Anglophilia or Afrocentrism.^ Arabs could have worked for a compromise in 1947-1948 under the newly formed United Nations, they instead chose war and lost.
  • Dissident Voice : Zionism: An “Abnormal” Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Can China or Russia have the same type of deal with Iran for example by arguing that Iran is unique (which it is) and that they believed that it deserve preferential treatment too?
  • Globalclashes: nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.globalclashes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rejection of foreign games and the promotion of the national language was a serious act of rebellion , a direct challenge to the British authorities and a fundamental rejection of their system in Ireland .
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

.Explicit biological race theory was influential from the end of the 19th century.^ Global convulsions : race, ethnicity, and nationalism at the end of the twentieth century / edited by Winston A. Van Horne.

Nationalist and Fascist movements in the first half of the 20th century often appealed to these theories. The National Socialist ideology was amongst the most comprehensively "racial" ideologies: the concept of "race" influenced aspects of policy in Nazi Germany. .In the 21st century the term "race" is no longer regarded by many people as a meaningful term to describe the range of human phenotype clusters; the term ethnocentrism is a more accurate and meaningful term[29].^ At this point we can no longer unite on race.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And while I, to, have encountered many genuinely good people of various races, on the whole it is into this decadent culture that the immigrants are assimilating.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rather, if White people ever got the stones to throw the non-Whites out of their living space then we would no longer have to deal with their disproportionate poverty, crime, and general barbarity.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

.Ethnic cleansing is often seen as both a nationalist and ethnocentrist phenomenon.^ But up close many fractures can be seen in the supposed unity of both unionist and nationalist blocks, fractures that ran along class lines.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

.It is part of nationalist logic that the state is reserved for one nation, but not all nationalist nation-states expel their minorities.^ National states and national minorities, by C. A. Macartney.

^ Again, 22 states of the Arab League and one little Jewish state, and the uniquely evil Zionist Entity gets all the moral condemnation.
  • Dissident Voice : Zionism: An “Abnormal” Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Loyalty to one’s nation (ethnos) is probably natural, but the desire for political self-determination or even for a nation-state is a modern European invention.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

Territorial nationalism

.Territorial nationalist assume that all inhabitants of a particular nation owe allegiance to their country of birth of adoption.^ To properly examine nationalism, it's necessary to step outside the context of a particular country for a moment.
  • Nationalism, Patriotism, and Nativism | Immigration | Change.org 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC immigration.change.org [Source type: General]

[30] A sacred quality is sought in the nation and in the popular memories it evokes.[31] .Citizenship is idealised by territorial nationalist[31] A criterion of a territorial nationalism is the establishment of a mass, public culture based on common values and traditions of the population.^ A common defense of patriotism in the U.S.-coming both from the native-born and from immigrants-is the argument that the U.S. embraces a nationalism that transcends traditional allegiances to race, religion, or ethnicity.
  • Nationalism, Patriotism, and Nativism | Immigration | Change.org 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC immigration.change.org [Source type: General]

^ Jewish culture in Europe is in no way based on Middle East values.
  • Dissident Voice : Zionism: An “Abnormal” Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For this reason 1880's Ireland saw an explosion of cultural nationalism based around creating an image of an Irish nation that was catholic, peasant and Irish speaking.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

[31]

Opposition and critique

.Critics of nationalism have argued that it is often unclear what constitutes a 'nation', or why a nation should be the only legitimate unit of political rule.^ Posted by Kiki on Tuesday, 16 October 2007 at 08:19 AM in France , identity , international politics , nationalism , Sarkozy , United Kingdom .
  • Globalclashes: nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.globalclashes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nationalism : critical concepts in political science / edited and with new introductions by John Hutchinson and Anthony D. Smith.

.A nation is a cultural entity, and not necessarily a political association, nor is it necessarily linked to a particular territorial area - although nationalists argue that the boundaries of a nation and a state should, as far as possible, coincide.^ Creating boundaries : the politics of race and nation / Kathryn A. Manzo.

^ Imagined states : nationalism, utopia, and longing in oral cultures / edited by Luisa Del Giudice and Gerald Porter.

^ The historian Thomas Hennessey argues that cultural nationalist leaders like D.P. Moran "succeeded in making cultural nationalism the dominant ideological force in Irish society between 1900 and 1906.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

[32] .Philosopher A.C. Grayling describes nations as artificial constructs, "their boundaries drawn in the blood of past wars". He argues that "there is no country on earth which is not home to more than one different but usually coexisting culture.^ If the question is one of legitimacy and of right, then it is hard for me to argue that there shouldn’t be a Star-Spangled Banner in Spanish.
  • Globalclashes: nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.globalclashes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ De hde was more of a cultural nationalist than political nationalist, but it's disingenuous to infer that they were all raving catholics.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, what will happen if the rest of the [Iran] "> World comes to realize that now, more than ever international law has no value, and that it is a jungle out there?
  • Globalclashes: nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.globalclashes.com [Source type: Original source]

Cultural heritage is not the same thing as national identity".[33]
.Nationalism is inherently divisive because it highlights differences between peoples, emphasising an individual's identification with their own nation.^ That's the difference between a powerful nation and her awakened, conscious people and a weak society living in self-denial so painfully visible from Kashmir to Kohima.
  • Globalclashes: nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.globalclashes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Immigration scares people because they don't want there to be an exchange between American culture and culture, which they consider to be inferior.
  • Globalclashes: nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.globalclashes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In this way an ideology of mystic nationalism that sought to maximise differences between populations replaced the earlier republican ideology based on radical democracy.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

.The idea is also potentially oppressive because it submerges individual identity within a national whole, and gives elites or political leaders potential opportunities to manipulate or control the masses.^ Globalization and national identities : crisis or opportunity?

^ Posted by Kiki on Thursday, 09 March 2006 at 12:25 AM in Current Affairs , different perspective , disintegration , globalization , identity , nationalism , politics , power .
  • Globalclashes: nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.globalclashes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Posted by Kiki on Friday, 01 June 2007 at 06:53 AM in europe , globalization , identity , integration , international politics , nationalism .
  • Globalclashes: nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.globalclashes.com [Source type: Original source]

[34] .Much of the early opposition to nationalism was related to its geopolitical ideal of a separate state for every nation.^ Fundamentally, this philosophy was embraced as the best way of building the Mexican nation-state and promoting the liberal ideal.
  • The New Mexican Nationalism and 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC bama.ua.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In his political writings, Dewey dealt often with the ideal of nationalism and the unity of the nation-state.
  • The New Mexican Nationalism and 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC bama.ua.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There can be a much looser structure in keeping with the concrete forms of class and national oppression in the United States.
  • Black nationalism (by L. Proyect) 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The classic nationalist movements of the 19th century rejected the very existence of the multi-ethnic empires in Europe.^ The nationalist movement of that decade was a movement that rejected a strategy of uniting workers and peasants around a radical program.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Rome lasted as a multi-ethnic republic, then empire for a thousand years and its succesor, the multi-ethnic Byzantine empire for another thousand.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The US is de facto a multi-ethnic empire.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

.Even in that early stage, however, there was an ideological critique of nationalism.^ Together there are 8 nations which led by USA, France, Britain, and Germany invaded China when it was at the weakest point in history during the late 1800's and early 1900.
  • (L) China: Nationalist netizens on MSN Messenger "heart" China - Shanghaiist 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC shanghaiist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is worth recalling that at that stage the leading Scottish comrades refused to accept the existence of a national problem at all, and even the existence of a Scottish nation.
  • Ted Grant — Scotland — Socialism orNationalism? 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.tedgrant.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There was, however, a massive expression of black nationalism in the early 1920s that has to be reckoned with, and that is the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) founded and led by Marcus Garvey.
  • Black nationalism (by L. Proyect) 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

.That has developed into several forms of anti-nationalism in the western world.^ God of modernity : the development of nationalism in Western Europe / Josep R. Llobera.

.The Islamic revival of the 20th century also produced an Islamic critique of the nation-state.^ Still, there is something to the idea that the nation-state is tied in to war as we have known it these last two centuries.
  • Proportionality & Nationalism - Winds of Change.NET 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Writes Muller: “A familiar and influential narrative of 20th-century European history argues that nationalism twice led to war, in 1914 and then again in 1939.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Luxemburg argues that the Polish national aspirations were legitimate in 1848, but in the 20th century conditions had changed.
  • Black nationalism (by L. Proyect) 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

.At the end of the 19th century, Marxists and other socialists (such as Rosa Luxemburg) produced political analyses that were critical of the nationalist movements then active in central and eastern Europe (though a variety of other contemporary socialists and communists, from Lenin (a communist) to Józef Piłsudski (a socialist), were more sympathetic to national self-determination)[35].^ Critical remarks on the national question, The right of nations to self-determination.

^ De hde was more of a cultural nationalist than political nationalist, but it's disingenuous to infer that they were all raving catholics.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ National question : nationalism, ethnic conflict, and self-determination in the 20th century / Berch Berberoglu, editor.

.Most sociological theories of nationalism date from after the Second World War.^ Most sociological theories of nationalism date from after the Second World War .
  • Nationalism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ T here is a widely accepted reading of recent history which puts the blame for such disasters as World Wars I and II squarely on the shoulders of nationalism.
  • Random Thoughts on Nationalism - by Joseph Stromberg 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.anti-war.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nationalism was responsible for two world wars which combined claimed over a hundred million lives and it was nationalism that allowed genocidal bastards like Hitler to get into power.
  • Nationalism - Reviews on RateItAll 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.rateitall.com [Source type: General]

.In the liberal political tradition there is widespread criticism of ‘nationalism’ as a dangerous force and a cause of conflict and war between nation-states.^ War didn't start with "nation states".
  • Proportionality & Nationalism - Winds of Change.NET 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Considering that there are now possibilities for commercial exchange between Independent African States and that these possibilities should be greatly encouraged, .

^ Should such a state fall and come to be dominated by others, advocates of nationalism believed, war could be the only result: a righteous war for independence.
  • Proportionality & Nationalism - Winds of Change.NET 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Nationalism has often been exploited to encourage citizens to partake in the nations conflicts. .Such examples include The Great War and World War Two, where nationalism was a key component of propaganda material.^ Great powers in world politics; international relations and economic nationalism, by Frank H. Simonds ...

^ Our love of liberty goes from the Peloponnesian War to World War Two.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Great powers in world politics : international relations and economic nationalism / by Frank H. Simonds and Brooks Emeny.

.Liberals do not generally dispute the existence of the nation-states.^ Fundamentally, this philosophy was embraced as the best way of building the Mexican nation-state and promoting the liberal ideal.
  • The New Mexican Nationalism and 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC bama.ua.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new Mexican elite, the criollos and mestizos, embraced these liberal principles in their aspiration to create a nation-state modeled on those of Europe.
  • The New Mexican Nationalism and 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC bama.ua.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The success of each depended on the other The Macedonians could not even conceive of national liberation without the victory of the KKE, the only party in Greece that had recognized their existence and national identity.
  • Greek Communism and Macedonian Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gate.net [Source type: Original source]

.The liberal critique also emphasizes individual freedom as opposed to national identity, which is by definition collective (see collectivism).^ Exclusive revolutionaries : liberal politics, social experience, and national identity in the Austrian Empire, 1848-1914 / Pieter M. Judson.

^ Spectral nationality : passages of freedom from Kant to postcolonial literatures of liberation / Pheng Cheah.

.The pacifist critique of nationalism also concentrates on the violence of nationalist movements, the associated militarism, and on conflicts between nations inspired by jingoism or chauvinism.^ From voting to violence : democratization and nationalist conflict / Jack Snyder.

^ Contentions of nationhood : nationalist movements, political conflict, and social change in Flanders, Scotland, and French Canada / Patrick Hossay.

^ This alternative history however suffers from a failure to understand why the nationalist movement had moved in the 1880's to a promotion of mystical nationalism over radical republicanism.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

.National symbols and patriotic assertiveness are in some countries discredited by their historical link with past wars, especially in Germany.^ For love of country : an essay on patriotism and nationalism / Maurizio Viroli.

^ Posted by freescv on 01/17/2010 at 12:46am Mr. Shonka engages in some historical revisionism about the anti-war movement.
  • Dissident Voice : Zionism: An “Abnormal” Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

.Famous pacifist Bertrand Russell criticizes nationalism of diminishing individual's capacity to judge his or her fatherland's foreign policy.^ Nationalism in international relations : norms, foreign policy, and enmity / Douglas Woodwell.

[36] William Blum has said this in other words: "If love is blind, patriotism has lost all five senses."[37] Albert Einstein stated that "Nationalism is an infantile disease... It is the measles of mankind." [38]
.The anti-racist critique of nationalism concentrates on the attitudes to other nations, and especially on the doctrine that the nation-state exists for one national group to the exclusion of others.^ But, surely, as a scholar, you can’t believe that any other “nations” have any more rational claims to “their own” states, can you?
  • Dissident Voice : Zionism: An “Abnormal” Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It elevates this one group to the very peak of human influence and power and its suffering above the suffering of all others.
  • Dissident Voice : Zionism: An “Abnormal” Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And once you answer that, how about why do they Arabs get 22 states (the Arab League) while the Kurds and Jews (among others) are not allowed even one?
  • Dissident Voice : Zionism: An “Abnormal” Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

This view emphasises the chauvinism and xenophobia that have often resulted from nationalist sentiment. .Norman Naimark relates the rise of nationalism to ethnic cleansing and genocide, including the Armenian Genocide, the Nazi Holocaust, the deportation of Chechens and Crimean Tartars under Stalin, the expulsion of Germans from Poland and Czechoslovakia at the end of the Second World War, and the ethnic cleansing during the Yugoslav Wars in the 1990s.^ The Germans of the Baltic states, Prussia, Poland, Czechoslovakia, the Balkans and their own eastern provinces, almost to Berlin, were expelled in the most brutal act of ethnic cleansing in history—13 million to 15 million Germans, of whom 2 million perished in the exodus.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Great powers in world politics; international relations and economic nationalism, by Frank H. Simonds ...

^ Then in 1918 as the slaughter ground on the working class in the German navy mutined, in effect bringing the war to an end.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

[39]
.Political movements of the left have often been suspicious of nationalism, again without necessarily seeking the disappearance of the existing nation-states.^ But it has left these countries within the confines of the national state.
  • Ted Grant — Scotland — Socialism orNationalism? 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.tedgrant.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Loyalty to one’s nation (ethnos) is probably natural, but the desire for political self-determination or even for a nation-state is a modern European invention.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Whats dismal and depressing is that elements among Irelands left still today seek to dismiss the role of national sovereignty as a progressive element within Irish revolutionary politics .
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

.Marxism has been ambiguous towards the nation-state, and in the late 19th century some Marxist theorists rejected it completely.^ Still, there is something to the idea that the nation-state is tied in to war as we have known it these last two centuries.
  • Proportionality & Nationalism - Winds of Change.NET 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If doctrinaire Marxism of the twentieth century puts forward the slogan that nationalism divides the working-class, there is some antecedent for this since Marx and Engels put forward slogans 150 years ago that the nationalism of the lesser nationalities divides the bourgeoisie.
  • Black nationalism (by L. Proyect) 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ By their tail-ending of nationalism, the youth in Scotland will be increasingly pushed towards the SNP. In this way Militant believes it will "win" some new youth.
  • Ted Grant — Scotland — Socialism orNationalism? 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.tedgrant.org [Source type: Original source]

.For some Marxists the world revolution implied a global state (or global absence of state); for others it meant that each nation-state had its own revolution.^ Nationalism in a global world / Sam Pryke.

^ Economic nationalism in a globalizing world / edited by Eric Helleiner and Andreas Pickel.

^ Global matrix : nationalism, globalism and state-terrorism / Tom Nairn and Paul James.

.A significant event in this context was the failure of the social-democratic and socialist movements in Europe to mobilize a cross-border workers' opposition to World War I.^ Christian [protestant] America, before the World Wars, was also racially aware and had enough common sense to protect its own borders and keep its cities relatively safe.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But there was also a socialist movement and from time to time workers came together to struggle for better conditions.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ This was a highpoint for socialism around the world - workers were both organised and had what appeared to be concrete examples of it being possible to defeat capitalism and construct socialism.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

.At present most, but certainly not all, left-wing groups accept the nation-state, and see it as the political arena for their activities.^ Just wait, hispanics,asians,nigerians,gahanians and muslims will want to visit all the great National and state parks.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Working on a university campus I see all sorts of race pride groups.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Barriers to left unity The sectarian politics of the period tripped up efforts at workers unity on an all island basis.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

.Anarchism has developed a critique of nationalism that focuses on its role in justifying and consolidating state power and domination.^ Ethnic nationalism and state power : the rise of Irish nationalism, Afrikaner nationalism, and zionism / Mark Suzman.

Through its unifiying goal it strives for centralization both in specific terrotories and in a ruling elite of individuals while it prepares a population for capitalist exploitation. Within anarchism this subject has been trated extensively by Rudolf Rocker in Nationalism and Culture and by the works of Fredy Perlman such as Against His-Story, Against Leviathan and "The Continuing Appeal of Nationalism".
In the Western world the most comprehensive current ideological alternative to nationalism is cosmopolitanism. .Ethical cosmopolitanism rejects one of the basic ethical principles of nationalism: that humans owe more duties to a fellow member of the nation, than to a non-member.^ Respect for the fundamental human rights and for the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations.

^ It is nothing more than a capitulation to a pseudo-radical nationalism.
  • Ted Grant — Scotland — Socialism orNationalism? 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.tedgrant.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no one language which is basically more suited than another to be a mainstay of science and knowledge.

.It rejects such important nationalist values as national identity and national loyalty.^ Insofar as a nation has been resistant to despotism, that nation is urged to value diversity, including especially the transformative immigration of hostile groups, such as Islamic ones.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, there is also a political cosmopolitanism, which has a geopolitical program to match that of nationalism: it seeks some form of world state, with a world government.^ Great powers in world politics; international relations and economic nationalism, by Frank H. Simonds ...

^ They should be entitled for a country (nation-state) in this world.
  • Dissident Voice : Zionism: An “Abnormal” Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Whats dismal and depressing is that elements among Irelands left still today seek to dismiss the role of national sovereignty as a progressive element within Irish revolutionary politics .
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

.Very few people openly and explicitly support the establishment of a global state, but political cosmopolitanism has influenced the development of international criminal law, and the erosion of the status of national sovereignty.^ Posted by Kiki on Thursday, 09 March 2006 at 12:25 AM in Current Affairs , different perspective , disintegration , globalization , identity , nationalism , politics , power .
  • Globalclashes: nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.globalclashes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Posted by Kiki on Thursday, 12 October 2006 at 03:56 PM in conflict , contradictions and betrayals , Current Affairs , disintegration , europe , France , identity , international law , international politics , Law , nationalism , violence , west .
  • Globalclashes: nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.globalclashes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Posted by Kiki on Friday, 12 May 2006 at 02:07 AM in Current Affairs , europe , globalization , identity , international politics , nationalism , politics , power .
  • Globalclashes: nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.globalclashes.com [Source type: Original source]

.In turn, nationalists are deeply suspicious of cosmopolitan attitudes, which they equate with eradication of diverse national cultures.^ But this struggle for economic control of their own affairs cannot in turn be divorced from any other aspect of the struggle for national sovereignty , whether cultural or terroitorial .
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Nationalist ideologies and the production of national cultures / Richard G. Fox, editor.

.While internationalism in the cosmopolitan context by definition implies cooperation among nations and states, and therefore the existence of nations, proletarian internationalism is different, in that it calls for the international working class to follow its brethren in other countries irrespective of the activities or pressures of the national government of a particular sector of that class.^ States like Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia only came into existence because the prevailing belief in 1918 was that small countries were unviable.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was the duty of Jews, therefore, to work for the creation of this Jewish state by supporting the Zionists, and, most importantly, by emigrating to Palestine.
  • Dissident Voice : Zionism: An “Abnormal” Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike other white settlers, the Jewish colons lacked a natural mother country, a Jewish state that could support their colonization of Palestine.
  • Dissident Voice : Zionism: An “Abnormal” Nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

.Meanwhile, most (but not all) anarchists reject nation-states on the basis of self-determination of the majority social class, and thus reject nationalism.^ Just wait, hispanics,asians,nigerians,gahanians and muslims will want to visit all the great National and state parks.
  • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Wilsonian moment : self-determination and the international origins of anticolonial nationalism / Erez Manela.

^ Social theory of the nation-state : the political forms of modernity beyond methodological nationalism / Daniel Chernilo.

.Instead of nations, anarchists usually advocate the creation of cooperative societies based on free association and mutual aid without regard to ethnicity or race.^ For this reason 1880's Ireland saw an explosion of cultural nationalism based around creating an image of an Irish nation that was catholic, peasant and Irish speaking.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ In a healthy and democratic society, politics and policy are more important than ethnicity, race, imagery, symbols, and even dreams.
  • Globalclashes: nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.globalclashes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Its program instead was one of submerging all class differences into the quite successful creation of a cultural nationalism based around 'traditional' values including Catholicism.
  • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

See also

Related lists

Notes

  1. ^ Gellner, Ernest. Nations and Nationalism. Cornell University Press. 
  2. ^ Smith, Anthony D. (1993). National Identity. Reno: University of Nevada Press. p. 72. ISBN 0874172047. http://books.google.com/books?id=bEAJbHBlXR8C. 
  3. ^ Thomas Blank and Peter Schmidt, National Identity in a United Germany: Nationalism or Patriotism? An Empirical Test with Representative Data, in Political Psychology, Vol. 24, No. 2, (2003)
  4. ^ a b "Nationalism". Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/405644/nationalism. Retrieved 2009-12-06. 
  5. ^ Smith, Anthony D. (1998). Nationalism and Modernism: A Critical Survey of Recent Theories of Nations and Nationalism. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415063418. http://books.google.com/books?id=4O0w3ZH57KkC. 
  6. ^ Iain McLean, Alistair McMillan, Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics, "French Revolution ... It produced the modern doctrine of nationalism, and spread it directly throughout Western Europe...", Oxford, 2009, ISBN: 9780199205165.
  7. ^ Hutchinson, John and Smith, Anthony D., ed (1994). Nationalism. Oxford Readers. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 4-5. 
  8. ^ Anthony D. Smith, Nationalism, p. 17-20, Polity, 2002, ISBN: 978-0745626598.
  9. ^ T. C. W. Blanning (2003). The Culture of Power and the Power of Culture: Old Regime Europe 1660-1789. Oxford University Press. pp. 259,260. http://books.google.com/books?id=3qCIzooCRlwC&pg=PA260&dq=nationalism+pejorative#v=onepage&q=nationalism%20pejorative&f=false. 
  10. ^ a b Laqueuer, Walter." Comparative Study of Fascism" by Juan J. Linz. Fascism, A Reader's Guide: Analyses, interpretations, Bibliography. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1976. Pp. 15 "Fascism is above all a nationalist movement and therefore wherever the nation and the state are strongly identified."
  11. ^ a b Laqueur, Walter. Fascism: Past, Present, Future. Oxford University Press, 1997. Pp. 90. "the common belief in nationalism, hierarchical structures, and the leader principle."
  12. ^ a b "Goebbels on National-Socialism, Bolshevism and Democracy, Documents on International Affairs, vol. II, 1938, pp. 17-19. Accessed from the Jewish Virtual Library on February 5, 2009. [1] Joseph Goebbels describes the Nazis as being allied with countries which had "authoritarian nationalist" ideology and conception of the state "It enables us to see at once why democracy and Bolshevism, which in the eyes of the world are irrevocably opposed to one another, meet again and again on common ground in their joint hatred of and attacks on authoritarian nationalist concepts of State and State systems. For the authoritarian nationalist conception of the State represents something essentially new. In it the French Revolution is superseded.".
  13. ^ Koln, Hans; Calhoun, Craig. The Idea of Nationalism: A Study in its Origins and Background. Transaction Publishers. Pp 20.
    University of California. 1942. Journal of Central European Affairs. Volume 2.
  14. ^ http://www.maknews.com/html/articles/savich/nationalism.pdf
  15. ^ Connor, Walker (1994). Ethnonationalism: The Quest for Understanding. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 29. http://books.google.com/books?id=bmgineq0r3MC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0#PPA29,M1. 
  16. ^ Billig, Michael (1995). Banal Nationalism. London: Sage. ISBN 0803975252. http://books.google.com/books?id=VV18cdwqVf4C. 
  17. ^ Gellner, Ernest (2005). Nations and Nationalism (Second ed.). Blackwell. ISBN 1405134429. http://books.google.com/books?id=jl7t2yMfxwIC. 
  18. ^ Canovan, Margaret (1996). Nationhood and Political Theory. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. ISBN 1840640111. http://books.google.com/books?id=kIW5GAAACAAJ. 
  19. ^ Miller, David (1995). On Nationality. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198293569. http://books.google.com/books?id=1GuaIAAACAAJ. 
  20. ^ Richard D. Ashmore, Lee J. Jussim, David Wilder (2001). Social identity, intergroup conflict, and conflict reduction; Volume 3 of Rutgers series on self and social identity. Oxford University Press. pp. 74,75. ISBN 9780195137422. http://books.google.com/books?id=NzO8hZ8pwsUC&pg=PA75&dq=nationalism+pejorative&as_brr=3#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  21. ^ Istvan Hont (2005). Jealousy of trade: international competition and the nation-state in historical perspective. Harvard University Press. p. 144. ISBN 9780674010383. http://books.google.com/books?id=lHu6kBLV4CUC&pg=PA144&dq=nationalism+pejorative&as_brr=3#v=onepage&q=nationalism%20pejorative&f=false. 
  22. ^ Koln, Hans; Calhoun, Craig. The Idea of Nationalism: A Study in its Origins and Background. Transaction Publishers. Pp 20.
    University of California. 1942. Journal of Central European Affairs. Volume 2.
  23. ^ Roger Griffin, Fascism, Oxford University Press, 1995, ISBN:978-0192892492.
  24. ^ Madalyn O'Hair, Can George Bush, with impunity, state that atheists should not be considered either citizens or patriots? : The History of the Issue, positiveatheism.org
  25. ^ Smith, Anthony D. 1986. The Ethnic Origins of Nations London: Basil Blackwell. pp 6–18. ISBN 0-631-15205-9.
  26. ^ a b Nash, Kate (2001), The Blackwell companion to political sociology, Wiley-Blackwell, p. 391, ISBN 0631210504 
  27. ^ Political Science, Volume 35, Issue 2; Class and Nation: Problems of Socialist Nationalism
  28. ^ Bar-Haim, Yair; Yair Bar-Haim, Talee Ziv, Dominique Lamy, Richard M. Hodes (2008), "Nature and Nurture in Own-Race Face Processing", Psychological Science 17 (2): 159–163, doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01679.x, http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118597334/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 
  29. ^ Timothy G. Reagan (2005), Non-Western Educational Traditions: Indigenous Approaches to Educational Thought and Practice, Routledge, pp. 4–5, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=gFK9txcEYHYC  ISBN 0805848576, ISBN 9780805848571
  30. ^ Middle East and North Africa: Challenge to Western Security by Peter Duignan and L.H. Gann, Hoover Institution Press, 1981, ISBN-10: 0817973923/ISBN-13: 978-0817973926 (page 22)
  31. ^ a b c Encyclopaedia of Nationalism by Athena S. Leoussi and Anthony D. Smith, Transaction Publishers, 2001, ISBN-10: 0765800020/ISBN-13: 978-0765800022, (page 62)
  32. ^ Heywood, Andrew (1999). Political Theory: An Introduction (Second ed.). London: Macmillan Press. pp. 97-98. ISBN 0333760913. 
  33. ^ Grayling, A.C. (2001). The Meaning of Things. Applying Philosophy to Life.. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 78-79. ISBN 0297607588. 
  34. ^ Heywood, Andrew (2000). Key Concepts in Politics. London: Macmillan Press. pp. 256. ISBN 0333770951. 
  35. ^ Cliff, Tony (1959). "Rosa Luxemburg and the national question". Marxists Internet Archive. http://www.marxists.org/archive/cliff/works/1959/rosalux/6-natquest.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-02. 
  36. ^ Russell Speaks His Mind, 1960. Fletcher and son Ltd., Norwich, United Kingdom
  37. ^ Blum in his book Rogue State
  38. ^ Einstein http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins107012.html
  39. ^ [cadmus.eui.eu/dspace/bitstream/1814/2599/1/HEC04-01.pdf "The Expulsion of 'German' Communities from Eastern Europe at the End of the Second World War"]. EUI Working Paper HEC No. 2004/1. 2004. pp. 4. cadmus.eui.eu/dspace/bitstream/1814/2599/1/HEC04-01.pdf. Retrieved 20 December 2009. 

Further reading

General

  • Breuilly, John. 1994. Nationalism and the State. 2nd ed. Chicago: Chicago University Press. ISBN 0-226-07414-5 .
  • Brubaker, Rogers. 1996. Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe. .Cambridge University Press.^ Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    • The New Mexican Nationalism and 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC bama.ua.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0-521-57224-X .
  • Greenfeld, Liah. .1992. Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity Cambridge: Harvard University Press.^ Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    • The New Mexican Nationalism and 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC bama.ua.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 0-674-60319-2
  • Hobsbawm, Eric J. 1992. Nations and Nationalism Since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. 2nd ed.^ Nationalism: myth and reality.

    ^ Nations and nationalism since 1780 : programme, myth, reality / E.J. Hobsbawm.

    .Cambridge University Press.^ Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    • The New Mexican Nationalism and 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC bama.ua.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0-521-43961-2 .

Reference works

.

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Quotes regarding nationalism.

For

  • Nationalism is defined simply as: what makes you allowed to criticize your country when you have never done anything for it?^ We won't agree regardless, but the profanity just makes me want to toss anything you say in the rubbish bin.
    • (L) China: Nationalist netizens on MSN Messenger "heart" China - Shanghaiist 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC shanghaiist.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Your criticisms of nationalisms determination to overcome Orange and pro imperialist resistance to national democracy by use of armed force as sectarian frankly baffles me also .
    • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Add Your Comments > > printable version with comments RSS and atom feeds allow you to keep track of new comments on particular stories.
    • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Putera S. Sambijantoro
  • Our hearts where they rocked our cradle
    Our love where we spent our toil,
    And our faith, and our hope, and our honor,
    We pledge to our native soil.^ He said after the 7/7 bombings, while he was in Britain: 'If they could only see into our hearts they would know how good we are', and he honestly believes that.
    • Globalclashes: nationalism 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.globalclashes.com [Source type: Original source]


    .God gave all men all earth to love
    But since our hearts are small
    Ordained for each one spot should prove
    Beloved over all.
    ^ No, my friends, the landlords of Ireland are all of one religion - their God is Mammon and rack rents, and evictions their only morality."
    • Nationalism, socialism and partition - Indymedia Ireland 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Culture is meant to serve the people, and I’d prefer not to list them all here since such would only serve to prove I don’t fit false stereotypes.
    • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ My gut instinct says denounce all such “race groups.” But since they won’t disengage themselves that leaves one at a disadvantage.
    • The Return of Ethnic Nationalism : Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture 17 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chroniclesmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

Against

  • Nationalism is an infantile disease. It is the measles of mankind.
  • Nationalism is our form of incest, is our idolatry, is our insanity. "Patriotism" is its cult.
  • Nationalism is power hunger tempered by self-deception.
  • Nationalism ... is like cheap alcohol. First it makes you drunk, then it makes you blind, then it kills you.
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Look up nationalism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Simple English

File:Eugène Delacroix - La liberté guidant le
Eugène Delacroix - La liberté guidant le peuple ("Freedom leads people") This painting is often used as symbol of French nationalism. It also shows the close connection between early nationalism and socialism. There are people from all social classes following a woman. That woman symbolises freedom. The message of painting is that the bad time of social separation is over and French people belong together as a nation.

Nationalism is an ideology that says that every ethnic group of humans should be free to rule itself. Nationalists think that the best way to make this happen is for every ethnic group to have its own nation or society that they can rule without being controlled or oppressed by anybody else. Many nationalists think that nationalism is the best way to save small and not powerful groups, which are threatened by the mixing of ethnic groups. Nationalists think that the world is better with lots of cultural diversity. They also think that diversity is threatened by worldwide influences and mixing.

Nationalism on left-right politics

Originally nationalism was found together with socialism. Many early socialists were also nationalists. Especially the earliest forms of nationalism had lots of socialist features. Many people who thought that ethnic group should not be oppressed by other ethnic groups thought also that normal folk, the backbone of society, like workers and peasants, should not be oppressed by higher social classes like rich people. They thought that it is wrong for somebody to live in great welfare that is made by hard work or even oppression of others. All the social classes should work together and have a common goals that aims for good of everyone. These goals can be called "national interest". National interest is ideal and not always easy to find. There are different ways to reach national interest, for example politics.

Nationalists started to support and admire the normal folk, especially peasants, who were seen uncorrupted, gallant and fair - unlike high classes. For example normal folk often had more original and local ethnic culture than high classes, whose culture was seen more rootless. National Romanticism was based much on the ideal of uncorrupt folk.

Socialism and nationalism grew together, but they have also been put to oppose each other in some cases. The most known opposition between these ideologies was in Soviet Union. The Soviet propaganda made nationalism an insult word that was linked with opposed ideologies like capitalism, liberalism, imperialism or fascism. Still even in Soviet Union and other communist or socialist countries there were lots of nationalism (even if it was not called with that name). The most capitalist countries like United States were rather patriotic than nationalist. The Nordic countries, which were amongst the most pure nation-states, (countries that follow nationalist principle) were not very capitalist or rightist, they were built on social democratic way that is at left side. Only after Nordic countries became more multicultural their politics became more rightist.

Today nationalism does not have a common stand on those fields of politics that are outside of its basic goals, like left-right politics. However nationalism can be a part of bigger political ideology or agenda that can be leftist or rightist or something outside that classification.

Nationalism is still usually connected to goals that resist strong hierarchy between social classes inside society. Nationalist people are usually more or less against the strongest forms of capitalism, which they think gives too much power of rich people and big companies.

Nationalism and imperialism

Nationalism is the opposite of imperialism. Imperialism tries to make big nations that have many ethnic groups. In imperialist states, some groups are usually more powerful and are seen as better than others. Nationalists think that such hierarchy is bad. They say that in nations with one ethnic group, everyone has the same value and power. Sometimes nationalism is used to support imperialism, but that is against the original idea of nationalism. Such using of political ideas against their original purpose is quite usual in politics and happens with many other ideas too.

Nationalism had important role in ending the colonial rule. Nationalism spread to colonies and made their people to desire independence. Nationalism also made the people in metropolitan states (countries that colonized others) to accept more the desire of other people to rule themselves. However nationalists think that the end of colonialization of Africa was not done well. They think that there would not be so many conflicts in Africa if African nations had built in a nationalist way (so that every ethnic group is its own nation). After the imperialists left their African colonies, the new nations were built with borders that were not the same as the ethnic borders. New nations became nations with many ethnic groups, which do not want to or cannot live peacefully in the same society with the others.

Other pages

krc:Миллетчилик


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 25, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Nationalism, which are similar to those in the above article.








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