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Native Americans
and Alaska Natives
Joseph Brant by Gilbert Stuart 1786.jpgSequoyah.jpgPushmataha high resolution.jpg
Tecumseh02.jpgTouch the Clouds 1877a.gifSitting Bull.jpg
ChiefJoseph.jpegFile-Charles eastman smithsonian gn 03462a-cropped.jpgColbert.jpg
Jim Thorpe football.pngJohnBHarrington.jpg
Native Americans of the United States (from top left):
Total population
American Indian and Alaska Native
One race: 2.5 million are registered [1]
In combination with one or more other races: 1.6 million are registered [2]
1.37% of the US population
Regions with significant populations
 United States
(predominantly the West and South)
Languages
Religion
Native American Church
Protestant
Roman Catholic
Russian Orthodox
Traditional Ceremonial Ways
(Unique to Specific Tribe or Band)
Related ethnic groups
Corey Yazzie, Diné from New Mexico
Elsie Gale Stewart-Burton, Haida from Alaska
.Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska and the island state of Hawaii.^ First of all, many parts of what is now the United States .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was created in by Native American Medicine people with .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hello to all Native american people.

.They comprise a large number of distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as intact political communities.^ This collective term encompasses a large number of distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which are still enduring as political communities.

^ Attorney who fought the United States government when they attempted to confiscate land that had an Indian burial ground of the Wyandotte tribe on it.
  • Past Notable Native Americans-Pg 1 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.snowwowl.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The Forty-eighters, as they are generally called, contributed to American life a large number of individuals of whom every American can be proud.

.The terminology used to refer to Native Americans is controversial: according to a 1995 US Census Bureau set of home interviews, most of the respondents with an express preference continue to refer to themselves as American Indians or Indians.^ Native American Indian Medicine people to .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to a 1996 survey, most American Indians use the terms Indian, Native American, and American Indian interchangeably.
  • http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/nationalcurriculum/units/2006/1/06.01.01.x.html 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Native American Indian children are .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

.European colonization of the Americas led to centuries of conflict and adjustment between Old and New World societies.^ Tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over the relationship between the state and federal governments , as well as violent conflicts over the spread of slavery into new states.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This may have continued for some time if not for the actions of third European power, Great Britain, which had begun colonizing New England in 1620.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Dakota Conflict of 1862 marked the beginning of several wars between the native Americans and the European settlers.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of the written historical record about Native Americans was made by Europeans after initial contact.^ "The students will learn about another race of people and their culture, lifestyle and about the many different and important contributions they have made to benefit the American people."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet reparations have been made to Japanese Americans and Native American Indians , at least to some degree.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tax records of the American Indian Historical Society, 1977, including payroll, corporate, federal and state records.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Native Americans lived in hunter/farmer subsistence societies with significantly different value systems than those of the European colonists.^ I strongly value the Native American beliefs.

^ Develop awareness of the importance of the historical context in the lives of today’s American Indians and Alaska Natives.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Conditions in the siege lines were little better than those in the town, especially as the British lines came closer and closer to the American defences.
  • Benjamin Lincoln, American Revolutionary General, 1733-1810 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.The differences in culture between the Native Americans and Europeans, and the shifting alliances among different nations of each culture, led to great misunderstandings and long lasting cultural conflicts.^ "Students select a Native American nation and research its culture.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the French alliance in disarray, the Iroquois soon realized they represented the balance of power between the British and French in North American.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Culture Culture of the United States American culture is a Western culture, with influences from Europe, the Native American peoples, African Americans and young groups of immigrants.

.Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the United States of America vary significantly, ranging from 1 million to 18 million.^ This article is about the United States of America.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ History History of the United States Pre-Colonial America The land of what is now the United States is thought to have been populated by people migrating from Asia via the Bering land bridge some time between 50,000 and 11,000 years ago.

^ I’ve taught this system all over the United States, as well as in Europe, Central America, and Africa.

[3][4]
.After the colonies revolted against Great Britain and established the United States of America, the ideology of Manifest destiny became integral to the American nationalist movement.^ This article is about the United States of America.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ God help the United States of America.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ History History of the United States Pre-Colonial America The land of what is now the United States is thought to have been populated by people migrating from Asia via the Bering land bridge some time between 50,000 and 11,000 years ago.

.In the late 18th century, George Washington and Henry Knox conceived of the idea of "civilizing" Native Americans in preparation of American citizenship.^ The very idea, that Native American Medicine .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many Native Americans believe they own dual-citizenship.

^ Aside from the now small Native American and Native Hawaiian populations, nearly all Americans or their ancestors immigrated within the past five centuries.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5][6][7][8][9] .Assimilation (whether voluntary as with the Choctaw,[10][11] or forced) became a consistent policy through American administrations.^ High Time Bush Defines the Enemy by Ronald Bruce St John Immediately after 9/11, President Bush addressed the American people, defining policy in the simplest terms.
  • American Indian Movement of Colorado: August 2004 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.coloradoaim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ American August 7th, 2009 - 10:11 pm Barack obama is just evil.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Through photographs, letters, reports, interviews, and other primary documents, students explore the forced acculturation of American Indians through government-run boarding schools."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the early 19th century, most Native Americans of the American Deep South were removed from their homelands to accommodate American expansion with some groups presently residing in Alabama, Florida, Lousianna, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Tennessee.^ What are some actual customs and traditions of specific Native American groups?
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of these other indigenous peoples in the United States, including the Inuit, Yupik Eskimos, and Aleuts, are not usually counted as Native Americans.

^ For example, residents of North Carolina are proud to be "Tar Heels," Indiana residents are "Hoosiers" and Texans are notorious for an especially prominent state pride often compared to nationalism.

.By the American Civil War, many Native American nations had been relocated west of the Mississippi River.^ During the American Civil War , West Virginia broke away from Virginia.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many urban areas there are no Native American healers, and medicine persons travel long distances when called to these areas.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ STONES UNTURNED – NATIVE AMERICAN ARTIFACTS NEW! http://www.civilization.ca/aborig/stones/engfrm.htm "The CMC's collections are especially rich in cultural artifacts created by many generations of Canada's First Nations.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Major Native American resistance took place in the form of "Indian Wars," which were frequent up until the 1890s.^ American Indian or Alaska Native (That’s a continental origin) — Print nameof enrolled or principal tribe.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Similar arguments have been made and accepted in regard to the treatment of Native American Indians.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I want my son to grow up learning these Native American Church ways.

.Native Americans today have a unique relationship with the United States of America because they can be found as members of nations, tribes, or bands of Native Americans who have sovereignty or independence from the government of the United States.^ United States government.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ This article is about the United States of America.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These Native Americans know not what they do.

.Their societies and cultures still flourish amidst a larger immigrated American populace of African, Asian, Middle Eastern, and European peoples.^ I look at the society of America and of African Americans.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Africanisms in American Culture , 2d ed.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Culture Culture of the United States American culture is a Western culture, with influences from Europe, the Native American peoples, African Americans and young groups of immigrants.

.Native Americans who were not already U.S. citizens were granted citizenship in 1924 by the Congress of the United States.^ The standard way to refer to a citizen of the United States is as an American .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Iroquois opposed American citizenship when it was finally extended by the Congress in 1924 to all Native Americans in the United States.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Citizens of the United States as defined by the Constitution.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

Contents

History

Pre-Columbian

Further information: Models of migration to the New World, Paleo-Indians, Lithic period in Canada and Pre-Columbian
Map showing the approximate location of the ice-free corridor and specific Paleoindian sites (Clovis theory).
.According to the still-debated New World migration model, a migration of humans from Eurasia to the Americas took place via Beringia, a land bridge which formerly connected the two continents across what is now the Bering Strait.^ For this is still the fourth world, it's name has took it's place.

^ History History of the United States Pre-Colonial America The land of what is now the United States is thought to have been populated by people migrating from Asia via the Bering land bridge some time between 50,000 and 11,000 years ago.

^ When magistrates in Massachusetts discovered that some of their citizens had raided an African village and violently seized two natives to bring them across the Atlantic for sale in the New World, the General Court condemned “this haynos and crying sinn of man-stealing.” The officials promptly ordered the two blacks returned to their native land.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

[12] .Falling sea levels created the Bering land bridge that joined Siberia to Alaska, which began about 60,000 - 25,000 years ago.^ About two years ago.

^ History History of the United States Pre-Colonial America The land of what is now the United States is thought to have been populated by people migrating from Asia via the Bering land bridge some time between 50,000 and 11,000 years ago.

^ Talked to an illegal a few years ago about why he liked a certain university so well.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

[12] The minimum time depth by which this migration had taken place is confirmed at .12,000 years ago, with the upper bound (or earliest period) remaining a matter of some unresolved contention.^ He is only 12 and a year ago his request of a meeting for his birthday was a blessing.

^ The books and archival materials in the collection cover the span of Indian history from the arrival of the first settlers, over 55,000 years ago, up to the present day.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It just hit me, Last time I visited Canada, about 10 years ago at least, I also bought some books there.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

[13] .These early Paleoamericans soon spread throughout the Americas, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes.^ Each tribe had a distinct culture yet shared many of the same beliefs."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pursuit of these Susquehannock allies south into South Carolina and Tennessee soon had Iroquois war parties fighting with Cherokee and Catawba.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Canada imposed an election system on the Six Nations in 1924, but many Iroquois tribes have retained their traditional system of hereditary leadership.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

[14] .The North American climate finally stabilized by 8000 BCE; climatic conditions were very similar to today's.^ Thus all the wealth that exists today has at its roots African Americans and their unpaid work, their blood, and their inhumane treatment and living conditions.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

[15] .This led to widespread migration, cultivation of crops, and subsequently a dramatic rise in population all over the Americas.^ The arrival of the colonists ultimately led to fighting that killed 90 percent of the America's Indians' population, said Adams, so it's hard to celebrate that.

.The big-game hunting culture labeled as the Clovis culture is primarily identified with its production of fluted projectile points.^ B.C. - Lithic or paleo-Indian period - Migratory big game hunting and chipped stone artifacts - Indians already dispersed throughout the Americas (Waldman, 1985).
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The culture received its name from artifacts found near Clovis, New Mexico; the first evidence of this tool complex was excavated in 1932. The Clovis culture ranged over much of North America and also appeared in South America.^ I am from Vanderwagon, New Mexico, which is 15 miles south of Gallup.

^ This required the Ojibwe to expand west along the north and south shores of Lake Superior to find new hunting territory.
  • Ottawa 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ North America, bordering both the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean, between Canada and Mexico .

The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis point, a flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, by which it was inserted into a shaft. Dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. .Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11,050 and 10,800 radiocarbon years B.P. (roughly 9100 to 8850 BCE).^ Experts note that in hospitals, unauthorized RFID use or eavesdropping could lead to security breaches involving test results or dangerous materials.

.Numerous Paleoindian cultures occupied North America, with some restricted to the Great Plains and Great Lakes of the modern United States of America and Canada, as well as adjacent areas to the west and southwest.^ This article is about the United States of America.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ God help the United States of America.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ History History of the United States Pre-Colonial America The land of what is now the United States is thought to have been populated by people migrating from Asia via the Bering land bridge some time between 50,000 and 11,000 years ago.

.The Folsom Tradition was characterized by use of Folsom points as projectile tips, and activities known from kill sites where slaughter and butchering of bison took place.^ I miss how the fire burns inside the tepee, the smell, and the sound how fire used to crackle, when I took care of the holy fire place.

^ Fashion Dress was moderately formal until the 1960s, when a revolution took place that stressed casual and informal, and in the Western tradition of pants and a shirt.

.Folsom tools were left behind between 9000 BCE and 8000 BCE.[16] Poverty Point culture is an archaeological culture whose people inhabited the area of the lower Mississippi Valley and surrounding Gulf Coast.^ There is a fine line between a government that is behind it’s people helping them have a good life and one that is in front deciding for them what is good life.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ In August 2005, Hurricane Katrina flooded parts of the city of New Orleans and heavily damaged other areas of the gulf coast, including major damage to the Mississippi coast.

^ The metro areas of Dallas , Houston, Atlanta , and Phoenix all grew by more than a million people between 2000 and 2008.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The culture thrived from 2200 BCE- 700 BCE, during the late Archaic period.[17] .Evidence of this culture has been found at more than 100 sites, from Poverty Point, Louisiana across a 100-mile range to the Jaketown Site near Belzoni, Mississippi.^ The network will span 20,000 miles of alternate path, city-to-city routes, connecting 194 cities and more than 90 percent of the U.S. business market.

^ The Dutch, however, became alarmed and in February, 1643 made a surprise attack on the Wiechquaeskeck village killing more than 100 of them.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Waihe’e himself sanctioned the practice, calling it “Cultural.” Hawaii politicians are more corrupt and racist than NJ or Chicago.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

A Folsom point for a spear.
.According to the oral histories of many of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, they have been living there since their genesis, described by a wide range of traditional creation accounts.^ It’s because they are finding there are people who actually do not share their twisted and idiot view of government.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ History shows that there has never been a strong indigenous church without the translated written Scriptures used by indigenous leaders.
  • 1987 – 2000: Hopes For A Better Future 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.meskwaki.bia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Another 700 still live near Oneida, New York, but since their 32 acre reserve is so small, many are forced to live with the nearby Onondaga.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

[18] .The Na-Dene people occupied much of northwest and central North America starting around 8000 BCE. They were the earliest ancestors of the Athabascan- speaking peoples, including the present-day and historical Navajo and Apache.^ After spending several days collecting information, they will use graphic organizers to plan a presentation.
  • http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/nationalcurriculum/units/2006/1/06.01.01.x.html 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bibliographies from the Smithsonian Institute, Bureau of American Ethnography and Division of Archeology, 59 pages, concerns Indian archaeology in the Americas, present-day conditions of U. S. Indians and the origin of the American Indian.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 1846 Oregon Treaty with Britain led to U.S. control of the present-day American Northwest .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Their villages were constructed with large multi-family dwellings, used seasonally. .People did not live there year round, but for the summer to hunt and fish, and to gather food supplies for the winter.^ There is a saying in Indian Country that “you can’t refuse” food offered, and that “food is always offered”- as an expression of “taking care of our people.” .
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The winter was unusually harsh, and there was not enough food.
  • Ottawa 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Failing all else, England generally doesn’t get around to checking visas (other than on entry) for about 3 years, so you have 3 years to live on the dole there.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

[19] .The Oshara Tradition people lived from 5500 BCE to 600 CE. The Southwestern Archaic Tradition was centered in north-central New Mexico, the San Juan Basin, the Rio Grande Valley, southern Colorado, and southeastern Utah.^ His name was Kas-tziden among the Mimbreno Apache in southern New Mexico.
  • Past Notable Native Americans-Pg 1 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.snowwowl.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Central American immigrants are known to cross Mexico’s southern border illegally on their way to the US, often riding on train roofs or stowing away in carriages.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While to many foreigners "Yankees" is synonymous with the American people, Americans almost always use the term for the sports team, for New Englanders, New Yorkers, or with reference to those living in the northeastern U.S. in contrast to Southerners.

.The Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures refers to the time period from roughly 1000 BCE to 1000 CE in the eastern part of North America.^ Each team will focus on only one nation within a specific Native American culture region including: Eastern Woodland Peoples (north and south), Great Plains Cultures, Pacific Northwest Cultures, California Indians, and Pueblo People of the Southwest.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The North American Indian by Edward S. Curtis is one of the most significant and controversial representations of traditional American Indian culture ever produced.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NATIVE TECH: NATIVE AMERICAN TECHNOLOGY AND ART http://www.nativetech.org/ Original articles focusing on the Eastern Woodlands tribes providing historical and contemporary background information, technical instruction and references.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The term "Woodland" was coined in the 1930s and refers to prehistoric sites dated between the Archaic period and the Mississippian cultures. The Hopewell tradition is the term used to describe common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States from 200 BCE to 500 CE.[20]
.
Cultural areas of pre-Columbian North America, according to Alfred Kroeber.
^ The introduction of the horse had a profound impact on Native American culture in the Great Plains of North America.

[citation needed]
.The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a widely dispersed set of related populations, who were connected by a common network of trade routes,[21] known as the Hopewell Exchange System.^ I am really impressed, in your guestbook, that there are so many people who have so many connections in Native American culture and family backgrounds.

^ The connection of the Washoe culture with the natural environment is explored, along with how the loss of traditional lands has had a profound effect on the Washoe as a people."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The network will span 20,000 miles of alternate path, city-to-city routes, connecting 194 cities and more than 90 percent of the U.S. business market.

.At its greatest extent, the Hopewell exchange system ran from the Southeastern United States into the southeastern Canadian shores of Lake Ontario.^ The powerful Missisauga expanded south along the shores of Lake Huron into southern Ontario and seized territory from the Iroquois.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Constitution of the United States and of all the states, no privilege shall be conceded to any religionž and our entire political system shall be secular.

^ I’ve taught this system all over the United States, as well as in Europe, Central America, and Africa.

Within this area, societies participated in a high degree of exchange with the highest amount of activity along the waterways serving as their major transportation routes. .The Hopewell exchange system traded materials from all over the United States.^ This is the most recent installment by the museum that brought international blockbuster exhibitions Imperial China and All the Queen’s Horses to the United States.

^ I’ve taught this system all over the United States, as well as in Europe, Central America, and Africa.

^ The infant mortality rate of 6.37 per thousand likewise places the United States 42nd out of 221 countries, behind all of Western Europe.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Coles Creek culture is an archaeological culture from the Lower Mississippi valley in the southern present-day United States.^ Culture Culture of the United States American culture is a Western culture, with influences from Europe, the Native American peoples, African Americans and young groups of immigrants.

^ The United States has traditionally been known as a melting pot, with a trend towards cultural diversity.

^ The day which Prussia did not want has come, when the flags of Great Britain, France, and the United States float together in defense of civilization.

The period marked a significant change in the cultural history of the area. Population increased dramatically. There is strong evidence of a growing cultural and political complexity, especially by the end of the Coles Creek sequence. Although many of the classic traits of chiefdom societies were not yet manifested, by 1000 CE the formation of simple elite polities had begun. .Coles Creek sites are found in Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Mississippi, and Texas.^ I am of the Nokona Band of Northren Texas&Sourthren Oklahoma Comanche Nations:I really like your web site.

^ News clipping, "Historical Unit Purchase; Site of Choctaw Capital Acquired," News, Paris, Texas, 6/1/73, site of Choctaw Nation acquired by Oklahoma Historical Society.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is considered ancestral to the Plaquemine culture.
.Hohokam is one of the four major prehistoric archaeological traditions of the present-day American Southwest.^ Bibliographies from the Smithsonian Institute, Bureau of American Ethnography and Division of Archeology, 59 pages, concerns Indian archaeology in the Americas, present-day conditions of U. S. Indians and the origin of the American Indian.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 1846 Oregon Treaty with Britain led to U.S. control of the present-day American Northwest .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The four largest airlines in the world by passengers carried are American; Southwest Airlines is number one.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] Living as simple farmers, they raised corn and beans. .The early Hohokam founded a series of small villages along the middle Gila River.^ Raids and counter-raids continued until 1783 with the Mingo and other British allies moving their villages into northwest Ohio to distance them from the Americans along the Ohio River.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.The communities were located near good arable land, with dry farming common in the earlier years of this period.^ Many of the raids against Kentucky during this period originated from Pluggy's Town, a Mingo village located near present-day Delaware, Ohio.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Afew Years ago I Had the opportunity to attend A meeting Near my home community of Sagkeeng First Nation.

[22] .Wells, usually less than 10 feet (3 m) deep, were dug for domestic water supplies by 300 CE to 500 CE.[22] Early Hohokam homes were constructed of branches bent in a semi-circular fashion and then covered with twigs, reeds and heavily applied mud and other materials at hand.^ Less than 10 miles from my home, my friends and I were in an accident.

^ Their reception was less than cordial, but they were allowed to stay in a status of semi-slavery.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the 2000 U.S. Census, more than 97% of Americans can speak English "well," and for 81% of the population, it is the only language spoken at home.

[22]
.Although not as technologically advanced as the Mesoamerican civilizations further south, sophisticated pre-Columbian sedentary societies evolved in North America.^ Some, such as the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture , developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state-level societies.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Monroe Doctrine, establishing North, Central, and South America as "hands off" to the European powers.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Abraham Lincoln was elected president, the South seceded to form the Confederate States of America, the Civil War followed, with the ultimate defeat of the South.

.The Iroquois League of Nations or "People of the Long House" was a politically advanced and unique social structure whose confederacy model contributed to political thinking during the later development of the democratic United States government.^ United States government.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The Iroquois call themselves Haudenosaunee meaning "people of the long house."
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of these other indigenous peoples in the United States, including the Inuit, Yupik Eskimos, and Aleuts, are not usually counted as Native Americans.

Their system of affiliation was a kind of federation, a departure from the strong monarchies from which the Europeans came.[23] .Long-distance trading did not prevent warfare among the indigenous peoples.^ Ask people in Australia what happened when they did the cap & trade there.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

.For instance, archaeology and the tribes' oral histories have contributed to an understanding that the Iroquois' conducted invasions and warfare about 1200 CE against tribes in the Ohio River area of present-day Kentucky.^ Bibliographies from the Smithsonian Institute, Bureau of American Ethnography and Division of Archeology, 59 pages, concerns Indian archaeology in the Americas, present-day conditions of U. S. Indians and the origin of the American Indian.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four years later, the Iroquois began to secretly organize a massive uprising by all tribes east of the Mississippi against the French and British.
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^ A month later, they signed a treaty relinquishing all their claims south of the Ohio River which opened Kentucky for settlement.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.Finally they drove many to migrate west to their historically traditional lands west of the Mississippi River.^ Pennsylvania, and many of the lands of the Mississippi .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Wichita N.A.’s were not land owners and were simply squatters on Osage land as they came to the Arkansas River junction to escape bad years of winters circa 1864.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have tried many religions, but finally found I can learn my native traditions and still have Jesus in my heart.

.Tribes' originating in the Ohio Valley who moved west included the Osage, Kaw, Ponca and Omaha.^ To this end, he brought Joseph Brant west in 1783 as a representative of the Six Nations (Canadian) to attend a meeting of the Ohio tribes at Sandusky.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most moved to Oklahoma, including the 200 Seneca who had arrived from New York in 1846.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Iroquois tradition, they were once a single tribe in the St. Lawrence Valley subject to Algonquin-speaking Adirondack who had taught them agriculture.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.By the mid-17th century, they had resettled in their historical lands in present-day Kansas, Nebraska, Arkansas and Oklahoma.^ The land purchased contained all of present-day Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota south of Mississippi River, much of North Dakota, nearly all of South Dakota, northeastern New Mexico, northern Texas, the portions of Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado east of the Continental Divide, and Louisiana on both sides of the Mississippi River, including the city of New Orleans.” .
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Wichita N.A.’s were not land owners and were simply squatters on Osage land as they came to the Arkansas River junction to escape bad years of winters circa 1864.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kansas and Nebraska became territories in 1854 and reduced the Indian territories to that in Oklahoma.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Osage warred with native Caddo-speaking Native Americans, displacing them in turn by the mid-18th century and dominating their new historical territories.^ Develop awareness of the importance of the historical context in the lives of today’s American Indians and Alaska Natives.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Aside from the now small Native American and Native Hawaiian populations, nearly all Americans or their ancestors immigrated within the past five centuries.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reports and correspondence regarding the Water Conference, supported by the American Indian Historical Society, Albuquerque, New Mexico, July 1972.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]
.The Southeastern Ceremonial Complex is the name archeologists have given to the regional stylistic similarity of artifacts, iconography, ceremonies and mythology of the Mississippian culture, which coincided with the people's adoption of maize agriculture and chiefdom-level complex social organization from 1200 CE to 1650 CE.[25][26] Contrary to popular belief, this development appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerica.^ THE MISSISSIPPIAN MOUNDBUILDERS AND THEIR ARTIFACTS http://www.mississippian-artifacts.com/ Artifacts from the Mississippian Moundbuilders, a Native American culture that thrived from about 900 AD to the 1600s in what is now the Midwest.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is no longer a government of the people and by the people – one segment of society has taken the reins of power and want to ram their beliefs down the throats of EVERY American!
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Other maps depict the location of reservations given to Native Americans, the progress of the railroad through the region, and the development of counties, towns, roads and highways.
  • Kansas Collection 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC spencer.lib.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It developed independently, with sophistication based on the accumulation of maize surpluses, more dense population and specialization of skills.^ Agriculture was independently developed in what is now the eastern United States by 2500 BC, based on the domestication of indigenous sunflower, squash and goosefoot.

^ Diversity Issues in Substance Abuse Treatment and Research (2003) examines the development of policy with particular emphasis on special population communities.

^ E. Geographic-Based Special Populations .

.This Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples, and is one of the primary means by which their religion is understood.^ That means is is time for ALL members of both houses of congress to shut up and actually start listening to the people they claim to represent.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ No one has ever told him that a public policy major means NOTHING. That he was the first harvard law review president where grades were NOT used as selection criteria.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ I respect the Native American Church and bless to see many people believing the true meaning behind this secred ceremony.

[27]
.The Mississippian culture created the largest earthworks in North America north of Mexico, most notably at Cahokia, based on a tributary of the Mississippi River in present-day Illinois.^ The land purchased contained all of present-day Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota south of Mississippi River, much of North Dakota, nearly all of South Dakota, northeastern New Mexico, northern Texas, the portions of Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado east of the Continental Divide, and Louisiana on both sides of the Mississippi River, including the city of New Orleans.” .
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bibliographies from the Smithsonian Institute, Bureau of American Ethnography and Division of Archeology, 59 pages, concerns Indian archaeology in the Americas, present-day conditions of U. S. Indians and the origin of the American Indian.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because America offers something not present in Mexico.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

.Its 10-story Monks Mound has a larger circumference than the Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan or the Great Pyramid of Egypt.^ He actually ran a tipi meeting at Teotihuacan at the great pyramid in Mexico in Oct.

.The six-square mile city complex was based on the people's cosmology and had more than 100 mounds, oriented to their sophisticated knowledge of astronomy.^ The world is alot more complex than .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That is more of a concern to me than how people are .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I submit that ~142 million Americans are more than enough people to make this a relevant and current issue.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

It included a Woodhenge, whose sacred cedar poles were placed to mark the summer and winter solstices and fall and spring equinoxes. .Its peak population in 1250 CE of 30,000-40,000 people was not equalled by any city in the present-day United States until after 1800. In addition, Cahokia was a major regional chiefdom, with trade and tributary chiefdoms ranging from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico.^ Approximately 30,000 of these live in the United States.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ History History of the United States Pre-Colonial America The land of what is now the United States is thought to have been populated by people migrating from Asia via the Bering land bridge some time between 50,000 and 11,000 years ago.

^ Some of these other indigenous peoples in the United States, including the Inuit, Yupik Eskimos, and Aleuts, are not usually counted as Native Americans.

European explorations

Further information: European colonization of the Americas
.After 1492 European exploration of the Americas revolutionized how the Old and New Worlds perceived themselves.^ How ironic that I took the Rose of the World, the Queen of Heaven, from the Catholic church, and supported the New Reformation of Matthew Fox.

^ Early European settlements One recorded European exploration of the Americas was by Christopher Columbus in 1492, sailing on behalf of the King and Queen of Spain.

^ "'Old’ and ‘New’ Europeans United: Public Attitudes Towards the Iraq War and US Foreign Policy" .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

One of the first major contacts, in what would be called the American Deep South, occurred when conquistador Juan Ponce de León landed in La Florida in April of 1513. Ponce de León was later followed by other Spanish explorers, such as Pánfilo de Narváez in 1528 and Hernando de Soto in 1539.
Discovery of the Mississippi by William Henry Powell (1823–1879) is a Romantic depiction of de Soto's seeing the Mississippi River for the first time. It hangs in the United States Capitol rotunda.
.From the 16th through the 19th centuries, the population of Native Americans declined in the following ways: epidemic diseases brought from Europe; genocide and warfare [28] at the hands of European explorers and colonists; displacement from their lands; internal warfare,[29] enslavement; and a high rate of intermarriage.^ This Native American population was greatly reduced by disease and warfare after European contact .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Native American land and resource rights."
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^ European diseases, brought over by the colonizers, killed countless natives.

[30][31] .Most mainstream scholars believe that, among the various contributing factors, epidemic disease was the overwhelming cause of the population decline of the American natives because of their lack of immunity to new diseases brought from Europe.^ Included are articles on Native American contributions.
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^ I believe that there are some 82 million other Americans that fall into the same time range and have had the chance at the same situations growing up to varying degrees.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The library is one of the most important collections of research materials relating to the Native Americans in the United States and the world.
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[32][33][34] .With the rapid declines of some populations and continuing rivalries among their own nations, Native Americans sometimes re-organized to form new cultural groups, such as the Seminoles of Florida.^ What are some actual customs and traditions of specific Native American groups?
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^ "Students select a Native American nation and research its culture.
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^ Some of these other indigenous peoples in the United States, including the Inuit, Yupik Eskimos, and Aleuts, are not usually counted as Native Americans.

Impact on Native Populations

.The lack of hard evidence or written records has made estimating the number of Native Americans living in what is today the United States of America before the arrival of the European explorers and settlers the subject of much debate.^ God help the United States of America.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ United States of America to save us???
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of these other indigenous peoples in the United States, including the Inuit, Yupik Eskimos, and Aleuts, are not usually counted as Native Americans.

.A low estimate arriving at around 1 million was first posited by anthropologist James Mooney in the 1890s, computing population density of each culture area based on its carrying capacity.^ In 2008, the U.S. population included an estimated 4.9 million people with some American Indian or Alaskan native ancestry (3.1 million exclusively of such ancestry) and 1.1 million with some native Hawaiian or Pacific island ancestry (0.6 million exclusively).
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Estimates of Population Change for Metropolitan Statistical Areas and Rankings: July 1, 2007 to July 1, 2008" (PDF).
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^ There are fifty-two metropolitan areas with populations greater than 1 million.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1965, American anthropologist Henry Dobyns published studies estimating the original population at 10 to 12 million.^ In 2005, 46.6 million Americans, 15.9% of the population, were uninsured, 5.4 million more than in 2001.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2008, the U.S. population included an estimated 4.9 million people with some American Indian or Alaskan native ancestry (3.1 million exclusively of such ancestry) and 1.1 million with some native Hawaiian or Pacific island ancestry (0.6 million exclusively).
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Series of miscellaneous correspondence to and from the American Indian Historical Society, 1965, concerns the Rosenberg Foundation, the Indian Historian, 11/10/65.
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By 1983, however, he increased his estimates to 18 million.[35] .He took into account the mortality rates caused by infectious diseases of European explorers and settlers, against which Native Americans had no natural immunity.^ "Native Americans are known for their bond with nature.
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^ One example of conflict between Native Americans and English settlers was the 1622 Powhatan uprising in Virginia, in which Indians had killed hundreds of English settlers.

^ In many urban areas there are no Native American healers, and medicine persons travel long distances when called to these areas.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Dobyns combined the known mortality rates of these diseases among native people with reliable population records of the 19th century, to calculate the probable size of the original populations.^ Some of these other indigenous peoples in the United States, including the Inuit, Yupik Eskimos, and Aleuts, are not usually counted as Native Americans.

^ The young people going to these ceremonies now will lead the Native American Church in the future.

^ Permalink Some of the plains tribes were not plains people originally, but had to become so, because they were chased out of their home territories by other Native American tribes.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

[3][4]
.Chicken pox and measles, though common and rarely fatal among Europeans, often proved deadly to Native Americans.^ Main article: History of the United States Native Americans and European settlers .
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^ The time travelers wish to use their ticket to visit the Native Americans before the European settlers arrived, and have narrowed their choices to 3 tribes: the Monacans, the Pueblos and the Sioux.
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^ Maybe the school should have had the word REPARATIONS on the cross word, defined as – What America refuses to do or discuss, though it’s been done for Native Indians and Japanese Americans.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

.Smallpox proved particularly fatal to Native American populations.^ Aside from the now small Native American and Native Hawaiian populations, nearly all Americans or their ancestors immigrated within the past five centuries.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2008, the U.S. population included an estimated 4.9 million people with some American Indian or Alaskan native ancestry (3.1 million exclusively of such ancestry) and 1.1 million with some native Hawaiian or Pacific island ancestry (0.6 million exclusively).
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am one of those people who are researching to find my Native American roots,that I know are there but cant prove it.

[36] .Epidemics often immediately followed European exploration and sometimes destroyed entire village populations.^ The mission of St. Marie was established at the Mohawk village of Teatontaloga in 1642 but was destroyed three years later during an epidemic.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.While precise figures are difficult to determine, some historians estimate that up to 80% of some Native populations died due to European diseases after first contact.^ It has been estimated that there were 5-10 million indigenous people on the continent of North America at the time of first European contact.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ European diseases, brought over by the colonizers, killed countless natives.

^ Some estimates of pre-contact Mohawk population range as high as 17,000 although half this is probably closer to the truth.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

[37] .One theory of Columbian exchange suggests explorers from the Christopher Columbus expedition contracted syphilis from indigenous peoples and carried it back to Europe, where it spread widely.^ The Mayflower transported Pilgrims to the New World in 1620, as depicted in William Halsall's The Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor , 1882 In 1492, Genoese explorer Christopher Columbus , under contract to the Spanish crown, reached several Caribbean islands, making first contact with the indigenous people.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It would be nice to see more contact and exchange of traditions with the indigenous peoples here in my new home.

^ These people became the indigenous people who inhabited the Americas prior to the arrival of European explorers in the 1400s and who are now called Native Americans.

[38] .Other researchers believe that the disease existed in Europe and Asia before Columbus and his men returned from exposure to indigenous peoples of the Americas, but that they brought back a more virulent form.^ Some of these other indigenous peoples in the United States, including the Inuit, Yupik Eskimos, and Aleuts, are not usually counted as Native Americans.

^ After all, they’re the ones responsible for building up the housing bubble,pushing for more loans to, as maxing waters explained it, “people with imperfect credit.” .
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Or the people who took their lead from Congress spent more than they took in?
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

(See Syphilis.)
.In 1618–1619, smallpox wiped out 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Native Americans.^ We would like to send out Season's Greetings to all of our Native American Church relatives in the four directions.

^ NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY CROSSWORD PUZZLE http://www.nytimes.com/learning/teachers/xwords/19991001.html A crossword puzzle to do online or print out on Native American History.
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^ I am in Kosovo and there a couple Native Americans out here with me.

[39] .Historians believe Mohawk Native Americans were infected after contact with children of Dutch traders in Albany in 1634. The disease swept through Mohawk villages, reaching Native Americans at Lake Ontario in 1636, and the lands of the Iroquois by 1679, as it was carried by Mohawks and other Native Americans who traveled the trading routes.^ Native American land and resource rights."
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^ Native American children; and 3.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of these other indigenous peoples in the United States, including the Inuit, Yupik Eskimos, and Aleuts, are not usually counted as Native Americans.

[40] .The high rate of fatalities caused breakdowns in Native American societies and disrupted generational exchanges of culture.^ Culture Culture of the United States American culture is a Western culture, with influences from Europe, the Native American peoples, African Americans and young groups of immigrants.

^ Correspondence to Jeannette Henry from Peggy Osterman, American Indian Art and Cultural Exchange, 1/3/77, concerns achievement awards with attached response.
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^ Correspondence to Rupert Costo, the American Indian Historical Society from John Woodenlegs, Sr., 6/3/75, concerns "Cultural Policy Statement," alcoholism, James Spear.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Between 1754 and 1763 many Native American tribes were involved in the French and Indian War/Seven Years War with French forces against British Colonial militias.^ Native American Indian Medicine people.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Native American Indian Medicine people to .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Native American Indian children are .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

.Native Americans fought on both sides of the conflict over Western US Territories; the greater number of tribes, unwilling to be subjugated, fought with the French, while fewer tribes fought with the British to prove assimilation and loyalty in support of treaties, many of which were later dishonored.^ The western territories granted to us by the British?
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We are both members of the native american of canada.

^ We have illegal alien supporters on both sides.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

.Though there is some evidence of biological warfare with pox infected blankets at Pontiac's Rebellion, the contact of trade and combat provided much greater exposure to disease.^ There are some though where you can say with a degree of certainty that the author was incorrect because of X, Y or Z. .
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Capitalism has not worked for the US. No wonder people leave in droves to go live in other countries where there is much greater opportunity.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ There is much evidence my Stuttmiester ancestors were Teutonic Knights and Stud Masters for the Prussian Kings.

.Similarly, after initial direct contact with European explorers in the 1770s, smallpox rapidly killed at least 30% of Northwest Coast Native Americans.^ One example of conflict between Native Americans and English settlers was the 1622 Powhatan uprising in Virginia, in which Indians had killed hundreds of English settlers.

^ Contains 2,300 photographs and 7,700 pages of text relating to the American Indians of the Pacific Northwest including the Northwest Coast and the Plateau.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet reparations have been made to Japanese Americans and Native American Indians , at least to some degree.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

.For the next 80 to 100 years, smallpox and other diseases devastated native populations in the region.^ Has anyone wondered why there are more Native Americans in the military per population then any other ethnic group.

^ The Senate has 100 members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms; one third of Senate seats are up for election every other year.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This Native American population was greatly reduced by disease and warfare after European contact .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41] .Puget Sound area populations once as high as 37,000 were reduced to only 9,000 survivors by the time settlers arrived en masse in the mid-19th century.^ Some estimates of pre-contact Mohawk population range as high as 17,000 although half this is probably closer to the truth.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The time travelers wish to use their ticket to visit the Native Americans before the European settlers arrived, and have narrowed their choices to 3 tribes: the Monacans, the Pueblos and the Sioux.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the visual arts, the Hudson River School was a mid-19th-century movement in the tradition of European naturalism .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42]
.Smallpox epidemics in 1780–1782 and 1837–1838 brought devastation and drastic depopulation among the Plains Indians.^ The greatest blow, however, was not military defeat but epidemic when smallpox struck their single, crowded village with devastating effect in 1661.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

[43][44] .By 1832, the federal government finally established a smallpox vaccination program for Native Americans (The Indian Vaccination Act of 1832).^ Report, "Federal Violation of Basic Rights of American Indian People," William Veeder, no date.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ News clipping and program, concerns the American Indian Citizens League of California, 3/24/47.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hello I am part Otoe-Missouria Indian and I am trying to find the Native American Church in or near my hometown area which is Laguna Niguel, California.

.It was the first program created to address a health problem of Native Americans.^ It was created in by Native American Medicine people with .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The sixties were created by Native American Medicine people.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The IHS Primary Care Provider --A monthly journal for health professionals working with American Indians and Alaska Natives.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

[45][46]

Animal introductions

With the meeting of two worlds, animals, insects, and plants were exchanged between two. .The horse, pig, and cow were all old world animals that were introduced to Native Americans who never knew such animals.^ Hello to all Native american people.

^ All childeren in the old world were hypnotised .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hello to all Native Americans.

.In the sixteenth century, Spaniards and other Europeans brought horses to the Americas.^ In the 15th century, Spaniards and other Europeans brought horses to the Americas.

^ Queen Elizabeth is horse-crazy, and more then likely endured the other things she was shown in America.

^ The materials chiefly deal with Indian history and culture of the past four centuries after the settlement of America by Europeans.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The early American horse was game for the earliest humans and was hunted to extinction about 7,000 BC, just after the end of the last glacial period.^ It just hit me, Last time I visited Canada, about 10 years ago at least, I also bought some books there.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ As an expert you will then combine with other experts of your tribe to create a multimedia interactive game to teach younger students about Native American culture."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B.C. - Lithic or paleo-Indian period - Migratory big game hunting and chipped stone artifacts - Indians already dispersed throughout the Americas (Waldman, 1985).
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The reintroduction of horses resulted in benefits to Native Americans.^ The introduction of the horse had a profound impact on Native American culture in the Great Plains of North America.

^ I have played several concerts that have benefited the Native American Church and have been deeply influenced by the Church songs.

^ The Treaty of Ghent, officially ending the war, essentially resulted in the maintenance of the 'status quo ante bellum'; but, crucially for the U.S., saw the end of the British alliance with the Native Americans.

.As they adopted the animals, they began to change their cultures in substantial ways, especially by extending their ranges.^ The manner in which evolving modern theories of human migration are changing the way we look at history and cultivating awareness of racial and cultural stereotypes."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some of the horses escaped and began to breed and increase their numbers in the wild.
.The reintroduction of the horse to North America had a profound impact on Native American culture of the Great Plains.^ The introduction of the horse had a profound impact on Native American culture in the Great Plains of North America.

^ Culture Culture of the United States American culture is a Western culture, with influences from Europe, the Native American peoples, African Americans and young groups of immigrants.

^ We, native american people, understand the life around the great medicine (peyote in the english term but medicine in our own language)and how it heals our spirit.

The tribes trained and used horses to ride and to carry packs or pull travois. .They fully incorporated the use of horses into their societies, including expanding their territories, exchanging goods with neighboring tribes, hunting game (especially bison) and conducting warring raids.^ The powerful Missisauga expanded south along the shores of Lake Huron into southern Ontario and seized territory from the Iroquois.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This Democratic Party/Obama plan is so good that they are going to exempt themselves from using it.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ You do not have to use the exact wording used in the categories, just have these themes incorporated into your presentations."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Foundations for freedom

Treaty of Penn with Indians by Benjamin West painted in 1827.
.For some Europeans, Native American societies reminded them of a conception of a golden age known to them only in folk history.^ Some of these other indigenous peoples in the United States, including the Inuit, Yupik Eskimos, and Aleuts, are not usually counted as Native Americans.

^ Known as "King Phillip", he was one of the most influential Native Americans in the early days of the colonies.
  • Past Notable Native Americans-Pg 1 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.snowwowl.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 2008, the U.S. population included an estimated 4.9 million people with some American Indian or Alaskan native ancestry (3.1 million exclusively of such ancestry) and 1.1 million with some native Hawaiian or Pacific island ancestry (0.6 million exclusively).
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47] The political theorist Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote that the idea of freedom and democratic ideals was born in the Americas because "it was only in America" that Europeans from 1500 to 1776 knew of societies that were "truly free."[47]
.
Natural freedom is the only object of the policy of the [Native Americans]; with this freedom do nature and climate rule alone amongst them ...^ "Native Americans are known for their bond with nature.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet the objects here suggest that Native Americans are a highly spiritual people who create objects of extraordinary beauty.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the only way I can explain my practice in the Native American Church.

[Native Americans] maintain their freedom and find abundant nourishment . . . [and are] people who live without laws, without police, without religion.
Jean Jacques Rousseau, Jesuit and Savage in New France[47]
.The Iroquois nations' political confederacy and democratic government have been credited as influences on the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution.^ The structure of the government was profoundly changed on March 4, 1789, when the states replaced the Articles of Confederation with the United States Constitution.

^ Citizens of the United States as defined by the Constitution.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ United States government.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

[48][49] .Historians debate how much the colonists borrowed from existing Native American governmental models.^ We, native american people, understand the life around the great medicine (peyote in the english term but medicine in our own language)and how it heals our spirit.

^ I love the Native American Church very much.

^ How may I become a member of the Native American Church?

.Several founding fathers had contact with Native American leaders and had learned about their style of government.^ Manuscript pertaining to Native American leaders.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I want my son to grow up learning these Native American Church ways.

^ "The students will learn about another race of people and their culture, lifestyle and about the many different and important contributions they have made to benefit the American people."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Prominent figures such as Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin were more involved with their stronger and larger native neighbor—the Iroquois. John Rutledge of South Carolina in particular is said to have read lengthy tracts of Iroquoian law to the other framers, beginning with the words "We, the people, to form a union, to establish peace, equity, and order..."[50]
.
As powerful, dense [Mound Builder] populations were reduced to weakened, scattered remnants, political readjustments were necessary.^ And some are just looking to extend the political power and partisanship that has existed and weakened America for decades.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

New confederacies were formed. One such was to become a pattern called up by Benjamin Franklin when the thirteen colonies struggled to confederate: "If the Iroquois can do it so can we," he said in substance.
Bob Ferguson, Choctaw Government to 1830[51]

Colonials revolt

Yamacraw Creek Native Americans meet with the Trustee of the colony of Georgia in England, July 1734, Notice the Native American boy (in a blue coat) and woman (in a red dress) in European clothing.
.During the American Revolution, the newly proclaimed United States competed with the British for the allegiance of Native American nations east of the Mississippi River.^ Some of these other indigenous peoples in the United States, including the Inuit, Yupik Eskimos, and Aleuts, are not usually counted as Native Americans.

^ After the British defeat by American forces assisted by the French , Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States and the states' sovereignty over American territory west to the Mississippi River .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The standard way to refer to a citizen of the United States is as an American .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most Native Americans who joined the struggle sided with the British, hoping to use the American Revolutionary War to halt further colonial expansion onto Native American land.^ Native American land and resource rights."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their decision to side with the British during the Revolutionary War was a disaster for the Iroquois.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mohawk fought for the British, but after one of their raids struck just south of Montreal, the Caughnawaga and other Canadian Iroquois formally declared war on the British colonies in 1747.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many native communities were divided over which side to support in the war.^ A Spanish and then Mexican colony until the Mexican War of the 1840s, New Mexico still has a large native Spanish-speaking population, as well as many Native American communities.
  • New Mexico - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: News]

^ Many native peoples in the Americas also used written communication, although Europeans did not often recognize it as such.
  • Chp 4: Ennobling `Savages', Native America in European natural-rights philosophy, "Exemplar Of Liberty" 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Like many other Native American tribes they have constantly been forced off their lands and have encountered numerous wars and epidemics.
  • 1987 – 2000: Hopes For A Better Future 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.meskwaki.bia.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The first native community to sign a treaty with the new United States Government was the Lenape.^ The Caughnawaga signed only one treaty with the United States.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ First United States and Indian treaty.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Although he signed many treaties none of them were honored by the United States Government.
  • Past Notable Native Americans-Pg 1 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.snowwowl.com [Source type: Original source]

.For the Iroquois Confederacy, the American Revolution resulted in civil war.^ With the outbreak of war, both the British and Americans tried to win the support of the Iroquois.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hundreds were killed in this Iroquois civil war, and the Oneida fled to the Americans at Schenectady.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Iroquois protests resulted the murder of a Seneca sachem by the Illinois at an Ottawa village beginning the second phase of the Beaver Wars in 1680.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.The only Iroquois tribe to ally with the colonials were the Onondaga.^ The Treaty of Fort Stanwix Treaty not only destroyed their credibility as a representative of the Ohio tribes, but many Iroquois lost faith in the League's decisions.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With the French pacified and the Mohawk and Oneida keeping the only possible ally, the Susquehannock, from giving any aid, the Seneca, Cayuga, and Onondaga were free to deal with the Erie.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although other tribes were invited to send representatives, Johnson adhered to custom and negotiated only with the Iroquois.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.Frontier warfare during the American Revolution was particularly brutal, and numerous atrocities were committed by settlers and native tribes alike.^ NATIVE AMERICAN THEME UNIT http://www.libsci.sc.edu/miller/Native.htm A unit for primary students introducing various Native American tribes.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NOT "INDIANS", MANY TRIBES: NATIVE AMERICAN DIVERSITY – LESSON PLAN http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=324 A lesson plan for grades 3-5 on Native Americans.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "You have been contracted by the local University to provide in-depth information on the Native American tribe in your community.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Noncombatants suffered greatly during the war. .Military expeditions on each side destroyed villages and food supplies to reduce the ability of people to fight, as in frequent raids in the Mohawk Valley and western New York.^ This freed the western Iroquois to concentrate on the still-dangerous Susquehannock while the Mohawk went after western New England.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A large group of Caughnawaga live in Brooklyn (ironworkers), but the only American Mohawk reservation is at St. Regis on the New York-Quebec border with 7,700 members.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It seemed obvious the Mohawk were never going to get back their lands in New York.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

[52] .The largest of these expeditions was the Sullivan Expedition of 1779, in which American colonial troops destroyed more than 40 Iroquois villages to neutralize Iroquois raids in upstate New York.^ I submit that ~142 million Americans are more than enough people to make this a relevant and current issue.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rising to leadership among the Mohawk afterwards, Brant was convinced the Iroquois would lose their land if the Americans won and strongly opposed the council's decision to remain neutral.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A large group of Caughnawaga live in Brooklyn (ironworkers), but the only American Mohawk reservation is at St. Regis on the New York-Quebec border with 7,700 members.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.The expedition failed to have the desired effect: Native American activity became even more determined.^ Native Americans), there was an opportunity to do more.
  • Mike Hester, State University of West Georgia 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC groups.wfu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The site enables you to find comprehensive lists of Native American legislation (by date of the Congress) more quickly than by going through the main THOMAS site.
  • RESEARCHING AMERICAN INDIAN LAW 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Native Americans today are distributed unevenly throughout North America, a reflection more of events following European arrival than of aboriginal patterns.

.
American Indians have played a central role in shaping the history of the nation, and they are deeply woven into the social fabric of much of American life ...^ The buffalo still plays a central role in many American Indian cultures.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Costo Library is of great significance to scholars and researchers in American Indian history and supports the chair in American Indian History endowed by the American Indian Historical Society and the Costo's.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The Forty-eighters, as they are generally called, contributed to American life a large number of individuals of whom every American can be proud.

.During the last three decades of the twentieth century, scholars of ethnohistory, of the "new Indian history," and of Native American studies forcefully demonstrated that to understand American history and the American experience, one must include American Indians.
—Robbie Ethridge, Creek Country.^ American Indians and the urban experience.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ American Indians and the urban experience (chap.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ News clipping and program, concerns the American Indian Citizens League of California, 3/24/47.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53]
.The British made peace with the Americans in the Treaty of Paris (1783), through which they ceded vast Native American territories to the United States without informing the Native Americans, leading immediately to the Northwest Indian War.^ Native American Indian Medicine people to .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These Native Americans know not what they do.

^ Native American Medicine people have a vast .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

.The United States initially treated the Native Americans who had fought with the British as a conquered people who had lost their lands.^ Native American land and resource rights."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hello to all Native american people.

^ History History of the United States Pre-Colonial America The land of what is now the United States is thought to have been populated by people migrating from Asia via the Bering land bridge some time between 50,000 and 11,000 years ago.

.Although many of the Iroquois tribes went to Canada with the Loyalists, others tried to stay in New York and western territories and tried to maintain their lands.^ The others scattered to the Iroquois in New York or crossed the border into Canada.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Already able to force the French to stay well north, the Iroquois were ready to try to dominate the French trade on the St. Lawrence.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This freed the western Iroquois to concentrate on the still-dangerous Susquehannock while the Mohawk went after western New England.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.Nonetheless, the state of New York made a separate treaty with Iroquois and put up for sale 5,000,000 acres (20,000 km2) of land that had previously been their territory.^ Desperate for money to feed themselves, the Oneida signed a treaty with New York governor George Clinton ceding most of their original 6 million acres in exchange for a smaller reservation.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lincoln purchased 20,279 acres of land in Maine, and unlike many property speculators he settled down to improve and develop the land.
  • Benjamin Lincoln, American Revolutionary General, 1733-1810 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Tribal laws a threat to conservation," Sunday Democrat and Chronicle, Rochester, New York, 8/5/84, Cayuga Indian land claim settlement, opposition from sportsmen.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The state established a reservation near Syracuse for the Onondagas who had been allies of the colonists.^ Another 700 still live near Oneida, New York, but since their 32 acre reserve is so small, many are forced to live with the nearby Onondaga.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Canadian government established a reserve for the Iroquois band of Chief Michel Calihoo near Villeneuve in 1877.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Onondaga still live in New York, mainly on a 7,300 acre reservation just south of Syracuse.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

The Indians presented a reverse image of European civilization which helped America establish a national identity that was neither savage nor civilized.
—Charles Sanford, The Quest for Paradise[51]
.The United States was eager to expand, to develop farming and settlements in new areas, and to satisfy land hunger of settlers from New England and new immigrants.^ Media release "Pueblo De Cochiti of New Mexico gets EDA job grant," United States Department of Commerce, 4/15/75.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Get ready to visit these remarkable people in the year 1250 A.D. You will be "relocated" to the Four Corners area of the Southwestern United States.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attorney who fought the United States government when they attempted to confiscate land that had an Indian burial ground of the Wyandotte tribe on it.
  • Past Notable Native Americans-Pg 1 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.snowwowl.com [Source type: Original source]

.The national government initially sought to purchase Native American land by treaties.^ Native American land and resource rights."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Native American reservations on under the jurisdiction and provisos of the United States Government and is not considered a foreign land, but rather a unique entity set aside for purposes described.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The tyrants in the National Government will need to use violence against the American people to maintain their power.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

The states and settlers were frequently at odds with this policy.[54]

Transmuted Native America

.
Benjamin Hawkins, seen here on his plantation, teaches Creek Native Americans how to use European technology.
^ Native Americans are trying to teach us.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We, native american people, understand the life around the great medicine (peyote in the english term but medicine in our own language)and how it heals our spirit.

^ If you are a student of Native American Studies, hopefully Native American Images will be a useful resource to you."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Painted in 1805.
.European nations sent Native Americans (sometimes against their will) to the Old World as objects of curiosity.^ Recently, as I have grown to learn more about myself and the world around me, I have become increasingly interested in my native american roots.

^ Native American tribes tired of waiting for the U.S. government to honor centuries-old treaties are buying back land where their ancestors lived and putting it in federal trust.
  • Alltop - Top MSNBC News 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC msnbc.alltop.com [Source type: News]

^ Like the American Native Indians and the Japanese-Americans that were interned in camps during World War II .
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

They often entertained royalty and were sometimes prey to commercial purposes. .Christianization of Native Americans was a charted purpose for some European colonies.^ I am an ordained Christian miinister and Native American.

^ Some of these other indigenous peoples in the United States, including the Inuit, Yupik Eskimos, and Aleuts, are not usually counted as Native Americans.

^ Known as "King Phillip", he was one of the most influential Native Americans in the early days of the colonies.
  • Past Notable Native Americans-Pg 1 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.snowwowl.com [Source type: Original source]

.United States policy toward Native Americans had continued to evolve after the American Revolution.^ Some of these other indigenous peoples in the United States, including the Inuit, Yupik Eskimos, and Aleuts, are not usually counted as Native Americans.

^ Culture Culture of the United States American culture is a Western culture, with influences from Europe, the Native American peoples, African Americans and young groups of immigrants.

^ The standard way to refer to a citizen of the United States is as an American .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.George Washington and Henry Knox believed that Native Americans were equals but that their society was inferior.^ Many Native Americans believe they own dual-citizenship.

^ I believe that the handful of experiences I had with peyote helped to lead me to what I believe is a Native American point of view.

^ Correspondence to John from Rupert Costo, American Indian Historical Society, 6/5/75, building of a tribal hall and the Washington D.C. meeting.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Washington formulated a policy to encourage the "civilizing" process.[6] Washington had a six-point plan for civilization which included,
.1. impartial justice toward Native Americans
2. regulated buying of Native American lands
3. promotion of commerce
4. promotion of experiments to civilize or improve Native American society
5. presidential authority to give presents
6. punishing those who violated Native American rights.
^ Native American land and resource rights."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It steals from those who do and gives it to themselves.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Report, "Federal Violation of Basic Rights of American Indian People," William Veeder, no date.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]
.Robert Remini, a historian, wrote that "once the Indians adopted the practice of private property, built homes, farmed, educated their children, and embraced Christianity, these Native Americans would win acceptance from white Americans."^ I am an ordained Christian miinister and Native American.

^ Native American children; and 3.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Native American Indian Medicine people.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

[7] .The United States appointed agents, like Benjamin Hawkins, to live among the Native Americans and to teach them how to live like whites.^ I would like to know how I can join the Native American Church.

^ Supreme Court (its nine justices are appointed for life on condition of good behavior by the president with confirmation by the Senate); United States Courts of Appeal; United States District Courts; State and County Courts .

^ Some of these other indigenous peoples in the United States, including the Inuit, Yupik Eskimos, and Aleuts, are not usually counted as Native Americans.

[5]
.
How different would be the sensation of a philosophic mind to reflect that instead of exterminating a part of the human race by our modes of population that we had persevered through all difficulties and at last had imparted our Knowledge of cultivating and the arts, to the Aboriginals of the Country by which the source of future life and happiness had been preserved and extended.^ The sacred:Ways of knowledge, sources of life.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I would like to extend my thoughts and my prayers to all those who have taken the time to express their heartfelt thoughts through your messages.

^ All hail the greater Entente which opens a new and more resplendent chapter in the history of our common race.

.But it has been conceived to be impracticable to civilize the Indians of North America — This opinion is probably more convenient than just.
—Henry Knox to George Washington, 1790s.^ William Johnson emerged from the Pontiac Uprising in control of British Indian policy in North America.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She pleaded the Indian's cause in Washington, D.C., giving more than 400 speeches to gain support for the Paiutes.
  • Past Notable Native Americans-Pg 1 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.snowwowl.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For some time he held out, but the rapid disappearance of the buffalo, their only means of support, probably weighed with him more than any other influence.
  • Past Notable Native Americans-Pg 1 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.snowwowl.com [Source type: Original source]

[55]

Assimilation

.
Portrait of Native Americans from the Cherokee, Cheyenne, Choctaw, Comanche, Iroquois, and Muscogee tribes in American attire.
^ NATIVE AMERICAN THEME UNIT http://www.libsci.sc.edu/miller/Native.htm A unit for primary students introducing various Native American tribes.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NOT "INDIANS", MANY TRIBES: NATIVE AMERICAN DIVERSITY – LESSON PLAN http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=324 A lesson plan for grades 3-5 on Native Americans.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "You have been contracted by the local University to provide in-depth information on the Native American tribe in your community.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Photos date from 1868 to 1924.
.In the late eighteenth century, reformers starting with Washington and Knox,[56] supported educating native children, in efforts to "civilize" or otherwise assimilate Native Americans to the larger society (as opposed to relegating them to reservations).^ Native American children; and 3.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aside from the now small Native American and Native Hawaiian populations, nearly all Americans or their ancestors immigrated within the past five centuries.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Correspondence to Rupert Costo from the American Civil Liberties Union, 4/29/64, concerns their Native American policy.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Civilization Fund Act of 1819 promoted this civilization policy by providing funding to societies (mostly religious) who worked on Native American improvement.^ Correspondence to Rupert Costo, the American Indian Historical Society from John Woodenlegs, Sr., 6/3/75, concerns "Cultural Policy Statement," alcoholism, James Spear.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Miscellaneous correspondence to the American Indian Historical Society, 1964-69, including, but not limited to Ohlone cemetery, misappropriation of federal funds for Indian related projects in the west.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Correspondence to Rupert Costo from the American Civil Liberties Union, 4/29/64, concerns their Native American policy.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the American Civil War and Indian wars in the late 19th century, Native American boarding schools were established, which were often run primarily by or affiliated with Christian missionaries.^ Native American Indian children are .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Native American Indian Medicine people to .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Native American Indian Medicine people.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

[57] .At this time American society thought that Native American children needed to be acculturated to the general society.^ Native American children; and 3.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NATIVE AMERICAN BED-TIME STORY COLLECTION http://www.bedtime-story.com/bedtime-story/indians.htm A collection of bedtime stories from various Native American tribes.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manuscript, "Genocide In Humboldt County, as reported in the Humboldt Times, 1853-1870," by Michael Smith, Native American Studies, taught by Jack Norton, 5/14/77.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The boarding school experience often proved traumatic to Native American children, who were forbidden to speak their native languages, taught Christianity and denied the right to practice their native religions, and in numerous other ways forced to abandon their Native American identities[58] and adopt European-American culture.^ Native American land and resource rights."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Native American children; and 3.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Native American Indian children are .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

.There were documented cases of sexual, physical and mental abuse occurring at these schools.^ Women Under the Influence (2006) documents the physical and emotional effects of substance abuse in girls and women and explores the role of advertising and entertainment industries in popularizing various substances of abuse.

^ As possible causes for addiction, women in treatment tend to have a high rate of sexual abuse 6 and are tend to have past episodes of physical violence 7.

[59][60]

Native Americans as American citizens

.In 1857, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney expressed that since Native Americans were "free and independent people" that they could become U.S. citizens.^ Native American Indian Medicine people to .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was created in by Native American Medicine people with .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These Native Americans know not what they do.

[61] .Taney asserted that Native Americans could be naturalized and join the "political community" of the United States.^ Political divisions of the United States .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Native Americans are known for their bond with nature.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Native American communities; 2.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[61]
.
[Native Americans], without doubt, like the subjects of any other foreign Government, be naturalized by the authority of Congress, and become citizens of a State, and of the United States; and if an individual should leave his nation or tribe, and take up his abode among the white population, he would be entitled to all the rights and privileges which would belong to an emigrant from any other foreign people.
—Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, What was Taney thinking?^ The standard way to refer to a citizen of the United States is as an American .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Native American land and resource rights."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was created in by Native American Medicine people with .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

.American Indian Citizenship in the era of Dred Scott
, Frederick e.^ Activism - The American Indian Movement (AIM ) was the most militant of the Indian protest groups, and started in Minnesota during the Vietnam Era to protest police discrimination in Minneapolis.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

Hoxie, April 2007.[61]
.The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U.S. citizenship to all Native Americans.^ And, since I'm not a Native American Indian .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Report, "Recent Developments: Pending Legislation and Indian Housing Needs," The Native American Lobby, 5/7/74.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I've been a Native American Church Member all of my life, I attend peyote meetings every chance I get.

.Prior to the passage of the act, nearly two-thirds of Native Americans were already U.S. citizens.^ I would like more info on the Freedom of Religion Act for incarcerated native americans in the Judicial Sytem whether its State or Federal.

^ The Dawes Act prepared Native Americans for eventual termination of tribally held lands.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Correspondence to Ruth Larsen from Carol Metcalf, Acting Director of Native American Engineering Program, 7/30/76, concerning article.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[62] .The earliest recorded date of Native Americans' becoming U.S. citizens was in 1831 when the Mississippi Choctaw became citizens after the United States Legislature ratified the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek.^ The standard way to refer to a citizen of the United States is as an American .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Course description, "The Native American and the United States Constitution," no source, no date.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Citizens of the United States as defined by the Constitution.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Under article XIV of that treaty, any Choctaw who elected not to move with the Choctaw Nation could become an American citizen when he registered and if he stayed on designated lands for five years after treaty ratification.^ Of course, there was no way the Americans could pay these, or their other debts from the Revolution, until they sold the land in Ohio.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If Americans actually knew all the authors of all the bills that become law, you would be surprised, they are not written by your elected politicians.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ I have already shown the Article in the Constitution that states that ANY TREATY becomes the “Supreme Law of the Land”, and that is HIGHER than what laws Congress makes as they cannot create laws to over-ride treaties, but you want to say that the Constitution does not mean crap…..
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

Through the years, Native Americans became US citizens by:
.1. Treaty provision (as with the Mississippi Choctaw)
2. Registration and land allotment under the Dawes Act of February 8, 1887
3. Issuance of Patent in Fee Simple
4. Adopting Habits of Civilized Life
5. Minor Children
6. Citizenship by Birth
7. Becoming Soldiers and Sailors in the U.S. Armed Forces
8. Marriage to a US citizen
9. Special Act of Congress.
^ Permalink The Dream Act does not give anything to illegal immigrants that takes away from US citizens.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If they want to become citizens, then they can pay taxes like the rest of us.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All they ask is whether you are a US citizen and how (birth, naturalization), and if you are not a US citizen, what country you were born in.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]


Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That all noncitizen Native Americans born within the territorial limits of the United States be, and they are hereby, declared to be citizens of the United States: Provided, That the granting of such citizenship shall not in any manner impair or otherwise affect the right of any Native American to tribal or other property.
Indian Citizenship Act of 1924

American expansion justification

Native Americans flee from the allegorical representation of Manifest Destiny, Columbia, painted in 1872 by John Gast
.In July 1845, the New York newspaper editor John L. O’Sullivan coined the phrase “Manifest Destiny,” to explain how the "design of Providence" supported the territorial expansion of the United States.^ For Men,” Prevention editor-in-chief Liz Vaccariello explains how to make better diet and fitness choices.
  • Alltop - Top MSNBC News 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC msnbc.alltop.com [Source type: News]

^ PM 0 comments Links to this post Labels: august vollmer , chicago police department , chief of police , law enforcement , new york police department , new york state police , o.w.

^ How arrogant must you be to make to state that unless we can come up with something better we have to support a single payer.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

[63] .Manifest Destiny had serious consequences for Native Americans since continental expansion implicitly meant the occupation of Native American land.^ Native American land and resource rights."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Series of news clippings, 1972-74, concerns the Puyallup Tribe, tribal elections, gambling, FBI occupation, land issues, fishing rights.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Students are engaged in a study of the colonization and westward expansion of the United States; noting the impact of the westward migration upon the lifestyle(s) of Native Americans, and upon the natural environment(s)."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Manifest Destiny was an explanation or justification for expansion and westward movement, or, in some interpretations, an ideology or doctrine which helped to promote the process of civilization.^ Some of those who stayed, established Indian cultural communities within the urban environment, and helped create the urban Pan-Indian movement of today.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Slavery and the American West: The Eclipse of Manifest Destiny and the Coming of the Civil War .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Advocates of Manifest Destiny believed that expansion was not only good, but that it was obvious and certain. .The term was first used primarily by Jacksonian Democrats in the 1840s to promote the annexation of much of what is now the Western United States (the Oregon Territory, the Texas Annexation, and the Mexican Cession).^ First United States and Indian treaty.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Much of the defence of South Carolina was to fall to militia units from other, less intractable states.
  • Benjamin Lincoln, American Revolutionary General, 1733-1810 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ First, he was convinced that the correct use for his militiamen was to harass the British rear, now very vulnerable.
  • Benjamin Lincoln, American Revolutionary General, 1733-1810 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.
What a prodigious growth this English race, especially the American branch of it, is having!^ American Indian languages have some of the longest pause times, compared to other languages, and especially English.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Like the Pilgrims, the English-Speaking Union has a British organization with headquarters in London and an American branch with central offices in New York.

.How soon will it subdue and occupy all the wild parts of this continent and of the islands adjacent.^ A “talking point” is when all of the democrats suddenly start saying how the Tea Party and Townhall people are part of the “Brooks Brothers Crowd”.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Its amazing how the fire place can bring so much together from all parts of the world and just have a feeling of belonging and family.

.No prophecy, however seemingly extravagant, as to future achievements in this way [is] likely to equal the reality.
—Rutherford Birchard Hayes, U.S. President, January 1, 1857, Personal Diary.^ And for all you leftists who like to constrew every word, I do realize that Obama only served one term in the U.S. Senate before ascending to the Presidency.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ I would like to say that this ceremony has moved me in a way that no other ceremony has done for me in long time.

^ I would like to personally thank all of you for your prayers and thoughts, one doesn't realize how motivating it is to hear your thoughts.

[64]
.The age of Manifest Destiny, which came to be known as "Indian Removal", gained ground.^ The 100-year Mingo residence in Ohio came to an end in 1830 with the passage of the Indian Removal Act.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The final blow came with the Indian Removal Act of 1830.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although some humanitarian advocates of removal believed that Native Americans would be better off moving away from whites, an increasing number of Americans regarded the natives as nothing more than "savages" who stood in the way of American expansion.^ I think Hillary would be better than this ( I can’t believe I wrote that)- .
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ So who knows, maybe the Native Americans have some strange .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I live and believe the native american way, I live by my visions.

.Thomas Jefferson believed that while Native Americans were the intellectual equals of whites, they had to live like the whites or inevitably be pushed aside by them.^ These Native Americans know not what they do.

^ I live and believe the native american way, I live by my visions.

^ Many Native Americans believe they own dual-citizenship.

.Jefferson's belief, rooted in Enlightenment thinking, that whites and Native Americans would merge to create a single nation did not last, and he began to believe that the natives should emigrate across the Mississippi River and maintain a separate society.^ It was created in by Native American Medicine people with .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I strongly value the Native American beliefs.

^ The sixties were created by Native American Medicine people.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

Indian Appropriations Act of 1871

.In 1871 Congress added a rider to the Indian Appropriations Act ending United States recognition of additional Native American tribes or independent nations, and prohibiting additional treaties.^ Native American Indian Medicine people to .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Treaty between the Delaware Indians and the United States .
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Native American Indian children are .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

That hereafter no Indian nation or tribe within the territory of the United States shall be acknowledged or recognized as an independent nation, tribe, or power with whom the United States may contract by treaty: Provided, further, that nothing herein contained shall be construed to invalidate or impair the obligation of any treaty heretofore lawfully made and ratified with any such Indian nation or tribe.
—Indian Appropriations Act of 1871[65]

Resistance

.
Tecumseh was the Shawnee leader of Tecumseh's War who attempted to organize an alliance of Native American tribes throughout North America.
^ With the French alliance in disarray, the Iroquois soon realized they represented the balance of power between the British and French in North American.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ How dare he who cut his teeth as an activist in Chicago speaking dissenting and organizing, pretend that any American does not have the same rights.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ I am really impressed, in your guestbook, that there are so many people who have so many connections in Native American culture and family backgrounds.

[66]
.U.S. government authorities entered into numerous treaties during this period but later violated many for various reasons.^ Giving in after the war to demands by Kansas for the removal of all Indians from inside its borders, the government in 1867 negotiated a treaty with the eastern tribes which had been removed to Kansas during the 1830s.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Government needs to name us and put us into some category for some reason.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sioux Treaty of 1868 - included permit for non-reservation Sioux to claim land the government had taken for forts and other uses and later abandoned.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Other treaties were considered "living" documents whose terms could be altered.^ Historically, other sons could be considered threats to the integrity of the title and were encouraged to take clerical orders or join the army .

.Major conflicts east of the Mississippi River include the Pequot War, Creek War, and Seminole Wars.^ The war in the Ohio Valley was almost a separate conflict from the one east of the Appalachians and continued, despite the Treaty of Paris in 1783, with few interruptions until 1795.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Wounded Knee massacre in 1890 was the last major armed conflict of the Indian Wars.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Correspondence to Wassaja from Chief Neal McCormick, Chief of the Lower Creek Indians, East of the Mississippi, 9/4/75, concerns news clipping.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Notably, a multi-tribal army led by Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief, fought a number of engagements during the period 1811-12, known as Tecumseh's War.^ See also: American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , and Manifest Destiny Declaration of Independence , by John Trumbull , 1817–18 Tensions between American colonials and the British during the revolutionary period of the 1760s and early 1770s led to the American Revolutionary War , fought from 1775 through 1781.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is true that some of the Allies, like the United States, were active only during part of the war period while others were little more than benevolent bystanders.

^ The United Kingdom newspaper The Guardian commented on his low profile during the period leading up to the Iraq War [1] .

.In the latter stages, Tecumseh's group allied with the British forces in the War of 1812 and was instrumental in the conquest of Detroit.^ For the most part, the Iroquois had been a British ally during the King William's War, but only to the extent they were engaged in a separate war with the French.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the hundred years preceding the American Revolution, wars with French-allied Algonquin and British colonial settlement forced them back within their original boundaries once again.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With the Iroquois and most of the Delaware remaining neutral, the Shawnee and their Mingo allies sent a war belt to the Detroit tribes who refused it.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

St. Clair's Defeat (1791) was the worst U.S. Army defeat by Native Americans in U.S. history.
.Native American Nations west of the Mississippi were numerous and were the last to submit to U.S. authority.^ PICTURING A NATION: NATIVE AMERICANS AND VISUAL REPRESENTATION – INTERNET ACTIVITY http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/54/ A classroom activity focusing on interpretations of Native American cultures.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NATIVE AMERICANS WEBQUEST http://www.west-bend.k12.wi.us/webquest/Navajo/naweb2.htm A webquest for middle school students on Native Americans.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ONE STATE, MANY NATIONS – LESSON PLANS NEW! http://www.pbs4549.org/onestate/lessons.htm A collection of lesson plans on the Native Americans in Ohio.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Conflicts generally known as "Indian Wars" broke out between American government and Native American societies.^ "Native Americans are known for their bond with nature.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Series of correspondence to and from the American Indian Historical Society, 1964, concerns application for membership, Quechan Tribal Council.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similar arguments have been made and accepted in regard to the treatment of Native American Indians.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Battle of Little Bighorn (1876) was one of the greatest Native American victories.^ He s trying to keep the American people off balance so that he can ram his ideas of SOCIALISM down our throats while we battle one another on the streets.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ I am one of those people who are researching to find my Native American roots,that I know are there but cant prove it.

^ Perhaps one of my biggest questions is that America has apologized and made reparations to Native American Indians and Japanese Americans for atrocities and crimes made in the past.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

.Defeats included the Creek War of 1813-14, the Sioux Uprising of 1862, the Sand Creek Massacre (1864) and Wounded Knee in 1890.[67] These conflicts were catalysts to the decline of dominant Native American culture.^ These Native Americans know not what they do.

^ Included are articles on Native American science.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Included are articles on Native American dance.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By 1872, the U.S. Army pursued a policy to exterminate all Native Americans unless or until they agreed to surrender and live on reservations "where they could be taught Christianity and agriculture."[68]
.
The Indian [was thought] as less than human and worthy only of extermination.^ It is estimated that 30% of all Indians are utilizing Medicare or Medicaid coverage, but that less than 0.5% of any state Medicaid funding is spent on services to Indians.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.We did shoot down defenseless men, and women and children at places like Camp Grant, Sand Creek, and Wounded Knee.^ Much like the breeding practices used in farming, stronger Black African males were bred with the stronger Black African women in the hope of stronger slave children.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Deerfield men, women, and children were captured and taken on a 300-mile forced march to Canada in harsh winter conditions.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Men like the Tuskegee Airmen and every other African American that has fought in every war America has ever had would not be new revelations to our children today.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

We did feed strychnine to red warriors. .We did set whole villages of people out naked to freeze in the iron cold of Montana winters.^ Didn’t a whole bunch of people die to throw a King out of this country, back in the 1770’s?
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Enroute they added warriors from the Miami (Illinois enemies) and set out for the Illinois villages near Fort Crèvecoeur.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The people who did make the mess, and the fox news propaganda machine, need to move the hell out of the way so that we can make some necessary changes.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

And we did confine thousands in what amounted to concentration camps.
The Indian Wars of the West, 1934[69]

Removals and reservations

.In the nineteenth century, the incessant westward expansion of the United States incrementally compelled large numbers of Native Americans to resettle further west, often by force, almost always reluctantly.^ Research notes, articles, correspondence, and a number of bibliographies used to support various Chapters of Natives of the Golden State.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The standard way to refer to a citizen of the United States is as an American .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Disputes between the agrarian South and industrial North over states' rights and the expansion of the institution of slavery provoked the American Civil War of the 1860s.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Native Americans believed this forced relocation illegal, given the Hopewell Treaty of 1785.^ Many Native Americans believe they own dual-citizenship.

^ Native American tribes tired of waiting for the U.S. government to honor centuries-old treaties are buying back land where their ancestors lived and putting it in federal trust.
  • Alltop - Top MSNBC News 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC msnbc.alltop.com [Source type: News]

^ Americans flooded into Ohio and took native land as squatters making treaty boundaries worthless.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.Under President Andrew Jackson, United States Congress passed the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which authorized the President to conduct treaties to exchange Native American land east of the Mississippi River for lands west of the river.^ Native American Indian children are .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First United States and Indian treaty.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Andrew Jackson elected President of the United States.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.As many as 100,000 Native Americans relocated to the West as a result of this Indian Removal policy.^ Native American Indian Medicine people to .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Native American Indian children are .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Native American Indian Medicine people.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

.In theory, relocation was supposed to be voluntary and many Native Americans did remain in the East.^ In many urban areas there are no Native American healers, and medicine persons travel long distances when called to these areas.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Did Breckenridge establish the Pilgrim Society with the backing of many Confederated American Aristocrats?

^ New railways made relocation easier for settlers and increased conflicts with Native Americans.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In practice, great pressure was put on Native American leaders to sign removal treaties.^ We, native american people, understand the life around the great medicine (peyote in the english term but medicine in our own language)and how it heals our spirit.

^ Aho, I wanted to say that the Great Spirit bless and watch over our Native American Church and our membership.

^ This is the only way I can explain my practice in the Native American Church.

.The most egregious violation of the stated intention of the removal policy took place under the Treaty of New Echota, which was signed by a dissident faction of Cherokees but not the elected leadership.^ Desperate for money to feed themselves, the Oneida signed a treaty with New York governor George Clinton ceding most of their original 6 million acres in exchange for a smaller reservation.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If they want to alter the treaty they must sign a new treaty or remove our name from the treaty.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ It does not matter if Congress voted and passed this…… They CANNOT alter the Constitution without getting an admendment with 3/4 approval from the states, or any TREATY that was signed.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

.President Jackson rigidly enforced the treaty, which resulted in the deaths of an estimated 4,000 Cherokees on the Trail of Tears.^ THE CHEROKEE TRAIL OF TEARS 1838-1839 http://rosecity.net/tears/#stories The story of the Cherokee "Trail of Tears".
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Map of former Cherokee lands and Trail of Tears, no date.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A 2009 study estimated that lack of insurance is associated with nearly 45,000 deaths a year.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.About 17,000 Cherokees, along with approximately 2,000 enslaved blacks held by Cherokees, were removed from their homes.^ The Watauga meeting, arranged by Hart, lasted twenty days and was attended by 500 to 1,000 Cherokee Indians along with their chiefs.

[70]
.Native American Removal forced or coerced the relocation of major Native American groups in the Eastern United States, resulting directly and indirectly in the deaths of tens of thousands.^ Article, "Winters versus the United States," Law and the American Indian, 1973.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Identify the major sources of data for American Indian/Alaska Native epidemiology and issues with the data collection.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Course description, "The Native American and the United States Constitution," no source, no date.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.January 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Tribes were generally located to reservations where they could more easily be separated from traditional life and pushed into European-American society.^ Livestock were more ingrained in American society.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The Forty-eighters, as they are generally called, contributed to American life a large number of individuals of whom every American can be proud.

^ After all, they’re the ones responsible for building up the housing bubble,pushing for more loans to, as maxing waters explained it, “people with imperfect credit.” .
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Some southern states additionally enacted laws in the 19th century forbidding non-Native American settlement on Native American lands, with the intention to prevent sympathetic white missionaries from aiding the scattered Native American resistance.^ If the laws of Babylon (the so-called "Judeo-Chistian," Eurocentric-socioeconomic paradigm) forbids my doing so on the beaches of Southern California, I shall make pilgrimage to what enlightening visions the Creator may have waiting for me in the Native American Church, in the dusks and dawns of the Painted Desert.

^ The state of Native America: Genocide, colonization, and resistance.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Some tribes chose neutrality, but by arguing the Americans intended to take their land, the British succeeded with the Detroit tribes, Potawatomi, and Ojibwe.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

[71]

Native American Slavery

Traditions of Native American Slavery

.The majority of Native American tribes did practice some form of slavery before the European introduction of African slavery into North America; but none exploited slave labor on a large scale.^ Of course America did not create slavery.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet reparations have been made to Japanese Americans and Native American Indians , at least to some degree.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even for over 100 years after the 13th Amendment African Americans were not able to integrate into American society due to segregation and Jim Crow laws.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

[72] .In addition, Native Americans did not buy and sell captives in the pre-colonial era, although they sometimes exchanged enslaved individuals with other tribes in peace gestures or in exchange for their own members.^ These Native Americans know not what they do.

^ Many Native Americans believe they own dual-citizenship.

^ Americans selling each other out.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

[72] .In fact, the word "slave" may not even accurately apply to these captive people.^ My friend said that news on television this evening left these facts out.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Why are the people who attack me with words irrational in these critically essential ways for the human who seeks functional, peaceful evolution of their community of humans, attacking me?
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tournefort August 7th, 2009 - 11:32 pm “Even though these are the same people who call Obama Hitler.” .
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

[72]
.The situation of enslaved Native Americans varied among the tribes.^ American Indian or Alaska Native (That’s a continental origin) — Print nameof enrolled or principal tribe.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ NATIVE AMERICAN THEME UNIT http://www.libsci.sc.edu/miller/Native.htm A unit for primary students introducing various Native American tribes.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NOT "INDIANS", MANY TRIBES: NATIVE AMERICAN DIVERSITY – LESSON PLAN http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=324 A lesson plan for grades 3-5 on Native Americans.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In many cases, enslaved captives were adopted into the tribes to replace warriors killed during a raid.^ As Gary approached, the man stuck his pistol (which had already killed somebody during the robbery) into Gary’s abdomen and fired.

^ In 1653 an Erie raid into the Iroquois homeland killed a Seneca sachem.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of the raids against Kentucky during this period originated from Pluggy's Town, a Mingo village located near present-day Delaware, Ohio.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

[72] .Other tribes practiced debt slavery or imposed slavery on tribal members who had committed crimes; but this status was only temporary as the enslaved worked off their obligations to the tribal society.^ Your jobs are to interview the members of the tribe and report back to the Station Managers and other Eagle Eye teams at WCOC-TV. .
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LBJ created the Great Society and enslaved millions of people in welfare programs that became a lifestyle, not a temporary fix for an emergency.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Report "Seminole Jursdictional Act," 5/20/24, concerns Seminole Freedmen, former slaves who were admitted to the tribe and are being denied tribal recognition.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[72]
.Among some Pacific Northwest tribes, about a quarter of the population were slaves.^ In 2008, the U.S. population included an estimated 4.9 million people with some American Indian or Alaskan native ancestry (3.1 million exclusively of such ancestry) and 1.1 million with some native Hawaiian or Pacific island ancestry (0.6 million exclusively).
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ News clipping, "Tribes, U.S. Confer About Reservation Water Rights," concerns Pacific Northwest tribes, Spokane, Washington, Spokane Review, 10/25/73.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the second lesson, students will learn about the environment and lifestyle of the Tlingit of the Pacific Northwest.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73] .Other slave-owning tribes of North America were, for example, Comanche of Texas, Creek of Georgia, the Pawnee, and Klamath.^ And of course there are plenty of examples of America providing apologies and reparations to others we have wronged.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When they began to increase their own military strength, the stage was set for the 100-year struggle between Britain and France for control of North America.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His father, James Bruce, was the third richest man in America, and a slave owner who owned many plantations.

[74]

European enslavement

.When Europeans arrived as colonists in North America, Native Americans changed their practice of slavery dramatically.^ It has been estimated that there were 5-10 million indigenous people on the continent of North America at the time of first European contact.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Native American Church changed my life forever.

^ This is the only way I can explain my practice in the Native American Church.

[72] .They found that British settlers, especially those in the southern colonies, purchased or captured Native Americans to use as forced labor in cultivating tobacco, rice, and indigo.^ These Native Americans know not what they do.

^ In the third quarter of 2009, the American labor force comprised 154.4 million people.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the French and Indian War , British forces seized Canada from the French, but the francophone population remained politically isolated from the southern colonies.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[72] .Native Americans began selling war captives to whites rather than integrating them into their own societies.^ You might just find that historians omit and write their history books for the reader’s and their own pleasure rather than being historically accurate.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We, native american people, understand the life around the great medicine (peyote in the english term but medicine in our own language)and how it heals our spirit.

^ Hello, I was very surprised to see that the Native American church has it's own internet site.

[72] As the demand for labor in the West Indies grew with the cultivation of sugar cane, Europeans enslaved Native Americans for export to the "sugar islands."[72] Accurate records of the numbers enslaved do not exist. .Scholars estimate tens of thousands of Native Americans may have been enslaved by the Europeans.^ "In this unit, students will look closely at the design, construction and materials of at least one Native American house and one house built by European settlers.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But when it comes to the history of the Native American in the United States, with the exception of Native American Scholars, the average N.A. descendant does not know the history and the anthropological flow of N.A’s in North America.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 2008, the U.S. population included an estimated 4.9 million people with some American Indian or Alaskan native ancestry (3.1 million exclusively of such ancestry) and 1.1 million with some native Hawaiian or Pacific island ancestry (0.6 million exclusively).
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[72]
.The slave trade of Native Americans lasted only until around 1730, and it gave rise to a series of devastating wars among the tribes.^ If anyone has any info on native american church chapters in or around San Antonio TX please feel free to email me.

^ American Indian or Alaska Native (That’s a continental origin) — Print nameof enrolled or principal tribe.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ NATIVE AMERICAN THEME UNIT http://www.libsci.sc.edu/miller/Native.htm A unit for primary students introducing various Native American tribes.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[72] .The Indian wars of the early 18th century, combined with the increasing importation of African slaves, effectively ended the Native American slave trade by 1750.[72] Colonists found it too easy for Native American slaves to escape, and the wars took the lives of numerous colonial slave traders.^ All legalized the African slave trade .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Native American Indian Medicine people to .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Native American Indian children are .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

.The remaining Native American groups banned together to face the Europeans from a position of strength.^ Working together we can end some of the historical misinformation about Native Americans.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Main article: History of the United States Native Americans and European settlers .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead, he remains in Chicago thug campaign mode and pits one group of Americans against another.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

[72] .Many surviving Native American peoples of the southeast joined confederacies such as the Choctaw, the Creek, and the Catawba for protection.^ It is wonderful to find so many sites dedicated to the Native American people.

^ Native American Indian Medicine people to .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was created in by Native American Medicine people with .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

[72]
.Native American women were at risk for rape whether they were enslaved or not, as in many southern communities, there were a disproportionate number of men in the early colonial years.^ These Native Americans know not what they do.

^ Many Native Americans believe they own dual-citizenship.

^ I live where there aren't many native americans.

[75] .Both Native American and African enslaved women suffered rape and sexual harassment by slaveholders.^ We are both members of the native american of canada.

^ Also significant were the divided Native Americans who fought and died there for both the North and South.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can comment here and at Black & White Blog , a blog I co-author to discuss issues from both the African American and White American viewpoints.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

[75][76]

Native American adoption of African slavery

.Native Americans resisted Anglo-American encroachment on their lands and maintained cultural ways.^ We love the way of the Native American Church.

^ I want my son to grow up learning these Native American Church ways.

^ I want to say that I was raised around Native American Church ways all my life.

[72] .Native Americans interacted with enslaved Africans and African Americans on many levels.^ NOT "INDIANS", MANY TRIBES: NATIVE AMERICAN DIVERSITY – LESSON PLAN http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=324 A lesson plan for grades 3-5 on Native Americans.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am really impressed, in your guestbook, that there are so many people who have so many connections in Native American culture and family backgrounds.

^ It is wonderful to find so many sites dedicated to the Native American people.

[72] Over time all the cultures interracted. .Native Americans began to slowly absorb white culture [72][77] Native Americans shared some experiences with Africans, especially during the period when both were enslaved.^ We are both members of the native american of canada.

^ Correspondence to Jeannette Henry from Peggy Osterman, American Indian Art and Cultural Exchange, 1/3/77, concerns achievement awards with attached response.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I believe that the handful of experiences I had with peyote helped to lead me to what I believe is a Native American point of view.

[78]
.The five civilized tribes tried to gain power by owning slaves, as they assimilated some other European-American ways.^ Some are just seeking power for their own personal gain.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Due to the destruction of the buffalo herds and other game animals of the Great Plains by Anglo-Americans after the Civil War, painting on buffalo hide gave way to works on paper, muslin, canvas, and occasionally commercially prepared cow or buffalo hides."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the French alliance in disarray, the Iroquois soon realized they represented the balance of power between the British and French in North American.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

[72] .Among the slave-owning families of the Cherokee, 78 percent claimed some white ancestry.^ You claim he is communist, fascist, and what not, but you so some of the same characteristic by being so hateful to him because his views are different from your own.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ As for your claim of “Even in the South, more than 80% of the white population never owned slaves.” Exactly what time frame are you using for that claim?
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

[72] .The nature of the interactions among the peoples depended upon the historical character of the Native American groups, the enslaved people, and the European slaveholders.^ Hello to all Native american people.

^ "Native Americans are known for their bond with nature.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They will explain the Native American belief about how and why animals were put on earth and the interdependence between people and nature."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[72] .Native Americans often assisted runaway slaves.^ THE TEACHER’S GUIDE TO NATIVE AMERICANS http://www.theteachersguide.com/nativeamericans.html A collection of information to assist teachers in teaching about Native Americans.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[72] .However, they also sold Africans to whites, trading them like so many blankets or horses.^ There are a great many things I would like to let you know, but they are too tedious to mention at this time.

^ To compensate for their late start in the fur trade, the Swedes placed few restrictions on the amount of firearms they sold to the Susquehannock.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ My people are mixed in their politics and Religion , however we , like many are experiencing a rejuvination of Language and culture, and try to keep our History and Heritage.

[72]
.While Native Americans might treat enslaved people as brutally as Europeans did, most Native American masters rejected the worst features of southern white bondage (Chattel Slavery).^ Hello to all Native american people.

^ We, native american people, understand the life around the great medicine (peyote in the english term but medicine in our own language)and how it heals our spirit.

^ I am really impressed, in your guestbook, that there are so many people who have so many connections in Native American culture and family backgrounds.

[79] .Though less than 3% of Native Americans owned slaves, bondage created destructive cleavages among Native Americans.^ Many Native Americans believe they own dual-citizenship.

^ All that aside, I just want to say that it is wonderful to have an opportunity to see a site that Native Americans from all walks of life can come and praise the creator.

^ We, native american people, understand the life around the great medicine (peyote in the english term but medicine in our own language)and how it heals our spirit.

It added to a class hierarchy that seemed related to European ancestry, but was based on the transfer of social capital as a result of such heritage.[79] .Proposals for Indian Removal heightened tensions of cultural changes due to the increase in the number of mixed-race Native Americans.^ I am mixed blood Native American.

^ American Indian or Alaska Native (That’s a continental origin) — Print nameof enrolled or principal tribe.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Similar arguments have been made and accepted in regard to the treatment of Native American Indians.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

.Full bloods sometimes tried harder to maintain traditional ways, including control of land.^ It is good to see that people are trying to reach the outside world to except our traditional ways of life.

^ I would like to join the Native American Church because I was taught and raised in the Native way by my grandfather who was a full-blooded Mohawk.

[72] .The more traditional members who did not hold slaves often resented the sale of lands to Anglo-Americans.^ Did that include the thousands who came to Kansas in the 1800’s and started homesteading in land that was federally set aside for Indians.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even Americans who are lucky enough to have work in this economy are becoming more unhappy with their jobs.
  • Alltop - Top MSNBC News 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC msnbc.alltop.com [Source type: News]

^ It was the Marquis de Chambrun who met General Pershing and Patton when the first American army expedition landed in France during World War One.

[72]

Wars

King Philip's War

.King Philip's War sometimes called Metacom's War or Metacom's Rebellion, was an armed conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists and their Native American allies from 1675–1676. It continued in northern New England (primarily on the Maine frontier) even after King Philip was killed, until a treaty was signed at Casco Bay in April 1678. According to a combined estimate of loss of life in Schultz and Tougias' "King Philip's War, The History and Legacy of America's Forgotten Conflict" (based on sources from the Department of Defense, the Bureau of Census, and the work of Colonial historian Francis Jennings), 800 out of 52,000 English colonists of New England (1 out of every 65) and 3,000 out of 20,000 natives (3 out of every 20) lost their lives due to the war, which makes it proportionately one of the bloodiest and costliest in the history of America.^ I am glad that I am Native American for that it's part my life to live - I am kiowa.

^ Due to the destruction of the buffalo herds and other game animals of the Great Plains by Anglo-Americans after the Civil War, painting on buffalo hide gave way to works on paper, muslin, canvas, and occasionally commercially prepared cow or buffalo hides."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RAID ON DEERFIELD: THE MANY STORIES OF 1704 NEW! http://www.1704.deerfield.history.museum/ "In the pre-dawn hours of February 29, 1704, a force of about 300 French and Native allies launched a daring raid on the English settlement of Deerfield, Massachusetts, situated in the Pocumtuck homeland.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More than half of New England's ninety towns were assaulted by Native American warriors.^ "A new Native American museum is opening in town.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY – LESSON PLAN NEW! http://school.discovery.com/lessonplans/programs/howthewestwaslost/ A lesson plan for grades 9-12.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I submit that ~142 million Americans are more than enough people to make this a relevant and current issue.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

.One in ten soldiers on both sides were wounded or killed.^ Both he and his son Eustace were in the Texas Rangers, and while so engaged Eustace was badly wounded, losing one eye.

^ Yes there are douche bags on both sides and it sounds like you are one of them.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The policy of the Mingo, Shawnee, and Delaware in Ohio was one of belligerent neutrality towards both sides.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

[80]
.The war is named after the main leader of the Native American side, Metacomet, Metacom, or Pometacom, known to the English as "King Philip."^ We, native american people, understand the life around the great medicine (peyote in the english term but medicine in our own language)and how it heals our spirit.

^ My name is WolfPony and I was brought up in the American Native Church as a small child.

^ Main article: History of the United States Native Americans and European settlers .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was the last Massasoit (Great Leader) of the Pokanoket Tribe/Pokanoket Federation & Wampanoag Nation.^ Just to let the people know of the passing of one of our great leaders in the NAC. Anthony Davis (Whitethunder) Feb.15, 1911 - Feb.27, 2003 of the Pawnee tribe of Oklahoma passed away last night in Pawnee, Oklahoma.

.Upon their loss to the Colonists and the attempted genocide of the Pokanoket Tribe and Royal Line, many managed to flee to the North to continue their fight against the British (Massachusetts Bay Colony) by joining with the Abanaki Tribes and Wabanaki Federation.^ Refusing to comply with the Paris treaty until the Americans compensated British loyalists for their losses in the war, the British continued to occupy their remaining forts on American territory.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Susquehanna Delaware made peace in August, 1756, but the Delaware, Shawnee and Munsee continued fighting and by the end of the year more than 2,500 colonists had been killed.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Supplied by both French and British, the Sokoki, Pennacook , Pocumtuc, and Montagnais continued fighting the Mohawk and were holding their own.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

Civil War

.
Ely S. Parker was a Union Civil War General who wrote the terms of surrender between the United States and the Confederate States of America.
^ This article is about the United States of America.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ God help the United States of America.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Disputes between the agrarian South and industrial North over states' rights and the expansion of the institution of slavery provoked the American Civil War of the 1860s.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[81] Parker was one of two Native Americans to reach the rank of Brigadier General during the Civil War.
.Many Native Americans served in the military during the Civil War.^ During the American Civil War , West Virginia broke away from Virginia.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hundreds were killed in this Iroquois civil war, and the Oneida fled to the Americans at Schenectady.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I am really impressed, in your guestbook, that there are so many people who have so many connections in Native American culture and family backgrounds.

[82], the vast majority of whom siding with the Confederates. .By fighting with the whites, Native Americans hoped to gain favor with the prevailing government by supporting the war effort.^ With the outbreak of war, both the British and Americans tried to win the support of the Iroquois.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ ObamaMao does all Americans a disservice by being in the White House, encouraging Americans to fight Americans, personally creating the dissension and then asking neighbors to snitch on their neighbors.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ "In the late 1800s, the United States supported an educational experiment that the government hoped would change the traditions and customs of American Indians.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[82][83] .They also believed war service might mean an end to discrimination and relocation from ancestral lands to western territories.^ Yes, they had been in the general area what is believed to be during Coronado’s time, but they were not land owners and never lay claim to any land ownership.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Territorial acquisitions by date Americans' eagerness to expand westward prompted a long series of Indian Wars and an Indian removal policy that stripped the native peoples of their land.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While I acknowledge that psychiatrists often prove of tremendous benefit on the road of healing, I do not believe that they are the end all.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

[82] .While the war raged and African Americans were proclaimed free, the U.S. government continued its policies of assimilation, submission, removal, or extermination of Native Americans.^ Men like the Tuskegee Airmen and every other African American that has fought in every war America has ever had would not be new revelations to our children today.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Correspondence to Rupert Costo from the American Civil Liberties Union, 4/29/64, concerns their Native American policy.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Dakota Conflict of 1862 marked the beginning of several wars between the native Americans and the European settlers.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[82]
.General Ely S. Parker, a member of the Seneca tribe, created the articles of surrender which General Robert E. Lee signed at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. Gen.^ He served on Grant's staff during the Civil War and is believed to have written the terms of Lee's surrender at Appomattox.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are also Cayuga among the 2,500 member Seneca-Cayuga tribe in northeastern Oklahoma - descendents of the Mingo of Ohio.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Legal document, "House of Representatives 12788," authorizing any bands or tribes to submit claims to the court of claims, 4/15/20.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Parker, who served as Gen. .Ulysses S. Grant's military secretary and was a trained attorney, was once rejected for Union military service because of his race.^ I have found that no insurance company will insure these children once they are 18 and no doctors will care for them because of the lack of reimbursement for their services.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ There's no possible way to train students for every possible situation they'll encounter when they enter military service, the officials agreed.

.At Appomattox, Lee is said to have remarked to Parker, "I am glad to see one real American here," to which Parker replied, "We are all Americans."^ We could simply be Americans, one and all.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And for all you leftists who like to constrew every word, I do realize that Obama only served one term in the U.S. Senate before ascending to the Presidency.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ I clearly see the menace of all subversive movements, as well as the great necessity of combating all these un-American activities.

[82]

Spanish–American War

.The Spanish–American War was an armed military conflict between Spain and the United States that took place between April and August 1898, over the issues of the liberation of Cuba, Philippines and Puerto Rico.^ Victory in the Spanish–American War the same year demonstrated that the United States was a world power and led to the annexation of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The standard way to refer to a citizen of the United States is as an American .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1893, the indigenous monarchy of the Pacific Kingdom of Hawaii was overthrown in a coup led by American residents; the United States annexed the archipelago in 1898.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Theodore Roosevelt actively encouraged intervention in Cuba. .Roosevelt worked with Leonard Wood in convincing the Army to raise an all-volunteer regiment, the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry.^ In the war of 1812 he was Jackson's aide-de-camp, and he also raised a regiment of volunteers.

^ Maybe I can convince this irresponsible government of ours to cut all your benefits, so you have to work and so child support can be withheld from your paycheck.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

.The "Rough Riders" was the name bestowed on the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry and the only regiment to see action.^ The only reason it was named Kansas Territory is because the Congress of the United States allowed it to be given that name.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Among the major combatants, the United States was the only nation to become richer—indeed, far richer—instead of poorer because of the war.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet the United States Govenment has never apoligized nor acknowledged the wrongs done with slavery and its actions/attitudes in the over a century since that time.
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

.Recruiters gathered a diverse bunch of men consisting of cowboys, gold or mining prospectors, hunters, gamblers, and Native Americans.^ NOT "INDIANS", MANY TRIBES: NATIVE AMERICAN DIVERSITY – LESSON PLAN http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=324 A lesson plan for grades 3-5 on Native Americans.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Your job is to gather information on the 5 Native American tribes, who each lived in a different region of the United States.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the Native Americans unconscious, their manipulations lack the comprehensive, coherent aspects that we needed to actually gather effectively and use our freedoms effectively.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

.There were sixty Native Americans who served as "Rough Riders."^ I am really impressed, in your guestbook, that there are so many people who have so many connections in Native American culture and family backgrounds.

^ Also significant were the divided Native Americans who fought and died there for both the North and South.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet the objects here suggest that Native Americans are a highly spiritual people who create objects of extraordinary beauty.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[84]

World War II

General Douglas MacArthur meeting Navajo, Pima, Pawnee and other Native American troops.
.Some 44,000 Native Americans served in the United States military during World War II.^ During World War II, he served in the U.S. Army as a public safety officer.

^ Like the American Native Indians and the Japanese-Americans that were interned in camps during World War II .
  • Vass - Politics, Current events and more from an African American view 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC www.mvass.com [Source type: Original source]

^ NATIVE AMERICANS CURRICULUM UNIT NEW! http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/unitplan/2973.htm A unit on Native Americans with a 14 day lesson unit plus supplemental materials.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[85] .Described as the first large-scale exodus of indigenous peoples from the reservations since the removals of the 1800s, the international conflict was a turning point in Native American history.^ Native American Indian Medicine people to .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was created in by Native American Medicine people with .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is a turning point in the history of our country.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Men of native descent were drafted into the military like other American males.^ I am not native american but I feel like I can make my contribution to existence.

^ Raids and counter-raids continued until 1783 with the Mingo and other British allies moving their villages into northwest Ohio to distance them from the Americans along the Ohio River.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I would just like to say that I have been a member of the Native American Church since I was young.

.Their fellow soldiers often held them in high esteem, in part since the legend of the tough Native American warrior had become a part of the fabric of American historical legend.^ Hello I am part Otoe-Missouria Indian and I am trying to find the Native American Church in or near my hometown area which is Laguna Niguel, California.

^ Develop awareness of the importance of the historical context in the lives of today’s American Indians and Alaska Natives.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I am very interested in becoming a member of the native american church.

.White servicemen sometimes showed a lighthearted respect toward Native American comrades by calling them "chief."^ In many urban areas there are no Native American healers, and medicine persons travel long distances when called to these areas.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Native American Medicine people are respected (or feared) .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am currently writing a book about the Native American community called Piney Woods that my ancestors founded over 200 years ago.

.The resulting increase in contact with the world outside of the reservation system brought profound changes to Native American culture.^ Alcohol drinking patterns of adult American Indians and Alaska Natives: Finding from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1993-1997.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Permalink Actually Capn, Native Americans know quite a bit about their own culture of course.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The concerns and aspirations of a vital contemporary American Indian population changes as the world changes.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."The war," said the U.S. Indian commissioner in 1945, "caused the greatest disruption of Native life since the beginning of the reservation era", affecting the habits, views, and economic well-being of tribal members.^ Correspondence to tribal member from Charles G. Shunatona, Chairman, Pawnee, no date, with attached amendments to Pawnee Indian Tribe of Oklahoma constitution.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Article, "Last of the Powhatans, the dwindling reservation life of the Mattaponi and Pamunkey Indians of Virginia," The Washington Sunday Star, 6/25/72.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Well, president Obama, since your wife was a hospital administrator being paid 300K plus a year I expect you and your wife to get out of the way!
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

[86] .The most significant of these changes was the opportunity—as a result of wartime labor shortages—to find well-paying work.^ Most people pay for their health care through work or privately, which is expensive because poor black people don’t pay for theirs.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ These changes are helping ensure students have a foundation from which to draw when they graduate into a wartime environment.

Yet there were losses to contend with as well. .Altogether, 1,200 Pueblo people served in World War II; only about half came home alive.^ People stopped calling themselves that because it was so specifically German and the Germans were so hated during the First World War.

^ During World War II, he served with the Office of Strategic Services and observed the invasion of Normandy.

^ During World War II, he served in the U.S. Army as a public safety officer.

.In addition many more Navajo served as code talkers for the military in the Pacific.^ More than 25,000 American Indians served in WWII, many with distinction.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ NAVAJO NEWS – LESSON PLAN NEW! http://www.eduref.org/cgi-in/printlessons.cgi/Virtual/Lessons/Social_Studies/US_History/USH0218.html A lesson plan for grades 4-8 on the Navajo code talkers.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CRYPTOLOGY- NAVAJO CODE TALKERS IN WORLD WAR II http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq61-2.htm In World War II, the military needed an unbreakable code for radio communications.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The code they made was never cracked by the Japanese.^ If Holland had not shown religious tolerance to the Pilgrims, then they would not have survived, and thus, they would never made their voyage on the Mayflower.

Native Americans today

Portrait of Native Americans from various bands, tribes, and nations from across "Indian country."
.In 1975 the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act was passed, marking the culmination of 15 years of policy changes.^ Correspondence from the Department of the Interior, 5/17/74, regarding the Indian Self-determination and Education Assistance Act.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Report, "A Comprehensive Analysis of Amendment 6 to S. 659, Indian Education Act," no source, no date.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Correspondence regarding solicitation of funds for the Indian Education Act, 10/17/73.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Related to Indian activism, the Civil Rights Movement and community development aspects of social programs of the 1960s, the Act recognized the need of Native Americans for self-determination.^ Native American Indian Medicine people to .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cassette, Civil rights of the American Indian, Yupik language.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Native American Indian children are .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

.It marked the U.S. government's turn away from the policy of termination; the U.S. government encouraged Native Americans' efforts at self government and determining their futures.^ Correspondence to Rupert Costo from the American Civil Liberties Union, 4/29/64, concerns their Native American policy.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DECLARATIONS OF INDEPENDENCE: EXPLORING AMERICAN INDIANS RIGHT TO SELF-GOVERNANCE – LESSON PLAN NEW! http://www.nytimes.com/learning/teachers/lessons/20021125monday.html?searchpv=learning_lessons A lesson plan on Native Americans for grades 6-12.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Describe the unique relationship between the older American Indian/Alaska Native and the United States government.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

Navajo Educator Rebecca Benally with former Utah Governor and current US Ambassador to China, Jon Huntsman, Jr.
.There are 562 federally recognized tribal governments in the United States.^ United States government.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Attempts to enter or obtains entry to the United States by a willfullyfalse or misleading representation or the willful concealment of amaterial fact; has committed a federal crime.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are at least 558 different federally recognized tribes/nations and 126 tribes/nations applying for recognition.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These tribes possess the right to form their own government, to enforce laws (both civil and criminal), to tax, to establish requirements for membership, to license and regulate activities, to zone and to exclude persons from tribal territories.^ Public Law 280 - Allowed state governments to assume criminal and civil jurisdiction over Indian reservations in California, Minnesota, Nebraska, Oregon, Wisconsin, and the territory of Alaska, but states were not given rights to tax Indian lands (Deloria & Lytle, 1983) .
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The IRS plans to require tax preparers to pass a test and register with the government to better police a largely unregulated industry used by most taxpayers.
  • Alltop - Top MSNBC News 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC msnbc.alltop.com [Source type: News]

^ Describes in detail the laws, form of government, the Constitution and how the Constitution influences our U.S. laws today.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Limitations on tribal powers of self-government include the same limitations applicable to states; for example, neither tribes nor states have the power to make war, engage in foreign relations, or coin money (this includes paper currency).^ The tribes could not make treaties with foreign governments, coin money or establish post offices.
  • A Vanishing Race by Guy A. Crossett 10 September 2009 20:28 UTC www.genealogy4all.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, like state governments, they cannot declare war, coin their own money, nor have foreign relations.
  • http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/nationalcurriculum/units/2006/1/06.01.01.x.html 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Limitations on tribal powers of self-government include the same limitations applicable to states; for example, neither tribes nor states have the power to make war, engage in foreign relations, or coin money (this includes paper currency).
  • Numbers of native americans ? - Online Gambling, Online Sportsbooks at Eye on Gambling provides Live Odds Sports News Free Picks Sports Betting and Gambling Odds Online at eog.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forums.eog.com [Source type: General]

[87]
.Many Native Americans and advocates of Native American rights point out that the US Federal government's claim to recognize the "sovereignty" of Native American peoples falls short, given that the US still wishes to govern Native American peoples and treat them as subject to US law.^ It is wonderful to find so many sites dedicated to the Native American people.

^ Native American land and resource rights."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Native American Indian Medicine people to .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

.True respect for Native American sovereignty, according to such advocates, would require the United States federal government to deal with Native American peoples in the same manner as any other sovereign nation, handling matters related to relations with Native Americans through the Secretary of State, rather than the Bureau of Indian Affairs.^ Hello to all Native american people.

^ Normal Americans would rather be feared and respected.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ United States government.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

.The Bureau of Indian Affairs reports on its website that its "responsibility is the administration and management of 55,700,000 acres (225,000 km2) of land held in trust by the United States for American Indians, Indian tribes, and Alaska Natives."^ Native American Indian children are .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Describe the unique relationship between the older American Indian/Alaska Native and the United States government.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ First United States and Indian treaty.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

[88] .Many Native Americans and advocates of Native American rights believe that it is condescending for such lands to be considered "held in trust" and regulated in any fashion by a foreign power, whether the US Federal Government, Canada, or any other non-Native American authority.^ Native American land and resource rights."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are both members of the native american of canada.

^ Native Americans are trying to teach us.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

Forced termination is wrong, in my judgment, for a number of reasons. First, the premises on which it rests are wrong ... The second reason for rejecting forced termination is that the practical results have been clearly harmful in the few instances in which termination actually has been tried ... .The third argument I would make against forced termination concerns the effect it has had upon the overwhelming majority of tribes which still enjoy a special relationship with the Federal government ...^ If 51% of the people wanted liberal agenda, I would have to step aside but if 20-30% want it and the media make it look like the majority.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over the relationship between the state and federal governments , as well as violent conflicts over the spread of slavery into new states.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term tribal sovereignty refers to this unique relationship by which Indian tribes/nations maintain the right (by treaty) to negotiate directly with the federal government as independent nations.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The recommendations of this administration represent an historic step forward in Indian policy.^ Correspondence to Rupert Costo, the American Indian Historical Society from John Woodenlegs, Sr., 6/3/75, concerns "Cultural Policy Statement," alcoholism, James Spear.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Correspondence to Rupert Costo from Thomas Banyaca, representative of traditional Hopi religion, 7/19/66, regarding an invitation to membership in the American Indian Historical Society.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Publication, Recommendations for Language Policy in Indian Education, by the Center For Applied Linguistics, Arlington, Virginia, March 1973.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

We are proposing to break sharply with past approaches to Indian problems.
President Richard Nixon, Special Message on Indian Affairs, July 8, 1970.[89]
Poldine Carlo, Koyukon author from Alaska
According to 2003 United States Census Bureau estimates, a little over one third of the 2,786,652 Native Americans in the United States live in three states: California at 413,382, Arizona at 294,137 and Oklahoma at 279,559.[90]
.As of 2000, the largest tribes in the U.S. by population were Navajo, Cherokee, Choctaw, Sioux, Chippewa, Apache, Blackfeet, Iroquois, and Pueblo.^ AMERICAN INDIANS: CHEROKEE, APACHE, NAVAJO, CHEYENNE, PUEBLO, TRIBES, SIOUX, BLACKFOOT, GEORGE http://www.thewildwest.org/native_american/index.html "Read about native legends, heroes, leaders (like Geronimo), and great battles (like Custer's Army's last stand).
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Resolution by the All Indian Pueblo Council, the Jicarilla Apache Tribe and the Mescalero Apache Tribe, 11/15/72, concerns their objection to the BIA takeover by AIM. .
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CREATION STORIES NEW! http://www.meta-religion.com/World_Religions/Ancient_religions/North_america/creation_myths.htm Brief creation stories of the Cherokee, Chippewa, Choctaw, Crow, Haida, Hidatsa, Hopi, Inuit, Iroquois, Kiowa, Makah, Navajo, Nuu-chal-nuth, Penobscot, Pueblo, Salish, Tewa and Zuni.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2000, eight of ten Americans with Native American ancestry were of mixed blood.^ Eight poster Biographies of Native Americans.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2000, eight of ten Americans with Native American ancestry were of mixed blood.
  • Numbers of native americans ? - Online Gambling, Online Sportsbooks at Eye on Gambling provides Live Odds Sports News Free Picks Sports Betting and Gambling Odds Online at eog.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forums.eog.com [Source type: General]

^ I'm a full blood native american.

.It is estimated that by 2100 that figure will rise to nine out of ten.^ It is estimated that by 2100 that figure will rise to nine out of ten.
  • Numbers of native americans ? - Online Gambling, Online Sportsbooks at Eye on Gambling provides Live Odds Sports News Free Picks Sports Betting and Gambling Odds Online at eog.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forums.eog.com [Source type: General]

[91] .In addition, there are a number of tribes that are recognized by individual states, but not by the federal government.^ There are at least 558 different federally recognized tribes/nations and 126 tribes/nations applying for recognition.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over the relationship between the state and federal governments , as well as violent conflicts over the spread of slavery into new states.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term tribal sovereignty refers to this unique relationship by which Indian tribes/nations maintain the right (by treaty) to negotiate directly with the federal government as independent nations.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The rights and benefits associated with state recognition vary from state to state.^ California Indians 1940-49: Correspondence from the Department of the Interior, California Indian Rights Association and several individuals pertaining to various Indian matters.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 9,000 members of the Northern Michigan Ottawa Association are one of the largest groups of Native Americans in the United States without federal recognition.
  • Ottawa 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some tribal nations have been unable to establish their heritage and obtain federal recognition.^ Some tribal nations have been unable to establish their heritage and obtain federal recognition.
  • Numbers of native americans ? - Online Gambling, Online Sportsbooks at Eye on Gambling provides Live Odds Sports News Free Picks Sports Betting and Gambling Odds Online at eog.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forums.eog.com [Source type: General]

^ The Muwekma Ohlone of the San Francisco bay area are pursuing litigation in the federal court system to establish recognition.
  • Numbers of native americans ? - Online Gambling, Online Sportsbooks at Eye on Gambling provides Live Odds Sports News Free Picks Sports Betting and Gambling Odds Online at eog.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forums.eog.com [Source type: General]

^ But gaining recognition as a tribe is extremely difficult; to be established as a tribal group, members have to submit extensive genealogical proof of tribal descent.
  • Numbers of native americans ? - Online Gambling, Online Sportsbooks at Eye on Gambling provides Live Odds Sports News Free Picks Sports Betting and Gambling Odds Online at eog.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forums.eog.com [Source type: General]

.The Muwekma Ohlone of the San Francisco bay area are pursuing litigation in the federal court system to establish recognition.^ Cultural support in health care: The older urban American Indian of the San Francisco Bay Area.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ State courts conduct most criminal trials; federal courts handle certain designated crimes as well as appeals from state systems.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am in the San Francisco Bay Area and would like to hear from anyone in the church here.

[92] .Many of the smaller eastern tribes have been trying to gain official recognition of their tribal status.^ Many of the smaller eastern tribes have been trying to gain official recognition of their tribal status.
  • Numbers of native americans ? - Online Gambling, Online Sportsbooks at Eye on Gambling provides Live Odds Sports News Free Picks Sports Betting and Gambling Odds Online at eog.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forums.eog.com [Source type: General]

^ But gaining recognition as a tribe is extremely difficult; to be established as a tribal group, members have to submit extensive genealogical proof of tribal descent.
  • Numbers of native americans ? - Online Gambling, Online Sportsbooks at Eye on Gambling provides Live Odds Sports News Free Picks Sports Betting and Gambling Odds Online at eog.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forums.eog.com [Source type: General]

^ Correspondence to Council Members from Ross Swimmer, 2/20/79, memorandum opposition to recognition of Georgia tribe of Eastern Cherokee.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The recognition confers some benefits, including the right to label arts and crafts as Native American and permission to apply for grants that are specifically reserved for Native Americans.^ Native American land and resource rights."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Included are articles on Native American science.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are some actual customs and traditions of specific Native American groups?
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But gaining recognition as a tribe is extremely difficult; to be established as a tribal group, members have to submit extensive genealogical proof of tribal descent.^ The colonists outlaw the name Pequot , forbid the Pequots from regrouping as a tribe, and require that other tribes in the region submit all their inter-tribal grievances to the English and abide by their decisions.
  • The Pequot 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.snowwowl.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Report "Seminole Jursdictional Act," 5/20/24, concerns Seminole Freedmen, former slaves who were admitted to the tribe and are being denied tribal recognition.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only two Ottawa groups presently have this status: Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma with 400 members; and the Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan.
  • Ottawa 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

Abandoned Uranium Mines across Indian country are an epic issue in which Native peoples struggle to have contained and eradicated.
.Native American struggles amid poverty to maintain life on the reservation or in larger society have resulted in a variety of health issues, some related to nutrition and health practices.^ Native American Church, and have attended ceremonies my whole life.

^ All that aside, I just want to say that it is wonderful to have an opportunity to see a site that Native Americans from all walks of life can come and praise the creator.

^ We, native american people, understand the life around the great medicine (peyote in the english term but medicine in our own language)and how it heals our spirit.

The community suffers a disproportionately high rate of alcoholism.[93]. .In addition, some studies have found high rates of heart disease, diabetes, drug addiction, mental illness and suicide.^ This sort of determination takes years of document study, some of which can be found in the National Archives and a lot of it gone forever.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Studies show that satisfying friendships can protect against obesity, depression, heart disease and more.
  • Alltop - Top MSNBC News 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC msnbc.alltop.com [Source type: News]

^ For example, diabetes, cancer, and gallbladder disease, and use Indian medicine to treat Indian problems (pain, disturbed family relationships resulting in physical symptoms, or sicknesses of the spirit, which may include mental illness and alcoholism).
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.March 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Agencies working with Native American communities are trying better to respect their traditions and integrate benefits of Western medicine within their own cultural practices.^ Native American communities; 2.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Scalpel and the Silver Bear: The first Navajo woman surgeon combines Western medicine and traditional healing.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "You have been contracted by the local University to provide in-depth information on the Native American tribe in your community.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
"It has long been recognized that Native Americans are dying of diabetes, alcoholism, tuberculosis, suicide, and other health conditions at shocking rates.^ The IHS Primary Care Provider --A monthly journal for health professionals working with American Indians and Alaska Natives.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ American Indian women over 65 had 2.4 times the rate of diabetes as older women in the general population.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Native American relatives, we travel and live around all the different tribes whether we are from that tribe or not and must recognize each other as part of one whole nation and continue to promote our people in a constructive peaceful, positive way.

Beyond disturbingly high mortality rates, Native Americans also suffer a significantly lower health status and disproportionate rates of disease compared with all other Americans."
— The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, September 2004 [94]
This Census Bureau map depicts the locations of Native Americans in the United States as of 2000.
.In July 2000 the Washington state Republican Party adopted a resolution recommending that the federal and legislative branches of the U.S. government terminate tribal governments [95].^ News clipping, "Liquidation forces see election victory," Omak Chronicle, Omak, Washington, 5/14/64, pro-termination tribal council elections.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is time to clean up the congress and all these thugs in Washington DC. It wouldn’t hurt to clean up the mess in the states, county and city governments too.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over the relationship between the state and federal governments , as well as violent conflicts over the spread of slavery into new states.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2007 a group of Democratic Party congressmen and congresswomen introduced a bill in the U.S. House of Representatives to "terminate" the Cherokee Nation.^ When Pelosi and Reid and their Democrat majorities in BOTH houses of Congress took office in January 2007 unemployment was at 4.7% and the deficit was under $400 million.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Among the groups denouncing the proposal today were the National Association of Home Builders and Congressional Democrats who fear that tighter regulation of the companies could sharply reduce their commitment to financing low-income and affordable housing.” .
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Legal documents, copies of House of Representative and Senate Bills , 1970-1974.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[96] .As of 2004, various Native Americans are wary of attempts by others to gain control of their reservation lands for natural resources, such as coal and uranium in the West.^ Native American land and resource rights."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Native Americans are known for their bond with nature.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course, there was no way the Americans could pay these, or their other debts from the Revolution, until they sold the land in Ohio.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

[97][98][99]
.In the state of Virginia, Native Americans face a unique problem.^ Native Americans in the United States In the 2000 U.S. Census, 4.1 million people identified themselves as American Indians.
  • The Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod - Native American Missions 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.lcms.org [Source type: News]

^ Recently, however, a growing number of Native Americans have begun their recovery from alcoholism, and the denial surrounding this problem is gradually breaking down.
  • Indian Child Welfare Manual - Appendix A 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www1.dshs.wa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An assessment of the struggles, successes, and status of Native Americans in the United States from the time of the first European settlers to the present.
  • SubjectsPlus: Native American Studies 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC cu-cel.org [Source type: Academic]

.Virginia has no federally recognized tribes.^ There are at least 558 different federally recognized tribes/nations and 126 tribes/nations applying for recognition.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There are 558 federally recognized tribes, each with their own traditions, history, and perceptions of the sacred.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This information is collected only from eligible (tribally enrolled, living on-or-near reservation of federally recognized tribes) members, who actually utilize IHS services.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Some analysts attribute this to work by Walter Ashby Plecker, who as registrar of the state's Bureau of Vital Statistics vigorously applied his own interpretation of the one-drop rule.^ The 2000 Census indicates that there are 4.1 million people who identify themselves as AI/AN (either alone or in combination with other races) in the United States (U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Obama is a pathological liar and one need only listen to the democrats OWN words in the video clip to determine WHO actually caused/created this mess.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Were not the ones who TORTURE against all the TREATIES we have signed, and our very own laws.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

.He served from 1912-1946. In 1920 the state's General Assembly passed a law recognizing only two races: "white" and "colored". Plecker believed that the state's Native Americans had been "mongrelized" by intermarriage with African Americans and, further, that some people with partial black heritage were trying to pass as Native Americans.^ I am not native american, but am in sympathy with the native american heritage.

^ Native American Indian Medicine people.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Native American Indian Medicine people to .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

To Plecker, anyone with any African heritage had to be classified as colored, regardless of appearance and cultural identification. .Plecker pressured local governments into reclassifying all Native Americans in the state as "colored", and gave them lists of family surnames to examine for reclassification based on his interpretation of data and the law.^ Hello to all Native american people.

^ Hello to all Native Americans.

^ Examines the importance of baskets to Native Americans.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This led to the state's destruction of accurate records related to Native American communities and families.^ Native American communities; 2.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1893, the indigenous monarchy of the Pacific Kingdom of Hawaii was overthrown in a coup led by American residents; the United States annexed the archipelago in 1898.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "You have been contracted by the local University to provide in-depth information on the Native American tribe in your community.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sometimes different members of the same family were split by classification as "white" or "colored". There was no place for primary identification as Native American.^ There were no family members or visits, sometimes for years.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ And, why are there no Native American Medicine .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We are both members of the native american of canada.

[100] .However, in 2009, the Senate Indian Affairs Committee endorsed a bill that would grant federal recognition to tribes in Virginia.^ There are at least 558 different federally recognized tribes/nations and 126 tribes/nations applying for recognition.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ With Virginia Indians slated to play important roles in 2007 events in Virginia, attention has turned to federal recognition.

^ To synthesize their learning, students will write letters taking the perspective of an American Indian examining questions of tribe recognition."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[101]
.To achieve federal recognition and its benefits, tribes must prove their continuous existence since 1900. The federal government has maintained this requirement, in part because through participation on councils and committees, federally recognized tribes have been adamant about groups' satisfying the same requirements as they did.^ The proggressive element of of government must be voted out of office before we can get back to business.May God continue to bless our great nation!
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Report "Statement regarding recognition of certain lands as belonging to the Quechan Tribe of Indians," Elmer M. Savilla, President, Quechan Tribal Council, 8/29/74.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are at least 558 different federally recognized tribes/nations and 126 tribes/nations applying for recognition.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

[100]
.In the early 21st century, Native American communities remain an enduring fixture on the United States landscape, in the American economy, and in the lives of Native Americans.^ Native American human remains ...

^ Today 54% of the Native Americans in the United States live in the cities.

^ In the early 21st century, Native American communities remain an enduring fixture on the United States landscape, in the American economy, and in the lives of Native Americans.
  • Numbers of native americans ? - Online Gambling, Online Sportsbooks at Eye on Gambling provides Live Odds Sports News Free Picks Sports Betting and Gambling Odds Online at eog.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC forums.eog.com [Source type: General]

.Communities have consistently formed governments that administer services like firefighting, natural resource management, and law enforcement.^ "We simply act as a go-between for the American law enforcement community and the military."

^ He is the author of three books for law enforcement and other emergency services personnel on Spanish: Survival Street Spanish for Police Officers; Survival Street Spanish for EMS/Fire Personnel; and, Survival Street Spanish for 911 Telecommunications.

^ A frequent contributor to law enforcement related magazines, Peter Pranzo is the author of Stress Management for Law Enforcement .

.Most Native American communities have established court systems to adjudicate matters related to local ordinances, and most also look to various forms of moral and social authority vested in traditional affiliations within the community.^ Native American communities; 2.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note: The terms "Native American" and "American Indian" are used based on the usage within each web site.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NATIVE AMERICAN THEME UNIT http://www.libsci.sc.edu/miller/Native.htm A unit for primary students introducing various Native American tribes.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To address the housing needs of Native Americans, Congress passed the Native American Housing and Self Determination Act (NAHASDA) in 1996. This legislation replaced public housing, and other 1937 Housing Act programs directed towards Indian Housing Authorities, with a block grant program directed towards Tribes.^ Native American tribes and individuals.
  • The Multicultural Student Services Center 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC gwired.gwu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress had to pass laws to give them freedom of religion, granted to others.
  • 1987 – 2000: Hopes For A Better Future 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.meskwaki.bia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Native American tribes .
  • Apache - NativeWiki 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Societal discrimination, racism and conflicts

A discriminatory sign posted above a bar. Birney, Montana, 1941.
He is ignoble—base and treacherous, and hateful in every way. Not even imminent death can startle him into a spasm of virtue. .The ruling trait of all savages is a greedy and consuming selfishness, and in our Noble Red Man it is found in its amplest development.^ He’s a real Control Freak Man Ruling in what he wants to be a hostage held land Making all his controlling plans For everybody .
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Follow the rules of government that our forefathers provided for us, slaves for 400 years, and now a Black Man is in office.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

His heart is a cesspool of falsehood, of treachery, and of low and devilish instincts ... The scum of the earth!
Mark Twain, 1870, The Noble Red Man (a satire on James Fenimore Cooper's portrayals) [102]
.Perhaps because the most well-known Native Americans live on reservations relatively isolated from major population centers, universities have conducted relatively little public opinion research on attitudes toward them among the general public.^ My Native American Church relatives.

^ The population growth of Hispanic and Latino Americans (the terms are officially interchangeable) is a major demographic trend .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A large group of Caughnawaga live in Brooklyn (ironworkers), but the only American Mohawk reservation is at St. Regis on the New York-Quebec border with 7,700 members.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

In 2007 the non-partisan Public Agenda organization conducted a focus group study. .Most non-Native Americans admitted they rarely encountered Native Americans in their daily lives.^ These Native Americans know not what they do.

^ Describe strategies for the development of culturally appropriate verbal and non-verbal communication skills with the older American Indian/Alaska Native and their families.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Given that they only do that to the MOST ELITE of the military, as they are the ones most likely to be in a situation that would cause them to encounter a situation like that!
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

.While sympathetic toward Native Americans and expressing regret over the past, most people had only a vague understanding of the problems facing Native Americans today.^ Hello to all Native american people.

^ William Baranowski August 7th, 2009 - 3:11 pm The American people have spoken eloquently here, today.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ They will explain the Native American belief about how and why animals were put on earth and the interdependence between people and nature."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For their part, Native Americans told researchers that they believed they continued to face prejudice and mistreatment in the broader society.^ These Native Americans know not what they do.

^ Many Native Americans believe they own dual-citizenship.

^ The False Face society was an Iroquois healing group which utilized grotesque wooden masks to frighten the evil spirts believed to cause illness.
  • Iroquois 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

[103]
LeCompte also endured taunting on the battlefield. ."They ridiculed him and called him a 'drunken Indian.'^ They called it Prairie Light: The story of Chilocco Indian School.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.They said, 'Hey, dude, you look just like a haji--you'd better run.'^ It looked just like the Masonic symbol.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You guys do just as well if not better.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Make them responsible just like you and I are.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

They call the Arabs 'haji.' I mean, it's one thing to worry for your life, but then to have to worry about friendly fire because you don't know who in the hell will shoot you?
—Tammie LeCompte, May 25, 2007, "Soldier highlights problems in U.S. Army"[104]
.Conflicts between the federal government and Native Americans occasionally erupt into violence.^ Tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over the relationship between the state and federal governments , as well as violent conflicts over the spread of slavery into new states.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have always been interested in the native american ways of life and have been approached on several occasions by so called elders and have been told interesting things that no one knows of me but myself.

^ THE RED ROAD – A PATHWAY INTO NATIVE AMERICAN LITERATURE http://home.earthlink.net/~jandsgordon/ A collection of essays and poems by Native Americans.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Perhaps the more notable late 20th century event was the Wounded Knee incident in small town South Dakota. .During the period of expanding civil rights protests, activist members of the American Indian Movement (AIM) had taken control of Wounded Knee.^ Cassette, Civil rights of the American Indian, Cherokee language.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cassette, Civil rights of the American Indian, Blackfeet language.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cassette, Civil rights of the American Indian, Yupik language.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They were protesting issues related to Native American rights and the nearby Pine Ridge Reservation.^ Native American land and resource rights."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These Native Americans know not what they do.

^ Identify the major sources of data for American Indian/Alaska Native epidemiology and issues with the data collection.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.On February 27, 1973, federal law enforcement officials and the United States military surrounded the town.^ It would be particularly fitting because the queen's first official visit to the United States was in 1957 to attend events in Jamestown.

^ "We simply act as a go-between for the American law enforcement community and the military."

^ Attempts to enter or obtains entry to the United States by a willfullyfalse or misleading representation or the willful concealment of amaterial fact; has committed a federal crime.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the ensuing confrontation, two members of AIM were killed and one United States Marshal was wounded and paralyzed.^ Armed AIM members joined the conflict, and two AIM members were killed in the crossfire.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Was two terms State’s attorney, one term as State Representative, one term United States Attorney, and five terms a member of Congress.

^ One lasting legacy of the Teutonic Knights, however, was the Junker nobility of Brandenburg-Prussia, the state that became the nucleus of a united Germany in the nineteenth century.

.Leonard Peltier, an AIM activist and leader of the event, was arrested and charged, and at trial convicted of causing the uprising that resulted in the attack on the US marshal.^ His book, Legitimacy by Force, tells the story of the events leading up to his arrest and conviction for the attempted murder shooting of his neighbor, Glen Baker.

He was sentenced to life in prison.
.In 2004, Senator Sam Brownback (Republican of Kansas) introduced a joint resolution (Senate Joint Resolution 37) to “offer an apology to all Native Peoples on behalf of the United States” for past “ill-conceived policies” by the United States Government regarding Indian Tribes.^ Native American Indian Medicine people to .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hello to all Native american people.

^ First United States and Indian treaty.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The United States Senate has yet to take action on the measure.^ He also made an unsuccessful bid as the Republican candidate for the United States Senate in 1986.

^ Congress needs to take action now to prevent fraud that can be used to realign states population and therefore skew processes from election to receiving federal funds.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was in the U. S. Senate between 1820 and 1850 and "became one of the most influential men in the United States, promoting the opening of the west and championing hard money."

[105]
.In 2007, AIM activist John Graham was extradited from Canada to the US to stand trial for killing N.S. Mimaq in 1975. The Native American woman activist was killed years after the Wounded Knee standoff, allegedly for having been an FBI informant at the time.^ We are both members of the native american of canada.

^ Native Americans are trying to teach us.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wounded Knee Massacre - 350 Sioux men, women, and children of Big Foot’s band of Miniconjou Sioux were killed at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, it is said on their way to a Ghost dance, by the Seventh US Cavalry (defeated fourteen years earlier at Little Big Horn), in subzero weather of winter.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

[106][107]

Native American mascots in sports

A student acting as Chief Osceola, the Florida State University mascot
.The use of Native American mascots in sports has become a contentious issue in the United States and Canada.^ Articles on Native American games and sports.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are both members of the native american of canada.

^ "Many professional sports teams have Native American mascots and names.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Americans have had a history of "playing Indian" that dates back to at least the 1700s.^ Report, "Federal Violation of Basic Rights of American Indian People," William Veeder, no date.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Workshop agenda for the American Indian Movement, no date, no source.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Proposed course in linguistics, American Indian curriculum, Edward P. Dozier, no date.
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[108] .Many individuals admire the heroism and romanticism evoked by the classic Native American warrior image, but numerous Native Americans think use of items associated with them as mascots is both offensive and demeaning.^ We are both members of the native american of canada.

^ "Many professional sports teams have Native American mascots and names.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NOT "INDIANS", MANY TRIBES: NATIVE AMERICAN DIVERSITY – LESSON PLAN http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=324 A lesson plan for grades 3-5 on Native Americans.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While many universities (for example, North Dakota Fighting Sioux of University of North Dakota) and professional sports teams (for example, Chief Wahoo of Cleveland Indians) no longer use such images without consultation with Native American nations, some lower level schools,such as Vallejo High School in Vallejo,CA and John Swett High in Crokett,CA and other lower level sports teams continue to do so.^ Native American Indian Medicine people.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Native American Indian Medicine people to .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bibliography, "Images of the Indian in American Literature," no source, 1973.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Bay Area of California a number of High Schools such as Tomales Bay High and Sequoia High have retired their Mascots.^ He has assisted on a number of high-profiles cases such as the kidnapping and murder of Laura Bradbury, the kidnapping and murder of DEA Agent Enrique Camerena and the serial murdered Randy Kraft.

.
(Trudie Lamb Richmond doesn't) know what to say when kids argue, 'I don't care what you say, we are honoring you.^ Don't you care what the .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But you know what the ‘crap would say?
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Schumer: I don’t know the relevance but I will say this.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

We are keeping our Indian.' ... What if it were 'our black' or 'our Hispanic'?
—Amy D'orio quoting Trudie Lamb Richmond, March 1996, "Indian Chief Is Mascot No More"[109]
.In August 2005, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) banned the use of "hostile and abusive" Native American mascots in postseason tournaments.^ If you are a student of Native American Studies, hopefully Native American Images will be a useful resource to you."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Describe the use of an American Indian/Alaska Native cohort analysis to understand the historical life influences and experiences of an AI/AN patient.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Use of Native American healers among Native American patients in an urban Native American health center.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

[110] .An exception was made to allow the use of tribal names as long as approved by that tribe (such as the Seminole Tribe of Florida's approving use of their name for the team of Florida State University.^ Report "Seminole Jursdictional Act," 5/20/24, concerns Seminole Freedmen, former slaves who were admitted to the tribe and are being denied tribal recognition.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Media release, "Seminole Tribe of Florida gets EDA grant for pool," U.S. Department of Commerce, 5-15-75.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Series of news clippings, 1978-79, concerning the Florida Seminole Tribe, liquor and tobacco sales, BIA funds, dispute between Oklahoman and Florida Seminoles.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)[111][112] .The use of Native American-themed team names in U.S. professional sports is widespread.^ Articles on Native American games and sports.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Many professional sports teams have Native American mascots and names.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NATIVE AMERICAN THEME UNIT http://www.libsci.sc.edu/miller/Native.htm A unit for primary students introducing various Native American tribes.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Examples are mascot Chief Wahoo and teams such as the Cleveland Indians and Washington Redskins, considered controversial by some.^ Lately, the school has come under criticism for its team's name and mascot, Chief Eagle Feather.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ News clipping, "Old headdress recalls history of Indian chief," Washington, 4/30/64.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Atlanta Braves, Washington Redskins, Cleveland Indians, etc.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
"Could you imagine people mocking African Americans in black face at a game?"^ Pass the damn thing, or could it be you and yours, Mr. President, do not have the ballz to DO what you konw the majority of the people of the country DON’T want you doing?
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ I am sick and tired of people who say that if you debate and you disagree with this administration, somehow you’re not patriotic, and we should stand up and say, ‘WE ARE AMERICANS AND WE HAVE A RIGHT TO DEBATE AND DISAGREE WITH ANY ADMINISTRATION!” .
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ So I was just wondering if you know of any Native American Churches that are in my area and that I could join.

he said. ."Yet go to a game where there is a team with an Indian name and you will see fans with war paint on their faces.^ You see the difference, yet, Brad?
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ We’ll see you all there!
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ I hope to see you all there you worthless scum!
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

Is this not the equivalent to black face?"
—"Native American Mascots Big Issue in College Sports",Teaching Tolerance, May 9, 2001[113]

Depictions by Europeans and Americans

Sketch by John White of Roanoke Indians
American Indian on five-dollar Silver Certificate, 1899
.Native Americans have been depicted by American artists in various ways at different historical periods.^ We love the way of the Native American Church.

^ I want my son to grow up learning these Native American Church ways.

^ I want to say that I was raised around Native American Church ways all my life.

.During the sixteenth century, the artist John White made watercolors and engravings of the people native to the southeastern states.^ Chief Joseph tried to break white people’s stereotypes about Native Americans."
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^ "In this lesson, students will explore the legal and historical experience of native peoples living in the United States."
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^ "For centuries, the American bison--commonly called the buffalo--has been revered by various Native American peoples.
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.John White’s images were, for the most part, faithful likenesses of the people he observed.^ I grew up going to NAC & was surprised when i left there & moved here with my family how most white people were against peyote.

^ It’s like Ellison’s Invisible Man : Black people, as Ellison says, are visible only if they are what the white world wants to see.
  • A Conversation with Louis Owens 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.ac.wwu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For the most part, people who traveled westward into Kansas territory were not illegal immigrants.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

.Later the artist Theodore de Bry used White’s original watercolors to make a book of engravings entitled, A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia. In his book, de Bry often altered the poses and features of White’s figures to make them appear more European.^ In 1951, De Rougemont founded the Association of Festival of European Music, and is quoted in the book `Holy Blood, Holy Grail' in regards to the Albigensian Crusade.

^ One month later Governor Gilmer of Georgia announced that gold had been found on Cherokee lands and that the gold belonged to the state of Georgia (Deloria & Lytle, 1983).
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If you ever done genealogy you will find a lot of mistaken references that history book often make.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the period when White and de Bry were working, when Europeans were first coming into contact with native Americans, Europeans were greatly interested in in native American cultures.^ This Native American population was greatly reduced by disease and warfare after European contact .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All that aside, I just want to say that it is wonderful to have an opportunity to see a site that Native Americans from all walks of life can come and praise the creator.

^ De Rougemont became the director of European Cultural studies, and President of the European Ecological Association.

Their curiosity created demand for a book like de Bry’s.
Three centuries later, during the construction of the Capitol building in the early nineteenth century, the U.S. government commissioned a series of four relief panels to crown the doorway of the Rotunda. .The reliefs encapsulate a vision of European—Native American relations that had assumed mythic historical proportions by the nineteenth century.^ Miscellaneous correspondence to the American Indian Historical Society, 1964-69, including, but not limited to Ohlone cemetery, misappropriation of federal funds for Indian related projects in the west.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aside from the now small Native American and Native Hawaiian populations, nearly all Americans or their ancestors immigrated within the past five centuries.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Describe the use of an American Indian/Alaska Native cohort analysis to understand the historical life influences and experiences of an AI/AN patient.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The four panels depict: The Preservation of Captain Smith by Pocahontas (1825) by Antonio Capellano, The Landing of the Pilgrims (1825) and The Conflict of Daniel Boone and the Indians (1826–27) by Enrico Causici, and William Penn’s Treaty with the Indians (1827) by Nicholas Gevelot.^ Following the efforts of Daniel Boone and his brother, Squire Boone, to settle Kentucky, Richard Henderson of Granville County in association with Nathaniel Hart, Thomas Hart, John Williams, William Johnson, and John Lutterell, on 27 Aug.

^ News clipping, "Letter to the Editor, The Indians Park Land," New York Times, New York, 7/27/74.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of several treaties specifying medical care as partial compensation for Indian land and other resources ceded by treaty.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The reliefs present idealized versions of the Europeans and the native Americans, in which the Europeans appear refined and the natives appear ferocious.^ I also am fearful our ways may be exploited by those who do not understand our pain from the europeans mistreatment of native peoples in the past, to the present.

^ While attempting to find links in my father's family to European royalty,I discovered that my father is partly Native American.

^ Main article: History of the United States Native Americans and European settlers .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Whig representative of Virginia, Henry A. Wise, voiced a particularly astute summary of how Native Americans would read the messages contained in all four reliefs: “We give you corn, you cheat us of our lands: we save your life, you take ours.” While many nineteenth-century images of native Americans conveyed similarly negative messages, artists such as Charles Bird King sought to express a more balanced image of Native Americans.^ May you all have many blessings and longevity in life...

^ Show your representative how true Americans act.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ We consistently remember all of you and your families in our prayers.

.During this time there were writers of fiction who were informed about Native American culture and wrote about it with sympathy.^ There were NO AMERICANS at the time.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am not native american, but am in sympathy with the native american heritage.

^ There seems to have been a lot of inaccurate information published in the past about the local tribes who thrived in your community.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

One such writer was Marah Ellis Ryan.
.In the 20th century, early portrayals of Native Americans in movies and television roles were first depicted by European-Americans dressed in mock traditional attire.^ Since the early 20th century, the U.S. film industry has largely been based in and around Hollywood, California .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aside from the now small Native American and Native Hawaiian populations, nearly all Americans or their ancestors immigrated within the past five centuries.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Critics of the mascot say it mocks Native American sacred religious traditions.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Examples included The Last of the Mohicans (1920), Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans (1957), and F Troop (1965-67). .In later decades, Native American actors such as Jay Silverheels in The Lone Ranger television series (1949-57) came to prominence.^ He later asked if I would like to attend a native American Peyote ceremony.

^ In 2008, the U.S. population included an estimated 4.9 million people with some American Indian or Alaskan native ancestry (3.1 million exclusively of such ancestry) and 1.1 million with some native Hawaiian or Pacific island ancestry (0.6 million exclusively).
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wichita (Native Americans) came to the Arkansas Valley in 1864 after a rough winter in the (Oklahoma) territories.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

.Roles of Native Americans were limited and not reflective of Native American culture.^ Describe strategies for the development of culturally appropriate verbal and non-verbal communication skills with the older American Indian/Alaska Native and their families.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ List the top five causes of death for American Indian/Alaska Natives, and how they might be affected by culturally appropriate prevention programs.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Permalink Actually Capn, Native Americans know quite a bit about their own culture of course.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the 1970s some Native Americans roles were improved in movies: Little Big Man (1970), Billy Jack (1971), and The Outlaw Josey Wales (1976) depicted Native Americans in minor supporting roles.^ Manuscript, "Genocide In Humboldt County, as reported in the Humboldt Times, 1853-1870," by Michael Smith, Native American Studies, taught by Jack Norton, 5/14/77.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2008, the U.S. population included an estimated 4.9 million people with some American Indian or Alaskan native ancestry (3.1 million exclusively of such ancestry) and 1.1 million with some native Hawaiian or Pacific island ancestry (0.6 million exclusively).
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am of extremely mixed heritage, but discovered that some of my recent ancestors were of Native American heritage (Cherokee and possibly Caddo).

In addition to overtly negative depictions, Native people on US television have also been relegated to secondary, subordinate roles. .During the years of the series Bonanza (1959-1973), no major or secondary Native characters appeared on a consistent basis.^ These are rational conclusions and I operate on a daily basis with them and I have for 3 years finding the results consistent.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ News clipping, "Governor James cites accomplishments during his seven year administration," biographical piece on Governor Overton James, no date.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also no one seems to mention that Congess has been in the majority for 6 out of the last 8 years.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

The series The Lone Ranger (1949-1957), Cheyenne (1957-1963), and Law of the Plainsman (1959-1963) had Native characters who were essentially aides to the central White characters. This characterization was also a feature of later television pilots and shows such as How the West Was Won. .These programs resembled the “sympathetic” yet contradictory film Dances With Wolves of 1990, in which, according to Ella Shohat and Robert Stam, the narrative choice was to relate the Lakotas story as told through a Euro-American voice, for wide impact among a general audience.^ The rush to force these programs down American throats can only mean one thing in my non Mensa mind.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

[114] .Like the 1992 remake of The Last of the Mohicans and Geronimo: An American Legend (1993), Dances with Wolves employed a number of Native American actors, and made some effort to portray Indigenous languages.^ Included are articles on Native American dance.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MOCCASINS ARE MADE FOR DANCING – LESSON PLAN http://artsedge.kennedy-enter.org/content/3396/ A lesson plan for grades 5-8 on Native American dances.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We, native american people, understand the life around the great medicine (peyote in the english term but medicine in our own language)and how it heals our spirit.

.However, all of these films still focus a great deal of screen time on the non-Indian characters.^ It is time to clean up the congress and all these thugs in Washington DC. It wouldn’t hurt to clean up the mess in the states, county and city governments too.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Time is drawing near, once again to thank the Great Spirit for all he has done.

^ I clearly see the menace of all subversive movements, as well as the great necessity of combating all these un-American activities.

[citation needed]
.In 2004, Co-Producer Guy Perrotta presented the film Mystic Voices: The Story of the Pequot War (2004), a television documentary on the first major war between colonists and Native peoples in the Americas.^ People stopped calling themselves that because it was so specifically German and the Germans were so hated during the First World War.

^ First peoples: A documentary survey of American Indian history.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I also am fearful our ways may be exploited by those who do not understand our pain from the europeans mistreatment of native peoples in the past, to the present.

Perrotta and Charles Clemmons intended to increase public understanding of the significance of this early event. .They believed it had significance not only for northeastern Native Peoples and descendants of English and Dutch colonists, but for all Americans today.^ Many Native Americans believe they own dual-citizenship.

^ I am descendent of 3 native american grandparents.

^ Hello to all Native american people.

The producers wanted to make the documentary as historically accurate and as unbiased as possible. .They invited a broadly based Advisory Board, and used scholars, Native Americans, and descendants of the colonists to help tell the story.^ I am descendent of 3 native american grandparents.

^ These Native Americans know not what they do.

^ Describe the use of an American Indian/Alaska Native cohort analysis to understand the historical life influences and experiences of an AI/AN patient.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.They elicited personal and often passionate viewpoints from contemporary Americans.^ Counting the whole number of persons” means exactly that: Everyone gets counted, period, unless they’re Indians (native Americans) not taxed (living on reservations).
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

.The production portrayed the conflict as a struggle between different value systems that included not only the Pequots, but a number of Native American tribes, most of which allied with the English.^ Included are articles on Native American science.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I strongly value the Native American beliefs.

^ The class will discuss Native American tribes and their culture, including the barter system of economics."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It not only presents facts, but also seeks to help the viewer better understand the people who fought the War.^ I am not indian but I have my own unique heart of gold, and I am sad that I cannot find people who will understand me.

^ The very people who should know better are letting this President gather more power into the White House than any of his predecessors.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Currently only people who are convicted of felonies in South Carolina must submit DNA evidence to SLED for processing.

In 2009, We Shall Remain (2009), a television documentary by Ric Burns and part of the American Experience series, presented a five-episode series "from a Native American perspective": it represented "an unprecedented collaboration between Native and non-Native filmmakers and involves Native advisors and scholars at all levels of the project."[115] The five episodes explore the impact of King Philip's War on the northeastern tribes, the "Native American confederacy" involved in Tecumseh's War, the forced relocation known as Trail of Tears, the pursuit and capture of Geronimo and the Apache Wars, and concludes with the American Indian Movement's involvement at the Wounded Knee incident and the resurgence in modern Native cultures afterward.

Terminology differences

Common usage in the United States

Martha Gradolf, Hochunk weaver from Indiana
.Native Americans are more commonly known as Indians or American Indians, and have been known as Aboriginal Americans, Amerindians, Amerinds, Colored[82][116], First Americans, Native Indians, Indigenous, Original Americans, Red Indians, Redskins or Red Men.^ Bibliographies from the Smithsonian Institute, Bureau of American Ethnography and Division of Archeology, 59 pages, concerns Indian archaeology in the Americas, present-day conditions of U. S. Indians and the origin of the American Indian.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NOT "INDIANS", MANY TRIBES: NATIVE AMERICAN DIVERSITY – LESSON PLAN http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=324 A lesson plan for grades 3-5 on Native Americans.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hello I am part Otoe-Missouria Indian and I am trying to find the Native American Church in or near my hometown area which is Laguna Niguel, California.

.The term Native American was originally introduced in the United States by academics in preference to the older term Indian to distinguish the indigenous peoples of the Americas from the people of India, and to avoid negative stereotypes supposedly associated with the term Indian.^ Native American Indian Medicine people to .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was created in by Native American Medicine people with .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hello to all Native american people.

.Because of the acceptance of this newer term in academic circles, some academics believe that Indians should be considered as outdated or offensive.^ And just because you don’t have a “nation-state” as your adversary – doesn’t mean you should not consider a declaration of war.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Many actual indigenous Americans, however, prefer American Indian.^ Permalink But these days, unfortunately, many Americans would prefer that undocumented residents were deported rather than counted.Posted by Rhonda Holman .
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Permalink “But these days, unfortunately, many Americans would prefer that undocumented residents were deported rather than counted.”Posted by Rhonda Holman .
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ American Indian women: At the center on indigenous resistance in North America.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Also, some people point out that anyone born in the United States is, technically, native to America, and that the academic who first promoted Native American confused the term native with indigenous. People from India (and their descendants) who are citizens of the United States are called Indian Americans or Asian Indians.^ Native American Indian Medicine people perhaps?
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The standard way to refer to a citizen of the United States is as an American .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So who knows, maybe the Native Americans have some strange .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

.Criticism of the neologism Native American, however, comes from diverse sources.^ All that aside, I just want to say that it is wonderful to have an opportunity to see a site that Native Americans from all walks of life can come and praise the creator.

^ NOT "INDIANS", MANY TRIBES: NATIVE AMERICAN DIVERSITY – LESSON PLAN http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=324 A lesson plan for grades 3-5 on Native Americans.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Critics of the mascot say it mocks Native American sacred religious traditions.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many American Indians have misgivings about the term Native American.^ Native American Indian Medicine people to .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Native American Indian children are .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Native American Indian Medicine people.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

.Russell Means, an American Indian activist, opposes the term Native American because he believes it was imposed by the government without the consent of American Indians.^ We, native american people, understand the life around the great medicine (peyote in the english term but medicine in our own language)and how it heals our spirit.

^ Hello I am part Otoe-Missouria Indian and I am trying to find the Native American Church in or near my hometown area which is Laguna Niguel, California.

^ The IHS Primary Care Provider --A monthly journal for health professionals working with American Indians and Alaska Natives.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

He has also argued that this use of the word Indian derives not from a confusion with India but from a Spanish expression En Dio, meaning "in God".[117] .Furthermore, some American Indians question the term Native American because, they argue, it serves to ease the conscience of "white America" with regard to past injustices done to American Indians by effectively eliminating "Indians" from the present.^ Or TRAITORS because they asked questions???
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The terms “Native American”and “American Indian”or “Indian” are often used interchangeably.
  • File nativeamericanlawguide.wpd rendered in html, UW-Madison Law Library 10 September 2009 20:28 UTC library.law.wisc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Native American Indian actors in Hollywood and ...

[118] .Still others (both Indians and non-Indians) argue that Native American is problematic because "native of" literally means "born in," so any person born in the Americas could be considered "native". However, very often the compound "Native American" will be capitalized in order to differentiate this intended meaning from others.^ Native American Indian children are .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We are both members of the native american of canada.

^ Native American Indian Medicine people to .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

.Likewise, "native" (small 'n') can be further qualified by formulations such as "native-born" when the intended meaning is only to indicate place of birth or origin.^ Minor states that Natural Born Citizen means BOTH parents are US citizens and the child born in country AND that any 14th amendment baby can never be a natural born citizen (such as native, naturalized, anchor, one US citizen parent, etc.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ You see, a natural born citizen is a birthright to a nation, based on parentage and undivided loyalties/allegiances and also place of birth.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Thereafter she served in major hospital supervisory positions and initiated such health programs as the original Southeast Health Aid Program and the Alaska Board of Health (now called the Alaska Native Health Board).
  • Tlingit - Overview, Early history, First contact with europeans, The land claims period, Acculturation and assimilation 10 September 2009 20:28 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A 1995 US Census Bureau survey found that more Native Americans in the United States preferred American Indian to Native American.^ First United States and Indian treaty.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ American Indian or Alaska Native (That’s a continental origin) — Print nameof enrolled or principal tribe.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "North Carolina Indians," excerpt from "Surviving Indian Groups of the Eastern United States," Smithsonian Institute Publication 3974, history.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[119] .Nonetheless, most American Indians are comfortable with Indian, American Indian, and Native American, and the terms are often used interchangeably.^ Native American Indian Medicine people to .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Native American Indian children are .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Native American Indian Medicine people.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

[120] .The traditional term is reflected in the name chosen for the National Museum of the American Indian, which opened in 2004 on the Mall in Washington, D.C..^ NATIONAL MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN http://www.nmai.si.edu/ Official site for the new National Museum of the American Indian which opened in Washington at the Smithsonian in September 2004.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note: The terms "Native American" and "American Indian" are used based on the usage within each web site.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Correspondence to 'All Indian Tribes and Organizations,' from Charles Trimble, Executive Director of National Congress of American Indians, 4/4/78, concerns commission of state and tribal relations.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Recently, the U.S. Census Bureau has introduced the "Asian-Indian" category to avoid ambiguity.

Gambling industry

Sandia Casino, owned by the Sandia Pueblo of New Mexico
Gambling has become a leading industry. .Casinos operated by many Native American governments in the United States are creating a stream of gambling revenue that some communities are beginning to use as leverage to build diversified economies.^ United States government.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Main article: Economy of the United States .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many Indian communities are looking to re-create the more healthy diet of their ancestors, with squashes, melons, corn, beans, fruits, other vegetables, and some meat.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Native American communities have waged and prevailed in legal battles to assure recognition of rights to self-determination and to use of natural resources.^ Native American land and resource rights."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Native Americans are known for their bond with nature.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s using Native Americans as an extractable natural resource.
  • A Conversation with Louis Owens 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.ac.wwu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Some of those rights, known as treaty rights, are enumerated in early treaties signed with the young United States government.^ United States government.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ First United States and Indian treaty.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Legal document, Supreme Court of the United States, "United States versus District Court in and for Water Division Number 5," 4/12/71, Fort Mojave water rights.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tribal sovereignty has become a cornerstone of American jurisprudence, and at least on the surface, in national legislative policies.^ The term tribal sovereignty refers to this unique relationship by which Indian tribes/nations maintain the right (by treaty) to negotiate directly with the federal government as independent nations.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This file contains various documents pertaining to the National Congress of American Indians, including proposals, reports, correspondence, pamphlets, policy and legislation reports, 1955-74.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tribal sovereignty, independent nation status, and tribal self-determination continue to be a major priority of AI/AN tribes/nations in the 21st century.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Although many Native American tribes have casinos, the Impact of Native American gambling is widely debated.^ NATIVE AMERICAN THEME UNIT http://www.libsci.sc.edu/miller/Native.htm A unit for primary students introducing various Native American tribes.
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^ NOT "INDIANS", MANY TRIBES: NATIVE AMERICAN DIVERSITY – LESSON PLAN http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=324 A lesson plan for grades 3-5 on Native Americans.
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^ "You have been contracted by the local University to provide in-depth information on the Native American tribe in your community.
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.Some tribes, such as the Winnemem Wintu of Redding, California, feel that casinos and their proceeds destroy culture from the inside out.^ Some, such as the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture , developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state-level societies.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are not many Native Americans here in Hawaii where I live but some of the cultural beliefs are similar such as the great sense of Family.

^ Some research suggests that feeling such joy at horrific situation is pathological.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

These tribes refuse to participate in the gambling industry.

Society, language, and culture

Ethno-linguistic classification

.Far from forming a single ethnic group, Native Americans were divided into several hundred ethno-linguistic groups, most of them grouped into the Na-Dené (Athabaskan), Algic (including Algonquian), Uto-Aztecan, Iroquoian, Siouan-Catawban, Yok-Utian, Salishan and Yuman-Cochimí phyla, besides many smaller groups and several language isolates.^ Included are articles on Native American science.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Included are articles on Native American dance.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Included are articles on Native American contributions.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Demonstrating genetic relationships has proved difficult due to the great linguistic diversity present in North America.
The indigenous peoples of North America can be classified as belonging to a number of large cultural areas:
Early Indian languages in the US
Of the surviving languages, Uto-Aztecan has the most speakers (1.95 million) if the languages in Mexico are considered (mostly due to 1.5 million speakers of Nahuatl); Nadene comes in second with approximately 180,200 speakers (148,500 of these are speakers of Navajo). .Na-Dené and Algic have the widest geographic distributions: Algic currently spans from northeastern Canada across much of the continent down to northeastern Mexico (due to later migrations of the Kickapoo) with two outliers in California (Yurok and Wiyot); Na-Dené spans from Alaska and western Canada through Washington, Oregon, and California to the U.S. Southwest and northern Mexico (with one outlier in the Plains).^ The climate is arid in the Great Basin, desert in the Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California , and oceanic in coastal Oregon and Washington and southern Alaska.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A special hello to all my friends from Washington, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Oregon, Montana, Utah, Manitoba Canada.

^ She had been on a trip to Mexico and as they came through California she was asked to write of some of their experiences.

.Another area of considerable diversity appears to have been the Southeast; however, many of these languages became extinct from European contact and as a result they are, for the most part, absent from the historical record.^ In many urban areas there are no Native American healers, and medicine persons travel long distances when called to these areas.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fortunately, most people are not as blind and clueless as you are; they see what he’s doing and they want no part of this reckless radical’s agenda.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of these Congress people are on the take in one form or other and have had a free hand doing pretty much as they liked.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

Cultural aspects

Hopi woman dressing hair of unmarried girl from 1900.
Sheep remain an important aspect in Navajo Tradition and Culture.
.Though cultural features, language, clothing, and customs vary enormously from one tribe to another, there are certain elements which are encountered frequently and shared by many tribes.^ Study the tribes' structure, language, and culture.

^ Each tribe had a distinct culture yet shared many of the same beliefs."
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^ It is a great way for shy members to know ahead of time that there is some level of interest...before ever contacting one another directly.

.Early hunter-gatherer tribes made stone weapons from around 10,000 years ago; as the age of metallurgy dawned, newer technologies were used and more efficient weapons produced.^ DeLuca also promised to use more technology in courtrooms if he becomes the next district attorney.

^ Twenty years ago the Gallup poll, which probes evangelism, found that 20 per cent of the public claimed to have had a born-again experience (the gauge of evangelism used by Gallup).

^ It just hit me, Last time I visited Canada, about 10 years ago at least, I also bought some books there.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Prior to contact with Europeans, most tribes used similar weaponry.^ A trading tribe even before contact, the Ottawa were businessmen before they ever met a European, so they immediately recognized the opportunity presented by the fur trade and attached themselves to it and the French.
  • Ottawa 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The time travelers wish to use their ticket to visit the Native Americans before the European settlers arrived, and have narrowed their choices to 3 tribes: the Monacans, the Pueblos and the Sioux.
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^ TIPIS – NATIVE AMERICAN PRE-CONTACT HOUSING http://www.kstrom.net/isk/maps/houses/tipi.html Information on the tipis used by the Plains tribes.
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The most common implements were the bow and arrow, the war club, and the spear. .Quality, material, and design varied widely.^ Newsprint is a particularly poor quality material, designed for a very short period of use, and poses a number of problems.
  • Kansas Collection 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC spencer.lib.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Native American use of fire both helped provide insects for food and altered the landscape of the continent to help the human population flourish.^ Note: The terms "Native American" and "American Indian" are used based on the usage within each web site.
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^ You will use this information to create a slide show that will teach second graders how these Indians used resources from their environment to provide food, shelter and clothing."
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^ "You have been contracted by the local University to provide in-depth information on the Native American tribe in your community.
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.Large mammals like mammoths and mastodons were largely extinct by around 8,000 B.C. Native Americans switched to hunting other large game, such as bison.^ Articles on Native American games and sports.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We, native american people, understand the life around the great medicine (peyote in the english term but medicine in our own language)and how it heals our spirit.

^ He later asked if I would like to attend a native American Peyote ceremony.

.The Great Plains tribes were still hunting the bison when they first encountered the Europeans.^ They became the first Europeans to see Lake Superior when the Ottawa took them to Chequamegon (La Pointe).
  • Ottawa 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Permalink Some of the plains tribes were not plains people originally, but had to become so, because they were chased out of their home territories by other Native American tribes.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A trading tribe even before contact, the Ottawa were businessmen before they ever met a European, so they immediately recognized the opportunity presented by the fur trade and attached themselves to it and the French.
  • Ottawa 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Spanish reintroduction of the horse to North America in the 17th century and Native Americans' learning to use them greatly altered the natives' culture, including changing the way in which they hunted large game.^ They have changed in some ways.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These Native Americans know not what they do.

^ Included are articles on Native American science.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(Evidence of pre-historic horses prior to the arrival of the Spanish has been found in the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, CA.^ Windancer los angeles, ca - USA .

^ Los Angeles, CA: author.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ John Charles Fremont on October 19, 1841 in Washington, D. C. She died on December 27, 1902 in Los Angeles, CA, at age 78.

[121][122]) .In addition, horses became such a valuable, central element of Native lives that they were counted as a measure of wealth.^ Counting the whole number of persons” means exactly that: Everyone gets counted, period, unless they’re Indians (native Americans) not taxed (living on reservations).
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are not many Native Americans here in Hawaii where I live but some of the cultural beliefs are similar such as the great sense of Family.

^ It is your job to make sure that other children in town know that Native American tribes and their cultures were very different, depending on the region in which they lived."
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Organization

Zuni girl with pottery jar on her head in 1909

Gens structure

.Early European American scholars described the Native Americans as having a society dominated by clans or gentes (in the Roman model) before tribes were formed.^ With a fellow researcher you will together present your findings on your Native American tribe to be shared with the local community in an effort to develop a better understanding of these dynamic and rich communities who dominated the area prior to the first arrival of European settlers."
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^ "You have been contracted by the local University to provide in-depth information on the Native American tribe in your community.
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^ NATIVE AMERICAN BED-TIME STORY COLLECTION http://www.bedtime-story.com/bedtime-story/indians.htm A collection of bedtime stories from various Native American tribes.
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There were some common characteristics:
  • The right to elect its sachem and chiefs.
  • The right to depose its sachem and chiefs.
  • The obligation not to marry in the gens.
  • Mutual rights of inheritance of the property of deceased members.
  • Reciprocal obligations of help, defense, and redress of injuries.
  • The right to bestow names on its members.
  • The right to adopt strangers into the gens.
  • Common religious rights, query.
  • A common burial place.
  • A council of the gens.[123]

Tribal structure

.Subdivision and differentiation took place between various groups.^ Hoping to find a place where they could worship without fear of persecution, a group of Puritan Separatists took temporary refuge in Holland.

^ However, I doubt that my students can differentiate between any of the groups.
  • http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/nationalcurriculum/units/2006/1/06.01.01.x.html 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Needless to say, a lot of shady events took place between Jan.

.Upwards of forty stock languages developed in North America, with each independent tribe speaking a dialect of one of those languages.^ In the 1960s, Bob Dylan emerged from the folk revival to become one of America's most celebrated songwriters and James Brown led the development of funk .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the time she was 14 she could speak five languages, English, Spanish and 3 Indian dialects.
  • Past Notable Native Americans-Pg 1 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.snowwowl.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of her two children was later able to develop an understanding of the language and culture during the “culture-seeking” of the 1970s and 1980s, but the other child did not.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

Some functions and attributes of tribes are:
.
Shonto Begay, Diné painter from Arizona
  • The possession of the gentes.
  • The right to depose these sachems and chiefs.
  • The possession of a religious faith and worship.
  • A supreme government consisting of a council of chiefs.
  • A head-chief of the tribe in some instances.^ Report, "The Papago Tribe of Arizona," Congressional Hearings, 10/23/75, concerning water rights.
    • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Series of documents, including report and news clippings, 1975, concerns Tribal Council of Gay Head, Wampanoag Tribe.
    • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Series of documents released by the Quechan Tribal Council, Fort Yuma Indian Reservation, Yuma, Arizona, 1975, concerns water rights, land rights and tribal legal issues.
    • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [123]

Society and art

.The Iroquois, living around the Great Lakes and extending east and north, used strings or belts called wampum that served a dual function: the knots and beaded designs mnemonically chronicled tribal stories and legends, and further served as a medium of exchange and a unit of measure.^ Permalink “”I used to live in Texas, so I know what it’s like to be around a lot of Hispanics (both legal and illegal).
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ List of tribal, federal, public school, state and private agencies, Fort Totten Reservation, Devils Lake Sioux, North Dakota, no date.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bruce also served as the first United States emissary to the People's Republic of China from 1973 to 1974 and as ambassador to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization from 1975 to 1976.

The keepers of the articles were seen as tribal dignitaries.[124]
Pueblo peoples crafted impressive items associated with their religious ceremonies. Kachina dancers wore elaborately painted and decorated masks as they ritually impersonated various ancestral spirits. .Sculpture was not highly developed, but carved stone and wood fetishes were made for religious use.^ The words used to describe this life stage in developed and highly industrial countries tend to be pejorative and stereotypical and to equate aging with a negative or inferior state of being.
  • The illness trajectory of elderly cancer patients across cultures: SIOG position paper -- Surbone et al. 18 (4): 633 -- Annals of Oncology 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC annonc.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

Superior weaving, embroidered decorations, and rich dyes characterized the textile arts. Both turquoise and shell jewelry were created, as were high-quality pottery and formalized pictorial arts.
Navajo spirituality focused on the maintenance of a harmonious relationship with the spirit world, often achieved by ceremonial acts, usually incorporating sandpainting. The colors—made from sand, charcoal, cornmeal, and pollen—depicted specific spirits. .These vivid, intricate, and colorful sand creations were erased at the end of the ceremony.^ What then is the end that these means create?
  • Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis, and Development, by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar 10 September 2009 20:28 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I encourage you all to be the best you can be, each and every color of gods creation, walking this ceremonial road.

^ The direct forms and clear colors of these expressive watercolors will introduce students to the wealth of ceremonial and social customs of the Pueblo Indians of the Southwest.
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Agriculture

Maize raised by Native Americans
Chippewa baby waits on a cradleboard while parents tend rice crops (Minnesota, 1940).
.An early crop the Native Americans grew was squash.^ I grew up in The Native American Church and I have been going to these cermonies for fifteen years.

^ I grew up on the Navajo rez with my loving Father and Mother who introduced my three sisters and I to the Native American Church.

^ I grew up in the NAC ways and I am glad to be a native american.

.Others early crops included cotton, sunflower, pumpkins, tobacco, goosefoot, knotgrass, and sump weed.^ Although many of the early members were from Ireland, persons of English, Scottish and other European backgrounds joined including even Poles.

.Agriculture in the southwest started around 4,000 years ago when traders brought cultigens from Mexico.^ After a number of years, I started going back, and found that the "peyote way" had brought my life back in order.

^ I was drawn the the great southwest some 33 years ago for the reason of connecting with the "Great Creator", but have only been able to do so on my own as a solitary.

^ What is sad is that the line drawings that were around 40 years ago depicting the positioning of the obelisck are now missing from the librarys.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

Due to the varying climate, some ingenuity was needed for agriculture to be successful. .The climate in the southwest ranged from cool, moist mountains regions, to dry, sandy soil in the desert.^ The climate is arid in the Great Basin, desert in the Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California , and oceanic in coastal Oregon and Washington and southern Alaska.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some innovations of the time included irrigation to bring water into the dry regions and the selection of seed based on the traits of the growing plants that bore them. .In the southwest, they grew beans that were self-supported, much like the way they are grown today.^ Bush didn’t have time to do much damage as like Palin they had the lawyers chasing all of them down Pennsylvania avenue 24/7… .
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ That is why the Republicans FEAR the Doctrine so much…… You only have your lips, and have ho FACTS or support in any other way.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ I would like to thank all our love ones that our supporting us through this time and for their understandings and their sacrifice that they have made for us.

In the east, however, they were planted right by corn in order for the vines to be able to "climb" the cornstalks. .The most important crop the Native Americans raised was maize.^ I want to say that I was raised around Native American Church ways all my life.

^ The library is one of the most important collections of research materials relating to the Native Americans in the United States and the world.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You accidentally have cleaned and broken most of the displays of the Native American Culture Exhibit.
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It was first started in Mesoamerica and spread north. .About 2,000 years ago it reached eastern America.^ About two years ago.

^ I am currently writing a book about the Native American community called Piney Woods that my ancestors founded over 200 years ago.

^ About 10 years ago the government set some lofty health goals for the nation to reach by 2010.
  • Alltop - Top MSNBC News 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC msnbc.alltop.com [Source type: News]

.This crop was important to the Native Americans because it was part of their everyday diet; it could be stored in underground pits during the winter, and no part of it was wasted.^ Hello I am part Otoe-Missouria Indian and I am trying to find the Native American Church in or near my hometown area which is Laguna Niguel, California.

^ Report, "Yuma," from the Handbook of American Indians, Bulletin 30, Part 1, no date.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So I was just wondering if you know of any Native American Churches that are in my area and that I could join.

The husk was made into art crafts, and the cob was used as fuel for fires. .By 800 A.D. the Native Americans had established three main crops — beans, squash, and corn — called the three sisters.^ Note: The Three Sisters are corn, beans and squash.
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^ Twenty-three copies of a bibliography, "Beginning Bibliography on Native American Music," no source, no date.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Your goal is to create a Native American Village which includes the river, the farm, the main village and the forest.
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.The agriculture gender roles of the Native Americans varied from region to region.^ NATIVE AMERICAN THEME UNIT http://www.libsci.sc.edu/miller/Native.htm A unit for primary students introducing various Native American tribes.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "While this lesson focuses on the history and culture of the Anishinabe/Ojibwe people, you can adapt the activities to a Native American tribe that has played an historical or contemporary role in your school's region or community.
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^ NATIVE AMERICAN BED-TIME STORY COLLECTION http://www.bedtime-story.com/bedtime-story/indians.htm A collection of bedtime stories from various Native American tribes.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the southwest area, men prepared the soil with hoes. The women were in charge of planting, weeding, and harvesting the crops. .In most other regions, the women were in charge of doing everything, including clearing the land.^ Well then they need to clear out most of Washington (including him)now don’t they?
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Clearing the land was an immense chore since the Native Americans rotated fields frequently.^ Native American land and resource rights."
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^ I been a Native American Church member since I was 5 years old.

^ NATIVE AMERICANS – THEIR LIVES AND THE LAND AROUND THEM – WEBQUEST NEW! http://www.dedham.k12.ma.us/webquest/spring2002/sb/ A webquest for 3 rd grade students on Native Americans.
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.There is a tradition that Squanto showed the Pilgrims in New England how to put fish in fields to act like a fertilizer, but the truth of this story is debated.^ If there were any logic you’d be thanking these people for putting up with it and not burning down cities and committing acts of violence.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Like the Pilgrims, the English-Speaking Union has a British organization with headquarters in London and an American branch with central offices in New York.

^ How can her namesake thus claim the Pilgrims in Virginia are her representatives, she the head of the Church of England?

.Native Americans did plant beans next to corn; the beans would replace the nitrogen which the corn took from the ground, as well as using corn stalks for support for climbing.^ Manuscrip concerning, proposed courses in Native American plant use.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Research notes, articles, correspondence, and a number of bibliographies used to support various Chapters of Natives of the Golden State.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note: The terms "Native American" and "American Indian" are used based on the usage within each web site.
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.Native Americans used controlled fires to burn weeds and clear fields; this would put nutrients back into the ground.^ I miss how the fire burns inside the tepee, the smell, and the sound how fire used to crackle, when I took care of the holy fire place.

^ He later asked if I would like to attend a native American Peyote ceremony.

^ If you want to make an analogy of breaking into your house, it would be a more realistic analogy to put it this way: .
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

.If this did not work, they would simply abandon the field to let it be fallow, and find a new spot for cultivation.^ August 8th, 2009 - 1:37 am This has worked so well that there needs to be a new law that prohibits anyone in congress from reading any bill before they vote on it (or after).
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ But please let me know if you find out the US government did that to the terrorists.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ There are a great many things I would like to let you know, but they are too tedious to mention at this time.

.Europeans in the eastern part of the continent observed that Natives cleared large areas for cropland.^ Hello I am part Otoe-Missouria Indian and I am trying to find the Native American Church in or near my hometown area which is Laguna Niguel, California.

^ The eastern areas were settled first (northeastern for the most part), which was were the jayhawking and what not went on.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

Their fields in New England sometimes covered hundreds of acres. .Colonists in Virginia noted thousands of acres under cultivation by Native Americans.^ Note: The terms "Native American" and "American Indian" are used based on the usage within each web site.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ VISITING THE NATIVE AMERICANS – WEBQUEST http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/go/edis771/spring99webquests/student/skarengoebel/home.htm A webquest for elementary students on Native Americans.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Included are articles and research notes on Native American agriculture and trade.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[125]
.Native Americans commonly used tools such as the hoe, maul, and dibber.^ In 2008, the U.S. population included an estimated 4.9 million people with some American Indian or Alaskan native ancestry (3.1 million exclusively of such ancestry) and 1.1 million with some native Hawaiian or Pacific island ancestry (0.6 million exclusively).
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you are a student of Native American Studies, hopefully Native American Images will be a useful resource to you."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are not many Native Americans here in Hawaii where I live but some of the cultural beliefs are similar such as the great sense of Family.

The hoe was the main tool used to till the land and prepare it for planting; then it was used for weeding. The first versions were made out of wood and stone. .When the settlers brought iron, Native Americans switched to iron hoes and hatchets.^ The time travelers wish to use their ticket to visit the Native Americans before the European settlers arrived, and have narrowed their choices to 3 tribes: the Monacans, the Pueblos and the Sioux.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Dakota Conflict of 1862 marked the beginning of several wars between the native Americans and the European settlers.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My name is WolfPony and I was brought up in the American Native Church as a small child.

The dibber was a digging stick, used to plant the seed. Once the plants were harvested, women prepared the produce for eating. .They used the maul to grind the corn into mash.^ They use fear tactics and Union criminal thugs (not even to address the issues of Acorn) to beat into submission those who would disagree.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

It was cooked and eaten that way or baked as corn bread.[126]

Religion

Baptism of Pocahontas was painted in 1840. John Gadsby Chapman depicts Pocahontas, wearing white, being baptized Rebecca by Anglican minister Alexander Whiteaker in Jamestown, Virginia; this event is believed to have taken place in 1613 or 1614.
.No particular religion or religious tradition is hegemonic among Native Americans in the United States.^ Course description, "The Native American and the United States Constitution," no source, no date.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NATIVE AMERICANS CURRICULUM UNIT NEW! http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/unitplan/2973.htm A unit on Native Americans with a 14 day lesson unit plus supplemental materials.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NATIVE AMERICAN THEME UNIT http://www.libsci.sc.edu/miller/Native.htm A unit for primary students introducing various Native American tribes.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.July 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Most self-identifying and federally recognized Native Americans claim adherence to some form of Christianity,[citation needed] some of these being cultural and religious syntheses unique to the particular tribe such as the various forms of the Native American Church.^ My Native American Church relatives.

^ I am an ordained Christian miinister and Native American.

^ These Native Americans know not what they do.

.Traditional Native American ceremonies are still practiced by many tribes and bands, and the older theological belief systems are still held by many of the "traditional" people.^ It is wonderful to find so many sites dedicated to the Native American people.

^ Native American Indian Medicine people to .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was created in by Native American Medicine people with .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

.These spiritualities may accompany adherence to another faith, or can represent a person's primary religious identity.^ Finally, Spiritual ways are not the same as Religious ways, you may pay for religion but not spirit.

.While much Native American spiritualism exists in a tribal-cultural continuum, and as such cannot be easily separated from tribal identity itself, certain other more clearly-defined movements have arisen among "traditional" Native American practitioners, these being identifiable as "religions" in the clinical sense.^ These Native Americans know not what they do.

^ I want my son to grow up learning these Native American Church ways.

^ NATIVE AMERICANS 42EXPLORE http://www.42explore2.com/native.htm Information, links, activities, webquests and more.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Traditional practices of some tribes include the use of sacred herbs such tobacco, sweetgrass or sage.^ The Material Threats: Some terrorist organizations, such as AQ, have openly stated their desire to acquire and use nuclear weapons.

Many Plains tribes have sweatlodge ceremonies, though the specifics of the ceremony vary among tribes. .Fasting, singing and prayer in the ancient languages of their people, and sometimes drumming are also common.^ We sing our heart out and drum away so our prayers will be notice by the great creator.

.The Midewiwin Lodge is a traditional medicine society inspired by the oral traditions and prophesies of the Ojibwa (Chippewa) and related tribes.^ Background information on Native American tribes and their music and oral traditions will precede the reading of the chants and the creation of movement."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another significant religious body among Native peoples is known as the Native American Church.^ My Native American Church relatives.

^ I am looking for a native american church near me.

^ Hello to all Native american people.

.It is a syncretistic church incorporating elements of Native spiritual practice from a number of different tribes as well as symbolic elements from Christianity.^ This is the only way I can explain my practice in the Native American Church.

^ It is your job to make sure that other children in town know that Native American tribes and their cultures were very different, depending on the region in which they lived."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Your job is to gather information on the 5 Native American tribes, who each lived in a different region of the United States.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Its main rite is the peyote ceremony. Prior to 1890, traditional religious beliefs included Wakan Tanka. .In the American Southwest, especially New Mexico, a syncretism between the Catholicism brought by Spanish missionaries and the native religion is common; the religious drums, chants, and dances of the Pueblo people are regularly part of Masses at Santa Fe's Saint Francis Cathedral.^ Media release "Pueblo De Cochiti of New Mexico gets EDA job grant," United States Department of Commerce, 4/15/75.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I would also like to connect with any Native Americans in the Albuquerque, New Mexico or surrounding areas who could introduce me to any "NATIVE AMERICAN CHURCH" activities.

^ Article, "The Tobriner Decision," Indian Historian, Volume 6, Number 4, Fall 1973, concerns Native American religious freedom.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[127] .Native American-Catholic syncretism is also found elsewhere in the United States.^ The condition of Native American languages in the United States.
  • LLT Vol6Num2: McHenry 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC llt.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This authoritative volume puts the schooling of Native American children in the broader context of the country's educational agenda and demonstrates how Native American learning continues to be a challenge to minority education in the United States.
  • Library Research Guide for American Indian Studies 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Mexican culture was exciting to experience because they are so proud of their indigenous heritage, unlike the Native Americans in the United States whose culture is often misunderstood.
  • National Volunteer Week Highlights | AFS USA - Student Exchange Program 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.afsusa.org [Source type: General]

.(e.g., the National Kateri Tekakwitha Shrine in Fonda, New York and the National Shrine of the North American Martyrs in Auriesville, New York).^ Series of documents including photographs, news clippings, correspondence and pamphlets concerning the American Indian National Bank, 1973-74.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1674, the Dutch ceded their American territory to England; the province of New Netherland was renamed New York.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and New York City hosts the United Nations Headquarters .
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Native Americans are the only known ethnic group in the United States requiring a federal permit to practice their religion.^ This is the only way I can explain my practice in the Native American Church.

^ "Native Americans are known for their bond with nature.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have never known So many Natives practice this religion.

.July 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The eagle feather law (Title 50 Part 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations) stipulates that only individuals of certifiable Native American ancestry enrolled in a federally recognized tribe are legally authorized to obtain eagle feathers for religious or spiritual use.^ But, we don't have any Native American Spiritual Leaders and we cannot wear our Eagle feathers.

^ American Indian or Alaska Native (That’s a continental origin) — Print nameof enrolled or principal tribe.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have lost touch with all of my Native American ancestry due to a very full and busy life.

.Native Americans and non-Native Americans frequently contest the value and validity of the eagle feather law, charging that the law is laden with discriminatory racial preferences and infringes on tribal sovereignty.^ I strongly value the Native American beliefs.

^ Correspondence to Rupert Costo, Wassaja, from John Belinod, Director, Native American Defense Fund and Education fund, 7/26/74, Creek Tribal governance case.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are a small non-profit organization dedicated to the survival of Native American languages, particularly through the use of Internet technology.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.July 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The law does not allow Native Americans to give eagle feathers to non-Native Americans.^ ObamaMao does all Americans a disservice by being in the White House, encouraging Americans to fight Americans, personally creating the dissension and then asking neighbors to snitch on their neighbors.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Entering a Native American Reservation violates codified law, but does not yield the description that any persons or persons not so defined by U.S. laws are illegal aliens – especially in regards to the settlers of the 19th century.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We are a small non-profit organization dedicated to the survival of Native American languages, particularly through the use of Internet technology.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gender roles

Dr. Susan La Flesche Picotte was the first Native American woman to become a physician in the United States.
.Most Native American tribes had traditional gender roles.^ Native American tribe in order to apply them to the creation of an original board game that can be played by today’s children."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The library is one of the most important collections of research materials relating to the Native Americans in the United States and the world.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Students will read Native American poems from different traditions, and they will construct a sand painting that reflects an understanding of the relationship between a deity, nature, and the individual.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some tribes, such as the Iroquois nation, social and clan relationships were matrilineal and/or matriarchal, although several different systems were in use.^ It can be used for a broad spectrum of emergencies, according to FEMA's National Incident Management System Web site.

^ Memornadum of Agreement between the Oglala Sioux Indian Tribe of South Dakota and the National Park Service, June 1975, Badlands agreement, Indian land use.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's good to be acquinted with such wonderful and humble people from all different tribes.

.One example is the Cherokee custom of wives owning the family property.^ My aunt, who is the last surviving member of my mother's family, called one day to ask if I'd do some research for her on her Cherokee family.
  • A Conversation with Louis Owens 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.ac.wwu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As was their custom for one of their own, the Ottawa went to the site of his grave a few years later, disinterred his bones, and took them back to St. Ignace.
  • Ottawa 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

.Men hunted, traded and made war, while women gathered plants, cared for the young and the elderly, fashioned clothing and instruments and cured meat.^ You don’t care one bit that nearly, or even maybe more, than 1 MILLION Iraqi Men, Women, and Children have been killed in this ILLEGAL war.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

.The cradleboard was used by mothers to carry their baby while working or traveling.^ With your seven hours, you decide to go to the Time Travel Exhibit and use the actual-working time machine to go back in time and recover all of the information you destroyed.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[128] .However, in some (but not all) tribes a kind of transgender was permitted; see Two-Spirit.^ Many new immigrants, especially to the South , were indentured servants —some two-thirds of all Virginia immigrants between 1630 and 1680.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have read some inspirational entries and wish all good health and strong spirits.

At least several dozen tribes allowed polygyny to sisters, with procedural and economic limits.[123]
Apart from making home, women had many tasks that were essential for the survival of the tribes. .They made weapons and tools, took care of the roofs of their homes and often helped their men hunt bison.^ They made NO attempt to reform a failing health care system.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ They have been conducting business with whatever tools are made available by legislation.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

[129] .In some of the Plains Indian tribes there reportedly were medicine women who gathered herbs and cured the ill.^ Attorney who fought the United States government when they attempted to confiscate land that had an Indian burial ground of the Wyandotte tribe on it.
  • Past Notable Native Americans-Pg 1 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC www.snowwowl.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the tribal level, each tribe determines the criteria for enrollment, and there is considerable concern about the dilution of Indian blood through intermarriage.
  • Health and Health care of American Indian and Alaska Native 22 September 2009 11:11 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In truth there are few Indians who benefit richly.
  • American Indian Movement of Colorado: August 2004 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.coloradoaim.org [Source type: Original source]

[130]
.In some of these tribes such as the Sioux girls were also encouraged to learn to ride, hunt and fight.^ News clipping, "Some Crows threaten court fight over hunting," Billings, Gazette, Billings, Montana, 11/10/73, hunting, fishing rights on reservation land.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She has encouraged me to learn some of her peyote songs and sing in the ceremonies.

[131] .Though fighting was mostly left to the boys and men, there had been cases of women fighting alongside them, especially when the existence of the tribe was threatened.^ Christian men in the West now deserve more money, as do their women, who give all their power to their men – especially when it comes time to vote.

^ These data reveal that the prevalence of diabetes among Native Americans is higher for women than for men and that the rates vary among tribes.
  • Changing Numbers, Changing Needs: American Indian Demography and Public Health 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ May that we all keep one another in prayers, especially for those in need of prayers, for our men & women serving overseas.

[132]

Sports

.Native American leisure time led to competitive individual and team sports.^ Articles on Native American games and sports.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Many professional sports teams have Native American mascots and names.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NATIVE AMERICAN BED-TIME STORY COLLECTION http://www.bedtime-story.com/bedtime-story/indians.htm A collection of bedtime stories from various Native American tribes.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Early accounts include team games played between tribes with hundreds of players on the field at once[citation needed]..^ Native American tribe in order to apply them to the creation of an original board game that can be played by today’s children."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Jim Thorpe, Notah Begay III, Jacoby Ellsbury, and Billy Mills are well known professional athletes.

Team based

Ball players from the Choctaw and Lakota tribe as painted by George Catlin in the 1830s
.Native American ball sports, sometimes referred to as lacrosse, stickball, or baggataway, was often used to settle disputes rather than going to war which was a civil way to settle potential conflict.^ Due to the destruction of the buffalo herds and other game animals of the Great Plains by Anglo-Americans after the Civil War, painting on buffalo hide gave way to works on paper, muslin, canvas, and occasionally commercially prepared cow or buffalo hides."
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ VISITING THE NATIVE AMERICANS – WEBQUEST http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/go/edis771/spring99webquests/student/skarengoebel/home.htm A webquest for elementary students on Native Americans.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Permalink But these days, unfortunately, many Americans would prefer that undocumented residents were deported rather than counted.Posted by Rhonda Holman .
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

The Choctaw called it ISITOBOLI ("Little Brother of War");[133] the Onondaga name was DEHUNTSHIGWA'ES ("men hit a rounded object"). There are three basic versions classifed as Great Lakes, Iroquoian, and Southern.[134] .The game is played with one or two rackets/sticks and one ball.^ When one of his workman opened a underground cavern, two stone balls were released down a ramp that crushed his legs.

^ Shinny Ball, no date, contents of folder contain several captioned photos of game being played.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The object of the game is to land the ball on the opposing team's goal (either a single post or net) to score and prevent the opposing team from scoring on your goal.^ So come out and support your LAPD Centurion Football Team on their mission to advance to their 5th (NPSFL) National Championship Game.

The game involves as few as twenty or as many as 300 players with no height or weight restrictions and no protective gear. The goals could be from a few hundred feet apart to a few miles; in Lacrosse the field is 110 yards. A Jesuit priest referenced stickball in 1729, and George Catlin painted the subject.

Individual based

Jim Thorpe was called the "greatest athlete in the world" by king Gustaf V of Sweden
Billy Mills crosses the finish line for the 10,000 meter race at the 1964 Tokyo Olympics
Chunke was a game that consisted of a stone shaped disk that was about 1–2 inches in length. The disk was thrown down a 200-foot (61 m) corridor so that it could roll past the players at great speed. The disk would roll down the corridor, and players would throw wooden shafts at the moving disk. The object of the game was to strike the disk or prevent your opponents from hitting it.

U.S. Olympics

.Jim Thorpe, a Sauk and Fox Native American, was an all-round athlete playing football and baseball in the early 20th century.^ Hello to all Native american people.

^ Hello to all Native Americans.

^ I've been a Native American Church Member all of my life, I attend peyote meetings every chance I get.

Future President Dwight Eisenhower injured his knee while trying to tackle the young Thorpe. .In a 1961 speech, Eisenhower recalled Thorpe: "Here and there, there are some people who are supremely endowed.^ Here are some of the people who created the mess: 1.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ AZ nation, met some cool people, also lots of love to the crees here and up north.

^ It’s because they are finding there are people who actually do not share their twisted and idiot view of government.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

My memory goes back to Jim Thorpe. .He never practiced in his life, and he could do anything better than any other football player I ever saw."^ He is a far better person than you could ever hope to be and I don’t appreciate your unfounded, ad hominem attacks on him.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Permalink Verna Jean, I’m not if my history post supports anything other than what it is.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, a Democrat never learns anything and will always be power-grabbing rat who should never be trusted with having even the smallest amount of power.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

[135]
In the 1912 Olympics, Thorpe could run the 100-yard dash in 10 seconds flat, the 220 in 21.8 seconds, the 440 in 51.8 seconds, the 880 in 1:57, the mile in 4:35, the 120-yard high hurdles in 15 seconds, and the 220-yard low hurdles in 24 seconds.[136] He could long jump 23 ft 6 in and high-jump 6 ft 5 in.[136] He could pole vault 11 feet, put the shot 47 ft 9 in, throw the javelin 163 feet, and throw the discus 136 feet.[136] Thorpe entered the U.S. Olympic trials for both the pentathlon and the decathlon.
.Billy Mills, a Lakota and USMC officer, won the Gold medal in the 10,000 meter run at the 1964 Tokyo Olympics.^ The United States has won 2,301 medals at the Summer Olympic Games , more than any other country, [ 203 ] and 216 in the Winter Olympic Games , the second most.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He was the only American ever to win the Olympic gold in this event. An unknown prior to the Olympics, he had finished second in the U.S. Olympic trials.

Music and art

Jake Fragua, Jemez Pueblo from New Mexico
Yatika Fields, Osage artist from New York
.Traditional Native American music is almost entirely monophonic, but there are notable exceptions.^ I am really impressed, in your guestbook, that there are so many people who have so many connections in Native American culture and family backgrounds.

^ And, why are there no Native American Medicine .
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I would like to know if there are any Native American Church.

.Native American music often includes drumming and/or the playing of rattles or other percussion instruments but little other instrumentation.^ In a 2002 study, 59% of Americans said that religion played a "very important role in their lives," a far higher figure than that of any other wealthy nation.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Native American Bicentennial Days, 8/29/75, contents of folder include photos of Native American athletic events and participants.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have played several concerts that have benefited the Native American Church and have been deeply influenced by the Church songs.

.Flutes and whistles made of wood, cane, or bone are also played, generally by individuals, but in former times also by large ensembles (as noted by Spanish conquistador de Soto).^ "The Forty-eighters, as they are generally called, contributed to American life a large number of individuals of whom every American can be proud.

.The tuning of these flutes is not precise and depends on the length of the wood used and the hand span of the intended player, but the finger holes are most often around a whole step apart and, at least in Northern California, a flute was not used if it turned out to have an interval close to a half step.^ U.S. people as a whole attend religious services more often than do their peers in most Northern European countries.

^ These units may be designed to be included in any school subject, but most often appear in social studies, language arts, and fine arts.
  • A Synthesis of Scholarship in Multicultural Education 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.ncrel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you, an adult, can not meet your obligations and set an example for the children of this world, then these children will turn out just like you.
  • system of indignent confusion 11 October 2009 9:31 UTC truthasaur.com [Source type: Original source]

.Performers with Native American parentage have occasionally appeared in American popular music, such as Robbie Robertson (The Band), Rita Coolidge, Wayne Newton, Gene Clark, Buffy Sainte-Marie, Blackfoot, Tori Amos, Redbone, and CocoRosie.^ In 2008, the U.S. population included an estimated 4.9 million people with some American Indian or Alaskan native ancestry (3.1 million exclusively of such ancestry) and 1.1 million with some native Hawaiian or Pacific island ancestry (0.6 million exclusively).
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have always been interested in the native american ways of life and have been approached on several occasions by so called elders and have been told interesting things that no one knows of me but myself.

^ There are not many Native Americans here in Hawaii where I live but some of the cultural beliefs are similar such as the great sense of Family.

.Some, such as John Trudell, have used music to comment on life in Native America, and others, such as R. Carlos Nakai integrate traditional sounds with modern sounds in instrumental recordings.^ Permalink Some of the plains tribes were not plains people originally, but had to become so, because they were chased out of their home territories by other Native American tribes.
  • Tough time to count illegal immigrants | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 20 November 2009 9:57 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 2008, the U.S. population included an estimated 4.9 million people with some American Indian or Alaskan native ancestry (3.1 million exclusively of such ancestry) and 1.1 million with some native Hawaiian or Pacific island ancestry (0.6 million exclusively).
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Material Threats: Some terrorist organizations, such as AQ, have openly stated their desire to acquire and use nuclear weapons.

.A variety of small and medium-sized recording companies offer an abundance of recent music by Native American performers young and old, ranging from pow-wow drum music to hard-driving rock-and-roll and rap.^ Culture Culture of the United States American culture is a Western culture, with influences from Europe, the Native American peoples, African Americans and young groups of immigrants.

^ Aside from the now small Native American and Native Hawaiian populations, nearly all Americans or their ancestors immigrated within the past five centuries.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TEACHING YOUNG CHILDREN ABOUT NATIVE AMERICANS NEW URL! http://www.ericdigests.org/1996-4/native.htm An article with guidelines for teaching children about Native Americans.
  • NATIVE AMERICAN SITES ON THE INTERNET 12 September 2009 15:28 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most widely practiced public musical form among Native Americans in the United States is that of the pow-wow.^ The condition of Native American languages in the United States.
  • LLT Vol6Num2: McHenry 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC llt.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The short form the United States is also standard.
  • United States Information & United States Links at HealthHaven.com 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This authoritative volume puts the schooling of Native American children in the broader context of the country's educational agenda and demonstrates how Native American learning continues to be a challenge to minority education in the United States.
  • Library Research Guide for American Indian Studies 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.library.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

.At pow-wows, such as the annual Gathering of Nations in Albuquerque, New Mexico, members of drum groups sit in a circle around a large drum.^ Reports and correspondence regarding the Water Conference, supported by the American Indian Historical Society, Albuquerque, New Mexico, July 1972.
  • Guide to the Rupert and Jeannette Costo Papers 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In May, a national spokesman for the Jesters told The Buffalo News that the presence of prostitutes at Jesters gatherings is something that only the Buffalo chapter engaged in, adding that such conduct is never condoned by the national leadership.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Such a large number of blind and stupid people all gathered in one place.
  • Breitbart.tv » Obama: ‘Don’t Want the Folks Who Created the Mess to Do a Lot of Talking’ 28 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.breitbart.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Drum groups play in unison while they sing in a native language and dancers in colorful regalia dance clockwise around the drum groups in the center.^ We, native american people, understand the life around the great medicine (peyote in the english term but medicine in our own language)and how it heals our spirit.

^ In Fairbanks she cofounded the Alaska Native Language Center and went on to become Vice-President of Rural Education and Extension Centers (1975).
  • Tlingit - Overview, Early history, First contact with europeans, The land claims period, Acculturation and assimilation 10 September 2009 20:28 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s more to me than just Native dancers doing contemporary dance.