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.A natural disaster is the effect of a natural hazard (e.g.^ A natural disaster is the consequence of a natural hazard (e.g.
  • Top 10 Deadliest Natural Disasters - Listverse 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Who is the correct person at NIH to contact with questions regarding the effect of a natural disaster on the grant process?
  • NIH Responses to Natural Disasters and Other Emergencies FAQs 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC grants.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ (K) Natural Hazards - Landslides, Tsunamis, and Volcanoes Amazing photographs of these natural disasters from the National Geophysical Data Center.
  • Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.titan.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

flood, .tornado, volcano eruption, earthquake, or landslide) that affects the environment, and leads to financial, environmental and/or human losses.^ The figure of 1.5 million that you quote is the number of people left homeless by the 27 May EARTHQUAKE, not the mud volcano eruption that followed on 29 May.
  • 6 Natural Disasters That Were Caused by Human Stupidity | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]
  • 6 Natural Disasters That Were Caused by Human Stupidity | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

^ Earthquakes and Volcanoes This site helps you to understand the mechanisms of natural events such as earthquakes,volcanic eruptions, landslides, and floods.
  • Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.titan.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ Ground-changing and ground-shaking events like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and landslides sometimes generate large water waves known as tsunamis.
  • Disasters - world, body, life, history, cause, time, person, human, Natural Disasters, Human Complicity in Disasters, Behavior and Psychological Changes in Victims 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.deathreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The resulting loss depends on the capacity of the population to support or resist the disaster, and their resilience.^ This situation can result (with typically some weeks' delay) in an increase of the vector population and potential for disease transmission, depending on the local mosquito vector species and its preferred habitat.
  • Epidemics after Natural Disasters | CDC EID 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Historically, the large-scale displacement of populations as a result of natural disasters is not common ( 8 ), which likely contributes to the low risk for outbreaks overall and to the variability in risk among disasters of different types.
  • Epidemics after Natural Disasters | CDC EID 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The psychological responses to the disaster devastation on both victims and support personnel in a community will depend on how well organized the programs of preparedness are prior to the disaster.
  • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] This understanding is concentrated in the formulation: "disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability."[2] A natural hazard will hence never result in a natural disaster in areas without vulnerability, e.g. strong earthquakes in uninhabited areas. .The term natural has consequently been disputed because the events simply are not hazards or disasters without human involvement.^ But often the consequences of natural disasters are worse because of human involvement.
  • Natural Disasters, Human Rights and the Role of National Human Rights Institutions - Brookings Institution 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.brookings.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A natural disaster is defined as a result or a consequence of a natural hazard, which has a negative effect on human beings.
  • List of Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A natural disaster is the consequence of the combination of a natural hazard (a physical event e.g.
  • Natural Disaster 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC kerenvis.nic.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]

Contents

Natural disasters

Land movement disasters

Avalanches

Avalanche on the backside (East) of Mt. Timpanogos, Utah at Aspen Grove trail
Notable avalanches include:

Earthquakes

.An Earthquake is a sudden shake of the Earth's crust.The vibrations may vary in magnitude.^ (K) Savage Earth This PBS series talks in-depth about the structure of the earth's crust and how and why it causes earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis.
  • Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.titan.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ Since the regional systems use different criteria for their disseminations, a watch may at times be issued for earthquakes with magnitude less than 7.5.
  • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Disturbances within the earth's crust can trigger eruption of volcanoes, the severe ground cracking and shaking of earthquakes, and the flowing walls of water that become damaging tidal waves.
  • Disasters - world, body, life, history, cause, time, person, human, Natural Disasters, Human Complicity in Disasters, Behavior and Psychological Changes in Victims 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.deathreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The underground point of origin of the earthquake is called the "focus". The point directly above the focus on the surface is called the"epicenter". Earthquakes by themselves rarely kill people or wildlife.^ The 1556 Shaanxi earthquake or Hua County earthquake is the deadliest earthquake on record, killing approximately 830,000 people.
  • Top 10 Deadliest Natural Disasters - Listverse 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ At least 220 people have been killed in the earthquake that struck the city of Padang and surrounding areas on… 01/10/2009 - Tags : Earthquakes , Indonesia , Natural disasters , Victims .
  • Natural disasters | euronews 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.euronews.net [Source type: General]

^ At least 31 people have been killed in what the Turkish prime minister has called the worst flood Istanbul has ever… 10/09/2009 - Tags : Turkey , Natural disasters , Flood .
  • Natural disasters | euronews 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.euronews.net [Source type: General]

.It is usually the secondary events that they trigger, such as building collapse, fires, tsunamis (seismic sea waves) and volcanoes, that are actually the human disaster.^ Such natural disasters are inevitable because they are beyond our control and thus cannot be prevented.
  • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If people in key positions of leadership, such as teachers, were trained and prepared, they could play important roles in post-disaster recovery and post-disaster reduction of damage.
  • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hundreds, perhaps thousands, of tenement dwellers, trapped when their buildings collapsed, were killed by the flames before they could be rescued.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / Our 10 Greatest Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: News]

.As many of these could be avoided by better construction, safety systems, early warning and evacuation planning, .^ Disaster-related fatalities, injuries, and property destruction can be avoided or minimized by correct planning, construction, engineering, and land utilization.
  • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since human error plays a role in many technological disasters, a better understanding of how systems can be designed to take human factors into account is needed.
  • Countering Terrorism: Lessons Learned from Natural and Technological Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ British Columbia Tsunami Warning Plan Outlines the procedures to be used in British Columbia to evaluate and disseminate information provided through the Tsunami Warning System.
  • Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.titan.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

.Earthquakes are caused by the discharge of accumulated along geologic faults.^ As the rock plates slide along fault lines (veins between the formations along which the shifting occurs), the resulting vibrations sometimes cause violent shaking of the ground.
  • Disasters - world, body, life, history, cause, time, person, human, Natural Disasters, Human Complicity in Disasters, Behavior and Psychological Changes in Victims 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.deathreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lahars

A lahar is a volcanic mudflow or landslide. The 1953 Tangiwai disaster was caused by a lahar, as was the 1985 Armero tragedy in which the town of Armero was buried and an estimated 23,000 people were killed

Volcanic eruptions

  • An Eruption may in itself be a disaster due to the explosion of the volcano or the fall of rock but there are several effects that may happen after an eruption that are also hazardous to human life.
  • Lava may be produced during the eruption of a volcano a material consisting of superheated rock.^ Disasters and Everyday Life Most disaster studies focus on the dramatic role played by hazard events--the havoc raised...
    • Natural disasters | Business solutions from AllBusiness.com 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.allbusiness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The figure of 1.5 million that you quote is the number of people left homeless by the 27 May EARTHQUAKE, not the mud volcano eruption that followed on 29 May.
    • 6 Natural Disasters That Were Caused by Human Stupidity | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]
    • 6 Natural Disasters That Were Caused by Human Stupidity | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ (K) Natural Hazards - Landslides, Tsunamis, and Volcanoes Amazing photographs of these natural disasters from the National Geophysical Data Center.
    • Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.titan.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

    There are several different forms which may be either crumbly or gluey. .Leaving the volcano this destroys any buildings and plants it encounters.
  • Volcanic ash - generally meaning the cooled ash - may form a cloud, and settle thickly in nearby locations.^ If they pass over water, they may form a waterspout, but generally waterspouts are less serious weather phenomena that can happen even when no storm is present.
    • Disasters - world, body, life, history, cause, time, person, human, Natural Disasters, Human Complicity in Disasters, Behavior and Psychological Changes in Victims 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.deathreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    When mixed with water this forms a concrete like material. .In sufficient quantity ash may cause roofs to collapse under its weight but even small quantities will cause ill health if inhaled.^ Those who did survive huddled under collapsed roofs or clung onto anything that floated.
    • AmericanHeritage.com / Our 10 Greatest Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Even after the initial shaking ends, aftershocks may cause additional damage and continue to frighten residents of the area.
    • Disasters - world, body, life, history, cause, time, person, human, Natural Disasters, Human Complicity in Disasters, Behavior and Psychological Changes in Victims 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.deathreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Since the ash has the consistency of ground glass it causes abrasion damage to moving parts such as engines.
  • Supervolcanoes : According to the Toba catastrophe theory 70 to 75 thousand years ago a super volcanic event at Lake Toba reduced the human population to 10,000 or even 1,000 breeding pairs creating a bottleneck in human evolution.^ Earthquakes and Volcanoes This site helps you to understand the mechanisms of natural events such as earthquakes,volcanic eruptions, landslides, and floods.
    • Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.titan.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The last three years since the Mexico Conference, have seen a number of other important developments in the efforts of the international community on reducing the misery and destruction that natural hazards bring upon humanity.
    • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ground-changing and ground-shaking events like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and landslides sometimes generate large water waves known as tsunamis.
    • Disasters - world, body, life, history, cause, time, person, human, Natural Disasters, Human Complicity in Disasters, Behavior and Psychological Changes in Victims 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.deathreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It also killed three quarters of all plant life in the northern hemisphere. .The main danger from a supervolcano is the immense cloud of ash which has a disastrous global effect on climate and temperature for many years.
  • Pyroclastic flows consist of a cloud of hot volcanic ash which builds up in the air above under its own weight and streams very rapidly from the mountain burning anything in its path.^ Some of the changes that take place on our earth, like the rising and erosion of mountains, are very slow, taking millions of years.
    • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Likewise, hot and cold air are an essential and purposeful part of the physical world, but under certain conditions they may combine to form tornadoes (1978, p.
    • Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.inplainsite.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sometimes the rocks break and slip rapidly, from sudden releases of energy that accumulate in the rocks for many years.
    • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It is believed that Pompeii was destroyed by a pyroclastic flow.

Water disasters

Floods

The Limpopo River, in southern Mozambique, during the 2000 Mozambique flood
Some of the most notable floods include:
.
  • The Huang He (Yellow River) in China floods particularly often.^ The 1931 Yellow River flood (Huang He flood) is generally thought to be the deadliest natural disaster ever recorded, and almost certainly of the twentieth century (when pandemics are discounted).
    • Top 10 Deadliest Natural Disasters - Listverse 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Yellow River (Huang He) in China is prone to flooding, due to the broad expanse of largely flat land around it.
    • Top 10 Deadliest Natural Disasters - Listverse 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The flood is sometimes referred to as a natural disaster due to the role of the Huang He river.
    • Top 10 Deadliest Natural Disasters - Listverse 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

    The Great Flood of 1931 caused between 800,000 and 4,000,000 deaths.
  • The Great Flood of 1993 was one of the most costly floods in United States history.
  • The 1998 Yangtze River Floods, also in China, left 14 million people homeless.
  • The 2000 Mozambique flood covered much of the country for three weeks, resulting in thousands of deaths, and leaving the country devastated for years afterward.
Tropical cyclones can result in extensive flooding and storm surge, as happened with:

Limnic eruptions

A cow suffocated by gases from Lake Nyos after a limnic eruption
.A limnic eruption occurs when CO2 suddenly erupts from deep lake water, posing the threat of suffocating wildlife, livestock and humans.^ The collapse crater, the caldera, formed by this giant eruption which must have lasted for several months or even years, is filled presently with the waters of lake Toba, on that island.
  • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such an eruption may also cause tsunamis in the lake as the rising CO2 displaces water.^ Heavy rains caused the Lake Conemaugh Reservoir dam to fail, allowing a devastating wall of water to slam the city.
  • Disasters - world, body, life, history, cause, time, person, human, Natural Disasters, Human Complicity in Disasters, Behavior and Psychological Changes in Victims 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.deathreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ground-changing and ground-shaking events like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and landslides sometimes generate large water waves known as tsunamis.
  • Disasters - world, body, life, history, cause, time, person, human, Natural Disasters, Human Complicity in Disasters, Behavior and Psychological Changes in Victims 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.deathreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (K) EARTHFORCE The pushing and pulling in the core, crust, or water of the Earth that causes motion like eruptions, quakes, or floods.
  • Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.titan.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

Scientists believe landslides, volcanic activity, or explosions can trigger such an eruption.Till date, only two limnic eruptions have been observed and recorded:
  • In 1984, in Cameroon, a limnic eruption in Lake Monoun caused the deaths of 37 nearby residents
  • At nearby Lake Nyos in 1986 a much larger eruption killed between 1,700 and 1,800 people by asphyxiation.

Tsunami

The tsunami caused by the December 26, 2004 earthquake strikes Ao Nang, Thailand.
.Tsunamis can be caused by undersea earthquakes as the one caused in Ao Nang, Thailand by the 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake, or by landslides such as the one which occurred at Lituya Bay, Alaska.^ Indian Ocean Earthquake – 2004 , Indian Ocean [Deaths: 230,000] .
  • Top 10 Deadliest Natural Disasters - Listverse 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ A natural disaster occurs when a catastrophic event, such as a hurricane, a flood, an earthquake, a volcanic eruption, a landslide, a blizzard, or some other natural phenomena causes extensive human casualties, property damage, or both.
  • Natural Disasters Attorney, Lawyer, Attorneys, Lawyers and Legal Research Information - Lawyers.com 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC insurance.lawyers.com [Source type: News]

^ The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, known by the scientific community as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, was an undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (07:58:53 local time) December 26, 2004, with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.
  • Top 10 Deadliest Natural Disasters - Listverse 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

  • Ao Nang, Thailand (2004). .The 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake created the Boxing Day Tsunami and disaster at this site.
  • Lituya Bay, Alaska (1953).^ Indian Ocean Earthquake – 2004 , Indian Ocean [Deaths: 230,000] .
    • Top 10 Deadliest Natural Disasters - Listverse 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, known by the scientific community as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, was an undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (07:58:53 local time) December 26, 2004, with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.
    • Top 10 Deadliest Natural Disasters - Listverse 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Many buildings and homes can be reinforced at a small cost to the individual, company, or state to withstand the effects of a disaster such as an earthquake, a hurricane or a tsunami.
    • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    A mega-tsunami occurred here, the largest ever recorded.
(This also fits within the "Land movement disaster" category because it started with an earthquake.)

Weather disasters

Young steer after a blizzard, March 1966

Blizzards

Significant blizzards in the United States include:

Cyclonic storms

.Cyclone, tropical cyclone, hurricane, and typhoon are different names for the same phenomenon a cyclonic storm system that forms over the oceans.^ Usually the broadcasts intervals are every six hours, but more frequent time intervals may be provided for regions in the path of a storm or a tropical cyclone.
  • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How the Hurricane Got Its Name It’s more than just whimsy By Christine Gibson Our hurricane-naming system evolved much the same way our baby-naming system did.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / Our 10 Greatest Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: News]

^ If tropical cyclones do not reach hurricane force, and stay below that threshhold ( 39-73 mph, ot 63-118 km/h, Bauford 8-11), they are called tropical storms.
  • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The deadliest hurricane ever was the 1970 Bhola cyclone the deadliest Atlantic hurricane was the Great Hurricane of 1780 which devastated Martinique St. Eustatius and Barbados. Another notable hurricane is Hurricane Katrina which devastated the Gulf Coast of the United States in 2005.

Droughts

Well-known historical droughts include:
.
  • 1900 India killing between 250,000 and 3.25 million.
  • 1921-22 Soviet Union in which over 5 million perished from starvation due to drought
  • 1928-30 northwest China resulting in over 3 million deaths by famine.
  • 1936 and 1941 Sichuan Province China resulting in 5 million and 2.5 million deaths respectively.
  • As of 2006, states of Australia including Western Australia, New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland had been under drought conditions for five to ten years.^ Five years ago the world watched in horror as nearly 230,000 people, particularly women and children, perished in the tsunami that struck south Asia.
    • Natural Disasters : Pictures, Videos, Breaking News 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Iowa State University - 10 Suggested Strategies for Cow-Calf Management in Drought Conditions (PDF) (2 pp, 78K) - A list of ten strategies to help producers before and during a drought.
    • Natural Events and Disasters | Agriculture | US EPA 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ At least 2,000 residents of the islands were killed before morning, and another 30,000 were left homeless.
    • AmericanHeritage.com / Our 10 Greatest Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: News]

    The drought is beginning to affect urban area populations for the first time.
  • In 2006 Sichuan Province China experienced its worst drought in modern times with nearly 8 million people and over 7 million cattle facing water shortages.

Hailstorms

.Hailstorms (AKA hailstones) are rain drops that have formed together into ice.^ I once tried to fix my ford escort van and dropped a screw into the distributor and couldn’t get it out so left it and put everything back together.
  • Friday has Fallen Foul of Five Natural Disasters | Song, by Toad 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC songbytoad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A particularly damaging hailstorm hit Munich, Germany on August 31, 1986, felling thousands of trees and causing millions of dollars in insurance claims.^ That one killed 67 people and caused billions of dollars in damage.
  • Disasters - world, body, life, history, cause, time, person, human, Natural Disasters, Human Complicity in Disasters, Behavior and Psychological Changes in Victims 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.deathreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A storm named Hurricane Mitch (October 1998), killed 11,000 people in Central America, left 2 to 3 million people homeless, and caused $5 billion in damage.
  • Disasters - world, body, life, history, cause, time, person, human, Natural Disasters, Human Complicity in Disasters, Behavior and Psychological Changes in Victims 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.deathreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Torrential rains caused rivers and streams to wash over their banks and damage thousands of homes and businesses.
  • Disasters - world, body, life, history, cause, time, person, human, Natural Disasters, Human Complicity in Disasters, Behavior and Psychological Changes in Victims 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.deathreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Heat waves

.The worst heat wave in recent history was the European Heat Wave of 2003.^ European heat wave .
  • Natural Disasters | SurvivalRing 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.survivalring.org [Source type: General]

A summer heat wave in Victoria, Australia caused the massive bushfires in 2009. Melbourne experienced 3 days in a row of temperatures exceeding 40°C.

Tornadoes

Different Types of Tornadoes
Supercell Tornadoes
.Some of the most violent tornadoes develop from supercell thunderstorms.^ Among them, some of the most catastrophic earthquakes, hurricanes, storms, tornadoes, floods, droughts, fires, landslides, volcanic explosions, and tsunamis.
  • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A supercell thunderstorm is a long-lived thunderstorm possessing within its structure a continuously rotating updraft of air. .These storms have the greatest tendency to produce tornadoes, some of the huge wedge shape.^ Among them, some of the most catastrophic earthquakes, hurricanes, storms, tornadoes, floods, droughts, fires, landslides, volcanic explosions, and tsunamis.
  • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The supercell thunderstorm has a low-hanging, rotating layer of cloud known as a "wall cloud." It looks somewhat like a layer of a layer cake that hangs below the broader cloud base. One side of the wall cloud is often rain-free, while the other is neighbored by dense shafts of rain. The rotating updraft of the supercell is seen on radar as a "mesocyclone."
.The tornadoes that accompany supercell thunderstorms are more likely to remain in contact with the ground for long periods of time—an hour or more—than other tornadoes, and are more likely to be violent, with winds exceeding 200 mph.^ They can occur more frequently over large land areas, but tornado like funnels have also been observed over ocean regions.
  • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the face of disasters such as those described above, there is hardly any question likely to be asked more routinely than why?
  • Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.inplainsite.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With the highest wind speeds ever recorded at the time—186 mph in Milton, Massachusetts—the hurricane knocked over trees, houses, church steeples, and train trestles.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / Our 10 Greatest Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: News]

Landspout
Generally weaker than a supercell tornado, a landspout is not associated with a wall cloud or mesocyclone. It may be observed beneath cumulonimbus or towering cumulus clouds and is the land equivalent of a waterspout. It often forms along the leading edge of rain-cooled downdraft air emanating from a thunderstorm, known as a "gust front."
Gustnado
.Weak and usually short-lived, a gustnado forms along the gust front of a thunderstorm, appearing as a temporary dust whirl or debris cloud.^ Squalls usually mark the foremost boundary of an approaching thunderstorm front.
  • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There may be no apparent connection to or circulation in the cloud aloft.^ And while these things may be true, there's no avoiding the fact that we ourselves are responsible for many of the planet-murdering buttfucks that befall our delicate population.
  • 6 Natural Disasters That Were Caused by Human Stupidity | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

These appear like dust devils.
Waterspout
A waterspout is a tornado over water. A few form from supercell thunderstorms, but many form from weak thunderstorms or rapidly growing cumulus clouds. Waterspouts are usually less intense and causes far less damage. .Rarely more than fifty yards wide, it forms over warm tropical ocean waters, although its funnel is made of freshwater droplets condensed from water vapor from condensation - not saltwater from the ocean.^ They can occur more frequently over large land areas, but tornado like funnels have also been observed over ocean regions.
  • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Pacific Ocean has more islands than the rest of the oceans and seas combined.
  • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They moved blocks of granite weighing 350 tons more than a hundred yards.
  • Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.inplainsite.org [Source type: Original source]

Waterspouts usually dissipate upon reaching land.
The following are tornado-like circulations
Dust Devils
Dry, hot, clear days on the desert or over dry land can bring about dust devils. .Generally forming in the hot sun during the late morning or early afternoon hours, these mostly harmless whirlwinds are triggered by light desert breezes that create a swirling plume of dust with speeds rarely over 70 mph.^ You go in early morning, have the thing done and then go home that afternoon with a patch over the offending eye and a follow-up appointment the next day.
  • sisu: Natural disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC sisu.typepad.com [Source type: General]

.These differ from tornadoes in that they are not associated with a thunderstorm (or any cloud), and are usually weaker than the weakest tornado.^ When these storms occur in the tropics they are known as tropical depressions and, in addition to the wind, they often have associated heavy rains.
  • Disasters - world, body, life, history, cause, time, person, human, Natural Disasters, Human Complicity in Disasters, Behavior and Psychological Changes in Victims 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.deathreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just about all of these things are considered normal reactions, as long as they do not last more than several weeks to a few months.
  • Disasters - world, body, life, history, cause, time, person, human, Natural Disasters, Human Complicity in Disasters, Behavior and Psychological Changes in Victims 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.deathreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Typically, the life cycle of a dust devil is a few minutes or less, although they can last much longer.^ Just about all of these things are considered normal reactions, as long as they do not last more than several weeks to a few months.
  • Disasters - world, body, life, history, cause, time, person, human, Natural Disasters, Human Complicity in Disasters, Behavior and Psychological Changes in Victims 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.deathreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Although usually harmless, they have been known to cause minor damage. .They can blow vehicles off the road and could damage your eyes by blowing dust into them.^ If people in key positions of leadership, such as teachers, were trained and prepared, they could play important roles in post-disaster recovery and post-disaster reduction of damage.
  • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Firewhirls
Sometimes the intense heat created by a major forest fire or volcanic eruption can create what is known as a firewhirl, a tornado-like rotating column of smoke and/or fire. .This happens when the fire updraft concentrates some initial weak whirl or eddy in the wind.^ Biggest natural fire in American history caused by lightning, and because it happened naturally some environally minded d-bags said, "Hey, man, it's all groovy.
  • 6 Natural Disasters That Were Caused by Human Stupidity | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]
  • 6 Natural Disasters That Were Caused by Human Stupidity | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

.Winds associated with firewhirls have been estimated at over 100 mph.^ September 21, 1938, with a force detected by seismographs in Alaska, it was 50 miles wide and circled by 100-mph winds.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / Our 10 Greatest Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: News]

They are sometimes called fire tornadoes, fire devils, or even firenadoes.[4]

Fire

.Wildfires are an uncontrolled fire burning in wildland areas.^ CSU Extension - Assessing Your Homesite After a Wildfire - A list of the six areas of a home to inspect after a fire.
  • Natural Events and Disasters | Agriculture | US EPA 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Common causes include lightning and drought but wildfires may also be started by human negligence or arson.^ Wildfires can spread quickly and devastate thousands of acres of land, which may include agricultural lands.
  • Natural Events and Disasters | Agriculture | US EPA 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Other earthquake related hazards may include landslides, or local tsunamis and such hazards may be more dangerous than the earthquake that caused them.
  • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They can be a threat to those in rural areas and also wildlife.
A notable case of wildfire was the 2009 Victorian bushfires in Australia.

Health and diseases

Epidemic

The A H5N1 virus, which causes Avian influenza
An epidemic is an outbreak of a contractible disease that spreads at a rapid rate through a human population. A pandemic is an epidemic whose spread is global. .There have been many epidemics throughout history, such as Black Death.^ Throughout history, man has recorded many such tragedies.
  • Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.inplainsite.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many countries in Oceania have been affected by catastrophic earthquakes throughout recorded history.
  • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the last hundred years, significant pandemics include:
  • The 1918 Spanish flu pandemic, killing an estimated 50 million people worldwide
  • The 1957-58 Asian flu pandemic, which killed an estimated 1 million people
  • The 1968-69 Hong Kong flu pandemic
  • The 2002-3 SARS pandemic
  • The AIDS epidemic, beginning in 1959
  • The H1N1 Influenza (Swine Flu) Pandemic 2009-?
Other diseases that spread more slowly, but are still considered to be global health emergencies by the WHO include:

Famine

.In modern times, famine has hit Sub-Saharan Africa the hardest, although the number of victims of modern famines is much smaller than the number of people killed by the Asian famines of the 20th century.^ It points out the fact that suffering can not be explained so simply, and that the whole reality of suffering is much more complex than simply blaming it all on God, as so many people are prone to do.
  • Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.inplainsite.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1969, Hurricane Camille killed more than 250 people in seven states from Louisiana to Virginia, leaving behind over $1.5 billion in damage.
  • Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.inplainsite.org [Source type: Original source]

Space

Fallen trees caused by the Tunguska meteoroid of the Tunguska event in June, 1908.

Gamma ray bursts

Impact events

One of the largest impact events in modern times was the Tunguska event in June, 1908.

Solar flares

.A solar flare is a phenomenon where the sun suddenly releases a great amount of solar radiation, much more than normal.^ He ended up staying much later than he had intended, getting much more drunk than was probably necessary.
  • Friday has Fallen Foul of Five Natural Disasters | Song, by Toad 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC songbytoad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It points out the fact that suffering can not be explained so simply, and that the whole reality of suffering is much more complex than simply blaming it all on God, as so many people are prone to do.
  • Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.inplainsite.org [Source type: Original source]

Some known solar flares include:
  • An X20 event on August 16, 1989
  • A similar flare on April 2, 2001
  • The most powerful flare ever recorded, on November 4, 2003, estimated at between X40 and X45
  • The most powerful flare in the past 500 years is believed to have occurred in September 1859

Supernovae and hypernovae

Future of natural disasters

The United Kingdom based charity Oxfam publicly stated that the number of people hit by climate-related disasters is expected to rise by about 50%, to reach 375 million a year by 2015.[5]

Insurance

.Natural disasters play a major role in the insurance industry, which pays for certain damages arising from hurricanes, wildfires, and other catastrophes.^ If people in key positions of leadership, such as teachers, were trained and prepared, they could play important roles in post-disaster recovery and post-disaster reduction of damage.
  • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the extensive and specialized nature of these disasters, and because of the specific scope of this book as an educational tool, we can examine in this chapter disasters only from a fundamental perspective, with emphasis on the role that teachers can play in disaster reduction.
  • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It addresses what kind of public education and understanding on what kinds of problems and other associated hazards can be expected during and after a major disaster strikes an area.
  • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Large reinsurance companies are particularly involved.[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ G. Bankoff, G. Frerks, D. Hilhorst (eds.) (2003). Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development and People. ISBN ISBN 1-85383-964-7. 
  2. ^ B. Wisner, P. Blaikie, T. Cannon, and I. Davis (2004). At Risk - Natural hazards, people's vulnerability and disasters. Wiltshire: Routledge. ISBN ISBN 0-415-25216-4. 
  3. ^ D. Alexander (2002). Principles of Emergency planning and Management. Harpended: Terra publishing. ISBN ISBN 1-903544-10-6. 
  4. ^ Weather Encyclopedia, The Weather Channel, Accessed on June 2, 2009, http://www.theweatherchannelkids.com.
  5. ^ BBC: Oxfam warns of climate disasters
  6. ^ III. (2008). 2008 Natural Catastrophe Review.

External links

  • "When Nature Attacks". Newsweek. .http://www.newsweek.com/id/135814. 
  • "Global Risk Identification Program (GRIP)".^ Btw I have piccies of it: http://www.flickr.com/photos/citnaj/sets/72157601157590608/ .
    • 6 Natural Disasters That Were Caused by Human Stupidity | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ AM missingpluto Darvaza is some man-made awesomeness: http://www.popgive.com/2008/03/darvaza-burning-gates.html .
    • 6 Natural Disasters That Were Caused by Human Stupidity | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ PM SpunkRansomette === http://www.icfshop.com ===Our commitment,customer is God.
    • 6 Natural Disasters That Were Caused by Human Stupidity | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    GRIP. .http://www.gri-p.net. 
  • "World Bank's Hazard Risk Management".^ Dubno's Presentation February 6, 2001 at the Forum on Risk Management and Assessments of Natural Hazards in Washington "The Media and Disasters: Why We Are Not the Enemy" .
    • CBS NEWS Disaster Links 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.cbsnews.com [Source type: News]

    World Bank. .http://go.worldbank.org/BCQUXRXOW0. 
  • "Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR)".^ Mitigation of disasters in health facilities: evaluation and reduction of physical and functional vulnerability .
    • Natural Disasters - Protecting the Public's Health: Selected Bibliography and On-line Information Sources 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.helid.desastres.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ If people in key positions of leadership, such as teachers, were trained and prepared, they could play important roles in post-disaster recovery and post-disaster reduction of damage.
    • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    GFDRR. http://gfdrr.org. 
  • "Disaster News Network". http://www.disasternews.net/. .Retrieved 2006-11-05.  US news site focused on disaster-related news.
  • "EM-DAT International Disaster Database".^ This center maintains an active Web site, and maintains a library with on-line access, and a collection of documents relating primarily to disasters and social sciences.
    • Natural Disasters - Protecting the Public's Health: Selected Bibliography and On-line Information Sources 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.helid.desastres.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Proceedings of the International Conference on Natural Disaster Management, Mrida, Venezuela, 11-14 October 1996; available from the Regional Disaster Information Center, ID No.
    • Natural Disasters - Protecting the Public's Health: Selected Bibliography and On-line Information Sources 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.helid.desastres.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Their web sites also provide links to other sites with disaster-related information.
    • Natural Disasters - Protecting the Public's Health: Selected Bibliography and On-line Information Sources 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.helid.desastres.net [Source type: Academic]

    http://www.em-dat.net
    . .Retrieved 2006-11-05.  Includes country profiles, disaster profiles and a disaster list.
  • "Natural Hazard Information from the Coastal Ocean Institute".^ Publications such as brochures and pamphlets can provide current information on all related natural hazards threatening each specific region and lead to greater awareness and education on what can be expected and how the direct and indirect effects of the disaster minimized.
    • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Teachers, and educators concerned with natural hazards, because of their standing in the community and their interaction with children and parents, can play a very important role in disaster planning, preparedness and education.
    • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The focus has been placed in developing countries, because it is in such countries, that the socioeconomic impact of natural disasters is the greatest.
    • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. .http://www.whoi.edu/institutes/coi/topicIndex.do?o=read&id=113.^ Web site: http://www.colorado.edu/hazards .
    • Natural Disasters - Protecting the Public's Health: Selected Bibliography and On-line Information Sources 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.helid.desastres.net [Source type: Academic]

    .Retrieved 2006-11-05.
      Particularly including articles on tsunamis, hurricanes and other storms.
  • "ProjectArcix: Global Disaster Information Portal".^ Thus for tsunamis, hurricanes or other weather-related hazards, there are adequate warning systems.
    • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Many buildings and homes can be reinforced at a small cost to the individual, company, or state to withstand the effects of a disaster such as an earthquake, a hurricane or a tsunami.
    • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It may be said that tornadoes, lightning, hurricanes, and other natural disasters are likewise by-products of a good physical world.
    • Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.inplainsite.org [Source type: Original source]

    .http://www.projectarcix.com.
      Overviews, consequences, government and citizen responses, and case studies of multiple natural disasters
  • "Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System".^ The global scope of disasters requires that we coordinate our efforts for their mitigation on an international basis.
    • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It is not unreasonable to suggest, knowing the changes caused by local floods, that the global Flood of Genesis 6-8 not only radically altered the face of the Earth, but simultaneously produced circumstances that are responsible for many natural disasters experienced since that time.
    • Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.inplainsite.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Natural disaster mitigation in drinking water and sewerage systems: guidelines for vulnerability analysis .
    • Natural Disasters - Protecting the Public's Health: Selected Bibliography and On-line Information Sources 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.helid.desastres.net [Source type: Academic]

    .European Commission and United Nations website initiative.^ United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean.
    • Natural Disasters - Protecting the Public's Health: Selected Bibliography and On-line Information Sources 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.helid.desastres.net [Source type: Academic]

    .http://www.gdacs.org.
     
  • "What the Development Programme of the United Nations (UN) does to reduce the human risks linked to Natural Disasters".^ How could natural disasters be prevented, while maintaining natural laws and human freedom?
    • Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.inplainsite.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Natural Disasters by definition can't be caused by human stupidity, or any human activity.
    • 6 Natural Disasters That Were Caused by Human Stupidity | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]
    • 6 Natural Disasters That Were Caused by Human Stupidity | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The last three years since the Mexico Conference, have seen a number of other important developments in the efforts of the international community on reducing the misery and destruction that natural hazards bring upon humanity.
    • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).^ United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Disaster Relief Organization.
    • Natural Disasters - Protecting the Public's Health: Selected Bibliography and On-line Information Sources 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.helid.desastres.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ United Nations Development Program.
    • Natural Disasters - Protecting the Public's Health: Selected Bibliography and On-line Information Sources 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.helid.desastres.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Pararas-Carayannis, G. "Five Year Plan for The Development of A Regional Warning System in the Southwest Pacific" A Report to the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), May 1989, 21 p.
    • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .http://www.undp.org/bcpr/.
     
  • "Pioneering Disaster Risk Index (DRI) Tool".^ Web site: http://www.disaster.info.desastres/crid .
    • Natural Disasters - Protecting the Public's Health: Selected Bibliography and On-line Information Sources 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.helid.desastres.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Retrieved 22:40, June 14, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_natural_disasters_by_death_toll&oldid=296435321 .
    • Natural Disasters | SurvivalRing 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.survivalring.org [Source type: General]

    ^ This Article can Be found At http://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/2207 .
    • Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.inplainsite.org [Source type: Original source]

    .United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).^ United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Disaster Relief Organization.
    • Natural Disasters - Protecting the Public's Health: Selected Bibliography and On-line Information Sources 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.helid.desastres.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ United Nations Development Program.
    • Natural Disasters - Protecting the Public's Health: Selected Bibliography and On-line Information Sources 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.helid.desastres.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Pararas-Carayannis, G. "Five Year Plan for The Development of A Regional Warning System in the Southwest Pacific" A Report to the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), May 1989, 21 p.
    • Natural Disasters - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.drgeorgepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .http://gridca.grid.unep.ch/undp/.
      Provides key information on all countries in the world.
  • "World's Worst Natural Disasters".^ All in all, a gross, yet delicious, "natural" disaster.
    • 6 Natural Disasters That Were Caused by Human Stupidity | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Adam found himself in a world which was now infected with sickness and disease, and also, natural disasters.
    • Natural Disasters 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.inplainsite.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Natural Disasters - Protecting the Public's Health: Selected Bibliography and On-line Information Sources .
    • Natural Disasters - Protecting the Public's Health: Selected Bibliography and On-line Information Sources 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.helid.desastres.net [Source type: Academic]

    http://across.co.nz/WorldsWorstDisasters.html
    . .Retrieved 2009-07-01.  Includes list of world's deadliest disasters in history.
  • "Natural Disaster and Extreme Weather.^ Deadliest natural disasters by type of event .
    • Natural Disasters | SurvivalRing 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.survivalring.org [Source type: General]

    ^ A world safe from natural disasters.
    • Natural Disasters - Protecting the Public's Health: Selected Bibliography and On-line Information Sources 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.helid.desastres.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Top 10 deadliest natural disasters [ 1 ] .
    • Natural Disasters | SurvivalRing 11 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.survivalring.org [Source type: General]

    Searchable Information Center". Ebrary. http://site.ebrary.com/lib/disaster/home.action. 


A natural disaster is the effect of a natural hazard (e.g., flood, tornado, hurricane, volcanic eruption, earthquake, or landslide) that affects the environment, and leads to financial, environmental and/or human losses. The resulting loss depends on the capacity of the population to support or resist the disaster, and their resilience.[1] This understanding is concentrated in the formulation: "disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability."[2] A natural hazard will hence never result in a natural disaster in areas without vulnerability, e.g. strong earthquakes in uninhabited areas. The term natural has consequently been disputed because the events simply are not hazards or disasters without human involvement.[3]

Contents

Natural disasters

Land movement disasters

Avalanches

on the backside (East) of Mt. Timpanogos, Utah at Aspen Grove trail]]  Notable avalanches include:

Earthquakes

An Earthquake is a sudden shake of the Earth's crust caused by the tectonic plates colliding.The vibrations may vary in magnitude. The underground point of origin of the earthquake is called the "focus". The point directly above the focus on the surface is called the"epicenter". Earthquakes by themselves rarely kill people or wildlife. It is usually the secondary events that they trigger, such as building collapse, fires, tsunamis (seismic sea waves) and volcanoes, that are actually the human disaster. Many of these could possibly be avoided by better construction, safety systems, early warning and evacuation planning.Earthquakes are caused by the discharge of energy accumulated along geologic fault.

Lahars

A lahar is a volcanic mudflow or landslide. The 1953 Tangiwai disaster was caused by a lahar, as was the 1985 Armero tragedy in which the town of Armero was buried and an estimated 23,000 people were killed.

Volcanic eruptions

]]

  • An Eruption may in itself be a disaster due to the explosion of the volcano or the fall of rock but there are several effects that may happen after an eruption that are also hazardous to human life.
  • Lava may be produced during the eruption of a volcano a material consisting of superheated rock. There are several different forms which may be either crumbly or gluey. Leaving the volcano this destroys any buildings and plants it encounters.
  • Volcanic ash - generally meaning the cooled ash - may form a cloud, and settle thickly in nearby locations. When mixed with water this forms a concrete like material. In sufficient quantity ash may cause roofs to collapse under its weight but even small quantities will cause ill health if inhaled. Since the ash has the consistency of ground glass it causes abrasion damage to moving parts such as engines.
  • Supervolcanoes : According to the Toba catastrophe theory 70 to 75 thousand years ago a super volcanic event at Lake Toba reduced the human population to 10,000 or even 1,000 breeding pairs creating a bottleneck in human evolution. It also killed three quarters of all plant life in the northern hemisphere. The main danger from a supervolcano is the immense cloud of ash which has a disastrous global effect on climate and temperature for many years.
  • Pyroclastic flows consist of a cloud of hot volcanic ash which builds up in the air above under its own weight and streams very rapidly from the mountain burning anything in its path. It is believed that Pompeii was destroyed by a pyroclastic flow.

Water disasters

Floods

, in southern Mozambique, during the 2000 Mozambique flood]] Some of the most notable floods include:

  • flood of Pakistan in Indus River. this occur in August 2010, damaging crops of Pakistan.
  • The Huang He (Yellow River) in China floods particularly often. The Great Flood of 1931 caused between 800,000 and 4,000,000 deaths.
  • The Great Flood of 1993 was one of the most costly floods in United States history.
  • The 1998 Yangtze River Floods, also in China, left 14 million people homeless.
  • The 2000 Mozambique flood covered much of the country for three weeks, resulting in thousands of deaths, and leaving the country devastated for years afterward.

Tropical cyclones can result in extensive flooding and storm surge, as happened with:

Limnic eruptions

after a limnic eruption]]A limnic eruption occurs when a gas, usually CO2 suddenly erupts from deep lake water, posing the threat of suffocating wildlife, livestock and humans. Such an eruption may also cause tsunamis in the lake as the rising gas displaces water. Scientists believe landslides, volcanic activity, or explosions can trigger such an eruption. To date, only two limnic eruptions have been observed and recorded:
  • In 1984, in Cameroon, a limnic eruption in Lake Monoun caused the deaths of 37 nearby residents.
  • At nearby Lake Nyos in 1986 a much larger eruption killed between 1,700 and 1,800 people by asphyxiation.

Tsunami

caused by the December 26, 2004, earthquake strikes Ao Nang, Thailand.]]

Tsunamis can be caused by undersea earthquakes as the one caused in Ao Nang, Thailand, by the 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake, or by landslides such as the one which occurred at Lituya Bay, Alaska.

(This also fits within the "Land movement disaster" category because it started with an earthquake.)

Weather disasters

, March 1966]]

Blizzards

Significant blizzards in the United States include:

Cyclonic storms

Cyclone, tropical cyclone, hurricane, and typhoon are different names for the same phenomenon a cyclonic storm system that forms over the oceans. The deadliest hurricane ever was the 1970 Bhola cyclone; the deadliest Atlantic hurricane was the Great Hurricane of 1780 which devastated Martinique, St. Eustatius and Barbados. Another notable hurricane is Hurricane Katrina which devastated the Gulf Coast of the United States in 2005.

Droughts

Well-known historical droughts include:

  • 1900 India killing between 250,000 and 3.25 million.
  • 1921-22 Soviet Union in which over 5 million perished from starvation due to drought
  • 1928-30 northwest China resulting in over 3 million deaths by famine.
  • 1936 and 1941 Sichuan Province China resulting in 5 million and 2.5 million deaths respectively.
  • As of 2006, states of Australia including Western Australia, New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland had been under drought conditions for five to ten years. The drought is beginning to affect urban area populations for the first time.
  • In 2006, Sichuan Province China experienced its worst drought in modern times with nearly 8 million people and over 7 million cattle facing water shortages.

Hailstorms

Hailstorms (AKA hailstones) are rain drops that have formed together into ice. A particularly damaging hailstorm hit Munich, Germany, on July 12, 1984, causing about 2 billion of dollars in insurance claims.

Heat waves

The worst heat wave in recent history was the European Heat Wave of 2003. ]]

A summer heat wave in Victoria, Australia, caused the massive bushfires in 2009. Melbourne experienced three days in a row of temperatures exceeding 40°C. The bushfire, otherwise known as "Black Saturday" was also started intentionally.

Tornadoes

Different Types of Tornadoes:

Supercell Tornadoes

Some of the most violent tornadoes develop from supercell thunderstorms. A supercell thunderstorm is a long-lived thunderstorm possessing within its structure a continuously rotating updraft of air. These storms have the greatest tendency to produce tornadoes, some of the huge wedge shape. The supercell thunderstorm has a low-hanging, rotating layer of cloud known as a "wall cloud." It looks somewhat like a layer of a layer cake that hangs below the broader cloud base. One side of the wall cloud is often rain-free, while the other is neighbored by dense shafts of rain. The rotating updraft of the supercell is seen on radar as a "mesocyclone."

The tornadoes that accompany supercell thunderstorms are more likely to remain in contact with the ground for long periods of time—an hour or more—than other tornadoes, and are more likely to be violent, with winds exceeding-200 mph.

Landspout

Generally weaker than a supercell tornado, a landspout is not associated with a wall cloud or mesocyclone. It may be observed beneath cumulonimbus or towering cumulus clouds and is the land equivalent of a waterspout. It often forms along the leading edge of rain-cooled downdraft air emanating from a thunderstorm, known as a "gust front."

Gustnado

Weak and usually short-lived, a gustnado forms along the gust front of a thunderstorm, appearing as a temporary dust whirl or debris cloud. There may be no apparent connection to or circulation in the cloud aloft. These appear like dust devils.

Waterspout

A waterspout is a tornado over water. A few form from supercell thunderstorms, but many form from weak thunderstorms or rapidly growing cumulus clouds. Waterspouts are usually less intense and causes far less damage. Rarely more than fifty yards wide, it forms over warm tropical ocean waters, although its funnel is made of freshwater droplets condensed from water vapor from condensation - not saltwater from the ocean. Waterspouts usually dissipate upon reaching land.

The following are tornado-like circulations

Dust Devils

Dry, hot, clear days on the desert or over dry land can bring about dust devils. Generally forming in the hot sun during the late morning or early afternoon hours, these mostly harmless whirlwinds are triggered by light desert breezes that create a swirling plume of dust with speeds rarely over 70 mph. These differ from tornadoes in that they are not associated with a thunderstorm (or any cloud), and are usually weaker than the weakest tornado.

Typically, the life cycle of a dust devil is a few minutes or less, although they can last much longer. Although usually harmless, they have been known to cause minor damage. They can blow vehicles off the road and could damage your eyes by blowing dust into them.

Firewhirls

Sometimes the intense heat created by a major forest fire or volcanic eruption can create what is known as a firewhirl, a tornado-like rotating column of smoke and/or fire. This happens when the fire updraft concentrates some initial weak whirl or eddy in the wind. Winds associated with firewhirls have been estimated at over 100 mph. They are sometimes called fire tornadoes, fire devils, or even firenadoes.[4]

Fire

Wildfires are an uncontrolled fire burning in wildland areas. Common causes include lightning and drought but wildfires may also be started by human negligence or arson. They can be a threat to those in rural areas and also wildlife.

A notable case of wildfire was the 2009 Victorian bushfires in Australia.

Nine elderly Russians have died in a blaze at a nursing home that may have been started by a resident setting himself on fire.The fire at the facility in Tver, northeast of Moscow, injured two others and forced the evacuation of some 480 people early on Monday,and investigators found a canister of flammable liquid in the room where the fire started, leading to speculation the resident set himself ablaze.

Health and diseases

Epidemic

]] An epidemic is an outbreak of a contractible disease that spreads at a rapid rate through a human population. A pandemic is an epidemic whose spread is global. There have been many epidemics throughout history, such as Black Death. In the last hundred years, significant pandemics include:

  • The 1918 Spanish flu pandemic, killing an estimated 50 million people worldwide
  • The 1957-58 Asian flu pandemic, which killed an estimated 1 million people
  • The 1968-69 Hong Kong flu pandemic
  • The 2002-3 SARS pandemic
  • The AIDS epidemic, beginning in 1959
  • The H1N1 Influenza (Swine Flu) Pandemic 2009-2010

Other diseases that spread more slowly, but are still considered to be global health emergencies by the WHO include:

Famine

In modern times, famine has hit Sub-Saharan Africa the hardest, although the number of victims of modern famines is much smaller than the number of people killed by the Asian famines of the 20th century.

Space

in June 1908.]]

Gamma ray bursts

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays associated with extremely energetic explosions in distant galaxies. They are the most luminous electromagnetic events known to occur in the universe. Bursts can last from milliseconds to several minutes, although a typical burst lasts a few seconds. The initial burst is usually followed by a longer-lived "afterglow" emitted at longer wavelengths (X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, infrared and radio).

Most observed GRBs are believed to be a narrow beam of intense radiation released during a supernova event, as a rapidly rotating, high-mass star collapses to form a black hole. A subclass of GRBs (the "short" bursts) appear to originate from a different process, possibly the merger of binary neutron stars.

The sources of most GRBs are billions of light years away from Earth, implying that the explosions are both extremely energetic (a typical burst releases as much energy in a few seconds as the Sun will in its entire 10 billion year lifetime) and extremely rare (a few per galaxy per million years[1]). All observed GRBs have originated from outside the Milky Way galaxy, although a related class of phenomena, soft gamma repeater flares, are associated with magnetars within the Milky Way. It has been hypothesized that a gamma-ray burst in the Milky Way could cause a mass extinction on Earth.[2]

GRBs were first detected in 1967 by the Vela satellites, a series of satellites designed to detect covert nuclear weapons tests. Hundreds of theoretical models were proposed to explain these bursts in the years following their discovery, such as collisions between comets and neutron stars.[3] Little information was available to verify these models until the 1997 detection of the first X-ray and optical afterglows and direct measurement of their redshifts using optical spectroscopy. These discoveries, and subsequent studies of the galaxies and supernovae associated with the bursts, clarified the distance and luminosity of GRBs, definitively placing them in distant galaxies and connecting long GRBs with the deaths of massive stars.

Impact events

One of the largest impact events in modern times was the Tunguska event in June 1908.

Solar flares

A solar flare is a phenomenon where the sun suddenly releases a great amount of solar radiation, much more than normal. Some known solar flares include:

  • An X20 event on August 16, 1989
  • A similar flare on April 2, 2001
  • The most powerful flare ever recorded, on November 4, 2003, estimated at between X40 and X45
  • The most powerful flare in the past 500 years is believed to have occurred in September 1859

Supernovae and hypernovae

Future of natural disasters

The United Kingdom based charity Oxfam publicly stated that the number of people hit by climate-related disasters is expected to rise by about 50%, to reach 375 million a year by 2015.[5]

British defence secretary Liam Fox has pubilicly warned that a massive solar flare may occur in 2013, causing widespread damage to the world's electronic and communications infrastructures.[6]

Insurance

Natural disasters play a major role in the insurance industry, which pays for certain damages arising from hurricanes, wildfires, and other catastrophes. Large reinsurance companies are particularly involved.[7]

See also

References

  1. ^ G. Bankoff, G. Frerks, D. Hilhorst (eds.) (2003). Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development and People. ISBN ISBN 1-85383-964-7. 
  2. ^ B. Wisner, P. Blaikie, T. Cannon, and I. Davis (2004). At Risk - Natural hazards, people's vulnerability and disasters. Wiltshire: Routledge. ISBN ISBN 0-415-25216-4. 
  3. ^ D. Alexander (2002). Principles of Emergency planning and Management. Harpended: Terra publishing. ISBN ISBN 1-903544-10-6. 
  4. ^ Weather Encyclopedia, The Weather Channel, Accessed on June 2, 2009, http://www.theweatherchannelkids.com.
  5. ^ BBC: Oxfam warns of climate disasters
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ III. (2008). 2008 Natural Catastrophe Review.

External links


Simple English

File:Pinatubo91eruption
Mount Pinatubo eruption, 1991

A natural disaster is the consequence of the combination of a natural hazard (a physical event like a volcanic eruption, an earthquake, a landslide) and human activities.

Only if humans are there where the hazard happens and if they have no sufficient emergency management, there will be human losses. Therefore one can say: "disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability" [1]. A natural hazard will therefore have no natural disaster as a result in areas without vulnerability, that means if for example a strong earthquake is in uninhabited areas.

References

  1. B. Wisner, P. Blaikie, T. Cannon, and I. Davis (2004). At Risk - Natural hazards, people's vulnerability and disasters. Wiltshire: Routledge. ISBN ISBN 0-415-25216-4. 

Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Natural disaster, which are similar to those in the above article.








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