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Natural gas production by country in cubic meters per year (countries in brown and then red have the largest production).
.Natural gas is a gas consisting primarily of methane.^ Natural gas is a hydrocarbon gas, principally methane.

^ Natural gas is primarily methane (CH 4 ).

^ Natural gas mainly consists of methane and other gas types.
  • Natural Gas - Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.capp.ca [Source type: Academic]

.It is found associated with other fossil fuels, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs, and landfills.^ It is found associated with fossil fuels, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs, and landfills.
  • Natural gas, Fuel - News - Evri 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas is a fossil fuel that is primarily methane, but also includes significant quantities of ethane, propane, butane and pentane.

^ Natural gas, the first-cousin to crude oil, is a combustible, gaseous fossil fuel often found in underground reservoirs and comprised of methane and other hydrocarbon compounds.
  • Natural Gas - The New York Times 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.It is an important fuel source, a major feedstock for fertilizers, and a potent greenhouse gas.^ It is an important fuel source, a major feedstock for fertilizers, and a potent greenhouse gas.
  • Natural Gas - Topics - Breitbart.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC topics.breitbart.com [Source type: News]
  • Natural gas, Fuel - News - Evri 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CO2 is typically removed from the natural gas while ethane, propane, and butane are usually removed and marketed separately as special fuels or as feedstocks for the manufacture of petrochemicals.
  • NFCRC Tutorial: Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.nfcrc.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ An economical, environmentally friendly and efficient energy source, natural gas is the cleanest-burning conventional fuel, producing lower levels of greenhouse gas emissions than do heavier hydrocarbon fuels, such as coal and oil.
  • Natural Gas | Energy Sources | Chevron 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.chevron.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, it must undergo extensive processing to remove almost all materials other than methane.^ Natural gas - the 'cleanest' of the fossil fuels .

^ Among the fossil fuels, natural gas is the cleanest and the most convenient to use.
  • MatSc 101: NATURAL GAS 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.ems.psu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural Gas Generators vs Others .
  • Natural Gas Generators - Buying a Natural Gas Generator 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.poweredgenerators.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The by-products of that processing include ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, elemental sulfur, carbon dioxide, water vapor and sometimes helium and nitrogen.^ The by-products of that processing include ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, elemental sulfur, and sometimes helium and nitrogen.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It consists of ethane, propane, pentane and butane, which are removed in the process of refinement.
  • Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Natural gas is made primarily of methane but also includes quantities of ethane, butane, propane and pentane along with amounts of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulphide and helium.
  • Fossil Fuel » Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC fossil-fuel.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Natural gas is often informally referred to as simply gas, especially when compared to other energy sources such as oil or coal.^ While measuring by volume is useful, natural gas can also be measured as a source of energy.
  • NaturalGas.org 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Smart Energy BC Ltd | Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC smartenergybc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The two power sources are coal and natural gas .
  • Coal vs. Natural Gas: Which ETFs Will Win the Fight? | ETF Trends 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.etftrends.com [Source type: General]

^ Provider of oil/natural gas services.
  • Natural Gas Utilities Information | Business.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Sources

Fossil natural gas

.In the 1800s, natural gas was usually produced as a byproduct of producing oil, since the small, light gas carbon chains come out of solution as it undergoes pressure reduction from the reservoir to the surface, similar to uncapping a bottle of soda pop where the carbon dioxide effervesces.^ Where does natural gas come from?
  • Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as a Transportation Fuel 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.consumerenergycenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Natural Gas Vehicles FAQs | Union of Concerned Scientists 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.ucsusa.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Frequently Asked Questions about Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.super-energy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.askchesapeake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Provider of oil/natural gas services.
  • Natural Gas Utilities Information | Business.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ America's natural gas comes from North America.
  • Gulf Breeze Natural Gas, Super Energy in Florida 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC super-energy.com [Source type: General]

.Unwanted natural gas can be a disposal problem at the well site.^ The natural gas has to get from the wells to us.
  • The Energy Story - Chapter 9: Natural Gas Distribution System 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.energyquest.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Private natural gas well .
  • Natural Gas News - Topix 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: News]
  • Natural Gas News - Topix 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]

^ If this is true for natural gas, this could be a problem.
  • The Oil Drum | Natural Gas Revisited 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If there is not a market for natural gas near the wellhead it was virtually valueless since it must be piped to the end user.^ That’s the job of natural gas marketers.
  • Atlanta Gas Light Company - Establish Service - Choose A Marketer 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.atlantagaslight.com [Source type: News]

^ Natural gas pipe calculator .

^ Since 1985, natural gas prices have been set by the market.
  • Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC lsa.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 1800s and early 1900s, such unwanted gas was usually burned off at the wellsite.^ A gas flare stack is a common method used by producers and refiners for burning off unwanted natural gas or gas liquids.
  • Natural Gas | Gas Conversion Technologies | D Trahan 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.r3sciences.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Chinese burned natural gas as early as 211 BC to dry rock salt found in limestone rock.
  • HowStuffWorks "How Natural-gas Vehicles Work" 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC auto.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Quite uninteresting, nevertheless Natural Gas is combustible and when burned it gives off an incredible amount of energy.
  • Natural Gas - Blogs, Pictures, and more on Blogged 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.blogged.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Often, unwanted gas (or 'stranded' gas without a market) is pumped back into the reservoir with an 'injection' well for disposal or repressurizing the producing formation.^ Whether you're a producer, pipeline, local distribution company, marketer or end-user, NGW will keep you well-informed on every aspect of the North American natural gas scene.
  • Natural Gas Week 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.energyintel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Opertating in a more specific area, Chesapeake Energy ( CHK ) is the largest independent producer of natural gas in the U.S., owning wells in several states.
  • How To Trade Natural Gas | Daily Markets 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.dailymarkets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A gas flare stack is a common method used by producers and refiners for burning off unwanted natural gas or gas liquids.
  • Natural Gas | Gas Conversion Technologies | D Trahan 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.r3sciences.com [Source type: Academic]

.Another solution is to export the natural gas as a liquid.^ Gas-to-Liquid Fuels (natural gas to diesel fuel) .
  • Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as a Transportation Fuel 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.consumerenergycenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas is entrusted with the responsibility of exploration and production of oil and natural gas, their refining, distribution and marketing,import, export, and conservation of petroleum products and Liquified Natural Gas.
  • Welcome to Ministry of Petroleum&Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC petroleum.nic.in [Source type: General]

^ Printer Friendly Version Natural Gas NOVEC Energy Solutions competes in the deregulated natural gas markets in the greater Washington, D.C. metropolitan area, Maryland, Virginia, and Pennsylvania.
  • Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.novec.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]Gas-to-liquid, .(GTL) is a developing technology that converts stranded natural gas into synthetic gasoline, diesel or jet fuel through the Fischer-Tropsch process developed in World War II Germany.^ Natural gas - the 'cleanest' of the fossil fuels .

^ Gas-to-Liquid Fuels (natural gas to diesel fuel) .
  • Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as a Transportation Fuel 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.consumerenergycenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas is the cleanest source of fuel.

.Such fuels can be transported through conventional pipelines and tankers to users.^ Then it is transported through pipelines as normal gas.

^ Natural Gas Storage is Critical Natural gas, a clean-burning fuel that provides a quarter of U.S. energy needs, is produced throughout North America and transported through a network of thousands of miles of pipelines.
  • Welcome | Sacramento Natural Gas Storage 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC sacnaturalgas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Educating fleet operators, State and National Transportation Safety directors, clean vehicle advocates and air quality and transportation policy-makers about the benefits of alternative fuel vehicles through seminars, media, and national conventions and expositions.
  • CNG Kits | Natural Gas Conversions | CNG Certification - CNG Interstate: 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC cngoutfitters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Proponents claim GTL fuels burn cleaner than comparable petroleum fuels.^ Natural gas burns cleaner than petroleum-based fuels.
  • Southeast Corrosion & Engineering : Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.secorrosion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like oil and coal, natural gas is a nonrenewable resource, but burns much cleaner than the other two fossil fuels.

^ When burned, natural gas releases less sulfur emissions, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and particulate emissions than petroleum or coal.
  • Southeast Corrosion & Engineering : Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.secorrosion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most major international oil companies are in advanced development stages of GTL production, with a world-scale (140,000 bbl/day) GTL plant in Qatar scheduled to come online before 2010. In locations such as the United States with a high natural gas demand, pipelines are constructed to take the gas from the wellsite to the end consumer.^ Natural gas powers their plants and refineries.
  • DailyWealth: Why Investors Hate Canada's Natural Gas Stocks 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.dailywealth.com [Source type: News]

^ As with oil, gauging the peak of natural gas production is an inexact science.
  • Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.oilempire.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • High Noon for Natural Gas by Julian Darley : Reviews - Chelsea Green 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.chelseagreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas is used throughout the United States, but the top natural gas consuming States in 2007 were: .
  • EIA Energy Kids - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fossil natural gas can be "associated" (found in oil fields) or "non-associated" (isolated in natural gas fields), and is also found in coal beds (as coalbed methane).^ Natural gas - the 'cleanest' of the fossil fuels .

^ Provider of oil/natural gas services.
  • Natural Gas Utilities Information | Business.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One source is the gas found in coalbeds.
  • Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC lsa.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It sometimes contains significant quantities of ethane, propane, butane, and pentane—heavier hydrocarbons removed prior to use as a consumer fuel—as well as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen sulfide.^ After the natural gas is extracted, it is treated at gas plants to remove impurities such as hydrogen sulfide, helium, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, and moisture.
  • Natural Gas | Clean Energy | US EPA 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Natural gas is a fossil fuel that is primarily methane, but also includes significant quantities of ethane, propane, butane and pentane.

^ If helium gas is to be captured, it is done after the nitrogen is removed.
  • How natural gas is made - material, history, used, processing, components, composition, structure, steps, industry, History, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of natural gas, Quality Control 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.Natural gas is commercially produced from oil fields and natural gas fields.^ Provider of oil/natural gas services.
  • Natural Gas Utilities Information | Business.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas is moved by pipelines from the producing fields to consumers.
  • EIA Energy Kids - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How is natural gas produced?
  • Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as a Transportation Fuel 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.consumerenergycenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gas produced from oil wells is called casinghead gas or associated gas.^ Gas produced from oil wells is called casinghead gas or associated gas.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Provider of oil and gas well services.
  • Natural Gas Utilities Information | Business.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gas produced from oil wells is called casing head gas or associated gas.
  • Natural Gas — Central Piedmont Community College 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.cpcc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The natural gas industry is producing gas from increasingly more challenging resource types: sour gas, tight gas, shale gas and coalbed methane.^ T TECO Coalbed Methane Producer of methane gas from coal seams.
  • Natural Gas Utilities Information | Business.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The natural gas industry is working to prevent any methane from escaping.
  • EIA Energy Kids - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reliable Natural gas is a more reliable resource than other fuels.
  • about_natural_gas - Nicor 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.nicor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The world's largest proven gas reserves are located in Russia, with 4.757 × 1013 m³ (1.6 × 1015 cu ft).^ Nigeria has significant amounts of natural gas, with the world's eighth-largest proven reserves.
  • Challenges to Globalizing Natural Gas - Council on Foreign Relations 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.cfr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Weather, the economy, international events, production and the transportation costs -Natural gas forms over time from most organic materials -Canada is the third largest producer of natural gas in the world behind Russia and the United States .

^ There are large volumes of natural gas throughout the world, classified either as proven reserves or potentially recoverable resources, and this is also true for the United States.
  • The Environmental Literacy Council - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.enviroliteracy.org [Source type: Academic]

.Russia is also the world's largest natural gas producer, through the Gazprom company.^ As shown in Figure 1, Russia was also the world's largest natural gas producer in 2007.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ So a merger with Gazprom would be a natural, providing any company instant access to the world’s largest gas reserves.
  • The Oil and The Glory by Steve LeVine 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC oilandglory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chevron is one of the largest producers of natural gas around the world.
  • Natural Gas | Energy Sources | Chevron 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.chevron.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Liquefied Natural Gas | Energy Sources | Chevron 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.chevron.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Major proven resources (with year of estimate) (in billion cubic metres) are world 175,400 (2006), Russia 47,570 (2006), Iran 26,370 (2006), Qatar 25,790 (2007), Saudi Arabia 6,568 (2006) and United Arab Emirates 5,823 (2006).^ All told, the top ten gas producers harbor 76 percent of the world's proven reserves, while the top five--Russia, Iran, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--hold nearly 67 percent.
  • Natural gas | Grist 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.grist.org [Source type: General]

^ EIA estimated there were 3,458 billion cubic feet of working gas in underground storage, 16.4% above the five-year average.
  • Natural Gas Still Too Volatile - Forbes.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.forbes.com [Source type: News]

^ Estimates of worldwide gas reserves range from 120 to 175 years of supply, but some predict that with improved extraction methods, it could be three times higher.
  • How Natural Gas Works | Union of Concerned Scientists 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.ucsusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The world's largest gas field is Qatar's offshore North Field, estimated to have 25 trillion cubic metres[3] (9.0 × 1014 cu ft) of gas in place—enough to last more than 200 years at optimum production levels.^ After years of volatile gas prices, and last...
  • Natural gas, Fuel - News - Evri 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The contiguous U.S. has never put more than 3.6 trillion cu.
  • As Oil Explodes, Why Natural Gas Prices Stay Low - TIME 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.time.com [Source type: General]

^ A natural gas clothes dryer can last 10 years longer than an electric dryer.
  • Frequently Asked Questions about Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.super-energy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The second largest natural gas field is the South Pars Gas Field in Iranian waters in the Persian Gulf.^ Natural gas is currently the second largest fuel for electric generation.
  • No Respect? Cheap Natural Gas Draws Political Crowd - Environmental Capital - WSJ 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC blogs.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ The second largest natural gas field is the South Pars Gas Field in Iranian waters in the Persian Gulf .
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ See also List of natural gas fields.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

.Connected to Qatar's North Field, it has estimated reserves of 8 to 14 trillion cubic metres[4] (2.8 × 1014 to 5.0 × 1014 cu ft) of gas.^ The world's largest gas field is the offshore North Field in Qatar, estimated to have 25 × 10 9 cubic metres of gas in place.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Connected to Qatar's North Field, it has estimated reserves of 8 to 14 × 10 9 cubic metres.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ According to a 2008 report released by Navigant Consulting, paid for by a foundation allied with the gas industry, there could be as much as 842 trillion cubic feet of retrievable gas in shale fields around the country.
  • Natural Gas - The New York Times 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.Because natural gas is not a pure product, when non-associated gas is extracted from a field under supercritical (pressure/temperature) conditions, it may partially condense upon isothermic depressurizing—an effect called retrograde condensation.^ Natural Gas What effects Natural Gas prices?
  • Propane Vs Natural Gas Comparison 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Natural Gas is also the feedstock for hydrogen production.

^ Extracting natural gas from earth and sea .
  • Natural Gas - Our energy 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.our-energy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The liquids thus formed may get trapped by depositing in the pores of the gas reservoir.^ The liquids thus formed may get trapped by depositing in the pores of the gas reservoir.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Natural gas is often stored in underground caverns formed inside depleted gas reservoirs from previous gas wells, salt domes, or in tanks as liquefied natural gas.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Natural gas is a combustible, gaseous mixture of simple hydrocarbon compounds, usually found deep in underground reservoirs formed by porous rock.

.One method to deal with this problem is to reinject dried gas free of condensate to maintain the underground pressure and to allow reevaporation and extraction of condensates.^ One method of mitigating this problem is to reinject dried gas, free of condensate, to maintain the underground pressure and to allow re-evaporation and extraction of the condensate.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Extraction of natural gas leads to a decrease of the pressure in an underground gas reservoir.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The pressure of the gas and the type of reservoir can make injection and extraction cycles difficult and lengthy processes.
  • As Oil Explodes, Why Natural Gas Prices Stay Low - TIME 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.time.com [Source type: General]

Town gas

.Town gas is a mixture of methane and other gases, mainly the highly toxic carbon monoxide, that can be used in a similar way to natural gas and can be produced by treating coal chemically.^ Investing in Natural Gas: How it was used .
  • Investing in Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC dailyreckoning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural Gas Generators vs Others .
  • Natural Gas Generators - Buying a Natural Gas Generator 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.poweredgenerators.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are there other benefits to using natural gas as a transportation fuel?
  • Natural Gas Vehicles FAQs | Union of Concerned Scientists 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.ucsusa.org [Source type: Academic]

.This is a historic technology, still used as 'best solution' in some local circumstances, although coal gasification is not usually economic at current gas prices.^ This is a historic technology, still used as 'best solution' in some local circumstances, although coal gasification is not usually economic at current gas prices, depending upon infrastructure considerations.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Some of the new gas will be absorbed locally.
  • The Oil and The Glory by Steve LeVine 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC oilandglory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently, coal gasification is not economic.
  • NGVA 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.ngvc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, depending upon infrastructure considerations, it remains a future possibility.^ This is a historic technology, still used as 'best solution' in some local circumstances, although coal gasification is not usually economic at current gas prices, depending upon infrastructure considerations.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ However, those values can vary by several percent from one natural gas to another depending upon their source reservoir and upon their degree of processing.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.Most town "gashouses" located in the eastern United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were simple by-product coke ovens which heated bituminous coal in air-tight chambers.^ Coal gas (sometimes called town gas too) - made in coking ovens.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Natural Gas: how big is the problem? 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently, the United States has five LNG-receiving and regasification terminals, including one in Puerto Rico, but no terminal is located on the West Coast.
  • LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas in California 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.energy.ca.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Recently, however, a number of companies have proposed to build LNG import facilities in California, at other locations in the United States, and in Baja California, Mexico.
  • LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas in California 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.energy.ca.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The gas driven off from the coal was collected and distributed through town-wide networks of pipes to residences and other buildings where it was used for cooking and lighting purposes.^ Supporting applications for turbines used in power generation, pipeline compression, vapor recovery, LNG boil-off, CO2 injection, and process gas.

^ At Sable Island, water is removed from the gas on off shore platforms before the gas goes via pipes to Goldboro , a small town that was once the scene of a gold rush and now hopes to profit from an energy boom.
  • Natural Gas (Gotham Gazette, Oct 11, 2003) 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC gothamgazette.com [Source type: News]

^ Natural gas offers many advantages compared with other fossil fuels: a relatively low greenhouse signature, energy efficiency, and ease of use.
  • Natural Gas Markets: Blog - Business Exchange 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC bx.businessweek.com [Source type: General]
  • Natural Gas Markets: Jobs - Business Exchange 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC bx.businessweek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(Gas heating did not come into widespread use until the last half of the twentieth century.^ But it was many centuries before the use of gas became widespread.
  • Natural Gas - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Half of all Canadian homes are heated primarily by natural gas.
  • Climate Change - Energy: Fossil Fuels - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.davidsuzuki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The compressed hydrogen gas inside the tanker shot a flame 60 feet into the air until it burned itself out.

) .The coal tar that collected in the bottoms of the gashouse ovens was often used for roofing and other water-proofing purposes, and also, when mixed with sand and gravel, was used for creating bitumen for the surfacing of local streets.^ Domestic use Natural gas is supplied to homes, where it is used for such purposes as cooking in natural gas-powered ranges and/or ovens, natural gas-heated clothes dryers , heating / cooling and central heating .
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Residential/Business Use Natural gas is supplied to homes, where it is used for such purposes as cooking in natural gas-powered ranges and/or ovens, natural gas-heated clothes dryers, heating/cooling and central heating .

^ Natural gas is supplied to homes, where it is used for such purposes as cooking in natural gas-powered ranges and/or ovens, natural gas-heated clothes dryers, and heating/cooling.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

Biogas

.When methane-rich gases are produced by the anaerobic decay of non-fossil organic matter (biomass), these are referred to as biogas (or natural biogas).^ Methane gas is naturally produced whenever organic matter decays.
  • Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC lsa.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas is a gas produced by the anaerobic decay of organic material.
  • petrolpump.co.in : energy sources, Natural gas, Future energy development, Chemical composition, Energy content, Power generation, Natural gas vehicles, Domestic use, Energy content Fertilizer, Natural gas crisis, Power generation, Natural gas vehicles, Fertilizer, Natural gas vehicles, mumbai,india, petroleum,pump,petrol 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.petrolpump.co.in [Source type: Academic]

^ When methane-rich gases are produced by the anaerobic decay of non-fossil organic material, these are referred to as biogas.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

.Sources of biogas include swamps, marshes, and landfills (see landfill gas), as well as sewage sludge and manure[5] by way of anaerobic digesters, in addition to enteric fermentation particularly in cattle.^ Sources of biogas include swamps, marshes, and landfills (see landfill gas), as well as sewage sludge and manure by way of anaerobic digesters, in addition to enteric fermentation particularly in cattle.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Many municipal waste managers have begun capturing landfill gas to generate electricity or sell directly to commercial customers, but sources are limited.
  • Natural Gas Vehicles FAQs | Union of Concerned Scientists 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.ucsusa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, a variety of alternative sources are being explored including the capture of methane as waste gas from landfill sites, and from methane hydrates which are methane hydrocarbons surrounded by a lattice of ice.
  • Clean Air Online - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.ec.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Methanogenic archaea are responsible for all biological sources of methane, some in symbiotic relationships with other life forms, including termites, ruminants, and cultivated crops.^ Methanogenic archaea are responsible for all biological sources of methane, some in symbiotic relationships with other life forms, including termites, ruminants, and cultivated crops.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Pakistan and Iran have resolved almost all other issues pertaining to the gas pipeline project, including pricing of gas, project details and quantity of gas to be purchased, Dawn newspaper quoted unnamed sources as saying.
  • NATURAL-GAS.LOVE.COM | All Things natural gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC natural-gas.love.com [Source type: News]

^ Minor amounts of other gases, including ethane, propane, butane and pentane may also be found with the methane.

.Methane released directly into the atmosphere would be considered a pollutant, however, methane in the atmosphere is oxidised, producing carbon dioxide and water.^ When it is burned it releases carbon dioxide (CO2), water (2H2O) and energy.

^ Methane released directly into the atmosphere would be considered a pollutant, however, methane in the atmosphere is oxidised, producing carbon dioxide and water.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Both help pollute the world, but natural gas is much cleaner - per unit of energy its combustion produces 30% less carbon dioxide than oil, and about 45% less carbon dioxide than coal .
  • Natural Gas Prices 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Methane in the atmosphere has a half life of seven years, meaning that every seven years, half of the methane present is converted to carbon dioxide and water.^ When heating systems are properly adjusted, the by-product of combustion is water vapor and carbon dioxide -- the same things we exhale as we breathe.

^ Natural gas is largely comprised of methane, which is 23 times more potent as a GHG than carbon dioxide.
  • Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center: Natural Gas Emissions 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.afdc.energy.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Using either method produces gases that the atmosphere doesn't need more of: venting discharges methane , a potent greenhouse gas, whereas flaring generates carbon dioxide.
  • Flame Off!: Turning Natural Gas Pollution into Gasoline: Scientific American 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

U.S. Natural Gas Production 1900–2005 Source: EIA
.Future sources of methane, the principal component of natural gas, include landfill gas, biogas and methane hydrate.^ Another source of natural gas is the gas produced in landfills.
  • Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC lsa.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An example of biogenic methane is landfill gas.
  • NaturalGas.org 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sources of natural gas .
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • What You Need to Know About Natural Gas Detectors 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.nidcd.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Biogas, and especially landfill gas, are already used in some areas, but their use could be greatly expanded.^ The use of natural gas and biogas are ...
  • natural gas Articles, Posts, Blogs, Videos - Technorati 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC technorati.com [Source type: General]

^ For areas that are already on the gas grid, CHP could be retrofitted.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Will the UK Face a Natural Gas Crisis this Winter? (Part 1 of 2) 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Biogas, and especially landfill gas, are already used in some areas, but their use could be greatly expanded.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

.Landfill gas is a type of biogas, but biogas usually refers to gas produced from organic material that has not been mixed with other waste.^ Landfill gas is a type of biogas, but biogas usually refers to gas produced from organic material that has not been mixed with other waste.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Biogas can also be produced by separating organic materials from waste that otherwise goes to landfills.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Landfill gas is created from the decomposition of waste in landfills.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

.Landfill gas is created from the decomposition of waste in landfills.^ Landfill gas is created from the decomposition of waste in landfills.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Many municipal waste managers have begun capturing landfill gas to generate electricity or sell directly to commercial customers, but sources are limited.
  • Natural Gas Vehicles FAQs | Union of Concerned Scientists 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.ucsusa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Landfill gas is a type of biogas, but biogas usually refers to gas produced from organic material that has not been mixed with other waste.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

.If the gas is not removed, the pressure may get so high that it works its way to the surface, causing damage to the landfill structure, unpleasant odor, vegetation die-off and an explosion hazard.^ If the gas is not removed, the pressure may get so high that it works its way to the surface, causing damage to the landfill structure, unpleasant odor, vegetation die-off and an explosion hazard.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ El Paso Natural Gas Company on August 30 said it would have to take a portion of its pipeline out of service immediately because of damage to the pipeline from a third-party working in its right-of-way in Arizona.
  • Natural Gas Weekly Update | IBT Commodities & Futures 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.ibtimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The other two programs will attempt to discover ways to keep low-volume "stripper" gas wells flowing and to boost the volume of "working gas" stored in salt caverns.

.The gas can be vented to the atmosphere, flared or burned to produce electricity or heat.^ The gas can be vented to the atmosphere, flared or burned to produce electricity or heat.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Producers who cannot sell or store their gas will have limited options: cap their wells, which could be bad for them in the long term; give gas away for free, which has happened before when producers did not want to halt production; or flare it — burn it off into the atmosphere.
  • As Oil Explodes, Why Natural Gas Prices Stay Low - TIME 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.time.com [Source type: General]

^ For an equivalent amount of heat, burning natural gas produces about 30% less carbon dioxide than burning petroleum and about 45% less than burning coal.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]
  • petrolpump.co.in : energy sources, Natural gas, Future energy development, Chemical composition, Energy content, Power generation, Natural gas vehicles, Domestic use, Energy content Fertilizer, Natural gas crisis, Power generation, Natural gas vehicles, Fertilizer, Natural gas vehicles, mumbai,india, petroleum,pump,petrol 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.petrolpump.co.in [Source type: Academic]

.Experimental systems were being proposed for use in parts Hertfordshire, UK and Lyon in France.^ Experimental systems were being proposed for use in parts Hertfordshire, U.K. and Lyon in France.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Some kind of part share of the property, so that it is part rented by the former morgagee, is also likely in the UK. The whole legislative and social security system in the UK is different to the States.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Will the UK Face a Natural Gas Crisis this Winter? (Part 1 of 2) 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the UK there are many common storage heating systems used in houses and flats.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Natural Gas: how big is the problem? 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Once water vapor is removed, about half of landfill gas is methane.^ An example of biogenic methane is landfill gas.
  • NaturalGas.org 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Water vapor is often removed, even if combusting the gas on site.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Once water vapor is removed, about half of landfill gas is methane.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

.Almost all of the rest is carbon dioxide, but there are also small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen.^ It is made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and varying amounts of sulphur.
  • The Energy Story - Chapter 8: Fossil Fuels - Coal, Oil and Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.energyquest.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Almost all the rest comes from Canada.
  • Washington Gas - Natural Gas Vehicles 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.washgas.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Almost all of the rest is carbon dioxide, but there are also small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

.There are usually trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide and siloxanes, but their concentration varies widely.^ There are usually trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide and siloxanes, but their concentration varies widely.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Gas with a significant amount of sulfur impurities, such as hydrogen sulfide, is termed sour gas; gas with sulfur or carbon dioxide impurities is acid gas.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and varying amounts of sulphur.
  • The Energy Story - Chapter 8: Fossil Fuels - Coal, Oil and Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.energyquest.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Landfill gas cannot be distributed through natural gas pipelines unless it is cleaned up to the same quality.^ Natural gas distribution Babsi Jones ...
  • Natural Gas - Blogs, Pictures, and more on Blogged 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.blogged.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are natural gas pipelines safe?
  • Southern Natural Gas > FAQs 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.elpaso.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Liquefied natural gas transportation: in the pipeline.
  • Iran to India Natural Gas Pipeline 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is usually more economical to combust the gas on site or within a short distance of the landfill using a dedicated pipeline.^ It is usually more economical to combust the gas on site or within a short distance of the landfill using a dedicated pipeline.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Supporting applications for turbines used in power generation, pipeline compression, vapor recovery, LNG boil-off, CO2 injection, and process gas.

^ This is a historic technology, still used as 'best solution' in some local circumstances, although coal gasification is not usually economic at current gas prices, depending upon infrastructure considerations.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

.Water vapor is often removed, even if the gas is combusted on site.^ Water vapor is often removed, even if combusting the gas on site.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Other components—such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen—may be removed to improve the quality of the natural gas or to make it easier to move the gas over great distances through pipelines.
  • How natural gas is made - material, history, used, processing, components, composition, structure, steps, industry, History, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of natural gas, Quality Control 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regardless of the source, most raw natural gas contains dirt, sand, and water vapor, which must be removed before further processing to prevent contamination and corrosion of the equipment and pipelines.
  • How natural gas is made - material, history, used, processing, components, composition, structure, steps, industry, History, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of natural gas, Quality Control 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If low temperatures condense water out of the gas, siloxanes can be lowered as well because they tend to condense out with the water vapor.^ Cutbacks in the production of petrochemicals, plastics, wood products, metals, motor vehicles and fertilizers, as well as lower gas demand for industrial boilers, are primarily responsible for the decline.

^ The other two programs will attempt to discover ways to keep low-volume "stripper" gas wells flowing and to boost the volume of "working gas" stored in salt caverns.

^ Most natural gas comes from three types of wells: natural gas-and-condensate wells, oil wells, and coal bed methane wells.
  • Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as a Transportation Fuel 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.consumerenergycenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other non-methane components may also be removed in order to meet emission standards, to prevent fouling of the equipment or for environmental considerations.^ Other non-methane components may also be removed in order to meet emissions standards, to prevent fouling of the equipment or for environmental considerations.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, it must undergo extensive processing to remove almost all materials other than methane.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Natural Gas - Topics - Breitbart.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC topics.breitbart.com [Source type: News]

^ Its chief component, methane , usually makes up from 80% to 95%, and the balance is composed of varying amounts of ethane , propane , butane , and other hydrocarbon compounds.
  • natural gas Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about natural gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Co-firing landfill gas with natural gas improves combustion, which lowers emissions.^ Co-firing landfill gas with natural gas improves combustion, which lowers emissions.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ And while carbon emissions are lower, natural gas itself is a powerful greenhouse gas.
  • How Natural Gas Works | Union of Concerned Scientists 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.ucsusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Percent of U.S. emissions from natural gas in Texas .
  • Energy Report - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Biogas is usually produced using agricultural waste materials, such as otherwise unusable parts of plants and manure.^ Biogas is usually produced using agricultural waste materials, such as otherwise unusable parts of plants and manure.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Anaerobic lagoons are used to produce biogas from manure, while biogas reactors can be used for manure or plant parts.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Biogas can also be produced by separating organic materials from waste that otherwise goes to landfills.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

.Biogas can also be produced by separating organic materials from waste that otherwise goes to landfills.^ Landfill gas is a type of biogas, but biogas usually refers to gas produced from organic material that has not been mixed with other waste.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Biogas can also be produced by separating organic materials from waste that otherwise goes to landfills.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Using materials that would otherwise generate no income, or even cost money to get rid of, improves the profitability and energy balance of biogas production.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

.This is more efficient than just capturing the landfill gas it produces.^ This is more efficient than just capturing the landfill gas it produces.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ But the 16 deaths from a liquefied petroleum gas explosion on an Italian train today are an important reminder that reduced emissions are not the only benefit from efficiency and (more…) .
  • Natural Gas « SET Energy 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC setenergy.org [Source type: General]

^ Opertating in a more specific area, Chesapeake Energy ( CHK ) is the largest independent producer of natural gas in the U.S., owning wells in several states.
  • How To Trade Natural Gas | Daily Markets 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.dailymarkets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Using materials that would otherwise generate no income, or even cost money to get rid of, improves the profitability and energy balance of biogas production.^ Using materials that would otherwise generate no income, or even cost money to get rid of, improves the profitability and energy balance of biogas production.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Natural gas is also used in the manufacturing of organic compounds found in many common household products and building materials.

^ Even so, according to the President, "commercialization of fusion has the potential to dramatically improve America's energy security while significantly reducing air pollution and emissions of greenhouse gases."
  • Natural Gas Shortages 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC healthandenergy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Anaerobic lagoons produce biogas from manure, while biogas reactors can be used for manure or plant parts.^ Anaerobic lagoons are used to produce biogas from manure, while biogas reactors can be used for manure or plant parts.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Biogas is usually produced using agricultural waste materials, such as otherwise unusable parts of plants and manure.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Germany and Austria are now planting vast amounts of a form of Kentucky Bluegrass which will be harvested for use in producing Cellulosic Biomethane, through anaerobic digesters and fermentation.

.Like landfill gas, biogas is mostly methane and carbon dioxide, with small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen.^ It is made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and varying amounts of sulphur.
  • The Energy Story - Chapter 8: Fossil Fuels - Coal, Oil and Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.energyquest.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas is primarily methane comprised of hydrogen and carbon.
  • CNG - what is cng? compressed natural gas used an an alternative fuel 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.mckenziecorp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An example of biogenic methane is landfill gas.
  • NaturalGas.org 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, with the exception of pesticides, there are usually lower levels of contaminants.^ However, with the exception of pesticides, there are usually lower levels of contaminants.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Unlike other fossil fuels, however, natural gas is clean burning and emits lower levels of potentially harmful byproducts into the air.
  • NaturalGas.org 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the winter in North America was so exceptionally mild last year that it completely underwhelmed the lower supply, and allowed inventories to build to record levels.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Natural Gas: how big is the problem? 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The McMahon natural gas processing plant in Taylor, British Columbia, Canada[6]

Crystallized natural gas - Hydrates

.Huge quantities of natural gas (primarily methane) exist in the form of hydrates under sediment on offshore continental shelves and on land in arctic regions that experience permafrost such as those in Siberia (hydrates require a combination of high pressure and low temperature to form).^ Natural gas is continental .
  • Natural Gas Discussion Group - PickensPlan 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC push.pickensplan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas is a hydrocarbon gas, principally methane.

^ TYPE A, TYPE C, and TYPE 3 and TYPE 4 KITS are for natural gas and low pressure propane.
  • Natural Gas Pipe Size Chart and Installation Information. 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.uscarb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, as of 2010 no technology has been developed to produce natural gas economically from hydrates.^ No natural gas in Bulgaria.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Natural Gas: how big is the problem? 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No, natural gas isn’t the answer.
  • 10 Things You Should Know About Natural Gas Vehicles 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC earth2tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With economic development and population growth, the demand for natural gas is increasing.
  • Just Energy Frequently Asked Questions | Natural Gas and Electricity Service 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.justenergy.com [Source type: General]

.It costs anywhere between once and twice as much to produce usable natural gas from crystallized natural gas, using current technology.^ Investing in Natural Gas: How it was used .
  • Investing in Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC dailyreckoning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas costs only about 1/3 of the price to use as propane.

^ The use of natural gas and biogas are ...
  • natural gas Articles, Posts, Blogs, Videos - Technorati 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC technorati.com [Source type: General]

[7]

Natural gas processing

.The image below is a schematic block flow diagram of a typical natural gas processing plant.^ Natural gas powers their plants and refineries.
  • DailyWealth: Why Investors Hate Canada's Natural Gas Stocks 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.dailywealth.com [Source type: News]

^ The image below is a schematic block flow diagram of a typical natural gas processing plant.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ (GNU) Image: Milton Beychok Schematic flow diagram of a typical natural gas processing plant.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.It shows the various unit processes used to convert raw natural gas into sales gas pipelined to the end user markets.^ Natural gas is used to generate electricity by three main processes: .
  • EEI - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.eei.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What kinds of vehicles can be converted to use natural gas?
  • Washington Gas - Natural Gas Vehicles 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.washgas.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It shows how raw natural gas is processed into sales gas pipelined to the end user markets.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.The block flow diagram also shows how processing of the raw natural gas yields byproduct sulfur, byproduct ethane, and natural gas liquids (NGL) propane, butanes and natural gasoline (denoted as pentanes +).^ Investing in Natural Gas: How it was used .
  • Investing in Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC dailyreckoning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The image below is a schematic block flow diagram of a typical natural gas processing plant.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ How about natural gas?
  • Natural gas cars cheaper at the pump - Green Machines- msnbc.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

[8][9][10][11][12]
Schematic flow diagram of a typical natural gas processing plant

Uses

Power generation

.Natural gas is a major source of electricity generation through the use of gas turbines and steam turbines.^ Why use natural gas to power your generator?
  • Generator Conversion Kits to Propane and Natural Gas. 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC propane-generators.com [Source type: General]

^ While measuring by volume is useful, natural gas can also be measured as a source of energy.
  • NaturalGas.org 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas is used to generate electricity by three main processes: .
  • EEI - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.eei.org [Source type: Academic]

.Most grid peaking power plants and some off-grid engine-generators use natural gas.^ Most grid peaking power plants and some off-grid engine-generators use natural gas.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Why use natural gas to power your generator?
  • Generator Conversion Kits to Propane and Natural Gas. 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC propane-generators.com [Source type: General]

^ Natural gas is used to generate electricity by three main processes: .
  • EEI - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.eei.org [Source type: Academic]

.Particularly high efficiencies can be achieved through combining gas turbines with a steam turbine in combined cycle mode.^ Particularly high efficiencies can be achieved through combining gas turbines with a steam turbine in combined cycle mode.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]
  • petrolpump.co.in : energy sources, Natural gas, Future energy development, Chemical composition, Energy content, Power generation, Natural gas vehicles, Domestic use, Energy content Fertilizer, Natural gas crisis, Power generation, Natural gas vehicles, Fertilizer, Natural gas vehicles, mumbai,india, petroleum,pump,petrol 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.petrolpump.co.in [Source type: Academic]

^ Gas can be efficiently moved from areas of high supply to high demand via land pipelines, but undersea pipelines are uneconomical and impractical for ocean transport.
  • Trading Natural-Gas Stocks 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.zealllc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These “combined-cycle” plants are much more efficient than steam units or gas turbines alone, and can achieve thermal efficiencies of up to 50 to 60 percent compared to 33 to 35 percent efficiency from traditional steam generation units that burn coal or other fossil fuels (including natural gas).

.Natural gas burns more cleanly than other fossil fuels, such as oil and coal, and produces less carbon dioxide per unit energy released.^ Natural gas is still a fossil fuel, and when burned it does produce greenhouse gases.
  • Rediscovering Natural Gas By Hitting Rock Bottom : NPR 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ Natural gas is generally considered a nonrenewable fossil fuel.
  • Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC lsa.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both help pollute the world, but natural gas is much cleaner - per unit of energy its combustion produces 30% less carbon dioxide than oil, and about 45% less carbon dioxide than coal .
  • Natural Gas Prices 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For an equivalent amount of heat, burning natural gas produces about 30% less carbon dioxide than burning petroleum and about 45% less than burning coal.^ Both help pollute the world, but natural gas is much cleaner - per unit of energy its combustion produces 30% less carbon dioxide than oil, and about 45% less carbon dioxide than coal .
  • Natural Gas Prices 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas stocks fall less than expected .
  • Natural gas, Fuel - News - Evri 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When burned, it produces heat.
  • EEI - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.eei.org [Source type: Academic]

[13] .Combined cycle power generation using natural gas is thus the cleanest source of power available using fossil fuels, and this technology is widely used wherever gas can be obtained at a reasonable cost.^ Why use natural gas to power your generator?
  • Generator Conversion Kits to Propane and Natural Gas. 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC propane-generators.com [Source type: General]

^ Natural gas is generally considered a nonrenewable fossil fuel.
  • Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC lsa.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While measuring by volume is useful, natural gas can also be measured as a source of energy.
  • NaturalGas.org 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fuel cell technology may eventually provide cleaner options for converting natural gas into electricity, but as yet it is not price-competitive.^ What causes natural gas prices to rise?
  • Just Energy Frequently Asked Questions | Natural Gas and Electricity Service 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.justenergy.com [Source type: General]

^ Aquila Energy Corporation Provider of natural gas and electricity services.
  • Natural Gas Utilities Information | Business.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nearly half of Florida's electricity is fueled by natural gas.
  • Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC floridiangasstorage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Domestic use

.Natural gas is supplied to homes, where it is used for such purposes as cooking in natural gas-powered ranges and ovens, natural gas-heated clothes dryers, heating/cooling and central heating.^ Natural gas powers their plants and refineries.
  • DailyWealth: Why Investors Hate Canada's Natural Gas Stocks 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.dailywealth.com [Source type: News]

^ Why use natural gas to power your generator?
  • Generator Conversion Kits to Propane and Natural Gas. 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC propane-generators.com [Source type: General]

^ Natural gas is a versatile fuel, which adapts to a wide range of uses.
  • VEPT - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.energy.vt.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Home or other building heating may include boilers, furnaces, and water heaters.^ Home or other building heating may include boilers, furnaces , and water heaters .
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Home or other building heating may include boilers, furnaces, and water heaters.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The products include gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation or jet fuel, home heating oil, oil for ships and oil to burn in power plants to make electricity.
  • The Energy Story - Chapter 8: Fossil Fuels - Coal, Oil and Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.energyquest.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.CNG is used in rural homes without connections to piped-in public utility services, or with portable grills.^ CNG is used in rural homes without connections to piped-in public utility services, or with portable grills.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Services provided to public utilities.
  • Natural Gas Utilities Information | Business.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So having the 1/2" pipe at the opposite end of a home will almost never be able to be used for a generator unless it is just off a large main pipe line.
  • Natural Gas Pipe Size Chart and Installation Information. 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.uscarb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Natural gas is also supplied by independent natural gas suppliers through Natural Gas Choice programs throughout the United States.^ Just about everyone in the United States uses natural gas.
  • Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC lsa.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Canadian natural gas is the largest foreign source of gas to the United States.
  • Claymore Natural Gas Commodity ETF - GAS - Claymore Investments, Inc. 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.claymoreinvestments.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Natural gas production in the United States peaked in 1971.
  • Natural Gas Shortages 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC healthandenergy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, due to CNG being less economical than LPG, LPG (propane) is the dominant source of rural gas.^ However, due to CNG being less economical than LPG which is liquified propane, butane or a mixture of both, LPG is the dominant source of rural gas.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Compressed natural gas (CNG) is used in rural homes without connections to piped -in public utility services, or with portable grills .
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ormen Lange gas field's reserves in the Norwegian Sea could be 25% less than previously estimated, Norwegian business daily Dagens Naeringsliv wrote in an article published on Friday, which quotes industry sources.
  • Oil and gas news from Natural gas - Offshore247.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.offshore247.com [Source type: News]

A Washington, D.C. Metrobus which runs on natural gas

Transportation

.Compressed natural gas (methane) is a cleaner alternative to other automobile fuels such as gasoline (petrol) and diesel.^ Compressed natural gas (methane) is used as a clean alternative to other automobile fuels such as gasoline (petrol) and diesel.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Alternative fuels Other fuels that can be substituted for the fuel in use.

^ Transportation fuel Compressed natural gas (CNG) is a cleaner alternative to other automobile fuels such as gasoline (petrol) and diesel fuel.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.As of 2008 there were 9.6 million natural gas vehicles worldwide, led by Pakistan (2.0 million), Argentina (1.7 million), Brazil (1.6 million), Iran (1.0 million), and India (650 thousand).^ Pakistan has only 21.6 Tcf of natural gas reserves, resulting in the production of 0.7 Tcf of natural gas, which is exactly the same as the level of natural gas consumption in the country.
  • Iran to India Natural Gas Pipeline 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AT&T expects to spend an estimated $350 million to purchase about 8,000 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) vehicles and approximately $215 million to begin replacing its passenger cars with alternative-fuel models, beginning with hybrids.

^ Surely this is something India, Iran, and Pakistan can all understand.
  • Iran to India Natural Gas Pipeline 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14][15] .The energy efficiency is generally equal to that of gasoline engines, but lower compared with modern diesel engines.^ The energy efficiency is generally equal to that of gasoline engines, but lower compared with modern diesel engines.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The energy efficiency is generally equal to that of gasoline engines, but lower compared with modern diesel engines, because of the lower compression ratios used by the natural gas engine.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Performance versus Diesel/Gasoline Engines .
  • Natural Gas Vehicles « Pike Research 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.pikeresearch.com [Source type: News]

.Gasoline/petrol vehicles converted to run on natural gas suffer because of the low compression ratio of their engines, resulting in a cropping of delivered power while running on natural gas (10%-15%).^ Gasoline/petrol vehicles converted to run on natural gas suffer because of the low compression ratio of their engines, resulting in a cropping of delivered power while running on natural gas (10%-15%).
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Engine has 10.5 to 1 compression and Altronic ignition.

^ Propane and natural gas powered engines provide the same power as gasoline.
  • Generator Conversion Kits to Propane and Natural Gas. 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC propane-generators.com [Source type: General]

CNG-specific engines, however, use a higher compression ratio due to this fuel's higher octane number of 120–130.[16]

Fertilizer

.Natural gas is a major feedstock for the production of ammonia, via the Haber process, for use in fertilizer production.^ Natural gas is used to generate electricity by three main processes: .
  • EEI - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.eei.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Natural Gas is also the feedstock for hydrogen production.

^ Natural gas is needed as a chemical feedstock for plastics and other products.
  • The Oil Drum | Natural Gas Revisited 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Aviation

.Russian aircraft manufacturer Tupolev is currently running a development program to produce LNG- and hydrogen-powered aircraft.^ Aviation Russian aircraft manufacturer Tupolev is currently running a development program to produce LNG- and hydrogen-powered aircraft.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The program has been running since the mid-1970s, and seeks to develop LNG and hydrogen variants of the Tu-204 and Tu-334 passenger aircraft, and also the Tu-330 cargo aircraft.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ LNG any quantity directly from one of main Russian producer....
  • Natural Gas - Natural Gas and more 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

[17] .The program has been running since the mid-1970s, and seeks to develop LNG and hydrogen variants of the Tu-204 and Tu-334 passenger aircraft, and also the Tu-330 cargo aircraft.^ The program has been running since the mid-1970s, and seeks to develop LNG and hydrogen variants of the Tu-204 and Tu-334 passenger aircraft, and also the Tu-330 cargo aircraft.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Aviation Russian aircraft manufacturer Tupolev is currently running a development program to produce LNG- and hydrogen-powered aircraft.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Algeria has supplied almost all of the nation’s imported LNG ever since, although in widely varying amounts.
  • Energy Report - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It claims that at current market prices, an LNG-powered aircraft would cost 5,000 roubles (~ $218/ £112) less to operate per ton, roughly equivalent to 60%, with considerable reductions to carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions.^ The cost to move and process LNG is much higher than the current price of gas, so if those plants (which are mostly idle at the moment) actually bring in LNG, they are doing so at a significant loss simply to generate cash flow.
  • No Respect? Cheap Natural Gas Draws Political Crowd - Environmental Capital - WSJ 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC blogs.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ Although it has only half the power of propane (and thus you have to use twice as much), natural gas is so cheap that it is a third of the price per BTU. .

^ As a natural gas marketer let me definitively say that we WISH gas prices would stay lower as our profit margin would increase more were it cheaper.
  • Natural Gas Prices Set to Jump 52%, EIA Says 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.americandrycleaner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The advantages of liquid methane as a jet engine fuel are that it has more specific energy than the standard kerosene mixes do and that its low temperature can help cool the air which the engine compresses for greater volumetric efficiency, in effect replacing an intercooler.^ The advantages of liquid methane as a jet engine fuel are that it has more specific energy than the standard kerosene mixes and that its low temperature can help cool the air which the engine compresses for greater volumetric efficiency, in effect replacing an intercooler .
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Natural gas offers many advantages compared with other fossil fuels: a relatively low greenhouse signature, energy efficiency, and ease of use.
  • Natural Gas Markets: Blog - Business Exchange 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC bx.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

^ Powered by Deutz and Volvo engines, GMI generators are long lasting, easy to maintain and optimized for low fuel consumption and clean emissions.
  • GENERATOR SUPERSTORE! GENERATORS , PRESSURE WASHER , PRESSURE WASHERS , CHAINSAWS , CHAINSAW , CHAIN SAWS , CHAIN SAW! 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.portable-electric-power-generators.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Alternatively, it can be used to lower the temperature of the exhaust.^ Alternatively, it can be used to lower the temperature of the exhaust.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

Hydrogen

.Natural gas can be used to produce hydrogen, with one common method being the hydrogen reformer.^ Investing in Natural Gas: How it was used .
  • Investing in Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC dailyreckoning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural Gas is also the feedstock for hydrogen production.

^ Natural gas is the cheapest, so we use it.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Natural Gas: how big is the problem? 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hydrogen has various applications: it is a primary feedstock for the chemical industry, a hydrogenating agent, an important commodity for oil refineries, and a fuel source in hydrogen vehicles.^ It is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for producing ammonia , hydrogen , petrochemicals and fertilizers .
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen has various applications: it is a primary feedstock for the chemical industry, a hydrogenating agent, an important commodity for oil refineries, and a fuel source in hydrogen vehicles .
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen has various applications: it is a primary feedstock for the chemical industry, a hydrogenating agent, a important commodity for oil refineries, and a fuel source in hydrogen vehicles.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

Other

.Natural gas is also used in the manufacture of fabrics, glass, steel, plastics, paint, and other products.^ Natural Gas is also the feedstock for hydrogen production.

^ Nature Gas Sampler is a new product....
  • Natural Gas - Natural Gas and more 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ Natural gas is needed as a chemical feedstock for plastics and other products.
  • The Oil Drum | Natural Gas Revisited 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Storage and transport

polyethylene plastic main being laid in a trench.
.The major difficulty in the use of natural gas is transportation and storage because of its low density.^ Transportation A natural gas processing plant.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Natural gas is the cheapest, so we use it.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Natural Gas: how big is the problem? 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Liquefied natural gas transportation: in the pipeline.
  • Iran to India Natural Gas Pipeline 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Natural gas pipelines are economical, but are impractical across oceans.^ Are natural gas pipelines safe?
  • Southern Natural Gas > FAQs 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.elpaso.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Liquefied natural gas transportation: in the pipeline.
  • Iran to India Natural Gas Pipeline 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas pipelines are economical, but are impractical across oceans.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

.Many existing pipelines in North America are close to reaching their capacity, prompting some politicians representing colder areas to speak publicly of potential shortages.^ Many existing pipelines in North America are close to reaching their capacity, prompting some politicians in colder climates to speak publicly of potential shortages.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ North America is facing a huge shortage of NG within the next 10 years.
  • 10 Things You Should Know About Natural Gas Vehicles 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC earth2tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The key to this extraordinary value is that hubs increase the load factor on existing reserves and pipeline capacity.
  • Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC floridiangasstorage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Europe, the gas pipeline network is already dense in the West[18].^ Because of its repeated conflicts with Ukraine and others, Russia wants to build a completely new set of natural gas pipelines to supply Europe.
  • The Oil and The Glory by Steve LeVine 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC oilandglory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Middle East/North Africa region also has a developed network (PDF) of pipelines, primarily leading into southern Europe.
  • Challenges to Globalizing Natural Gas - Council on Foreign Relations 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.cfr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now, Vladimir Putin intends to build on Russia's restored power by erecting two gigantic new natural gas pipelines into Europe, which already relies on Russia for almost a third of its gas.
  • The Oil and The Glory by Steve LeVine 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC oilandglory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.New pipelines are planned or under construction in Eastern Europe and between gas fields in Russia, Near East and Northern Africa and Western Europe.^ The largest two natural gas fields are probably South Pars Gas Field in Iran and Urengoy gas field in Russia, with reserves on the order of 1013 m³.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Russia's Vladimir Putin is far advanced in his shrewd market strategy for dominating Europe's natural gas supply even more than Russia currently does.
  • The Oil and The Glory by Steve LeVine 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC oilandglory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Southern Natural Gas intends to apply for permission to construct and operate the pipeline in the spring of 2005.
  • Southern Natural Gas > FAQs 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.elpaso.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(See also: List of natural gas pipelines )
.LNG carriers can be used to transport liquefied natural gas (LNG) across oceans, while tank trucks can carry liquefied or compressed natural gas (CNG) over shorter distances.^ Liquefied Natural Gas, 9th Annual .
  • Natural Gas Energy Service, Trading, Industry, Products, Professional Risk Management, Settlement & Compliance - Platts 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.platts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Natural Gas Energy Service, Trading, Industry, Products, Professional Risk Management, Settlement & Compliance - Platts 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC new.platts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Transportation A natural gas processing plant.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Natural gas is the cheapest, so we use it.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Natural Gas: how big is the problem? 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sea transport using CNG carrier ships that are now under development may be competitive with LNG transport in specific conditions.^ Sea transport using CNG carrier ships that are now under development may be competitive with LNG transport in specific conditions.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In coal mines , where any coalbed methane that may be present has no odor, methane sensors are used, and mining equipment has been specifically developed to avoid ignition sources.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, fleets may need to purchase service and diagnostic equipment if access to commercial CNG/LNG vehicle maintenance facilities is not available.

.For LNG transport a liquefaction plant is needed at the exporting end and regasification equipment at the receiving terminal.^ For LNG transportation by seagoing tankers, an LNG liquefaction plant is needed at the exporting end and an LNG regasification plant is needed at the receiving LNG terminal .
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Increasing number of LNG trains and LNG receiving terminals.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Natural Gas: how big is the problem? 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additionally, companies now recognize that value for the gas may be achieved with LNG, CNG, or other transportation methods to end-users in the future.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

Shipborne regasification equipment is also practicable. .LNG transportation is established as the preferred technology for long distance, high volume transportation of natural gas, whereas pipeline transport is preferred for transport for distances up to typically 4.000 km overland and approximately half that distance over seas.^ Transportation A natural gas processing plant.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The major means of transporting large volumes of natural gas overland is by pipelines and pipelines have been established as the preferred transportation mode for overland distances of up to about 4,000 kilometres (2,500 miles).
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Liquefied natural gas transportation: in the pipeline.
  • Iran to India Natural Gas Pipeline 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For CNG transport high pressure, typically above 200 bars, is used.^ Compression Increasing the pressure of natural gas to allow it to be transported by pipeline Compressor A machine used to boost natural gas pressure to move it through pipelines or other facilities.

^ Pressures up to 240 bars are sometimes used for bottled methane, but most pipelines run at 15 to 100 bars.
  • Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.cypenv.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LNG carriers can be used to transport liquefied natural gas (LNG) across oceans, while tank trucks can carry liquefied or compressed natural gas (CNG) over shorter distances.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

.Compressors and decompression equipment are less capital intensive and may be economical in smaller unit sizes than liquefaction/regasification plants.^ For LNG transportation by seagoing tankers, an LNG liquefaction plant is needed at the exporting end and an LNG regasification plant is needed at the receiving LNG terminal .
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Depending on whose estimates you believe, that recovery may be less than a year off.

^ Also, distribution of more land to one family may grant them more political power than a family that has less land.
  • Iran to India Natural Gas Pipeline 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For CNG mode the crucial problem is the investment and operating cost of carriers.^ These factors increase operating costs and make capital investment less attractive.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

.Natural gas trucks and carriers may transport natural gas directly to end-users, or to distribution points such as pipelines for further transport.^ They may transport natural gas directly to end-users, or to distribution points such as pipelines for further transport.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Transportation A natural gas processing plant.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A continental natural gas supply, distribution and transportation network is required.
  • Natural Gas Discussion Group - PickensPlan 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC push.pickensplan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
Peoples Gas Manlove Field Natural gas storage area in Newcomb Township, Champaign County, Illinois.
^ Amount of natural gas in storage.
  • Alliant Energy : Natural Gas Winter Outlook 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.alliantenergy.com [Source type: General]

^ See also List of natural gas fields.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The largest two natural gas fields are probably South Pars Gas Field in Iran and Urengoy gas field in Russia, with reserves on the order of 1013 m³.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

In the foreground (left) is one of numerous wells for the underground storage area, with an LNG plant and above ground storage tanks in the background (right).
.In the past, the natural gas which was recovered in the course of recovering petroleum could not be profitably sold, and was simply burned at the oil field (known as flaring).^ Provider of oil/natural gas services.
  • Natural Gas Utilities Information | Business.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If this is true for natural gas, this could be a problem.
  • The Oil Drum | Natural Gas Revisited 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Products and services are sold to the petroleum and natural gas industries.
  • Natural Gas Utilities Information | Business.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This wasteful practice is now illegal in many countries[19].^ He also commented on the current era of economic globalization which many developing countries now face.
  • Iran to India Natural Gas Pipeline 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This wasteful practice is now illegal in many countries, especially since it adds greenhouse gas pollution to the earth's atmosphere.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

.Additionally, companies now recognize that value for the gas may be achieved with LNG, CNG, or other transportation methods to end-users in the future.^ Additionally, companies now recognize that value for the gas may be achieved with LNG, CNG, or other transportation methods to end-users in the future.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Storage near the ultimate end-users helps to best meet volatile demands, but this may not always be practicable.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Natural Gas Value Chain The natural gas value chain looks similar to value chains for many other fossil fuels, consisting of exploration & production, processing, transportation, additional processing, marketing/distribution, and ultimately, delivery to end users.
  • Natural Gas Prices 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The gas is now re-injected back into the formation for later recovery.^ The gas is now re-injected back into the formation for later recovery.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Then you say “and now that we’re already almost all the way there, natural gas and bio-mass can do the rest”.
  • Game changer, Part 2: Why unconventional natural gas makes the 2020 Waxman-Markey target so damn easy and cheap to meet « Climate Progress 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC climateprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two options, either injecting the gas into the air intake or special injectors that inject diesel and natural gas into the cylinder at high pressure at different timings.
  • The Oil Drum | Natural Gas Revisited 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This also assists oil pumping by keeping underground pressures higher.^ This also assists oil pumping by keeping underground pressures higher.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Fracturing (or fracing) A reservoir stimulation technique in which fluids are pumped into a potentially productive formation under high pressure to create or enlarge fractures which allows the oil or gas to flow from the zone at higher rates.

^ Provider of oil and gas pressure pumping services, including stimulation, cementing, commissioning, and leak detection.
  • Natural Gas Utilities Information | Business.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Saudi Arabia, in the late 1970s, a "Master Gas System" was created, ending the need for flaring.^ In Saudi Arabia, in the late 1970s, a "Master Gas System" was created, ending the need for flaring.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It may not be as obvious that the distribution system as a whole is likely to need to be expanded, if significantly more natural gas is produced.
  • The Oil Drum | Natural Gas Revisited 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Saudi Arabia , the world's fourth-largest natural gas reserves, has modest production levels but produces none for export.
  • Challenges to Globalizing Natural Gas - Council on Foreign Relations 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.cfr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Satellite observation unfortunately shows that some large gas-producing countries still use flaring[20] and venting[21] routinely.^ A view of Russian gas flaring based on satellite observations.

^ Still, the country gets about 20 percent of its gas from imports.
  • Challenges to Globalizing Natural Gas - Council on Foreign Relations 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.cfr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just Energy purchases large quantities of natural gas and electricity under long term agreements with producers or generators.
  • Just Energy Frequently Asked Questions | Natural Gas and Electricity Service 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.justenergy.com [Source type: General]

.The natural gas is used to generate electricity and heat for desalination.^ Natural gas is currently the second largest fuel for electric generation.
  • No Respect? Cheap Natural Gas Draws Political Crowd - Environmental Capital - WSJ 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC blogs.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ Natural gas is a major source for electricity generation through the use of gas turbines and steam turbines.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Cooling demand: An increasing amount of natural gas is being used to generate electricity.
  • Alliant Energy : Natural Gas Winter Outlook 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.alliantenergy.com [Source type: General]

.Similarly, some landfills that also discharge methane gases have been set up to capture the methane and generate electricity.^ Similarly, some landfills that also discharge methane gases have been set up to capture the methane and generate electricity.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Contact Us How to Quickly Set Up Your Gasoline Stockpile A portable generator is just a machine that converts gasoline into electricity.
  • Natural Gas Generators @ Electric Generators Direct.com - natural gas generator, natural gas generators, gas generator, gas generators, gas home generator, gas home generators, gas power generator, gas power generators 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.electricgeneratorsdirect.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still there is some electricity generation capacity from Oil, but it is unlikely that either Europe or North America will be able grow imports much more from what they are now.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Natural Gas: how big is the problem? 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Natural gas is often stored underground inside depleted gas reservoirs from previous gas wells, salt domes, or in tanks as liquefied natural gas.^ Liquefied Natural Gas, 9th Annual .
  • Energy Derivatives Specification, Oil, Coal, Natural Gas Methodology - Platts 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.platts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Private natural gas well .
  • Natural Gas News - Topix 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: News]
  • Natural Gas News - Topix 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]

^ Natural gas is often stored in underground caverns formed inside depleted gas reservoirs from previous gas wells, salt domes, or in tanks as liquefied natural gas.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

.The gas is injected during periods of low demand and extracted during periods of higher demand.^ The gas is injected during periods of low demand and extracted during periods of higher demand.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The gas is stored during periods of low demand and extracted during periods of higher demand.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Natural gas is increasingly used at newer “peaker” power plants (such as the Emery Generating Station near Mason City, Iowa) that generate extra electricity during periods of peak demand during summer heat waves.
  • Alliant Energy : Natural Gas Winter Outlook 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.alliantenergy.com [Source type: General]

.Storage near the ultimate end-users helps to best meet volatile demands, but this may not always be practicable.^ Storage near the ultimate end-users helps to best meet volatile demands, but this may not always be practicable.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ At this time, both IPL and WPL have enough natural gas in storage to meet typical heating demands for this heating season.
  • Alliant Energy : Natural Gas Winter Outlook 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.alliantenergy.com [Source type: General]

^ They may transport natural gas directly to end-users, or to distribution points such as pipelines for further transport.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

.With 15 nations accounting for 84% of the worldwide production, access to natural gas has become a significant factor in international economics and politics.^ Natural Gas is also the feedstock for hydrogen production.

^ Nature Gas Sampler is a new product....
  • Natural Gas - Natural Gas and more 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ Natural gas is also used in electricity production.
  • The Oil Drum | Natural Gas Revisited 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In this respect, control over the pipelines is a major strategic factor.[22] .In particular, in the 2000s, Gazprom, the Russian national energy company, has engaged in disputes with Ukraine and Belarus over the price of its natural gas, which have created worries that gas deliveries to parts of Europe could be cut off for political reasons.^ What causes natural gas prices to rise?
  • Just Energy Frequently Asked Questions | Natural Gas and Electricity Service 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.justenergy.com [Source type: General]

^ Natural Gas Prices 90 Day .
  • Natural Gas Prices and News, NYMEX Natural Gas prices, charts, and live feeds. 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.metalprices.com [Source type: General]

^ Does Alliant Energy profit from higher natural gas prices?
  • Alliant Energy : Natural Gas Winter Outlook 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.alliantenergy.com [Source type: General]

[23]

Environmental effects

Climate change

.Natural gas is often described as the cleanest fossil fuel, producing less carbon dioxide per joule delivered than either coal or oil.^ Both help pollute the world, but natural gas is much cleaner - per unit of energy its combustion produces 30% less carbon dioxide than oil, and about 45% less carbon dioxide than coal .
  • Natural Gas Prices 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Provider of oil/natural gas services.
  • Natural Gas Utilities Information | Business.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For an equivalent amount of heat, burning natural gas produces about 30% less carbon dioxide than burning petroleum and about 45% less than burning coal.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

[13], and far fewer pollutants than other fossil fuels. .However, in absolute terms it does contribute substantially to global carbon emissions, and this contribution is projected to grow.^ However, it does contribute significantly to global carbon dioxide emissions.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This in effect contributes to reducing the effect of global warming since carbon dioxide is a major source of global warming (World Bank 2000).
  • Iran to India Natural Gas Pipeline 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aside from the level of carbon emissions, numerous additional factors contribute to the deteriorating condition of Pakistan's environment.
  • Iran to India Natural Gas Pipeline 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (Working Group III Report, Chapter 4), in 2004 natural gas produced about 5,300 Mt/yr of CO2 emissions, while coal and oil produced 10,600 and 10,200 respectively (Figure 4.4); but by 2030, according to an updated version of the SRES B2 emissions scenario, natural gas would be the source of 11,000 Mt/yr, with coal and oil now 8,400 and 17,200 respectively.^ Provider of oil/natural gas services.
  • Natural Gas Utilities Information | Business.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sources of natural gas .
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What will be the source of the natural gas?
  • Southern Natural Gas > FAQs 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.elpaso.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .(Total global emissions for 2004 were estimated at over 27,200 Mt.^ According to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report , in 2004 natural gas produced about 5,300 M t /year of carbon dioxide emissions, while coal and oil produced 10,600 and 10,200 Mt/yr respectively.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

)
.In addition, natural gas itself is a greenhouse gas (methane) far more potent than carbon dioxide when released into the atmosphere, although released in much smaller quantities.^ NGVs can also reduce emissions of carbon dioxide, the primary greenhouse gas.

^ Biomethane is the "natural, natural gas" and is far better for the environment and the economy than natural gas.

^ In addition, any methane-rich gas such as natural gas is a greenhouse gas more potent than carbon dioxide when released into the atmosphere.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.Natural gas is mainly composed of methane, which has a radiative forcing twenty times greater than carbon dioxide.^ Before raw natural gas extracted from those reservoirs can be used as a fuel, it must undergo extensive processing to remove almost all materials other than methane.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For instance: Countries trying to meet the greenhouse emissions limits set by the Kyoto Protocol are rapidly building natural gas-fired power plants, which emit much less carbon dioxide than do coal plants.
  • Hunger For Natural Gas | | AlterNet 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Both help pollute the world, but natural gas is much cleaner - per unit of energy its combustion produces 30% less carbon dioxide than oil, and about 45% less carbon dioxide than coal .
  • Natural Gas Prices 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This means a ton of methane in the atmosphere traps in as much radiation as 20 tons of carbon dioxide.^ It’s because, in addition to carbon dioxide reductions, NGVs also emit less carbon monoxide, non-methane organic gas and nitrogen oxides.
  • 10 Things You Should Know About Natural Gas Vehicles 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC earth2tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and water vapor.

^ In addition, any methane-rich gas such as natural gas is a greenhouse gas more potent than carbon dioxide when released into the atmosphere.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.Carbon dioxide still receives the lion's share of attention over greenhouse gases because it is released in much larger amounts.^ Carbon dioxide receives the most attention over greenhouse gases because it is in much higher concentrations.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For instance: Countries trying to meet the greenhouse emissions limits set by the Kyoto Protocol are rapidly building natural gas-fired power plants, which emit much less carbon dioxide than do coal plants.
  • Hunger For Natural Gas | | AlterNet 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Gas with a significant amount of sulfur impurities, such as hydrogen sulfide, is termed sour gas; gas with sulfur or carbon dioxide impurities is acid gas.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

.Still, it is inevitable in using natural gas on a large scale that some of it will leak into the atmosphere.^ Natural gas is the cheapest, so we use it.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Natural Gas: how big is the problem? 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas is also used in electricity production.
  • The Oil Drum | Natural Gas Revisited 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How do customers use natural gas?
  • Alliant Energy : Natural Gas Winter Outlook 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.alliantenergy.com [Source type: General]

.Current USEPA estimates place global emissions of methane at 3 trillion cubic feet annually[25], or 3.2% of global production[26].^ Qatar also has 25 trillion cubic meters of natural gas (14% of the world's proven supply)[13], enough to last 250 years at current production levels.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Q Quad An energy quantity of one quadrillion BTUs (1,055 petajoules), which is approximately the energy equivalent contained in one trillion cubic feet of natural gas.

^ Consumption has crashed 36% from 2.7 trillion cubic feet in January, to 2.1 trillion in March, to 1.7 trillion cubic feet in April.

.Direct emissions of methane represented 14.3% of all global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in 2004 [27].^ In 2006, Texas produced more than 5.1 trillion cubic feet or 27.8 percent of all natural gas produced in the U.S., still more than any other state ( Exhibit 5-6 ).
  • Energy Report - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, any methane-rich gas such as natural gas is a greenhouse gas more potent than carbon dioxide when released into the atmosphere.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ SaturnV on December 6, 2006 - 8:23pm There is also the slight problem that methane is more than 20 times as strong a greenhouse gas as carbon dioxide.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Natural Gas: how big is the problem? 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other pollutants

.Natural gas produces far lower amounts of sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxides than any other fossil fuel.^ Biomethane is the "natural, natural gas" and is far better for the environment and the economy than natural gas.

^ So far in Alberta both are from natural gas.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Natural Gas: how big is the problem? 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Biomethane - like natural gas from "fossil fuels" - can be compressed or liquefied.

Safety

A pipeline odorant injection station
.In any form, a minute amount of odorant such as t-butyl mercaptan, with a rotting-cabbage-like smell, is added to the otherwise colorless and almost odorless gas, so that leaks can be detected before a fire or explosion occurs.^ Since it is also very flammable, it is important that natural gas leaks be detected before a fire or explosion occurs.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In any form, a minute amount of odorant such as t-butyl mercaptan, with a rotting-cabbage-like smell, is added to the otherwise colorless and odorless gas, so that leaks can be detected before a fire or explosion occurs.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For that reason, very small amounts of a mercaptan such as t-butyl mercaptan , with a strongly unpleasant smell, is added to the natural gas as an odorant.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.Sometimes a related compound, thiophane is used, with a rotten-egg smell.^ Sometimes a related compound, thiophane is used, with a rotten-egg smell.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Leaking natural gas will smell like rotten eggs, and you may hear a hissing sound.
  • Natural Gas Utilities Information | Business.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Adding odorant to natural gas began in the United States after the 1937 New London School explosion.^ Odorizing of natural gas began in the United States after the 1937 New London School explosion in the town of New London, Texas .
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Natural gas production in the United States peaked in 1971.
  • Natural Gas Shortages 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC healthandenergy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adding odorant to natural gas began in the United States after the 1937 New London School explosion.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

.The buildup of gas in the school went unnoticed, killing three hundred students and faculty when it ignited.^ The buildup of gas in the school went unnoticed, killing three hundred students and faculty when it ignited.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The buildup of gas in the school's basement went unnoticed, killing three hundred students and faculty when it ignited.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.Odorants are considered non-toxic in the extremely low concentrations occurring in natural gas delivered to the end user.^ Such odorants are considered non-toxic in the extremely low concentrations at which they are used.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Odorants are considered non-toxic in the extremely low concentrations occurring in natural gas delivered to the end user.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Natural gas is available to end-users through the utility infrastructure.

.In mines, where methane seeping from rock formations has no odor, sensors are used, and mining apparatuses have been specifically developed to avoid ignition sources, e.g., the Davy lamp.^ In mines, where methane seeping from rock formations has no odor, sensors are used, and mining apparatuses have been specifically developed to avoid ignition sources, e.g., the Davy lamp.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Lawmakers launch programs to develop alternative-energy supplies but later quietly cut or eliminate the funding so there are no realistic alternative sources.
  • Natural Gas Shortages 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC healthandenergy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Explosions caused by natural gas leaks occur a few times each year.^ What causes natural gas prices to rise?
  • Just Energy Frequently Asked Questions | Natural Gas and Electricity Service 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.justenergy.com [Source type: General]

^ Explosions caused by natural gas leaks occur a few times each year.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In any form, a minute amount of odorant such as t-butyl mercaptan, with a rotting-cabbage-like smell, is added to the otherwise colorless and odorless gas, so that leaks can be detected before a fire or explosion occurs.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

.Individual homes, small businesses and boats are most frequently affected when an internal leak builds up gas inside the structure.^ Individual homes, small businesses and boats are most frequently affected when an internal leak builds up gas inside the structure.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Also, considering the tens of millions of structures that use the fuel, the individual risk of using natural gas is very low.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Russia, which already supplies more than 30% of Europe's oil and natural gas, wants to build up that formidable position.
  • The Oil and The Glory by Steve LeVine 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC oilandglory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Frequently, the blast will be enough to significantly damage a building but leave it standing.^ Frequently, the blast will be enough to significantly damage a building but leave it standing.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

.In these cases, the people inside tend to have minor to moderate injuries.^ In such cases, the people inside tend to have minor to moderate injuries.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In these cases, the people inside tend to have minor to moderate injuries.
  • Natural Gas Bank - Fossil Fuel, Methane, Ethane, Butane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Hydrogen Sulfide 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasbank.com [Source type: Reference]

.Occasionally, the gas can collect in high enough quantities to cause a deadly explosion, disintegrating one or more buildings in the process.^ Occasionally, the gas can collect in high enough quantities to cause a deadly explosion, disintegrating one or more buildings in the process.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The gas usually dissipates readily outdoors, but can sometimes collect in dangerous quantities if weather conditions are right.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When processed and purified into finished by-products, all of these are collectively referred to as NGL (Natural Gas Liquids) .
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.The gas usually dissipates readily outdoors, but can sometimes collect in dangerous quantities if weather conditions are right.^ The gas usually dissipates readily outdoors, but can sometimes collect in dangerous quantities if weather conditions are right.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The utilities design their natural gas systems to provide reliable service to residential and small commercial customers even under extreme weather conditions.
  • CALIFORNIA NATURAL GAS INFRASTRUCTURE OUTLOOK 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.cpuc.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hot summer weather increases electricity demand for air conditioning, and in turn natural gas used by electric generators.
  • CALIFORNIA NATURAL GAS INFRASTRUCTURE OUTLOOK 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.cpuc.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, considering the tens of millions of structures that use the fuel, the individual risk of using natural gas is very low.^ Structure and organization in the natural gas industry’.
  • The Realities of Natural Gas -- Seeking Alpha 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC seekingalpha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas is the cheapest, so we use it.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Natural Gas: how big is the problem? 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, considering the tens of millions of structures that use the fuel, the individual risk of using natural gas is very low.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some gas fields yield sour gas containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S).^ Such gas is referred to as coalbed gas or coalbed methane (CBM) and it is also called sweet gas because it is relatively free of hydrogen sulfide.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sour gas Raw natural gas with a relatively high concentration of sulphur compounds, such as hydrogen sulphide.

^ During the 1990s, western companies got access to some of Russia ’s most technologically difficult-to-develop oil and natural gas fields.
  • The Oil and The Glory by Steve LeVine 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC oilandglory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This untreated gas is toxic. .Amine gas treating, an industrial scale process which removes acidic gaseous components, is often used to remove hydrogen sulfide from natural gas.^ Natural Gas is also the feedstock for hydrogen production.

^ Structure and organization in the natural gas industry’.
  • The Realities of Natural Gas -- Seeking Alpha 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC seekingalpha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transportation A natural gas processing plant.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

[28]
.Extraction of natural gas (or oil) leads to decrease in pressure in the reservoir.^ Provider of oil/natural gas services.
  • Natural Gas Utilities Information | Business.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solution gas Natural gas that is found with crude oil in underground reservoirs.

^ Provider of oil and natural gas services.
  • Natural Gas Utilities Information | Business.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This in turn may lead to subsidence at ground level.^ With the ongoing credit crisis still unfolding, an increase in imports that allows maintenance of present EU consumption levels may turn out to be a major accomplishment.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Will the UK Face a Natural Gas Crisis this Winter? (Part 1 of 2) 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Subsidence may affect ecosystems, waterways, sewer and water supply systems, foundations, etc.^ Such a supply crunch could have cascading effects, and may affect other energy systems.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Will the UK Face a Natural Gas Crisis this Winter? (Part 1 of 2) 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It may be an open pit or an engineered facility that includes special linings to prevent wastes from leaking into water supplies.

^ In May 2000, SoCalGas reduced the likelihood of future curtailments in its territory by adding 70 MMcfd of capacity to the pipeline that supplies most of the gas to the SDG&E system.
  • CALIFORNIA NATURAL GAS INFRASTRUCTURE OUTLOOK 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.cpuc.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Natural gas heating systems are a minor source of carbon monoxide deaths in the United States.^ Natural gas heating systems are a minor source of carbon monoxide deaths in the United States.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sources of natural gas .
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Natural gas heating systems accounted for 4% of these deaths.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.According to the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (2008), 56% of unintentional deaths from non-fire CO poisoning were associated with engine-driven tools like gas-powered generators and lawn mowers.^ In general, I happen to like natural gas.
  • The Oil Drum | Natural Gas Revisited 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methane is about 21 times more powerful at warming the atmosphere than carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) by weight (see box below), according to the US EPA. .

^ Approximate future US natural gas production, based on Navigant Consulting estimates of shale gas and tight gas production.
  • The Oil Drum | Natural Gas Revisited 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Natural gas heating systems accounted for 4% of these deaths.^ These customers include local distribution companies, which resell the gas to residential and business customers; electric utilities that use the natural gas to generate electricity; and large industrial customers.
  • Southern Natural Gas > FAQs 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.elpaso.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Restructuring efforts also affected storage infrastructure and intrastate natural gas transmission systems.
  • CALIFORNIA NATURAL GAS INFRASTRUCTURE OUTLOOK 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.cpuc.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The utilities design their natural gas systems to provide reliable service to residential and small commercial customers even under extreme weather conditions.
  • CALIFORNIA NATURAL GAS INFRASTRUCTURE OUTLOOK 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.cpuc.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Improvements in natural gas furnace designs have greatly reduced CO poisoning concerns.^ Improvements in natural gas furnace designs have greatly reduced CO poisoning concerns.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Natural gas production depends on pressure in the formation; with every cubic foot removed, the pressure is reduced.
  • Energy Report - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The utilities design their natural gas systems to provide reliable service to residential and small commercial customers even under extreme weather conditions.
  • CALIFORNIA NATURAL GAS INFRASTRUCTURE OUTLOOK 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.cpuc.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Detectors are also available that warn of carbon monoxide and/or explosive gas (methane, propane, etc.^ Carbon monoxide Colorless, odorless, poisonous gas produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels.

^ SaturnV on December 6, 2006 - 8:23pm There is also the slight problem that methane is more than 20 times as strong a greenhouse gas as carbon dioxide.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Natural Gas: how big is the problem? 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, commercially available medium- and heavy-duty natural gas engines have demonstrated over 90% reductions of carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter and more than 50% reduction in nitrogen oxides (NO x ) relative to commercial diesel engines.

).

Energy content, statistics and pricing

Natural gas prices at the Henry Hub in US Dollars per cubic meter for the 2000-2010 decade.
.Quantities of natural gas are measured in normal cubic meters (corresponding to 0°C at 101.325 kPa) or in standard cubic feet (corresponding to 60 °F (16 °C) and 14.73 psia).^ Quantities of natural gas are measured in normal cubic meters at 0 °C and 101.325 k Pa absolute pressure or in standard cubic feet at 60 °F and 14.496 psi absolute pressure.
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ That corresponds to a natural gas price of about $350 per 1,000 cubic meters.
  • The Oil and The Glory by Steve LeVine 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC oilandglory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BCF - Billion Cubic Feet - a volumetric measurement of gas.
  • CALIFORNIA NATURAL GAS INFRASTRUCTURE OUTLOOK 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.cpuc.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The gross heat of combustion of one kg of commercial quality natural gas is around 39 megajoules (≈10.8 kWh), but this can vary by several percent.^ Percent of U.S. emissions from natural gas in Texas .
  • Energy Report - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Percent of state emissions from natural gas .
  • Energy Report - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Domestic use Natural gas is supplied to homes, where it is used for such purposes as cooking in natural gas-powered ranges and/or ovens, natural gas-heated clothes dryers , heating / cooling and central heating .
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.The price of natural gas varies greatly depending on location and type of consumer.^ What causes natural gas prices to rise?
  • Just Energy Frequently Asked Questions | Natural Gas and Electricity Service 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.justenergy.com [Source type: General]

^ The location of new gas-fired generation will have an affect on where natural gas is consumed.
  • CALIFORNIA NATURAL GAS INFRASTRUCTURE OUTLOOK 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.cpuc.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are 3 ways you can register for the natural gas fixed price program: top .
  • Just Energy Frequently Asked Questions | Natural Gas and Electricity Service 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.justenergy.com [Source type: General]

.In 2007, a price of $7 per 1,000 cubic feet (28 m3) was typical in the United States.^ U.S. natural gas wellhead prices were $5.80 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf) in early 2005; by October, the price had nearly doubled, to $10.33 per Mcf .
  • Energy Report - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Last autumn, Turkmenistan said that in 2008 Iran would have to remit much more than the $75 per 1,000 cubic meters, the extremely low price it had been paying.
  • The Oil and The Glory by Steve LeVine 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC oilandglory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In all, Texas’ natural gas storage capacity was 683.5 billion cubic feet in August 2007, placing the state fourth in the nation behind Michigan, Illinois and Pennsylvania.
  • Energy Report - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The typical caloric value of natural gas is roughly 1,000 British Thermal Units (BTU) per cubic foot, depending on gas composition.^ That corresponds to a natural gas price of about $350 per 1,000 cubic meters.
  • The Oil and The Glory by Steve LeVine 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC oilandglory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British thermal units (mmBtu) .
  • Natural Gas (NG, NYMEX): Monthly Price Chart 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC futures.tradingcharts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Natural Gas (NG, NYMEX): Weekly Price Chart 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC futures.tradingcharts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas suppliers number 8,000 in the United States.
  • Natural Gas Utilities Information | Business.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This corresponds to around $7 per million BTU, or around $7 per gigajoule.^ In June natural gas sold for an average of $5.83 per 1 million btus, up 169% from the same week in 1998.
  • Natural Gas Shortages 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC healthandenergy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In April 2008, the wholesale price was $10 per 1,000 cubic feet (28 m3) ($10/MMBTU).^ U.S. natural gas wellhead prices were $5.80 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf) in early 2005; by October, the price had nearly doubled, to $10.33 per Mcf .
  • Energy Report - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That corresponds to a natural gas price of about $350 per 1,000 cubic meters.
  • The Oil and The Glory by Steve LeVine 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC oilandglory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At prices below $10.00/MMbtu, it is unlikely that remaining fuel switching will exceed 1.0-1.5 Bcf/day.

[29] .The residential price varies from 50% to 300% more than the wholesale price.^ But as competitive on price as gas is nationally, the average cost Floridians paid for it in 2007 was $9.24 a unit - the highest in the nation, and more than 25 percent higher than the national average ($7.31).
  • Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC floridiangasstorage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Daily spot price assessments by the Gas Daily team at more than 100 locations in the U.S. and Canada.
  • Natural Gas Alert: Americas Real-Time News and Market Alerts - Platts 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.naturalgasalert.platts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are facing sharply more expensive oil at the same time, and the supply of oil is not going to significantly increase (or do anything other than decline) regardless of price.
  • The Oil Drum | Natural Gas Revisited 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the end of 2007, this was $12-$16 per 1,000 cu ft (28 m3).^ Calculations were: 25 million Btu per (2,000-lb) ton of anthracite (the highest grade coal); one (16-oz) pound = 12,500 Btu , one ounce = 781.25 Btu ; 1.3 oz.
  • Energy Report - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30] .Natural gas in the United States is traded as a futures contract on the New York Mercantile Exchange.^ Natural gas production in the United States peaked in 1971.
  • Natural Gas Shortages 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC healthandenergy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas suppliers number 8,000 in the United States.
  • Natural Gas Utilities Information | Business.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Percent of state emissions from natural gas .
  • Energy Report - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Each contract is for 10,000 MMBTU (gigajoules), or 10 billion BTU. Thus, if the price of gas is $10 per million BTUs on the NYMEX, the contract is worth $100,000.

United Kingdom

.Natural gas is also traded as a commodity in Europe, principally at the United Kingdom NBP and related European hubs, such as the TTF in the Netherlands.^ Domestic use Natural gas is supplied to homes, where it is used for such purposes as cooking in natural gas-powered ranges and/or ovens, natural gas-heated clothes dryers , heating / cooling and central heating .
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Russia's Vladimir Putin is far advanced in his shrewd market strategy for dominating Europe's natural gas supply even more than Russia currently does.
  • The Oil and The Glory by Steve LeVine 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC oilandglory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Odorizing of natural gas began in the United States after the 1937 New London School explosion in the town of New London, Texas .
  • Natural gas - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

United States

.In US units, one standard cubic foot of natural gas produces around 1,028 British Thermal Units (BTU).^ British thermal units (mmBtu) .
  • Natural Gas (NG, NYMEX): Monthly Price Chart 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC futures.tradingcharts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Natural Gas (NG, NYMEX): Weekly Price Chart 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC futures.tradingcharts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MMBtu - One million British Thermal Units.
  • CALIFORNIA NATURAL GAS INFRASTRUCTURE OUTLOOK 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.cpuc.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q Quad An energy quantity of one quadrillion BTUs (1,055 petajoules), which is approximately the energy equivalent contained in one trillion cubic feet of natural gas.

.The actual heating value when the water formed does not condense is the net heat of combustion and can be as much as 10% less.^ Degree Day (Heating) - A measure of how much actual temperatures fall below a standard reference temperature.
  • CALIFORNIA NATURAL GAS INFRASTRUCTURE OUTLOOK 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.cpuc.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the upcoming heating season, it is expected that UK net imports of pipelined nat gas will remain at pretty much the same level as the previous heating season.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Will the UK Face a Natural Gas Crisis this Winter? (Part 1 of 2) 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31]
.In the United States, retail sales are often in units of therms (th); 1 therm = 100,000 BTU. Gas meters measure the volume of gas used, and this is converted to therms by multiplying the volume by the energy content of the gas used during that period, which varies slightly over time.^ One therm equals 100,000 Btus; a decatherm is equal to a million Btus.
  • CALIFORNIA NATURAL GAS INFRASTRUCTURE OUTLOOK 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.cpuc.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For clarification 1 therm is 100,000 BTU or about 29.3 kWh.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Will the UK Face a Natural Gas Crisis this Winter? (Part 1 of 2) 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas suppliers number 8,000 in the United States.
  • Natural Gas Utilities Information | Business.com 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wholesale transactions are generally done in decatherms (Dth), or in thousand decatherms (MDth), or in million decatherms (MMDth).^ One thousand Dth, or an MDth, is roughly the energy content of a million cubic feet (MMcf) of gas volume.
  • CALIFORNIA NATURAL GAS INFRASTRUCTURE OUTLOOK 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.cpuc.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A million decatherms is roughly a billion cubic feet of natural gas.^ BCF - Billion Cubic Feet - a volumetric measurement of gas.
  • CALIFORNIA NATURAL GAS INFRASTRUCTURE OUTLOOK 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.cpuc.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MMcfd - One million cubic feet of gas per day.
  • CALIFORNIA NATURAL GAS INFRASTRUCTURE OUTLOOK 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.cpuc.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MMCF - One million cubic feet of gas.
  • CALIFORNIA NATURAL GAS INFRASTRUCTURE OUTLOOK 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.cpuc.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As of 2009, the Potential Gas Committee estimated that the United States has total future recoverable natural gas resources approximately 100 times greater than current annual consumption.^ In total, 30 states store natural gas within their borders.
  • Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC floridiangasstorage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the same time, demand for natural gas in Canada, the United States, and Mexico is increasing.
  • Natural Gas Shortages 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC healthandenergy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas production in the United States peaked in 1971.
  • Natural Gas Shortages 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC healthandenergy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32]

Elsewhere

.In the rest of the world, LNG (liquified natural gas) and LPG (liquified petroleum gas) is traded in metric tons or mmBTU as spot deliveries.^ What is liquefied natural gas, or LNG? .
  • Southern Natural Gas > FAQs 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.elpaso.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas imports via pipeline from Canada and Mexico, as well as liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports from overseas, now provide 19 percent of total U.S. supplies.
  • Energy Report - Natural Gas 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The natural gas will come from LNG imported from Trinidad and other international locations via ocean-going tankers.
  • Southern Natural Gas > FAQs 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.elpaso.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Long term contracts are signed in metric tons.^ Diversify supply, negotiate your long-term supply contracts well and build enough storage.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Will the UK Face a Natural Gas Crisis this Winter? (Part 1 of 2) 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no guarantee that contracting parties will be dealing with each other over the long term, and that specialized irreversible investments can be efficiently and competitively utilized.” .
  • The Realities of Natural Gas -- Seeking Alpha 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC seekingalpha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As of May 2007 residential customers have the option to sign with a natural gas marketer for a long-term, fixed price contract effective, beginning November 1, 2007.
  • Just Energy Frequently Asked Questions | Natural Gas and Electricity Service 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.justenergy.com [Source type: General]

.The LNG and LPG is transported by specialized transport ships, as the gas is liquified at cryogenic temperatures.^ The project involved a scheme to ship Egyptian natural gas in liquid form (LNG) to Turkey.
  • Iran to India Natural Gas Pipeline 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the case of natural gas imports, and their transportation by either pipeline or LNG tanker, India is at a crossroads.
  • Iran to India Natural Gas Pipeline 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PROTECTIONISM & THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY IN INDIA In the case of the Iran to India natural gas pipeline, India proposed the transportation of natural gas in liquid form (LNG), using the coastline along the Arabian Sea.
  • Iran to India Natural Gas Pipeline 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The specification of each LNG/LPG cargo will usually contain the energy content, but this information is in general not available to the public.^ Hydrogen could be generated by, say, using solar energy to split water molecules, but don't count that happening on a large scale as long as gas is available.
  • Hunger For Natural Gas | | AlterNet 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ It generates 40% of all electricity in the country (Energy Information Administration).
  • Iran to India Natural Gas Pipeline 6 January 2010 8:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Public interest Usually intended to mean the interest of the public generally as opposed to the interest of an individual or company.

See also

References

  1. ^ Gas to liquid
  2. ^ Natural gas overview
  3. ^ Background note: Qatar
  4. ^ "Pars Special Economic Energy Zone". Pars Special Economic Energy Zone. http://www.pseez.ir/gas-en.html. Retrieved 2007-07-17. 
  5. ^ http://www.manure.umn.edu/
  6. ^ http://www.naturalgas.org/images/McMahon-Plnt.jpg on http://www.naturalgas.org/naturalgas/processing_ng.asp
  7. ^ Fortune Magazine - Frozen Natural Gas in Indian Ocean
  8. ^ Natural Gas Processing: The Crucial Link Between Natural Gas Production and Its Transportation to Market
  9. ^ Example Gas Plant
  10. ^ From Purification to Liquefaction Gas Processing
  11. ^ Feed-Gas Treatment Design for the Pearl GTL Project
  12. ^ Benefits of integrating NGL extraction and LNG liquefaction
  13. ^ a b Natural Gas and the Environment
  14. ^ "Natural Gas Vehicle Statistics". International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles]]. http://www.iangv.org/tools-resources/statistics.html. Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  15. ^ Pike Research (2009-10-19). "Forecast: 17M Natural Gas Vehicles Worldwide by 2015". Green Car Congress. http://www.greencarcongress.com/2009/10/forecast-17m-natural-gas-vehicles-worldwide-by-2015.html#more. Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  16. ^ Clean Engine Vehicle, Measurement and Control Laboratory
  17. ^ PSC Tupolev - Development of Cryogenic Fuel Aircraft
  18. ^ Gas Infrasturcture Europe, retrieved June 18. 2009
  19. ^ Hyne, Norman J. (1991). Dictionary of petroleum exploration, drilling & production. pg. 190: PennWell Books. pp. 625. ISBN 0878143521. 
  20. ^ Satellite observation of flares in the world
  21. ^ satellite observation of methane in earth's atmosphere
  22. ^ The Contours of the New Cold War
  23. ^ Gazprom and Russian Foreign Policy
  24. ^ [1]
  25. ^ nytimes.com: Curbing Emissions by Sealing Gas Leaks
  26. ^ Wolfram Alpha query: "World Natural Gas Production"
  27. ^ US EPA: Climate Economics
  28. ^ NaturalGas.org - Processing Natural Gas
  29. ^ Graph of Natural Gas Futures Prices - NYMEX
  30. ^ Natural Gas Prices published by the US government
  31. ^ Heat value definitions. WSU website. Retrieved 2008-05-19.
  32. ^ Potential Gas Committee, Potential Gas Committee reports unprecedented increase in magnitude of U.S. natural gas resource base, 18 Jume 2009, *.PDF file.

External links



Natural gas is a gas consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0-20% higher hydrocarbons[1] (primarily ethane). It is found associated with other fossil fuels, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs, and landfills. It is an important fuel source, a major feedstock for fertilizers, and a potent greenhouse gas.

Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, it must undergo processing to remove almost all materials other than methane. The by-products of that processing include ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes, and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, elemental sulfur, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sometimes helium and nitrogen.

Natural gas is often informally referred to as simply gas, especially when compared to other energy sources such as oil or coal.

Contents

Sources

Fossil natural gas

[[File:|thumb|right|Natural gas drilling rig in Texas.]] In the 1800s, natural gas was usually produced as a byproduct of producing oil, since the small, light gas carbon chains come out of solution as it undergoes pressure reduction from the reservoir to the surface, similar to uncapping a bottle of soda pop where the carbon dioxide effervesces. Unwanted natural gas can be a disposal problem at the well site. If there is not a market for natural gas near the wellhead it was virtually valueless since it must be piped to the end user. In the 1800s and early 1900s, such unwanted gas was usually burned off at the wellsite. Often, unwanted gas (or 'stranded' gas without a market) is pumped back into the reservoir with an 'injection' well for disposal or repressurizing the producing formation. Today, in locations with a high natural gas demand (such as the United States), pipelines are constructed to take the gas from the wellsite to the end consumer.

Another solution is to export the natural gas as a liquid.[2] Gas-to-liquid (GTL) is a developing technology that converts stranded natural gas into synthetic gasoline, diesel or jet fuel through the Fischer-Tropsch process developed in World War II Germany. Such fuel can be transported to users through conventional pipelines and tankers. Proponents claim GTL burn cleaner than comparable petroleum fuels. Most major international oil companies are in an advanced stage of GTL production, with a world-scale (140,000 barrels a day) GTL plant in Qatar scheduled to be in production before 2010.

Fossil natural gas can be "associated" (found in oil fields) or "non-associated" (isolated in natural gas fields), and is also found in coal beds (as coalbed methane). It sometimes contains a significant amount of ethane, propane, butane, and pentane — heavier hydrocarbons removed prior to use as a consumer fuel — as well as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen sulfide.[3]

Natural gas is commercially produced from oil fields and natural gas fields. Gas produced from oil wells is called casinghead gas or associated gas. The natural gas industry is producing gas from increasingly more challenging resource types: sour gas, tight gas, shale gas and coalbed methane.

The world's largest proven gas reserves are located in Russia, with 4.757 × 1013 m³ (1.6 × 1015 cubic feet). With the Gazprom company, Russia is also the world's largest natural gas producer. Major proven resources (in billion cubic meters) are world 175,400 (2006), Russia 47,570 (2006), Iran 26,370 (2006), Qatar 25,790 (2007), Saudi Arabia 6,568 (2006) and United Arab Emirates 5,823 (2006). It is estimated that there are also about 900 tetrillion cubic meters of "unconventional" gas such as shale gas, of which 180 tetrillion may be recoverable.[4]

The world's largest gas field is Qatar's offshore North Field, estimated to have 25 trillion cubic meters[5] (9.0 × 1014cubic feet) of gas in place—enough to last more than 200 years at optimum production levels. The second largest natural gas field is the South Pars Gas Field in Iranian waters in the Persian Gulf. Located next to Qatar's North Field, it has an estimated reserve of 8 to 14 trillion cubic meters[6] (2.8 × 1014 to 5.0 × 1014 cubic feet) of gas.

Because natural gas is not a pure product, as the reservoir pressure drops when non-associated gas is extracted from a field under supercritical (pressure/temperature) conditions, the higher molecular weight components may partially condense upon isothermic depressurizing — an effect called retrograde condensation. The liquid thus formed may get trapped as the pores of the gas reservoir get deposited. One method to deal with this problem is to re-inject dried gas free of condensate to maintain the underground pressure and to allow re-evaporation and extraction of condensates.

Town gas

Town gas is a synthetically produced mixture of methane and other gases, mainly the highly toxic carbon monoxide, that can be used in a similar way to natural gas and can be produced by treating coal chemically. This is a historic technology, still used as 'best solution' in some local circumstances, although coal gasification is not usually economic at current gas prices. However, depending upon infrastructure considerations, it remains a future possibility.

Most town "gashouses" located in the eastern United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were simple by-product coke ovens which heated bituminous coal in air-tight chambers. The gas driven off from the coal was collected and distributed through town-wide networks of pipes to residences and other buildings where it was used for cooking and lighting purposes. (Gas heating did not come into widespread use until the last half of the twentieth century.) The coal tar that collected in the bottoms of the gashouse ovens was often used for roofing and other water-proofing purposes, and also, when mixed with sand and gravel, was used for creating bitumen for the surfacing of local streets.

Biogas

When methane-rich gases are produced by the anaerobic decay of non-fossil organic matter (biomass), these are referred to as biogas (or natural biogas). Sources of biogas include swamps, marshes, and landfills (see landfill gas), as well as sewage sludge and manure[7] by way of anaerobic digesters, in addition to enteric fermentation particularly in cattle.

Methanogenic archaea are responsible for all biological sources of methane, some in symbiotic relationships with other life forms, including termites, ruminants, and cultivated crops. Methane released directly into the atmosphere would be considered a pollutant. However, methane in the atmosphere is oxidized, producing carbon dioxide and water. Methane in the atmosphere has a half life of seven years, meaning that if a tonne of methane were emitted today, 500 kilograms would have broken down to carbon dioxide and water after seven years.

Other sources of methane, the principal component of natural gas, include landfill gas, biogas and methane hydrate. Biogas, and especially landfill gas, are already used in some areas, but their use could be greatly expanded. Landfill gas is a type of biogas, but biogas usually refers to gas produced from organic material that has not been mixed with other waste.

Landfill gas is created from the decomposition of waste in landfills. If the gas is not removed, the pressure may get so high that it works its way to the surface, causing damage to the landfill structure, unpleasant odor, vegetation die-off and an explosion hazard. The gas can be vented to the atmosphere, flared or burned to produce electricity or heat. Experimental systems were being proposed for use in parts Hertfordshire, UK and Lyon in France.

Once water vapor is removed, about half of landfill gas is methane. Almost all of the rest is carbon dioxide, but there are also small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen. There are usually trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide and siloxanes, but their concentration varies widely. Landfill gas cannot be distributed through utility natural gas pipelines unless it is cleaned up to less than 3% CO2, and a few parts per million H2S, because CO2 and H2S corrode the pipelines.[8] It is usually more economical to combust the gas on site or within a short distance of the landfill using a dedicated pipeline. Water vapor is often removed, even if the gas is combusted on site. If low temperatures condense water out of the gas, siloxanes can be lowered as well because they tend to condense out with the water vapor. Other non-methane components may also be removed in order to meet emission standards, to prevent fouling of the equipment or for environmental considerations. Co-firing landfill gas with natural gas improves combustion, which lowers emissions.

Gas generated in sewage treatment plants is commonly used to generate electricity. For example, the Hyperion sewage plant in Los Angeles burns 8 million cubic feet of gas per day to generate power [9] New York City utilizes gas to run equipment in the sewage plants, to generate electricity, and in boilers.[10] Using sewage gas to make electricity is not limited to large cities. The city of Bakersfield, California uses cogeneration at its sewer plants.[11] California has 242 sewage wastewater treatment plants, 74 of which have installed anaerobic digesters. The total biopower generation from the 74 plants is about 66 MW.[12]

Biogas is usually produced using agricultural waste materials, such as otherwise unusable parts of plants and manure. Biogas can also be produced by separating organic materials from waste that otherwise goes to landfills. Such method is more efficient than just capturing the landfill gas it produces. Using materials that would otherwise generate no income, or even cost money to get rid of, improves the profitability and energy balance of biogas production.

Anaerobic lagoons produce biogas from manure, while biogas reactors can be used for manure or plant parts. Like landfill gas, biogas is mostly methane and carbon dioxide, with small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen. However, with the exception of pesticides, there are usually lower levels of contaminants.

, Canada.[13]]]

Crystallized natural gas - Hydrates

Huge quantities of natural gas (primarily methane) exist in the form of hydrates under sediment on offshore continental shelves and on land in arctic regions that experience permafrost such as those in Siberia (hydrates require a combination of high pressure and low temperature to form). However, as of 2010 no technology has been developed to produce natural gas economically from hydrates.

It costs anywhere between once and twice as much to produce usable natural gas from crystallized natural gas, using current technology.[14]

Natural gas processing

The image below is a schematic block flow diagram of a typical natural gas processing plant. It shows the various unit processes used to convert raw natural gas into sales gas pipelined to the end user markets.

The block flow diagram also shows how processing of the raw natural gas yields byproduct sulfur, byproduct ethane, and natural gas liquids (NGL) propane, butanes and natural gasoline (denoted as pentanes +).[15][16][17][18][19]

Uses

Power generation

Natural gas is a major source of electricity generation through the use of gas turbines and steam turbines. Most grid peaking power plants and some off-grid engine-generators use natural gas. Particularly high efficiencies can be achieved through combining gas turbines with a steam turbine in combined cycle mode. Natural gas burns more cleanly than other fossil fuels, such as oil and coal, and produces less carbon dioxide per unit energy released. For an equivalent amount of heat, burning natural gas produces about 30% less carbon dioxide than burning petroleum and about 45% less than burning coal.[20] Combined cycle power generation using natural gas is thus the cleanest source of power available using fossil fuels, and this technology is widely used wherever gas can be obtained at a reasonable cost. Fuel cell technology may eventually provide cleaner options for converting natural gas into electricity, but as yet it is not price-competitive.

Domestic use

Natural gas is supplied to homes where it is used for such purposes as cooking in natural gas-powered ranges and ovens, natural gas-heated clothes dryers, heating/cooling and central heating. Home or other building heating may include boilers, furnaces, and water heaters. CNG is used in rural homes without connections to piped-in public utility services, or with portable grills. Natural gas is also supplied by independent natural gas suppliers through Natural Gas Choice programs throughout the United States. However, due to CNG being less economical than LPG, LPG (propane) is the dominant source of rural gas.

Metrobus, which runs on natural gas.]]

Transportation

Compressed natural gas (methane) is a cleaner alternative to other automobile fuels such as gasoline (petrol) and diesel. As of 2008 there were 9.6 million natural gas vehicles worldwide, led by Pakistan (2.0 million), Argentina (1.7 million), Brazil (1.6 million), Iran (1.0 million), and India (650,000).[21][22] The energy efficiency is generally equal to that of gasoline engines, but lower compared with modern diesel engines. Gasoline/petrol vehicles converted to run on natural gas suffer because of the low compression ratio of their engines, resulting in a cropping of delivered power while running on natural gas (10%-15%). CNG-specific engines, however, use a higher compression ratio due to this fuel's higher octane number of 120–130.[23]

Fertilizers

Natural gas is a major feedstock for the production of ammonia, via the Haber process, for use in fertilizer production.

Aviation

Russian aircraft manufacturer Tupolev is currently running a development program to produce LNG- and hydrogen-powered aircraft.[24] The program has been running since the mid-1970s, and seeks to develop LNG and hydrogen variants of the Tu-204 and Tu-334 passenger aircraft, and also the Tu-330 cargo aircraft. It claims that at current market prices, an LNG-powered aircraft would cost 5,000 roubles (~ $218/ £112) less to operate per ton, roughly equivalent to 60%, with considerable reductions to carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions.

The advantages of liquid methane as a jet engine fuel are that it has more specific energy than the standard kerosene mixes do and that its low temperature can help cool the air which the engine compresses for greater volumetric efficiency, in effect replacing an intercooler. Alternatively, it can be used to lower the temperature of the exhaust.

Hydrogen

Natural gas can be used to produce hydrogen, with one common method being the hydrogen reformer. Hydrogen has various applications: it is a primary feedstock for the chemical industry, a hydrogenating agent, an important commodity for oil refineries, and a fuel source in hydrogen vehicles.

Other

Natural gas is also used in the manufacture of fabrics, glass, steel, plastics, paint, and other products.

Storage and transport

plastic main being placed in a trench.]]

Because of its low density, it is not easy to transport or store natural gas. Natural gas pipelines are impractical across oceans. Many existing pipelines in North America are close to reaching their capacity, prompting some politicians representing northern states to speak of potential shortages. In Europe, the gas pipeline network is already dense in the West[25]. New pipelines are planned or under construction in Eastern Europe and between gas fields in Russia, Near East and Northern Africa and Western Europe. See also List of natural gas pipelines.

LNG carriers transport liquefied natural gas (LNG) across oceans, while tank trucks can carry liquefied or compressed natural gas (CNG) over shorter distances. Sea transport using CNG carrier ships that are now under development may be competitive with LNG transport in specific conditions.

Gas is turned into liquid at a liquefaction plant, and is returned to gas form at regasification plant at the terminal. Shipborne regasification equipment is also used. LNG is the preferred form for long distance, high volume transportation of natural gas, whereas pipeline is preferred for transport for distances up to 4,000 km over land and approximately half that distance offshore.

CNG is transported at high pressure, typically above 200 bars. Compressors and decompression equipment are less capital intensive and may be economical in smaller unit sizes than liquefaction/regasification plants. Natural gas trucks and carriers may transport natural gas directly to end-users, or to distribution points such as pipelines.

Manlove Field natural gas storage area in Newcomb Township, Champaign County, Illinois. In the foreground (left) is one of the numerous wells for the underground storage area, with an LNG plant, and above ground storage tanks is in the background (right).]]

In the past, the natural gas which was recovered in the course of recovering petroleum could not be profitably sold, and was simply burned at the oil field in a process known as flaring. Flaring is now illegal in many countries.[26] Additionally, companies now recognize that gas may be sold to consumers in the form of LNG or CNG, or through other transportation methods. The gas is now re-injected into the formation for later recovery. The re-injection also assists oil pumping by keeping underground pressures higher.

A "master gas system" was invented in Saudi Arabia in the late 1970s, ending any necessity for flaring. Satellite observation, however, shows that flaring[27] and venting[28] are still practiced in some gas-producing countries.

Natural gas is used to generate electricity and heat for desalination. Similarly, some landfills that also discharge methane gases have been set up to capture the methane and generate electricity.

Natural gas is often stored underground inside depleted gas reservoirs from previous gas wells, salt domes, or in tanks as liquefied natural gas. The gas is injected in a time of low demand and extracted when demand picks up. Storage nearby end users helps to meet volatile demands, but such storage may not always be practicable.

With 15 countries accounting for 84% of the worldwide production, access to natural gas has become an important issue in international politics, and countries vie for control of pipelines.[29] In the 2000s, Gazprom, the state-owned energy company in Russia, engaged in disputes with Ukraine and Belarus over the price of natural gas, which have created worries that gas deliveries to parts of Europe could be cut off for political reasons.[30]

Environmental effects

CO2 emissions

Natural gas is often described as the cleanest fossil fuel, producing less carbon dioxide per joule delivered than either coal or oil[20] and far fewer pollutants than other fossil fuels. However, in absolute terms, it does contribute substantially to global carbon emissions, and this contribution is projected to grow. According to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (Working Group III Report, chapter 4), in 2004, natural gas produced about 5.3 billion tons a year of CO2 emissions, while coal and oil produced 10.6 and 10.2 billion tons respectively (figure 4.4). According to an updated version of the SRES B2 emissions scenario, however, by the year 2030, natural gas would be the source of 11 billion tons a year, with coal and oil now 8.4 and 17.2 billion respectively because demand is increasing 1.9% a year[31] (Total global emissions for 2004 were estimated at over 27,200 million tons).

In addition, natural gas itself is a greenhouse gas more potent than carbon dioxide when released into the atmosphere, although natural gas is released in much smaller quantities. However, methane is oxidized in the atmosphere, and hence natural gas has a residence lifetime in the atmosphere for approximately 12 years, compared to CO2, which is already oxidized, and has an effect for 100 to 500 years. Natural gas is mainly composed of methane, which has a radiative forcing twenty times greater than carbon dioxide. Based on such composition, a ton of methane in the atmosphere traps in as much radiation as 20 tons of carbon dioxide, but remains in the atmosphere for a 8-40 times shorter time. Carbon dioxide still receives the lion's share of attention over greenhouse gases because it is released in much larger amounts. Still, it is inevitable when natural gas is used on a large scale that some of it will leak into the atmosphere. Current estimates by the EPA place global emissions of methane at 3 trillion cubic feet annually,[32] or 3.2% of global production.[33] Direct emissions of methane represented 14.3% of all global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in 2004.[34]

Other pollutants

Natural gas produces far lower amounts of sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxides than any other fossil fuel. Carbon dioxide produced is 117,000 ppm vs 208,000 for burning coal. Carbon monoxide produced is 40 ppm vs 208 for burning coal. Nitrogen oxides produced is 92 ppm vs 457 for burning coal. Sulfur dioxide is 1 ppm vs 2,591 for burning coal. Particulates are 7 ppm vs 2,744 for burning coal. Mercury is 0 vs .016 for burning coal.[35] Particulates are also a major contribution to global warming. Natural gas has 7ppm vs coals 2,744ppm.[36]

Safety

In any form, a minute amount of odorant such as t-butyl mercaptan, with a rotting-cabbage-like smell, is added to the otherwise colorless and almost odorless gas, so that leaks can be detected before a fire or explosion occurs. Sometimes a related compound, thiophane is used, with a rotten-egg smell. Adding odorant to natural gas began in the United States after the 1937 New London School explosion. The buildup of gas in the school went unnoticed, killing three hundred students and faculty when it ignited. Odorants are considered non-toxic in the extremely low concentrations occurring in natural gas delivered to the end user.

In mines, where methane seeping from rock formations has no odor, sensors are used, and mining apparatuses have been specifically developed to avoid ignition sources such as the Davy lamp.

Explosions caused by natural gas leaks occur a few times each year. Individual homes, small businesses and boats are most frequently affected when an internal leak builds up gas inside the structure. Frequently, the blast will be enough to significantly damage a building but leave it standing. In these cases, the people inside tend to have minor to moderate injuries. Occasionally, the gas can collect in high enough quantities to cause a deadly explosion, disintegrating one or more buildings in the process. The gas usually dissipates readily outdoors, but can sometimes collect in dangerous quantities if weather conditions are right. However, considering the tens of millions of structures that use the fuel, the individual risk of using natural gas is very low.

Some gas fields yield sour gas containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S). This untreated gas is toxic. Amine gas treating, an industrial scale process which removes acidic gaseous components, is often used to remove hydrogen sulfide from natural gas.[37]

Extraction of natural gas (or oil) leads to decrease in pressure in the reservoir. Such decrease in pressure in turn may result in subsidence at ground level. Subsidence may affect ecosystems, waterways, sewer and water supply systems, foundations, and so on.

Natural gas heating systems are a minor source of carbon monoxide deaths in the United States. According to the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (2008), 56% of unintentional deaths from non-fire CO poisoning were associated with engine-driven tools like gas-powered generators and lawn mowers. Natural gas heating systems accounted for 4% of these deaths. Improvements in natural gas furnace designs have greatly reduced CO poisoning concerns. Detectors are also available that warn of carbon monoxide and/or explosive gas (methane, propane, etc.).

Releasing the gas is accomplished by hydrofracking. To force the natural gas out of the shale, drillers force one to nine million gallons of fresh water through the driven pipe into the shale. The high pressure water breaks up or "fracks" the shale that, in turn, releases the trapped gas. Sand is added to the water as a propellant to keep the fractures in the shale open and to enable the gas to flow up the pipe to the surface. A variety of chemicals are also added to the fresh water to keep the well pipe clean and the gas flowing easily. These chemicals include lubricants to reduce friction, biocides to eliminate fouling, scale inhibitors, oxygen scavengers to reduce oxygen in the borehole, and acids to clean the perforations in the pipe.

Dealing with fracking fluid can be a challenge. Along with the gas, 30% to 70% of the chemically-laced frack fluid, or flow back, rises to the surface. Additionally, a significant amount of salt and other minerals, once a part of the rock layers that were under prehistoric seas, are added to the mix as they dissolve in the frack fluid.

Energy content, statistics and pricing

in US dollars per million BTUs ($/mmbtu) for 2000-2010.]]

Quantities of natural gas are measured in normal cubic meters (corresponding to 0°C at 101.325 kPa) or in standard cubic feet (corresponding to Template:Convert/°F and 14.73 psia). The gross heat of combustion of one cubic meter of commercial quality natural gas is around 39 megajoules (≈10.8 kWh), but this can vary by several percent. This comes to about 49 megajoules (≈13.5 kWh) for one kg of natural gas (assuming 0.8 kg/m^3, an approximate value).

The price of natural gas varies greatly depending on location and type of consumer. In 2007, a price of $7 per 1,000 cubic feet (28 m3) was typical in the United States. The typical caloric value of natural gas is roughly 1,000 British thermal units (BTU) per cubic foot, depending on gas composition. This corresponds to around $7 per million BTU, or around $7 per gigajoule. In April 2008, the wholesale price was $10 per 1,000 cubic feet (28 m3) ($10/MMBTU).[38] The residential price varies from 50% to 300% more than the wholesale price. At the end of 2007, this was $12–$16 per 1,000 cu ft (28 m3).[39] Natural gas in the United States is traded as a futures contract on the New York Mercantile Exchange. Each contract is for 10,000 MMBTU (~10,550 gigajoules), or 10 billion BTU. Thus, if the price of gas is $10 per million BTUs on the NYMEX, the contract is worth $100,000.

United Kingdom

Natural gas is also traded as a commodity in Europe, principally at the United Kingdom NBP and related European hubs, such as the TTF in the Netherlands.

European Union

As one of the world's largest importers of natural gas, the EU is a major player on the international gas market. With Norway being one of the world's largest suppliers of natural gas as part of the extended European Economic Area, most discussions can be conducted within the EU. The main supplier is then expected to be the current number two: the Russian Federation.

Gas prices for end users vary greatly across the EU.[40]. A single European energy market, one of the key objectives of the European Union, should level the prices of gas in all EU member states.

United States

In US units, one standard cubic foot of natural gas produces around 1,028 British thermal units (BTU). The actual heating value when the water formed does not condense is the net heat of combustion and can be as much as 10% less.[41]

In the United States, retail sales are often in units of therms (th); 1 therm = 100,000 BTU. Gas meters measure the volume of gas used, and this is converted to therms by multiplying the volume by the energy content of the gas used during that period, which varies slightly over time. Wholesale transactions are generally done in decatherms (Dth), or in thousand decatherms (MDth), or in million decatherms (MMDth). A million decatherms is roughly a billion cubic feet of natural gas.

As of 2009, the Potential Gas Committee estimated that the United States has total future recoverable natural gas resources approximately 100 times greater than current annual consumption.[42]

Elsewhere

In the rest of the world, LNG (liquified natural gas) and LPG (liquified petroleum gas) is traded in metric tons or mmBTU as spot deliveries. Long term contracts are signed in metric tons. The LNG and LPG is transported by specialized transport ships, as the gas is liquified at cryogenic temperatures. The specification of each LNG/LPG cargo will usually contain the energy content, but this information is in general not available to the public.

See also

Sustainable development portal
Energy portal

References

  1. ^ composition of natural gas
  2. ^ Gas to liquid
  3. ^ Natural gas overview
  4. ^ "Wonderfuel: Welcome to the age of unconventional gas" by Helen Knight, New Scientist, 12 June 2010, pp. 44-7.
  5. ^ Background note: Qatar
  6. ^ "Pars Special Economic Energy Zone". Pars Special Economic Energy Zone. http://www.pseez.ir/gas-en.html. Retrieved 2007-07-17. 
  7. ^ http://www.manure.umn.edu/
  8. ^ http://www.beg.utexas.edu/energyecon/lng/documents/CEE_Interstate_Natural_Gas_Quality_Specifications_and_Interchangeability.pdf
  9. ^ http://www.lasewers.org/treatment_plants/hyperion/index.htm
  10. ^ http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/pdf/wwsystem.pdf
  11. ^ http://www.parsons.com/projects/Pages/bakersfield-wwtp-3.aspx
  12. ^ http://www.energy.ca.gov/2010publications/CEC-500-2010-007/CEC-500-2010-007.PDF
  13. ^ http://www.naturalgas.org/images/ on http://www.naturalgas.org/naturalgas/processing_ng.asp
  14. ^ Fortune Magazine - Frozen Natural Gas in Indian Ocean
  15. ^ Natural Gas Processing: The Crucial Link Between Natural Gas Production and Its Transportation to Market
  16. ^ Example Gas Plant
  17. ^ From Purification to Liquefaction Gas Processing
  18. ^ Feed-Gas Treatment Design for the Pearl GTL Project
  19. ^ Benefits of integrating NGL extraction and LNG liquefaction
  20. ^ a b Natural Gas and the Environment
  21. ^ "Natural Gas Vehicle Statistics". International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles. http://www.iangv.org/tools-resources/statistics.html. Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  22. ^ Pike Research (2009-10-19). "Forecast: 17M Natural Gas Vehicles Worldwide by 2015". Green Car Congress. http://www.greencarcongress.com/2009/10/forecast-17m-natural-gas-vehicles-worldwide-by-2015.html#more. Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  23. ^ Clean Engine Vehicle, Measurement and Control Laboratory
  24. ^ PSC Tupolev - Development of Cryogenic Fuel Aircraft
  25. ^ Gas Infrasturcture Europe, retrieved June 18. 2009
  26. ^ Hyne, Norman J. (1991). Dictionary of petroleum exploration, drilling & production. pg. 190: PennWell Books. pp. 625. ISBN 0878143521. 
  27. ^ Satellite observation of flares in the world
  28. ^ satellite observation of methane in earth's atmosphere
  29. ^ The Contours of the New Cold War
  30. ^ Gazprom and Russian Foreign Policy
  31. ^ [1]
  32. ^ nytimes.com: Curbing Emissions by Sealing Gas Leaks
  33. ^ Wolfram Alpha query: "World Natural Gas Production"
  34. ^ US EPA: Climate Economics
  35. ^ "Gas vs Coal"
  36. ^ Fundamentals of Physical Geography (2nd Edition), "Chapter 7: Introduction to the Atmosphere," (h). "The Greenhouse Effect"
  37. ^ NaturalGas.org - Processing Natural Gas
  38. ^ Graph of Natural Gas Futures Prices - NYMEX
  39. ^ Natural Gas Prices published by the US government
  40. ^ EU Gas Prices
  41. ^ Heat value definitions. WSU website. Retrieved 2008-05-19.
  42. ^ Potential Gas Committee, Potential Gas Committee reports unprecedented increase in magnitude of U.S. natural gas resource base, 18 Jume 2009, *.PDF file.

External links


Simple English

Natural gas is a mixture. It consists mainly of hydrocarbons. The main component is methane. Natural gas is often found in the ground together with petroleum.

Most natural gas is burnt directly to produce energy. It burns with a clean blue flame. It causes little pollution.

The main uses of natural gas are to produce electricity, cook and heat buildings. It is also used as fuel for cars and to make fertilizers.

When natural gas is burned, it heats a tub of water. Steam from the hot water rushes up and spins a machine that makes electricity.

Natural gas is also used to make many plastic products. It is used for many vehicles such as trucks, boats, cars, excavators, big rigs, and airplanes.

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