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Republic of Nauru
Ripublik Naoero
Flag Coat of arms
Motto"God's Will First"
AnthemNauru Bwiema
Capital Yaren (de facto)[a]
Official language(s) English, Nauruan
Demonym Nauruan
Government
 -  President Marcus Stephen
Independent country
 -  from the Australian, New Zealand, and British-administered U.N. trusteeship. January 31, 1968 
Area
 -  Total 21 km2 (225th)
8.1 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) just the surrounding ocean
Population
 -  March 2009 estimate 14,019[1] (216th)
 -  December 2006 census 9,275 
 -  Density 667.6/km2 (14th)
1,730.7/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $36.9 million[2] (192nd)
 -  Per capita $2,500 ('06 est.)[2] - $5000('05 est.)[1] (135th - 141st)
HDI (2003) n/a (unranked) (n/a)
Currency Usually the Australian dollar (AUD)
Time zone (UTC+12)
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .nr
Calling code 674
a. ^ Nauru does not have an official capital, but Yaren is the largest settlement and the seat of Parliament.

Coordinates: 0°36′54″S 166°56′06″E / 0.615°S 166.935°E / -0.615; 166.935 Nauru (pronounced /nɑːˈʊəruː/ ( listen) nah-OO-roo), officially the Republic of Nauru and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island nation in Micronesia in the South Pacific. Its nearest neighbor is Banaba Island in Kiribati, 300 km to the east. Nauru is the world's smallest island nation, covering just 21 square kilometres (8.1 square miles).[1]

Settled by Micronesian and Polynesian people, Nauru was annexed and claimed as a colony by the German Empire in the late 19th century. After World War I, Nauru became a League of Nations mandate administered by Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. During World War II, Nauru was occupied by Japanese troops who were bypassed by the Allied advance across the Pacific, and after the war ended, it entered into trusteeship again[3]. Nauru was declared independent in 1968.

Throughout the first half of the 20th century, Nauru was a "rentier state". Nauru is a phosphate rock island, with deposits close to the surface, which allow for simple strip mining operations. This island was a major exporter of phosphate starting in 1907, when the Pacific Phosphate Company began mining there, through the formation of the British Phosphate Commission in 1919, and continuing after independence. This gave Nauru back full control of its minerals under the Nauru Phosphate Corporation, until the deposits ran out during the 1980s.[4] For this reason, Nauru briefly boasted the highest per-capita income enjoyed by any sovereign state in the world during the late 1960s and early 1970s. When the phosphate reserves were exhausted, and the environment had been seriously harmed by mining, the trust established to manage the island's wealth became greatly reduced in value. To earn income, the government resorted to unusual measures. In the 1990s, Nauru briefly became a tax haven and illegal money laundering center. From 2001 to 2008, it accepted aid from the Australian government in exchange for housing an immigration detention center that held and processed illegal immigrants who had tried to enter Australia.[5]

From December 2005 to September 2006, Nauru became partially isolated from the outside world when Air Nauru, the only airline with service to the island, ceased to operate. The only outside access to Nauru was then by ocean-going ships. The airline was able to restart operations under the name Our Airline with monetary aid from Taiwan. The island has one sole airport; Nauru International Airport.

On 15 December 2009 Nauru became the fourth country to recognise Abkhazia[6], and on 16 December recognised South Ossetia,[7] regions of Georgia which had been de facto independent since the early 1990s and were recognised as such by Russia after the brief Russia-Georgia summer war of 2008. Reports suggest that this decision netted Nauru Russian aid of around US$50,000,000.[6]

Contents

History

Nauruan warrior, 1880

Nauru was first inhabited by Micronesian and Polynesian people at least 3,000 years ago. There were traditionally 12 clans or tribes on Nauru, which are represented in the 12-pointed star in the nation's flag. Nauruans traced their descent on the female side. Naurans practiced aquaculture - they caught juvenile ibija fish, acclimatized them to fresh water, and raised them in the Buada Lagoon, providing an additional, and more reliable source of food. The other locally grown components of their diet included coconuts and pandanus fruit.[8]

The British sea captain John Fearn, a whale hunter, became the first Westerner to visit this island in 1798, and he named it "Pleasant Island". From around 1830, Nauruans had contact with Europeans from whaling ships and traders who replenished their supplies (such as fresh water) at Nauru. Around this time, deserters from the ships began to live on the island. The islanders traded food for alcoholic palm wine and firearms. The firearms were used during the 10-year Nauruan Tribal War that began in 1878, and by 1888 had resulted in a reduction of the population of Nauru from 1400 to 900 people.

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Colonial period

October 3, 1888: Annexation ceremony w. King Auweyida at the center

Nauru was annexed by Germany in 1888 and incorporated into Germany's Marshall Island Protectorate. The Germans called the island Nawodo or Onawero. The arrival of the Germans ended the war, and social changes brought about by the war established kings as rulers of the island. The most widely known of these was King Auweyida. Christian missionaries from the Gilbert Islands arrived in 1888.[9] The Germans ruled Nauru for almost three decades. Robert Rasch, a German Trader who married a native woman, was the first administrator, appointed in 1890.

Phosphate was discovered on Nauru in 1900 by the prospector Albert Ellis. The Pacific Phosphate Company started to exploit the reserves in 1906 by agreement with Germany. The company exported its first shipment in 1907.[10] In 1914, following the outbreak of World War I, Nauru was captured by Australian troops. Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom signed the Nauru Island Agreement in 1919, creating a board known as the British Phosphate Commission (BPC). This took over the rights to phosphate mining.[11] According to the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics (now the Australian Bureau of Statistics), "In common with other natives, the islanders are very susceptible to tuberculosis and influenza, and in 1921 an influenza epidemic caused the deaths of 230 islanders." In 1923, the League of Nations gave Australia a trustee mandate over Nauru, with the United Kingdom and New Zealand being co-trustees, also.[12][13]

World War II

In 1943, the U.S. Army Air Force bombed the Japanese airstrip here, destroying about 15 Japanese warplanes[14]

On the 6th and 7th of December, 1940, the German auxiliary cruisers Komet and Orion sank four supply ships in the vicinity of Nauru. On the next day, Komet shelled Nauru's phosphate mining areas, oil storage depots, and the shiploading cantilever. The attacks seriously disrupted phosphate supplies to Australia and New Zealand (mostly used for munition and fertilizer purposes.)[14]

Japanese troops occupied Nauru on 26 August 1942.[15] The Japanese troops built an airfield on Nauru which was bombed for the first time on 25 March 1943, preventing food supplies from being flown to Nauru. The Japanese deported 1,200 Nauruans to work as laborers in the Chuuk islands.[14] Nauru, which had been bypassed and left to "wither on the vine" by American forces, was finally set free from the Japanese on 13 September 1945, when Captain Solda, the commander of all the Japanese troops on Nauru, surrendered the island to the Royal Australian Navy and Army. This surrender was accepted by the brigadier J. R. Stevenson, who represented Lieutenant General Sturdee, the commander of the First Australian Army, on board the warship HMAS Diamantina[16] Arrangements were made to repatriate from Chuuk the 737 Nauruans who survived Japanese captivity there. They were returned to Nauru by the BPC ship Trienza in January 1946.[17] In 1947, a trusteeship was established by the United Nations, and Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom became the U.N. trustees of the island.

Independence

Nauru became self-governing in January 1966, and following a two-year constitutional convention, it became independent in 1968, led by founding president Hammer DeRoburt. In 1967, the people of Nauru purchased the assets of the British Phosphate Commissioners, and in June 1970, control passed to the locally owned Nauru Phosphate Corporation. Income from the exploitation of phosphate gave Nauruans one of the highest living standards in the Pacific and the world.[18]

In 1989, Nauru took legal actions against Australia in the International Court of Justice over Australia's actions during its administration of Nauru. In particular, Nauru made a legal complaint against Australia's failure to remedy the environmental damage caused by phosphate mining.[19] Certain Phosphate Lands: Nauru v. Australia led to an out-of-court settlement to rehabilitate the mined-out areas of Nauru.

International agreements

Politics

Nauru is a republic with a parliamentary system of government. The president is both the head of state and of government. An 18-member unicameral parliament is elected every three years. The parliament elects a President from its members, and the President appoints a cabinet of five to six members. Nauru does not have any formal structure for political parties. Candidates typically stand for office as independents. Fifteen of the 18 members of the current Parliament are independents, and alliances within the government are often formed on the basis of extended family ties.[20] Three parties that have sometimes been active in Nauruan politics are the Democratic Party, Nauru First, and the Centre Party.

Current president Marcus Stephen
Nauru parliament
Ludwig Scotty, former president (2004–2007)

Since 1992, local government has been the responsibility of the Nauru Island Council (NIC). The NIC has limited powers, and it functions as an advisor to the national government on local matters. The role of the NIC is to concentrate its efforts on local activities relevant to Nauruans. An elected member of the Nauru Island Council cannot simultaneously be a member of parliament.[21] Land tenure on Nauru is unusual: all Nauruans have certain rights to all land on the island, which is owned by individuals and family groups. Government and corporate entities do not own any land, and they must enter into a lease arrangement with the landowners to use land. Non-Nauruans cannot own land.[22]

Nauru had 17 changes of administration between 1989 and 2003.[20] Between 1999 and 2003, a series of no-confidence votes and elections resulted in two people, René Harris and Bernard Dowiyogo, leading the country for alternating periods. Dowiyogo died in office in March 2003 and Ludwig Scotty was elected as the President. Scotty was re-elected to serve a full term in October 2004. Following a vote of "no confidence" by Parliament against President Scotty on 19 December 2007, Marcus Stephen became the President.

Nauru has a complex legal system. Its Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice, is paramount on constitutional issues. Other cases can be appealed to the two-judge Appellate Court. Parliament cannot overturn court decisions, but Appellate Court rulings can be appealed to the High Court of Australia.[23] However, in practice, this rarely happens. Lower courts consist of the District Court and the Family Court, both of which are headed by a Resident Magistrate, who also is the Registrar of the Supreme Court. Finally, there also are two quasi-courts: the Public Service Appeal Board and the Police Appeal Board, both of which are presided over by the Chief Justice.[24]

Nauru with its small population has no armed forces. Under an informal agreement, its defense is the responsibility of Australia. There is a small police force under civilian control.[1]

Nauru is divided into fourteen administrative districts which are grouped into eight electoral constituencies. The districts are:
AiwoAnabarAnetanAnibareBaitiBoeBuadaDenigomoduEwaIjuwMenengNibokUaboeYaren

Foreign relations

Following independence in 1968, Nauru joined the Commonwealth of Nations as a Special Member, and it became a full member in 2000.[4] Nauru was admitted to the Asian Development Bank in 1991 and to the United Nations in 1999. Nauru is a member of the Pacific Islands Forum, the South Pacific Regional Environmental Program, the South Pacific Commission, and the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission. The American Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program operates a climate-monitoring facility on Nauru.

Symbol of the Pacific Islands Forum

Nauru and Australia have close diplomatic ties. In addition to the informal defence arrangements, the September 2005 Memorandum of Understanding between the two countries provides Nauru with financial aid and technical assistance, including a Secretary of Finance to prepare Nauru's budget, and advisers on health and education. This aid is in return for Nauru's housing of asylum seekers while their applications for entry into Australia are processed.[20] Nauru uses the Australian dollar as its official currency.

Nauru has used its position as a member of the United Nations to gain financial support from both the Republic of China (ROC) and the People's Republic of China (PRC) by changing its position on the political status of Taiwan. During 2002, Nauru signed an agreement to establish diplomatic relations with the PRC on 21 July. Nauru accepted $130m from PRC for this action.[25] In response, the ROC severed diplomatic relations with Nauru two days later. Nauru later re-established links with the ROC on 14 May 2005,[26] and diplomatic ties with the PRC were officially severed on 31 May 2005. However, the PRC continues to maintain a diplomatic presence (a consulate?) on Nauru. Similarly in 2008, Nauru recognised Kosovo as an independent country. Then, in 2009, Nauru became the fourth country, after Russia, Nicaragua, and Venezuela to recognise the breakaway region of Georgia, Abkhazia. Russia was reported to be giving Nauru $50M in humanitarian aid in return.[27]

In recent times, a significant portion of Nauru's income has been in the form of aid from Australia. In 2001, the MV Tampa, a Norwegian ship that had rescued 433[28] refugees (from various countries including Afghanistan) from a stranded 20-meter-long boat and was seeking to dock in Australia, was diverted to Nauru as part of the Pacific Solution. Nauru operated the detention center in exchange for Australian aid. By November 2005, only two refugees, Mohammed Sagar and Muhammad Faisal, remained on Nauru from those first sent there in 2001,[29] with Sagar finally resettling in early 2007. The Australian government sent further groups of asylum-seekers to Nauru in late 2006 and early 2007.[30] In late January 2008, following Australia's decision to close the processing center, Nauru announced that they will request a new aid deal to ease the resulting blow to the economy.[31]

Geography

Nauru is a small, oval-shaped island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, 42 km (26 miles) south of the Equator. The island is surrounded by a coral reef, which is exposed at low tide and dotted with pinnacles. The reef is bound seaward by deep water, and on the inside by a sandy beach. The presence of the reef has prevented the establishment of a seaport, although 16 artificial channels have been made in the reef to allow small boats to access the island. A 150 to 300 meter (about 500 to 1000 ft.) wide fertile coastal strip lies inland from the beach. Coral cliffs surround Nauru's central plateau, which is known as "Topside". The highest point of the plateau, called the Command Ridge, is 71 meters above sea level.[32] The only fertile areas on Nauru are the narrow coastal belt, where coconut palms flourish. The land surrounding Buada Lagoon supports bananas, pineapples, vegetables, pandanus trees, and indigenous hardwoods such as the tomano tree. The population of Nauru is concentrated in the coastal belt and around Buada Lagoon.

A limestone plateau surrounded by a coral reef, an airstrip, and channels, but no seaport
Map of Nauru

Nauru was one of three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean (the others were Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Makatea in French Polynesia). However, the phosphate reserves on Nauru are depleted for all practical purposes. Phosphate mining in the central plateau has left a barren terrain of jagged limestone pinnacles up to 15 meters (49 ft.) high. A century of mining has stripped and devastated about 80% of the land area. Mining has also impacted the surrounding Exclusive Economic Zone, with 40% of marine life estimated to have been killed by silt and phosphate runoff.[33]

There are quite limited natural fresh water resources on Nauru. Rooftop storage tanks collect rainwater, but the islanders are mostly dependent on a single, aging desalination plant. Nauru's climate is hot and very humid year-round—because of the proximity of the land to the Equator and the ocean. Nauru is hit by monsoon rains between November and February. Annual rainfall is highly variable and is influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, with several significant recorded droughts.[22] The temperature on Nauru ranges between 26 and 35° Celsius (79 to 95°Fahrenheit) during the day and between 25 and 28° Celsius (77 to 82°F.) at night[citation needed]. As an island nation, Nauru is quite vulnerable to climate change and sea level change, but to what degree is difficult to predict. At least 80% of the land of Nauru is well-elevated, but this area will be uninhabitable until the phosphate mining rehabilitation program is implemented.[33] Also, the agricultural area of Nauru is quite close to the seashore.

There are only about 60 recorded vascular plant species native to the island, none of which are endemic. Coconut farming, mining, and introduced species have caused serious disturbance to the native vegetation.[22] There are no native land mammals, but there are native birds, including the endemic Nauru Reed Warbler, insects, and land crabs. The Polynesian rat, cats, dogs, pigs, and chickens have been introduced to Nauru from ships, either accidentally or on purpose.

Economy

An aerial image of Nauru in 2002 from the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. Regenerated vegetation covers 63% of land that was mined.[33]

The Nauruan economy peaked in the early 1980s. Nauru's economy depends almost entirely on the phosphate deposits that originate from the droppings of sea birds. There are few other resources, and most necessities are imported.[34] Small-scale mining is still conducted by the RONPhos, formerly known as the Nauru Phosphate Corporation. The government places a percentage of RONPhos's earnings into the Nauru Phosphate Royalties Trust. The Trust manages long-term investments, intended to support the citizens once the phosphate reserves have been exhausted.

The Trust's fixed and current assets, many of which were in Melbourne, were reduced considerably, and many never fully recovered. Some of the failed investments included financing 1993's Leonardo the Musical, which was a financial failure, the purchase of the vacant Carlton and United Breweries site on Swanston Street in 1994 which was sold undeveloped in 1998, a loan to the Fitzroy Football Club which went into liquidation in 1996, and the Queen Victoria Village site which was repossessed in 1999.[citation needed]

The Mercure Hotel in Sydney[35] and Nauru House in Melbourne were sold in 2004 to finance debts and Air Nauru's only Boeing 737, which was repossessed in December 2005. Normal air service resumed after the aircraft was replaced with a Boeing 737-300 airliner in June 2006.[36][37]

The value of the Trust is estimated to have shrunk from 1,300 million Australian dollars in 1991 to 138 million dollars in 2002.[38] In 2005, the corporation sold its property asset in Melbourne, the vacant Savoy Tavern site, for $7.5 million.[39] Nauru currently lacks money to perform many of the basic functions of government. For example, the National Bank of Nauru is insolvent. The CIA World Factbook estimated GDP per capita at $5,000 in 2005.[1] The Asian Development Bank 2007 economic report on Nauru estimated GDP per capita at $2400 to $2715.[2]

Limestone pinnacles remain after phosphate mining.

There are no personal taxes in Nauru. The unemployment rate is estimated to be 90%, and the government employs 95% of those Nauruans who do work.[1][40] The Asian Development Bank notes that although the Administration has a strong public mandate to implement economic reforms, in the absence of an alternative to phosphate mining, the medium-term outlook is for continued dependence on external assistance.[38] The rental of tuna fishing opportunities within the Nauru Exclusive Economic zone generates significant revenue. Tourism is not a major contributor to the economy, because there is little to see or do here, and there are few facilities for tourists. The Menen Hotel and the OD-N-Aiwo Hotel are the only two hotels on the island. However, the oceanic climate is relatively pleasant and there are several sites of historical interest, particularly from the days of the Japanese occupation in World War 2. The sea near the island teems with pelagic gamefish and tuna and would be of interest to anyone who wants to fish where few outsiders have fished before.

In the 1990s, Nauru became a tax haven and it offered passports to foreign nationals for a fee. The inter-governmental Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) then identified Nauru as one of 15 "non-cooperative" countries in its fight against money laundering. During the 1990s, it was possible to establish a licensed bank in Nauru for $25,000, no questions asked. Under pressure from FATF, Nauru introduced anti-avoidance legislation in 2003, after which foreign hot money flew out of the country. In October 2005, thanks to this legislation and its effective enforcement, FATF lifted the non-cooperative designation.[41]

From 2001 to 2007, the Nauru detention centre provided a source of income for Nauru. The Nauruan authorities reacted with concern to its closure by Australia.[42] In February 2008, the Foreign Affairs Minister, Dr. Kieren Keke, stated that it would result in 100 Nauruans losing their jobs, and would affect 10% of the island's population directly or indirectly:

"We have got a huge number of families that are suddenly going to be without any income. We are looking at ways we can try and provide some welfare assistance but our capacity to do that is very limited. Literally we have got a major unemployment crisis in front of us."[43]

Demographics

Nauruan districts of Denigomodu and Nibok

Nauru had 9,265 residents at end of 2006.[2] The population was previously larger, but in 2006 some 1500 people left the island during a repatriation of immigrant workers from Kiribati and Tuvalu. The repatriation was motivated by wide-scale reductions-in-force in the phosphate mining industry.[2] The official language of Nauru is Nauruan, a distinct Pacific island language, which is spoken by 96% of ethnic Nauruans at home.[2] English is widely spoken and it is the language of government and commerce (Few outside of Nauru speak Nauruan - thus an international language like English is a necessity.)

Civic Center, Aiwo District

The top ethnic groups of Nauru are Nauruan (58%), other Pacific Islander (26%), European (8%), and Chinese (8%). All Europeans are of British origin, and most of these have left since independence. The main religion practiced on the island is Christianity (two-thirds Protestant, one-third Roman Catholic). There is also a sizable Bahá'í population (10%) and a Buddhist population (3%). The Constitution provides for freedom of religion. However, the government restricts this right in some circumstances, and it has restricted the practice of religion by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and members of the Jehovah's Witnesses, most of whom are foreign workers employed by the government-owned Nauru Phosphate Corporation.[44]

Literacy on Nauru is 96%, and education is compulsory for children from six to 15 years old, and two more non-compulsory years are offered (years 11 and 12).[45] There is a campus of the University of the South Pacific on Nauru. Before this school was built, eligible students traveled to Australia, New Zealand, etc., for their college educations.

Nauruans are among the most obese people in the world. 90% of adults have a higher BMI than the world average.[46] Nauru has the world's highest level of type 2 diabetes, with more than 40% of the population affected.[47] Other significant dietary-related problems on Nauru include kidney disease and heart disease. Life expectancy on Nauru in 2006 was just 58.0 years for males and 65.0 years for females.[48]

Culture

Open air assembly of Nauruans

Nauruans descended from Polynesian and Micronesian seafarers who believed in a female deity, Eijebong, and a spirit land, an island called Buitani. Two of the 12 original tribal groups became extinct in the 20th century. Angam Day, held on 26 October, celebrates the recovery of the Nauruan population after the two World Wars, which together reduced the indigenous population to fewer than 1500. The displacement of the indigenous culture by colonial and contemporary, western influences is significant. Few of the old customs have been preserved, but some forms of traditional music, arts and crafts, and fishing are still practiced.

Australian rules football, played at Linkbelt Oval

There are no daily news publications on Nauru, but there are several weekly or fortnightly publications, including the Bulletin, the Central Star News and The Nauru Chronicle. There is a state-owned television station, Nauru Television (NTV), which broadcasts programmes from New Zealand, and there is a state-owned non-commercial radio station, Radio Nauru, which carries programs from Radio Australia and the BBC.[49]

Australian rules football is the most popular sport in Nauru. There is a football league with seven teams. All games are played at Nauru's only stadium, the Linkbelt Oval. Other sports popular in Nauru include softball, cricket, golf, sailing, tennis, rugby (union and league), and soccer. Nauru participates in the Commonwealth Games and the Summer Olympic Games, where team members have been somewhat successful in weightlifting. Marcus Stephen has been a medallist, and he was elected to Parliament in 2003, and was elected as President of Nauru in 2007.

A traditional activity is catching noddy terns when they return from foraging at sea. At sunset, men stand on the beach ready to throw their lassos at the incoming birds. The Nauruan lasso is supple rope with a weight at the end. When a bird approaches, the lasso is thrown up, hits or drapes itself over the bird, which falls to the ground. The noddy is then killed, plucked, cleaned, cooked, and eaten.[50]

See also

Further reading

  • John M. Gowdy, Carl N. McDaniel (2000). Paradise for Sale: A Parable of Nature. Berkeley, U.S.; Los Angeles, U.S.; London, U.K.: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520222298.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Central Intelligence Agency (2009). "Nauru". The World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/nr.html. Retrieved January 23, 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Country Economic Report: Nauru". Asian Development Bank. http://www.adb.org/Documents/CERs/NAU/CER-NAU-2007.pdf. 
  3. ^ http://lajt.onet.pl/encyklopedia/6482,6237,haslo_detal.html
  4. ^ a b Republic of Nauru Permanent Mission to the United Nations URL Accessed 2006-05-10
  5. ^ "Australia ends 'Pacific Solution'". BBC News. 2008-02-08. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7229764.stm. 
  6. ^ a b New York Times report of Nauru's recognition for Abkhazia
  7. ^ Науру признало Южную Осетию. - Грани.ру, 16.12.2009
  8. ^ McDaniel, C. N. and Gowdy, J. M. (2000.). Paradise for Sale. University of California Press. pp. 13–28. ISBN 0-520-22229-6. 
  9. ^ Ellis, A. F. 1935. Ocean Island and Nauru - their story. Angus and Robertson Limited. pp 29–39
  10. ^ Ellis, A. F. 1935. Ocean Island and Nauru - their story. Angus and Robertson Limited. pp 127–139
  11. ^ Official Year Book of the Commonwealth of Australia No. 35 - 1942 and 1943. Austràlia Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics (now Australian Bureau of Statistics. http://books.google.com/books?id=MAcIBRGr5JEC&pg=PA256&dq=British+Phosphate+Commission#v=onepage&q=British%20Phosphate%20Commission&f=false. 
  12. ^ Cain, Timothy M., comp. "Nauru." The Book of Rule. 1st ed. 1 vols. New York: DK Inc., 2004.
  13. ^ Agreement (between Australia, New Zealand and United Kingdom) regarding Nauru
  14. ^ a b c Haden, J. D. 2000. Nauru: a middle ground in World War II Pacific Magazine URL Accessed 2006-05-05
  15. ^ Lundstrom, John B., The First Team and the Guadalcanal Campaign, Naval Institute Press, 1994, p. 175.
  16. ^ The Times, 14 September 1945
  17. ^ Garrett, J. 1996. Island Exiles. ABC. ISBN 0-7333-0485-0. pp176–181
  18. ^ Nauru seeks to regain lost fortunes Nick Squires, 2008-03-15, BBC News Online. URL Accessed 2008-03-16
  19. ^ Highet, K and Kahale, H. 1993. Certain Phosphate Lands in Nauru. The American Journal of International Law 87:282–288
  20. ^ a b c Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Republic of Nauru Country Brief - November 2005 URL accessed on 2006-05-02.
  21. ^ Ogden, M.R. Republic of Nauru URL Accessed 2006-05-02.
  22. ^ a b c Nauru Department of Economic Development and Environment. 2003 First National Report To the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) URL Accessed 2006-05-03
  23. ^ Nauru (High Court Appeals) Act (Australia) 1976. Australian Legal Information Institute URL Accessed 2006-08-07
  24. ^ State Department Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs September 2005 URL Accessed 2006-05-11
  25. ^ Tiny Nauru struts world stage by recognising breakaway republics
  26. ^ AAP. 14 May 2005. Taiwan Re-establishes Diplomatic Ties with Nauru URL Accessed 2006-05-05
  27. ^ Harding, Luke (14 December 2009). "Tiny Nauru struts world stage by recognising breakaway republics". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/dec/14/nauro-recognises-abkhazia-south-ossetia. Retrieved 14 December 2009. 
  28. ^ The Bulletin publishes for the last time
  29. ^ Gordon, M. 5 November 2005. Nauru's last two asylum seekers feel the pain. The Age URL Accessed 2006-05-08
  30. ^ ABC News. 12 February 2007. Nauru detention centre costs $2m per month. ABC News Online URL Accessed 2007-02-12
  31. ^ ABC News. 31 January 2008. Nauru wants aid deal after camp closure. ABC News Online URL Accessed 2008-01-31
  32. ^ (English) Republic of Nauru National Assessment Report
  33. ^ a b c Republic of Nauru. 1999. Climate Change - Response. First National Communication - 1999. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, United Nations
  34. ^ Big tasks for a small island URL Accessed 2006-05-10
  35. ^ Nauru, receivers start swapping legal blows Craig Skehan, Sydney Morning Herald, 9 July 2004
  36. ^ Receivers take over Nauru House. The Age URL Accessed 2006-05-09
  37. ^ Air Nauru flight Schedule URL Accessed 2006-05-02.
  38. ^ a b Asian Development Bank. 2005. Asian Development Outlook 2005 - Nauru URL Accessed 2006-05-02
  39. ^ http://www.rnzi.com/pages/news.php?op=read&id=15983
  40. ^ "Paradise well and truly lost", The Economist, 20 December 2001 [1] URL Accessed 2006-05-02.
  41. ^ FATF. 13 October 2005. Nauru de-listed URL Accessed 2006-05-11
  42. ^ "Nauru fears gap when camps close", Jewel Topsfield, The Age, 11 December 2007
  43. ^ "Nauru 'hit' by detention centre closure", The Age, 7 February 2008
  44. ^ US Department of State. 2003. International Religious Freedom Report 2003 - Nauru URL accessed 2005-05-02.
  45. ^ Waqa, B. 1999. UNESCO Education for all Assessment Country report 1999 Country: Nauru URL Accessed 2006-05-02.
  46. ^ Obesity in the Pacific: too big to ignore. 2002. Secretariat of the Pacific Community ISBN 982-203-925-5
  47. ^ King, H. and Rewers M. 1993. Diabetes in adults is now a Third World problem. World Health Organization Ad Hoc Diabetes Reporting Group. Ethnicity & Disease 3:S67–74.
  48. ^ World Health Organization World health report 2005. Nauru URL
  49. ^ BBC News. Country Profile: Nauru. URL Accessed 2006-05-02.
  50. ^ Banaba/Ocean Island News. URL Accessed 2006-05-11.

External links

Government
General information
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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Oceania : Nauru
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Location
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Flag
Image:nr-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital government offices in Yaren District
Government republic
Currency Australian dollar (AUD)
Area 21 sq km
Population 13,770 (July 2008 est.)
Language Nauruan (official, a distinct Pacific Island language), English widely understood, spoken, and used for most government and commercial purposes
Religion Christian (two-thirds Protestant, one-third Roman Catholic)
Electricity 240V/50Hz (Australian plug)
Calling Code +674
Internet TLD .nr
Time Zone UTC +12

Nauru[1] is a small island in the South Pacific Ocean, south of the Marshall Islands and is the world's smallest independent republic. Although other island states may be smaller and/or less populous, they are all dependent territories of other countries.

Understand

Mining of Nauru's phosphate deposits, which occupied about 90% of the island, began in the early 20th century under a German-British consortium. During World War I, the island was occupied by Australian forces and became a dependent territory. Nauru achieved independence in 1968. In the 1980s, phosphate exports briefly gave Nauruans one of the highest per capita incomes in the Third World. As at 2008, most of Nauru's revenue comes from the export of phosphate to Australia, South Korea and New Zealand as well as other countries. It is anticipated that the phosphate reserves will be completely exhausted before 2050. The sale of fishing licences is the other major revenue raiser. Countries such as Australia and Taiwan provide substantial development cooperation funding. Despite this, the unemployment rate currently stands at 90%.

In 2001 the container ship Tampa rescued several hundred "refugees" from a sinking Indonesian vessel and attempted to deliver them to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean, which is an Australian Federal Territory. In what is cynically known as The Pacific Solution, the Australian Government established an Off Shore Processing Centre (OPC) on Nauru where these people were housed, pending assessment of their claims to be refugees. In exchange for accepting the OPC Nauru was provided with extra aid by Australia. The OPC was closed in early 2008.

The climate is tropical, with some rain occurring between November and February. The are a few "sandy" beaches but most of the shallow area around the island is coral reefs. Most of the interior of the island is worked-out mining land, which is to be rehabilitated.

Get in

All foreign visitors require a valid passport, a 30 day tourist visa (unless your visit is less than three days in which case proof of onward travel is required) and proof of hotel booking or local sponsor in order to enter Nauru. Your visa must be obtained from your local Nauruan embassy before departure.

By plane

As of October 2008, Nauru's national carrier Our Airline flies twice weekly to Nauru International Airport from Brisbane Airport in Australia with a stopoff at Honiara International Airport on the Solomon Islands. Flights depart Brisbane on Thursdays and Sundays and return from Nauru on Sundays and Fridays. There are additional flights from Honiara on Fridays and Sundays. Further details are available from the Our Airline website. [2]

Get around

A 19km road circles the island. There is a community bus which travels around the island every hour or so during the day. Cars can sometimes be rented from Capelle and Partners, the largest local supermarket.

Talk

The official language is Nauruan, a distinct Pacific Island language. English is widely understood, spoken, and used for most government and commercial purposes.

Learn

The Nauru campus of the University of the South Pacific is in Aiwo district; most lectures are delivered by video.

Work

If you are a doctor:

  • Nauru General Hospital

Buy

Nauru uses the Australian dollar as its national currency.

Eat

Food is imported from Australia and arrives by ship, usually once every six to eight weeks. There are lots of small "eating places", selling Chinese food. There is also a fast food kiosk at Capelle's supermarket.

Drink

The Menen Hotel's Reef Bar is the only public bar in Nauru. It serves Australian beers and international spirits.

Sleep

There are two hotels, the more expensive Menen on the east of the island and the budget Od'n Aiwo to the west.

  • Od'n Aiwo Hotel, PO Box 299, Aiwo District, Republic of Nauru (On the coastal belt road, to the west side of the island, directly opposite the road inland to Buada), (+674) 444 3701. The less expensive of the two hotels on Nauru. US$40-80.  edit
  • Menen Hotel, PO Box 298, Anibare District, Republic of Nauru (On the coastal belt road, to the east side of the island and south of Anibare Bay.), (+674) 444 3300. The Menen is Nauru's largest hotel, boasting 119 rooms and conference facilities for up to 200. It possesses two restaurants and the island's only bar. US$80.  edit

Stay safe

Be careful swimming in Nauru; ask advice before venturing into the water.

Stay healthy

Water supply in Nauru is dependent on rainwater collected into tanks from the roofs of houses and from an aging reverse osmosis desalination plant.

  • Emergency: 118 or 117
  • Nauru General Hospital: 674- 555-4302
  • Cenpac Net - Internet provider
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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also nauru

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Nauru

Plural
-

Nauru

  1. A country in Oceania. Official name: Republic of Nauru.
  2. The island on which the country is located.
  3. Nauruan, the language of Nauru

Translations

See also


Czech

Proper noun

Nauru

  1. Nauru

Finnish

Wikipedia-logo.png
Finnish Wikipedia has an article on:
Nauru

Wikipedia fi

Proper noun

Nauru

  1. Nauru

Declension

Derived terms


German

Wikipedia-logo.png
German Wikipedia has an article on:
Nauru

Wikipedia de

Proper noun

Nauru n.

  1. Nauru

Derived terms


Italian

Wikipedia-logo.png
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Nauru

Wikipedia it

Proper noun

Nauru m.

  1. Nauru

Norwegian

Proper noun

Nauru

  1. Nauru

Related terms


Polish

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ˈnawru/

Proper noun

Nauru n. (undeclinable)

  1. Nauru

Derived terms

  • Nauruańczyk m., Nauruanka f.
  • adjective: nauruański

Swedish

Proper noun

Nauru

  1. Nauru

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