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This is a list of people whose ideas became part of Nazi ideology. The ideas, writings, and speeches of these thinkers were incorporated into what became Nazism, including antisemitism, eugenics, racial hygiene, the concept of the master race, and lebensraum. The list includes people whose ideas were incorporated, even if they did not live in the Nazi era.

Contents

Philosophers and sociologists

  • Alfred Baeumler (1887–1968), German philosopher in Nazi Germany. He was a leading interpreter of Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophy as legitimizing Nazism. Thomas Mann read Baeumler's work on Nietzsche in the early 1930s, and characterized passages of it as "Hitler prophecy."[1]
  • Alfred Rosenberg (1893–1946), considered one of the main authors of key Nazi ideological creeds, including the racial policy of Nazi Germany, antisemitism, Lebensraum, abrogation of the Treaty of Versailles, and opposition to degenerate art. He is also known for his rejection of Christianity, while playing a role in the development of Positive Christianity. At Nuremberg he was tried, sentenced to death, and executed by hanging as a war criminal.[2]
  • Martin Heidegger (1889–1976), German philosopher whose work remains controversial due to its supposed inherent irrationality, but also Heidegger's political involvement with National Socialism. The relations between Martin Heidegger and Nazism remain controversial, although no one denies his historical engagement for the NSDAP, which he joined on May 1, 1933, nearly three weeks after being appointed Rector of the University of Freiburg. Heidegger resigned the Rectorship about one year later, in April 1934, but remained a member of the NSDAP until the end of World War II. His first act as Rector was to eliminate all democratic structures, including those that had elected him Rector. There were book burnings on his campus (though he successfully stopped some of them), as well as some student violence. He was a member of the Nazi party.[3]
  • Robert Michels (1876–1936), a German sociologist who wrote on the political behavior of intellectual elites and contributed to elite theory. He is best known for his book Political Parties, which contains a description of the iron law of oligarchy.[4]
  • Herman Schmalenbach (1885–1950), who refined the concepts of Gemeinschaft and Bund.[5]
  • Lothrop Stoddard (1883–1950), American political theorist, historian, eugenicist, and anti-immigration advocate who wrote a number of prominent books on scientific racism. He developed the concept of the untermensch.

Scientists and physicians

  • Hans F. K. Günther (1891–1968), German race researcher and eugenicist in the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich, also known as "Rassengünther" (Race Günther) or "Rassenpapst" (Race Pope). He is considered to be a major influence on National Socialist racialist thought, and was a member of the Nazi party.[6]
  • Alfred Ploetz (1860–1940), German physician, biologist, and eugenicist who introduced the concept of racial hygiene in Germany. He was a member of the Nazi party.[7] His brother Ernst Rüdin, also a committed National Socialist, praised him in 1938 as a man who "by his meritorious services has helped to set up our Nazi ideology."[8]

Theologians, Spiritual Leaders

  • Ludwig Müller (1883-1945), was a theologian and church leader who played a major role in the Nazi party's attempt to misdirect the Protestant, mainly Lutheran churches of Germany toward a basis in Aryan ideology and away from its Jewish origins. He had a leading part in the Nazi, Gleichschaltung, the plan to unite the previously independent Protestant churches into a single Church of the New Order, which is part of longer history of an attempt to unify the churches under the German Evangelical Church, see Reichskirche. [9] Withholding baptism from non-Aryans was enforced in most churches during the Nazi period, though not without some protest.

Others

  • Richard Walther Darré (1895–1953), one of the leading Nazi blood and soil ideologists. He served as Reich Minister of Food and Agriculture from 1933 to 1942.
  • Anton Drexler (1884–1942), German Nazi political leader of the 1920s. He joined the Fatherland Party during World War I. He was a poet and a member of the völkisch agitators who, together with journalist Karl Harrer, founded the German Workers' Party (DAP) in Munich with Gottfried Feder and Dietrich Eckart in 1919.
  • Lanz von Liebenfels (1874–1954), monk and theologian who influenced Nazi ideology by inventing a blend of theology and biology called theozoology.
  • Dietrich Eckart (1868–1923), who developed the ideology of a "genius higher human", based on writings by Lanz von Liebenfels. He was a member of the Nazi party.[11][12]
  • Gottfried Feder (1883–1941), economist and one of the early key members of the Nazi party. He was their economic theoretician. Initially, it was his lecture in 1919 that drew Hitler into the party.[13][14]
  • Gregor Strasser (1892–1934) Involved in the Kapp Putsch he formed his own völkischer Wehrverband ("popular defense union") which he merged into the NSDAP in 1921. Initially a loyal supporter of Adolf Hitler, he took part in the Beer Hall Putsch and held a number of high positions in the Nazi Party. Soon however, Strasser became a strong advocate of the socialist wing of the party, arguing that the national revolution should also include strong action to tackle poverty and should seek to build working class support.
  • Julius Streicher (1885–1946), the founder and publisher of Der Stürmer newspaper, which became a central element of the Nazi propaganda machine. His portrayal of Jews as subhuman and evil played a critical role in the dehumanization and marginalization of the Jewish minority in the eyes of common Germans – creating the necessary conditions for the later perpetration of the Holocaust. He was a member of the Nazi party.[15]

Intellectuals indirectly associated with Nazism

Some writers came before the Nazi era and their writings were incorporated into Nazi ideology:

  • Francis Galton (1822–1911), half-cousin of Charles Darwin, was an English Victorian polymath who coined the term eugenics.[21]
  • Paul de Lagarde (1827–1891) was a German biblical scholar and orientalist. His Deutsche Schriften (1878–1881) became a nationalist text.[25]
  • Martin Luther (1483–1546), German theologian who wrote On the Jews and Their Lies in 1543.[26] He argued that the Jews were "devil's children".[27] He wrote that the synagogue was a "defiled bride ... an incorrigible whore and an evil slut".[28] and Jews were full of the "devil's feces ... which they wallow in like swine."[29] He advocated setting synagogues on fire, destroying Jewish prayerbooks, forbidding rabbis from preaching, seizing Jews' property and money, smashing up their homes, and ensuring that these "poisonous envenomed worms" be forced into labor or expelled "for all time."[30] He also seemed to sanction their murder,[31] writing "We are at fault in not slaying them."[32] His statements that Jews' homes should be destroyed, their synagogues burned, money confiscated and liberty curtailed were revived and used in propaganda by the Nazis in 1933–1945.[33] Some scholars see Luther's influence as limited, and the Nazis' use of his work as opportunistic. Johannes Wallmann argues that Luther's writings against the Jews were largely ignored in the 18th and 19th centuries, and that there is no continuity between Luther's thought and Nazi ideology.[34] Martin Brecht argues that there is a difference between Luther's beliefs and the Nazis' ideology of racial antisemitism.[35]
  • Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (1880–1936), German historian and philosopher. He is best known for his book The Decline of the West and the cyclical theory of the rise and decline of civilizations. He wrote extensively throughout World War I and the interwar period, and supported German hegemony in Europe. The National Socialists held Spengler as an intellectual precursor but he was ostracized after 1933 for his pessimism about Germany and Europe's future, and his refusal to support Nazi ideas of racial superiority.
  • Adolf Stoecker (1835–1909), court chaplain to Kaiser Wilhelm and an antisemitic German theologian who founded one of the first antisemitic political parties in Germany, the Christian Social Party. He proposed severely limiting the civil rights of Jews in Germany. In September 1879 he delivered a speech entitled "What we demand of modern Jewry", in which he spelled out several demands of German Jews.[36]

References

  1. ^ Thomas Mann und Alfred Baeumler, Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 1989, p. 185
  2. ^ Evans, Richard J. (2004). The Coming of the Third Reich. London: Penguin Books. pp. 178–179. ISBN 0-141-00975-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=unXu2Ygk2AgC&pg=PA178&dq=This+was+intended+to+provide+the+Nazi+Party+with+a+major+work+of+theory. "This was intended to provide the Nazi Party with a major work of theory. The book had sold over a million copies by 1945 and some of its ideas were not without influence." 
  3. ^ Hannah Arendt/Martin Heidegger - E Ettinger - Yale University Press - 1995 - ISBN 0300072546 [1]
  4. ^ From Socialism to Fascism: The Relation Between Theory and Practice in the Work of Robert Michels II. - The Fascist Ideologue - D Beetham - Political Studies, 1977 - Blackwell Synergy. [2]
  5. ^ Herman Schmalenbach on Society and Experience. University of Chicago Press. 1977. ISBN 0226738655. http://books.google.com/books?id=OSl-WCUm3o0C&pg=PA14&dq=his+ideas+were+incorporated+into+nazi+philosophy&ei=mjpZSbqKMYKEzgTEv6iKAg. "Some of the terms that he had earlier refined such as Gemeinschaft and Bund, were incorporated into the Nazi ideology. ..." 
  6. ^ Christopher Hale. Himmler's Crusade: the True Story of the 1938 Nazi Expedition into Tibet Bantam, 2004. ISBN 978-0553814453
  7. ^ "Die Tüchtigkeit unserer Rasse und der Schutz der Schwachen", 1893, p. 141, 142. cited by Massimo Ferari Zumbini: The roots of evil. Gründerjahre des Antisemitismus: Von der Bismarckzeit zu Hitler, Vittorio Klostermann, Frankfurt a. M. 2003, ISBN 3-465-03222-5, p.406
  8. ^ Ernst Ruedin: "Honor of Prof. Dr. Alfred Ploetz", in ARGB, Bd 32 / S.473-474, 1938, p.474
  9. ^ Kenneth Barnes, "Nazism, Liberalism and Christianity", University Press of Kentucky, Kentucky 1991.
  10. ^ Jung, Carl G. (1970); Collected Works, Volume 10; Routledge and Kegan Paul, London; ISBN 0 7100 1640 9; p 190-191.
  11. ^ "Dietrich Eckart". Jewish Virtual Library. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/Eckart.html. Retrieved 2009-01-04. "Later on, he developed an ideology of a 'genius higher human,' based on earlier writings by Lanz von Liebenfels; he saw himself in the tradition of Arthur Schopenhauer and Angelus Silesius, and also became fascinated by Mayan beliefs, but never had much sympathy for the scientific method. Eckart also loved and strongly identified with Henrik Ibsen's Peer Gynt." 
  12. ^ Nazi Ideology: Some Unfinished Business - BM Lane - Central European History, 1974 - jstor.org [3]
  13. ^ Munich 1923, John Dornberg, Harper & Row, New York, 1982. pg 344
  14. ^ Friedlander, Henry (1977). The Holocaust: Ideology, Bureaucracy, and Genocide. "Gottfried Feder gave technocratic ideology a racist twist. ... arouses interest because he helped to shape Nazi ideology during the early 1920's. ..." 
  15. ^ The Number One Nazi Jew-baiter: A Political Biography of Julius Streicher, Hitler's Chief Anti- … WP Varga - 1981 - Carlton Press
  16. ^ Spielvogel, Jackson; David Redles (1986). "Hitler's Racial Ideology: Content and Occult Sources.". Simon Wiesenthal Center Annual 3. http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/site/pp.asp?c=gvKVLcMVIuG&b=395043. Retrieved 2007-08-22. 
  17. ^ DİN BİLİMLERİNİN TARİHÇESİ - Dr. Jacques WAARDENBURG - 2004/1 (281-295 s.) [4]
  18. ^ Eugenics and the Development of Nazi Race Policy - JERRY BERGMAN – The American Scientific Affiliation - PSCF 44 (June 1992): 109-124. [5]
  19. ^ Shirer, William L. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, 1959, p.105 of 1985 Bookclub Associates Edition.
  20. ^ Friedrich Nietzsche - Antisemit oder Judenfreund? - T Hanke - 2003 - GRIN Verlag [6]
  21. ^ "A Life of Sir Francis Galton: From African Exploration to the Birth of Eugenics". Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. 2002. http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/perspectives_in_biology_and_medicine/v045/45.3gilman.html. Retrieved 2009-01-04. "Using Galton's photographs, the anthropologist Hans F. K. Günther, whose anthropology of the Jews was a standard work of Nazi science during the 1930s and ..." 
  22. ^ Essai sur l’inégalité des races humaines - A de Gobineau, H Juin - 1940 - uqac.ca. [7]
  23. ^ The New Race Consciousness: Race, Nation, and Empire in American Culture, 1910-1925 – Matthew Pratt – Journal of Word History – Volume 10, Number, Fall 1999 pp.307-352.[8]
  24. ^ Solkoff, Norman (2001). Beginnings, Mass Murder, and Aftermath of the Holocaust. University Press of America. ISBN 0761820280. http://books.google.com/books?id=sCJnAAAAMAAJ&q. "The book by the American lawyer Madison Grant ... was turned on its head by Nazi ideology. ..." 
  25. ^ Stern, Fritz The Politics of Cultural Despair: a study in the Rise of the Germanic Ideology, 1961 (see Chapter I, "Paul de Lagarde and a Germanic Religion").
  26. ^ Michael, Robert. Holy Hatred: Christianity, Antisemitism, and the Holocaust. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006, p. 110.
  27. ^ Luther, Martin (1543). On the Jews and their Lies. http://www.preteristarchive.com/Books/1543_luther_jews.html. "Our Lord also calls them a "brood of vipers"; furthermore in John 8 [:39,44] he states: "If you were Abraham's children ye would do what Abraham did.... You are of your father the devil. It was intolerable to them to hear that they were not Abraham's but the devil's children, nor can they bear to hear this today." 
  28. ^ Michael, Robert. Holy Hatred: Christianity, Antisemitism, and the Holocaust. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006, p. 112.
  29. ^ Obermann, Heiko. Luthers Werke. Erlangen 1854, 32:282, 298, in Grisar, Hartmann. Luther. St. Louis 1915, 4:286 and 5:406, cited in Michael, Robert. Holy Hatred: Christianity, Antisemitism, and the Holocaust. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006, p. 113.
  30. ^ Luther, Martin. "On the Jews and Their Lies", Luthers Werke. 47:268-271.
  31. ^ Michael, Robert. "Luther, Luther Scholars, and the Jews", Encounter, 46 (Autumn 1985) No.4:343.
  32. ^ Luther, Martin. On the Jews and Their Lies, cited in Michael, Robert. "Luther, Luther Scholars, and the Jews", Encounter 46 (Autumn 1985) No. 4:343-344.
  33. ^ McKim, Donald K. (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Martin Luther. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003, 58; Berenbaum, Michael. "Anti-Semitism", Encyclopaedia Britannica, accessed January 2, 2007. For Luther's own words, see Luther, Martin. "On the Jews and Their Lies", tr. Martin H. Bertram, in Sherman, Franklin. (ed.) Luther's Works. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1971, 47:268–72.
  34. ^ Johannes Wallmann, "The Reception of Luther's Writings on the Jews from the Reformation to the End of the 19th century", Lutheran Quarterly, n.s. 1 (Spring 1987) 1:72-97.
  35. ^ Brecht 3:351.
  36. ^ Journal of Church and State - JC Fout - Adolf Stoecker Antisemitism – 1975. [9]
  37. ^ "How the Nazis took flight from Valkyries and Rhinemaidens". The Guardian. 3 July 2007. http://www.guardian.co.uk/secondworldwar/story/0,,2117058,00.html. Retrieved 2008-12-28. "According to Jonathan Carr, author of the forthcoming book The Wagner Clan, Hitler himself was obsessed by "the Master". But the party faithful were not, and had to be dragged kicking and screaming to performances at Hitler's insistence." 
  38. ^ "The Controversy Over Richard Wagner". Jewish Virtual Library. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/anti-semitism/Wagner.html. Retrieved 2008-12-29. "All these ideas, together with the ultranationalistic character of his operas, especially The Ring provided a fertile feeding ground for Nazi ideology and cultural conception." 
  39. ^ The Nietzsche Legacy in Germany: 1890 -1990 - SE Aschheim - 1992 - University of California Press - ISBN 0520085558[10]
  40. ^ The Roots of Evil. Cambridge University Press. 1992. ISBN 0521422140. http://books.google.com/books?id=29u-vt_KgGEC&pg=PA111&dq=Friedrich+Nietzsche+%22nazi+ideology%22&ei=V_hhSbOYA6OOyQTrhZyCDg. "Many Nazi beliefs and ideals seem to be highly similar to those expressed by Nietzsche." 







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