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Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Neisseria gonorrhoeae cultured on two different media types.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Beta Proteobacteria
Order: Neisseriales
Family: Neisseriaceae
Genus: Neisseria
Species: N. gonorrhoeae
Binomial name
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Zopf, 1885

Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as Gonococci (plural), or Gonococcus (singular), is a species of Gram-negative coffee bean-shaped diplococci bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea.[1]

N.gonorrhoeae was first described by Albert Neisser in 1879.

Contents

Microbiology

Neisseria are fastidious Gram-negative cocci, requiring nutrient supplementation to grow in laboratory cultures. Specifically, they grow on chocolate agar with carbon dioxide. These cocci are facultatively intracellular and typically appear in pairs (diplococci), in the shape of coffee beans. Of the eleven species of Neisseria that colonize humans, only two are pathogens. N. gonorrhoeae is the causative agent of gonorrhoea and is transmitted via sexual contact.[2]

Neisseria is usually isolated on Thayer-Martin agar—an agar plate with three different antibiotics and nutrients which not only facilitate the growth of Neisseria species, but inhibit the growth of Gram-positive organisms and most bacilli and fungi. Further testing to differentiate the species includes testing for oxidase (all Neisseria show a positive reaction) and the carbohydrates maltose, sucrose, and glucose test in which N. gonorrhoeae will only oxidize (that is, utilize) the glucose.

N. gonorrhoeae are able to pull 100,000 times their own weight and it has been claimed that the pili used to do so are the strongest biological motor known to date, exterting one nanonewton.[3]

Disease

Symptoms of infection with N. gonorrhoeae differ depending on the site of infection.

Infection of the genitals can result in a purulent (or pus-like) discharge from the genitals which may be foul smelling, inflammation, redness, swelling, dysuria and a burning sensation during urination.

N. gonorrhoeae can also cause conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, proctitis or urethritis, prostatitis and orchitis.

Conjunctivitis is common in neonates and silver nitrate or antibiotics are often applied to their eyes as a preventive measure against gonorrhoea. Neonatal gonorrheal conjunctivitis is contracted when the infant is exposed to N. gonorrhoeae in the birth canal, and can result in corneal scarring or perforation.

Disseminated N. gonorrhoeae infections can occur, resulting in endocarditis, meningitis or gonococcal dermatitis-arthritis syndrome. Dermatitis-arthritis syndrome presents with arthralgia, tenosynovitis and painless non-pruritic dermatitis.

Infection of the genitals in females with N. gonorrhoeae can result in pelvic inflammatory disease if left untreated, which can result in infertility. Pelvic inflammatory disease results if N. gonorrhoeae travels into the pelvic peritoneum (via the cervix, endometrium and fallopian tubes).

Treatment and Prevention

If N. gonorrhoeae is resistant to the penicillin family of antibiotics, then ceftriaxone (a third-generation cephalosporin) is often used. Sexual partners should also be notified and treated.

Patients should also be tested for other sexually transmitted infections, especially Chlamydia infections, since co-infection is frequent.

Transmission can be reduced by the usage of condoms during intercourse and oral sex and limiting sexual partners.

See also

References

  1. ^ Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed. ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 0838585299.  
  2. ^ Genco, C; Wetzler, L (editors) (2010). Neisseria: Molecular Mechanisms of Pathogenesis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-51-6.  
  3. ^ "Mighty microbe pulls 100,000 times its bodyweight". New Scientist. 19 April 2008. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19826525.300-mighty-microbe-pulls-100000-times-its-bodyweight.html. Retrieved 2009-07-01.  

External links


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Superregnum: Bacteria
Regnum: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Classis: Beta Proteobacteria
Ordo: Neisseriales
Familia: Neisseriaceae
Genus: Neisseria
Species: Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Strain: Neisseria gonorrhoeae subsp. kochii - Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA 1090 - Neisseria gonorrhoeae NCCP11945 - Neisseria gonorrhoeae 1291 - Neisseria gonorrhoeae 35/02 - Neisseria gonorrhoeae DGI18 - Neisseria gonorrhoeae DGI2 - Neisseria gonorrhoeae F62 - Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA19 - Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA6140 - Neisseria gonorrhoeae MS11 - Neisseria gonorrhoeae PID1 - Neisseria gonorrhoeae PID18 - Neisseria gonorrhoeae PID24-1 - Neisseria gonorrhoeae PID332 - Neisseria gonorrhoeae SK-92-679 - Neisseria gonorrhoeae SK-93-1035 -

References








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