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Nelumbo nucifera
Nelumbo nucifera flower
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
Order: Proteales
Family: Nelumbonaceae
Genus: Nelumbo
Species: N. nucifera
Binomial name
Nelumbo nucifera
  • Nelumbium speciosum
  • Nymphaea nelumbo

Nelumbo nucifera, known by a number of names including Indian lotus, sacred lotus, bean of India, or simply lotus, is a plant in the Nelumbonaceae family. Botanically, Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn.) may also be referred to by its former names, Nelumbium speciosum (Wild.) or Nymphaea nelumbo. This plant is an aquatic perennial. Under favorable circumstances its seeds may remain viable for many years, with the oldest recorded lotus germination being from that of seeds 1300 years old recovered from a dry lakebed in northeastern China.[1]

A common misconception is referring to the lotus as a water-lily (Nymphaea), an entirely different plant as can be seen from the centre of the flower, which clearly lacks the structure that goes on to form the distinctive circular seed pod in the Nelumbo nucifera. It should also be noted that water-lilies come in various colors, whereas the lotus has flowers only in hues of pink, or white.

Native to Greater India and commonly cultivated in water gardens, the lotus is the national flower of India and Vietnam.



Plant taxonomy systems agree that this flower is in the Nelumbo genus, but disagree as to which family Nelumbo is in, or whether it should be part of its own unique family and order tree. According to the U S Department of Agriculture, water lilies make up the family Nymphaeaceae of the order Nymphaeales.


The roots of Nelumbo nucifera are planted in the soil of the pond or river bottom, while the leaves float on top of the water surface. The flowers are usually found on thick stems rising several centimeters above the water. The plant normally grows up to a height of about 150 cm and a horizontal spread of up to 3 meters, but some unverified reports place the height as high as over 5 meters. The leaves may be as large as 60 cm in diameter, while the showy flowers can be up to 20 cm in diameter.

Researchers report that the lotus has the remarkable ability to regulate the temperature of its flowers to within a narrow range just as humans and other warmblooded animals do.[2] Dr. Roger S. Seymour and Dr. Paul Schultze-Motel, physiologists at the University of Adelaide in Australia, found that lotus flowers blooming in the Adelaide Botanic Gardens maintained a temperature of 86 to 95 degrees Fahrenheit, even when the air temperature dropped to 50 degrees. They suspect the flowers may be turning up the heat for the benefit of their coldblooded insect pollinators. The study, published in the journal Nature, is the latest discovery in the esoteric field of heat-producing plants. The very few other species known so far to be able to regulate their temperature include Skunk Cabbage and a Philodendron known as Elephant Ear.

The traditional Sacred Lotus is distantly related to Nymphaea caerulea, and possesses similar chemistry. Both Nymphaea caerulea and Nelumbo nucifera contain the alkaloids nuciferine and aporphine.


Fruit of Nelumbo nucifera; the dried seed cup is commonly used in flower arrangements.
Boiled, sliced lotus roots used in various Asian cuisine

The distinctive dried seed heads, which resemble the spouts of watering cansphoto, are widely sold throughout the world for decorative purposes and for dried flower arranging.

The flowers, seeds, young leaves, and "roots" (rhizomes) are all edible. In Asia, the petals are used sometimes for garnish, while the large leaves are used as a wrap for food. In Korea, the leaves and petals are used as a tisane. Yeonkkotcha (연꽃차) is made with dried petals of white lotus and yeonipcha (연잎차) is made with the leaves. The rhizome (called ǒu () in pinyin Chinese, ngau in Cantonese, bhe in Hindi, renkon (レンコン, 蓮根 in Japanese), yeongeun (연근) in Korean) is used as a vegetable in soups, deep-fried, stir-fried, and braised dishes and the roots are also used in traditional Asian herbal medicine. Petals, leaves, and rhizome can also all be eaten raw, but there is a risk of parasite transmission (e.g., Fasciolopsis buski): it is therefore recommended that they be cooked before eating.

Lotus rootlets are often pickled with rice vinegar, sugar, chili and/or garlic. It has a crunchy texture with sweet-tangy flavours. In Asian cuisine, it is popular with salad, prawns, seasame oil and/or coriander leaves. Lotus roots have been found to be rich in dietary fiber, vitamin C, potassium, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, phosphorus, copper, and manganese, while very low in saturated fat.

The stamens can be dried and made into a fragrant herbal tea called liánhuā cha (蓮花) in Chinese, or (particularly in Vietnam) used to impart a scent to tea leaves. The lotus seeds or nuts (called liánzĭ, 蓮子; or xian liánzĭ, 鲜莲子, in Chinese) are quite versatile, and can be eaten raw or dried and popped like popcorn, phool makhana. They can also be boiled until soft and made into a paste, or boiled with dried longans and rock sugar to make a tong sui (sweet soup). Combined with sugar, lotus seed paste becomes one of the most common ingredients used in pastries such as mooncakes, daifuku, and rice flour pudding.[3]

Hindu goddess Lakshmi holding & standing on a lotus.

Cultural significance

Vishnu holding the lotus, also sitting on it and wearing a lotus-bud crown.

From ancient times the lotus has been a divine symbol in Asian traditions representing sexual purity, a virtue.

Hindus revere it with the divinities Vishnu and Lakshmi often portrayed on a pink lotus in iconography. In the representation of Vishnu as Padmanabha (Lotus navel), a lotus issues from his navel with Brahma on it. Goddess Sarasvati is portrayed on a white-colored lotus.

Often used as an example of divine beauty, Vishnu is often described as the 'Lotus-Eyed One'. Its unfolding petals suggest the expansion of the soul. The growth of its pure beauty from the mud of its origin holds a benign spiritual promise. In Hindu iconography, other deities, like Ganga and Ganesha are often depicted with lotus flowers as their seats.

The lotus plant is cited extensively within Puranic and Vedic literature, for example:

One who performs his duty without attachment, surrendering the results unto the Supreme Lord, is unaffected by sinful action, as the lotus is untouched by water.
Bhagavad Gita 5.10:

This has also taken root in Chinese cultures with a famous statement made by the Confucian scholar Zhou Dunyi:

I love the lotus because while growing from mud, it is unstained.

In Buddhist iconography, Buddha is often represented on a pink lotus. In Buddhist symbolism, the lotus represents purity of the body, speech, and mind as if floating above the muddy waters of attachment and desire. It is also to be noted that most Buddhist, Chinese, Hindu, Japanese, amongst other Asian deities are often are depicted as seated on a lotus flower. According to legend, Gautama Buddha was born with the ability to walk and everywhere he stepped, lotus flowers bloomed.

In the classical written and oral literature of many Asian cultures the lotus is present in figurative form, representing elegance, beauty, perfection, purity and grace, being often used in poems and songs as an allegory for ideal feminine attributes. In Sanskrit the word lotus (padma पद्म) has many synonyms, like ambuja, niraj, pankaj, pankaja, kamal, kamala, kunala, aravind, arvind, nalini and saroja[4] and names derived from the lotus, like padmavati (possessing lotuses) or padmini (full of lotuses).[5] These names and derived versions are often used to name girls, and to a lesser extent boys, in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka, as well as in many other countries influenced by Indic culture, like Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia and Laos.

Drawing in turn on these beliefs, the international Bahá'í community adopted this symbolism in the design of the Lotus Temple in New Delhi, India.

Other uses

a species of Nymphaea (water lily, possibly N. lotus), not related to Nelumbo, but sometimes confused with it, taken in 2007
  • The Padma Shri, a civilian award given by the Government of India, has the words "Padma" and "Shri" in Devanagari appear above and below a lotus flower on its obverse.
  • Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), a nationalist political party of India which claims to be at the forefront of India's cultural nationalism, uses the lotus as its election symbol.
  • Japanese rock musician Miyavi uses the lotus and a crescent moon with the kanji of his name (meaning 'elegance') above, as his insignia.
  • Moriyama City's prefectural flower is the lotus.
  • Vietnam Airlines's logo comprises a golden lotus as is also mentioned in their frequent flyer program, the Golden Lotus Plus.
  • Lotus is burned in a powdered form as ceremonial incense, primarily in Buddhist temples.

See also




Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Nelumbo nucifera


Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Ordo: Unassigned Eudicots
Ordo: Proteales
Familia: Nelumbonaceae
Genus: Nelumbo
Species: Nelumbo nucifera


Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.


  • Cyamus nelumbo (L.) Sm., Exot. Bot. 1. 59. t. 31. 1806.
  • Nelumbium album Bercht. & J.Presl
  • Nelumbium asiaticum Rich.
  • Nelumbium capicum Fisch. ex DC.
  • Nelumbium discolor Steud.
  • Nelumbium indicum (Pers.) Poir.
  • Nelumbium javanicum Poir.
  • Nelumbium lotus Ridl.
  • Nelumbium marginatum Steud.
  • Nelumbium nelumbo Druce
  • Nelumbium nuciferum Gaertn.
  • Nelumbium reniforme Willd.
  • Nelumbium rheedei C.Presl
  • Nelumbium speciosum Willd.
  • Nelumbium tamara (DC.) Sweet
  • Nelumbium transversum C.Presl
  • Nelumbium turbinatum Blanco
  • Nelumbium venosum C.Presl
  • Nelumbo caspica Eichw.
  • Nelumbo indica Pers.
  • Nelumbo komarovii Grossh.
  • Nelumbo nelumbo (L.) Druce, nom. inval.
  • Nelumbo nucifera var. macrorhizomata Nakai
  • Nelumbo nucifera var. speciosa Kuntze
  • Nelumbo speciosa (Willd.) G.Lawson
  • Nelumbo speciosa var. alba F.M.Bailey
  • Nelumbo speciosa var. tamara DC.
  • Nymphaea nelumbo L.

Vernacular name

English: Indian lotus
हिन्दी: कमल
日本語: ハス
संस्कृत: पद्म
Türkçe: Hint lotusu
中文: 荷花
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Nelumbo nucifera on Wikimedia Commons.

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