The Full Wiki

Nemaha Half-Breed Reservation: Wikis

Advertisements
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nemaha Half-Breed Reservation
Country United States
State Nebraska
County Nemaha County
Founded 1830
Disestablished 1860

The Nemaha Half-Breed Reservation was established by the Treaty of Prairie du Chien which set aside a tract of land for the children of French trappers and Oto, Iowa, and Omaha, as well as the Yankton and Santee Sioux tribes. (In Canada such people are called Métis and are recognized as a separate ethnic group.) Located in part of the Indian Territory, which was later in the Nebraska Territory and then the state of Nebraska, [1] the tract's eastern border was the Missouri River, from which the reservation extended inland for 10 miles (16 km). The north/south borders were between the Little Nemaha River to the north and the Great Nemaha River, near Falls City to the south.[2] The Reservation was disbanded as a legal entity in 1861. The owners were never required to live on their property and many eventually sold their lands to white settlers. One of the original survey lines is now partly identified by the Half-Breed Road which runs in a southeast direction from here. The descendants of some pioneer fur traders still live in the area.[3]

The Underground Railroad by which slaves escaped to the North, ran through the Reservation towards John Brown's Cave, its last stop located 35 miles (56 km) north of the Tract.[4]

Contents

History

This section from the Lewis and Clark map of 1814 shows period Indian villages in SW Iowa, SE Nebraska, and NW Missouri. It also shows the Little and Great Nemaha rivers.
A map of the Nemaha Half-Breed reservation as defined in the Treaty of Prairie du Chien in 1830. The reservation is shown in sections 154 and 155 at the bottom right corner of the map.

The Omaha and other tribes asked the government to set aside territory for mixed-blood descendants.[5] Seeking to help mixed-blood Indian descendants get settled in society, the United States government designated allotments of land in western territory for their use. These were known as the Half-Breed Tracts. Because of American Indian tribes' rules of descent and membership, European-American society's discrimination, and the distance that such mixed-race families lived from most European Americans, the children of unions between European fathers and Indian mothers were often left outside the social networks of both societies. Generally Indian women and their French-Canadian trader husbands and children lived under the protection of the women's tribes, but they did not always have full membership rights.

In this case, the United States government selected an allotment of land along the Missouri River bluffs, an area described as "too steep and tree-covered for farming, fit only for hunting." It was described in the Treaty of Prairie du Chien of 1830 among the Otoe, Omaha, Missouria, and other tribes and the government, which established the rules for the half-breed tract. The government identified a tract of approximately 138,000 acres.[6][7]

The tract was located between the Little and Great Nemaha rivers (spelled Ne-me-haw on the map) in what became Nemaha County. By 1833 approximately 200 half-breeds lived on the designated land. It was not until 1854 that Congress authorized the reservation and the government established an eligibility list of potential landowners.[8] By 1858 the list had 445 names of people eligible to receive 320 acres (1.3 km2) apiece. By then, however, non-Indian squatters occupied almost half the land. When allotments were finalized on September 10, 1860, each eligible person received 314 acres.[9] Louis Neal received the first patent to own land on the reservation.

Owners were never required to live on their properties, and many eventually sold their lands to non-Indian settlers. One of the original survey lines is now partly marked by the Half-Breed Road which runs in a southeast direction from the Missouri River. The descendants of some pioneer fur traders and American Indian wives still live in the area.[10][11]

Since the land belonged exclusively to the Otoes prior to the exchange, the government worked to secure agreement by the Omahas, Iowas, and Yankton and Santee bands of Sioux to pay the Otoes $3000 for the rights of their "half-breeds" to live on the reservation. Original plans were for land ownership to be held in common, as other American Indian land titles were held. However, legislation included a provision allowing the President of the U.S. to assign individual tracts to individual owners. Thirty years after the creation of the Reservation, the government moved to assign tracts individually. This was the first time in the history of American acts and treaties that American Indians were allotted land in severalty.[12]

Towns

Advertisements

Barada

In 1856 Antonine Barada, son of Ta-ing-the-hae, an Omaha woman, and Michael Barada, a French fur trapper and interpreter, went to Nebraska from St. Louis to settle on the newly designated land. He did not receive a patent on his 320 acres (1.3 km2) of land until 1860..[13] It was in what is today Richardson County, Nebraska.[14] In doing so, he became the first settler of Nebraska's newly designated Half-Breed Tract. A town named after him was established in that tract while Barada ran a fur-trading post there.[15]

There is evidence the Underground Railroad ran through this tract up to John Brown's Cave, located 35 miles (56 km) north.[16]

St. Deroin

Indian Cave State Park is located in the central section of the tract. On its northern edge is the site of the town of St. Deroin, founded by "half-breeds" to serve their reservation. James Deroin was the son of French Canadian trapper Amable De Rouins and his Oto wife. De Rouins had traded along the Missouri River for decades; a trading post was already operating here when Lewis and Clark came through in 1804.[17]

The younger Deroin operated a trading post along the river's edge starting in 1840. He was killed in a dispute over money as white settlers moved in to the area and displaced Native residents. The town became predominantly white and grew up around Deroin’s trading post, taking the name St. Deroin. Since that time, most of the town has been washed away by floods, leaving only a cemetery in the original location.[18] Half Breed Creek, named after the tract, still flows through the area.

Other notable residents of the tract included French Canadian fur traders who had married Native American woman, such as Charles Rouleau and Henry Fontenelle.[19]

Closure

Because of continued individual land sales, Nebraska's Half-Breed Tract vanished as a legal entity by 1861.

See also

References

  1. ^ Wishart, D.J. (2007) Encyclopedia of the Great Plains Indians. University of Nebraska Press. p 77.
  2. ^ Wishart, D.J. (1995) An Unspeakable Sadness: The Dispossession of the Nebraska Indians. University of Nebraska Press. p 60.
  3. ^ "Half-breed tract", Walk Through Nebraska History. Issue No. 3. Nebraska State Historical Society. Retrieved 12/5/08.
  4. ^ Sandage, S.A. (2006) "Half-Breed Creek", Brown University. Retrieved 1/28/08.
  5. ^ Sandage, S.A. (2006) "Half-Breed Creek", Brown University. Retrieved 1/28/08.
  6. ^ Lewis, H.M. (2004) Robidoux Chronicles: Ethnohistory Of The French-American Fur Trade. Trafford Publishing. p 184.
  7. ^ "Indian Land Cessions in the United States, 1784 to 1894". A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875. Library of Congress American Memory. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?hlaw:2:./temp/~ammem_sdgt::. Retrieved 2009-05-09.  
  8. ^ Sandage, S.A. (2006) "Half-Breed Creek", Brown University. Retrieved 1/28/08.
  9. ^ "Metis firsts", Manitoba Métis Foundation. Retrieved 8/9/08.
  10. ^ "Half-Breed Tract", Nebraska State Historical Society. Retrieved 1/28/08.
  11. ^ Foster, L.M. (1965) "The Nemaha Half-Breed Reservation, 1830-1860", Ioway Cultural Institute. Retrieved 1/28/08.
  12. ^ Foster, L.M. (1999) "The Nemaha Half-Breed Reservation, 1830-1860", Ioway Cultural Institute. Retrieved 8/9/08.
  13. ^ Sandage, S.A. (2006) "Half-Breed Creek", Brown University. Retrieved 1/28/08.
  14. ^ "Barada", University of Nebraska. Retrieved 1/28/08.
  15. ^ "Barada", University of Nebraska. Retrieved 1/28/08.
  16. ^ Sandage, S.A. (2006) "Half-Breed Creek", Brown University. Retrieved 1/28/08.
  17. ^ Farrar, J. "Indian Cave State Park", Nebraska Game and Parks Commission. Retrieved 8/9/08.
  18. ^ "An evolving exurban landscape: Clay County, Missouri" University of Kansas. Retrieved 8/9/08.
  19. ^ "Nebraska", Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 1/28/08.

Bibliography

  • Chapman, B.B. "The Nemaha Half-Breed Tract", The Otoes and the Missiourias. Chapter 5.
  • Barkwell, L. "Great Nemaha Half Breed Tract", Louis Riel Institute.

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message