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Neolocal residence is a type of post-marital residence when a newly married couple resides separately from both the husband's natal household and the wife's natal household. Neolocal residence form the basis of most developed nations, especially in the West, but it is also found among some nomadic peoples.

Upon marriage, each partner is expected to move out of his or her parents' household and establish a new residence, thus forming the core of an independent nuclear family. Neolocal residence involves the creation of a new household each time a child marries or even when he or she reaches adulthood and becomes economically active. Neolocal residence and nuclear family domestic structures are found in societies where geographical mobility is important. In Western societies, they are consistent with the frequent moves necessitated by choices and changes within a supply- and demand-regulated labor market. They are also prevalent in hunting and gathering economies, where nomadic movements are intrinsic to the subsistence strategy.

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