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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

fluorineneonsodium
He

Ne

Ar
Appearance
colorless gas with orange-red emission
General properties
Name, symbol, number neon, Ne, 10
Pronunciation /ˈniːɒn/
Element category noble gases
Group, period, block 182, p
Standard atomic weight 20.1797(6)g·mol−1
Electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6
Electrons per shell 2, 8 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
0.9002 g/L
Melting point 24.56 K, -248.59 °C, -415.46 °F
Boiling point 27.07 K, -246.08 °C, -410.94 °F
Triple point 24.5561 K (-249°C), 43[1][2] kPa
Critical point 44.4 K, 2.76 MPa
Heat of fusion 0.335 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 1.71 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) 20.786 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 12 13 15 18 21 27
Atomic properties
Oxidation states no data
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 2080.7 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 3952.3 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 6122 kJ·mol−1
Covalent radius 58 pm
Van der Waals radius 154 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure face-centered cubic
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[3]
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 49.1x10-3  W·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (gas, 0 °C) 435 m/s
Bulk modulus 654 GPa
CAS registry number 7440-01-9
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of neon
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
20Ne 90.48% 20Ne is stable with 10 neutrons
21Ne 0.27% 21Ne is stable with 11 neutrons
22Ne 9.25% 22Ne is stable with 12 neutrons

Neon is the chemical element that has the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. Although a very common element in the universe, it is rare on Earth. A colorless, inert noble gas under standard conditions, neon gives a distinct reddish-orange glow when used in discharge tubes and neon lamps and advertising signs.[4][5] It is commercially extracted from air, in which it is found in trace amounts.

Contents

History

In the bottom right corner of JJ Thomson's photographic plate are the separate impact marks for the two isotopes of neon: neon-20 and neon-22.

Neon (Greek νέον (neon) meaning "new one") was discovered in 1898 by the British chemists Sir William Ramsay (1852–1916) and Morris W. Travers (1872–1961) in London.[6] Neon was discovered when Ramsay chilled a sample of the atmosphere until it became a liquid, then warmed the liquid and captured the gases as they boiled off. The three gases that boiled off were krypton, xenon, and neon.[7]

In December 1910, French engineer Georges Claude made a lamp from an electrified tube of neon gas. In 1912, Claude's associate began selling neon discharge tubes as advertising signs. They were introduced to U.S. in 1923, when two large neon signs were bought by a Los Angeles Packard car dealership. The glow and arresting red color made neon advertising completely different from the competition.[8]

Neon played a role in the basic understanding of the nature of atoms in 1913, when J. J. Thomson as part of his exploration into the composition of canal rays, channeled streams of neon ions through a magnetic and an electric field and measured their deflection by placing a photographic plate in their path. Thomson observed two separate patches of light on the photographic plate (see image), which suggested two different parabolas of deflection. Thomson eventually concluded that some of the atoms in the neon gas were of higher mass than the rest. Though not understood at the time by Thompson, this was the first discovery of isotopes of stable atoms. It was made using a crude version of an instrument we now term a mass spectrometer.

Isotopes

Neon is a noble gas, and the second lightest inert gas. Neon has three stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%). 21Ne and 22Ne are nucleogenic and their variations are well understood. In contrast, 20Ne (the cosmogenic primordial isotope made in stellar nucleosynthesis) is not known to be nucleogenic, save for cluster decay production, which is thought to produce only a small amount. The causes of the variation of 20Ne in the Earth have thus been hotly debated.[9] The principal nuclear reactions which generate neon isotopes are neutron emission, alpha decay reactions on 24Mg and 25Mg, which produce 21Ne and 22Ne, respectively. The alpha particles are derived from uranium-series decay chains, while the neutrons are mostly produced by secondary reactions from alpha particles. The net result yields a trend towards lower 20Ne/22Ne and higher 21Ne/22Ne ratios observed in uranium-rich rocks such as granites. Isotopic analysis of exposed terrestrial rocks has demonstrated the cosmogenic production of 21Ne. This isotope is generated by spallation reactions on magnesium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium. By analyzing all three isotopes, the cosmogenic component can be resolved from magmatic neon and nucleogenic neon. This suggests that neon will be a useful tool in determining cosmic exposure ages of surficial rocks and meteorites.[10]

Similar to xenon, neon content observed in samples of volcanic gases are enriched in 20Ne, as well as nucleogenic 21Ne, relative to 22Ne content. The neon isotopic content of these mantle-derived samples represents a non-atmospheric source of neon. The 20Ne-enriched components are attributed to exotic primordial rare gas components in the Earth, possibly representing solar neon. Elevated 20Ne abundances are found in diamonds, further suggesting a solar neon reservoir in the Earth.[11]

Characteristics

Neon is the second-lightest noble gas. It glows reddish-orange in a vacuum discharge tube. According to recent studies, neon is the least reactive noble gas and thus the least reactive of all elements.[12] Also, neon has the narrowest liquid range of any element: from 24.55 K to 27.05 K (-248.45 °C to −245.95 °C, or −415.21 °F to −410.71 °F). It has over 40 times the refrigerating capacity of liquid helium and three times that of liquid hydrogen (on a per unit volume basis).[13] In most applications it is a less expensive refrigerant than helium.[14]

Spectrum of neon with ultraviolet lines (at left) and infrared (at right) shown in white

Neon plasma has the most intense light discharge at normal voltages and currents of all the noble gases. The average color of this light to the human eye is red-orange due to many lines in this range; it also contains a strong green line which is hidden, unless the visual components are dispersed by a spectroscope.[15]

Two quite different kinds of neon lights are in common use. Glow-discharge lamps are typically tiny, and often designed to operate at 120 volts; they are widely used as power-on indicators and in circuit-testing equipment. Neon signs and other arc-discharge devices operate instead at high voltages, often 3–15 kilovolts; they can be made into (often bent) tubes a few meters long.

Occurrence

Neon is actually abundant on a universal scale: the fifth most abundant chemical element in the universe by mass, after hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and carbon (see chemical element). Its relative rarity on Earth, like that of helium, is due to its relative lightness, high vapor pressure at very low temperatures, and chemical inertness, all properties which tend to keep it from being trapped in the condensing gas and dust clouds which resulted in the formation of smaller and warmer solid planets like Earth.

Neon is monatomic, making it lighter than the molecules of diatomic nitrogen and oxygen which form the bulk of Earth's atmosphere; a balloon filled with neon will rise in air, albeit more slowly than a helium balloon.[16]

Mass abundance in the universe is about 1 part in 750 and in the Sun and presumably in the proto-solar system nebula, about 1 part in 600. The Galileo spacecraft atmospheric entry probe found that even in the upper atmosphere of Jupiter, the abundance of neon is reduced (depleted) by about a factor of 10, to a level of 1 part in 6,000 by mass. This may indicate that even the ice-planetesimals which brought neon into Jupiter from the outer solar system, formed in a region which was too warm for them to have kept their neon (abundances of heavier inert gases on Jupiter are several times that found in the Sun).[17]

Neon is a monatomic gas at standard conditions. Neon is rare on Earth, found in the Earth's atmosphere at 1 part in 65,000 (by volume) or 1 part in 83,000 by mass. It is industrially produced by cryogenic fractional distillation of liquefied air.[13]

Applications

"Neon" signs may use neon along with other noble gases.
1×5 cm vial of glowing ultrapure neon.

Neon is often used in signs and produces an unmistakable bright reddish-orange light. Although still referred to as "neon", all other colors are generated with the other noble gases or by many colors of fluorescent lighting.

Neon is used in vacuum tubes, high-voltage indicators, lightning arrestors, wave meter tubes, television tubes, and helium-neon lasers. Liquefied neon is commercially used as a cryogenic refrigerant in applications not requiring the lower temperature range attainable with more extreme liquid helium refrigeration.

Liquid neon is actually quite expensive, and nearly impossible to obtain in small quantities for laboratory tests. For small quantities, liquid neon can be more than 55 times more expensive than liquid helium. The driver for expense is actually rarity of the gas, not the liquefaction process.

The triple point temperature of Neon (24.5561 K) is a defining fixed point in the International Temperature Scale of 1990.[1]

Compounds

Neon is the first p-block noble gas. Theoretically neon is the least reactive of all noble gases (including helium which produces a metastable compound HHeF), and therefore generally considered to be inert. The calculated bond energies of neon with noble metals, hydrogen, beryllium and boron are lesser than that of helium or any other noble gas. No true compounds including the neutral compounds of neon are known. However, the ions Ne+, (NeAr)+, (NeH)+, and (HeNe+) have been observed from optical and mass spectrometric studies, and there are some unverified reports of an unstable hydrate.[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Preston-Thomas, H. (1990). "The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90)". Metrologia 27: 3-10. http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/its-90.html. 
  2. ^ "Section 4, Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds; Melting, boiling, triple, and critical temperatures of the elements". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85th edition ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. 2005. 
  3. ^ Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  4. ^ Coyle, Harold P. (2001). Project STAR: The Universe in Your Hands. Kendall Hunt. ISBN 9780787267636. http://books.google.com/books?id=KwTzo4GMlewC&pg=PA127. 
  5. ^ Kohmoto, Kohtaro (1999). "Phosphors for lamps". in Shionoya, Shigeo; Yen, William M.. Phosphor Handbook. CRC Press. ISBN 9780849375606. http://books.google.com/books?id=lWlcJEDukRIC&pg=PA380. 
  6. ^ Ramsay, William, Travers, Morris W. (1898). "On the Companions of Argon". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 63: 437–440. doi:10.1098/rspl.1898.0057. 
  7. ^ "Neon: History". Softciências. http://nautilus.fis.uc.pt/st2.5/scenes-e/elem/e01000.html. Retrieved February 27, 2007. 
  8. ^ Mangum, Aja (December 8, 2007). "Neon: A Brief History". New York Magazine. http://nymag.com/shopping/features/41814/. 
  9. ^ "Neon". p. 303. ISBN 9780521823166. http://books.google.de/books?id=z8ZCg2HRvWsC&pg=PA303. 
  10. ^ "Neon: Isotopes". Softciências. http://nautilus.fis.uc.pt/st2.5/scenes-e/elem/e01093.html. Retrieved February 27, 2007. 
  11. ^ Anderson, Don L.. "Helium, Neon & Argon". Mantleplumes.org. http://www.mantleplumes.org/Ne.html. Retrieved July 2, 2006. 
  12. ^ Lewars, Errol G. (2008). Modelling Marvels. Springer. pp. 70-71. ISBN 1402069723. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=whdw2qlXjD0C&pg. 
  13. ^ a b c Hammond, C.R. (2000). The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition. CRC press. p. 19. ISBN 0849304814. http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elements.pdf. 
  14. ^ "NASSMC: News Bulletin". 30. http://www.nassmc.org/bulletin/dec05bulletin.html#table. Retrieved March 5, 2007. 
  15. ^ "Plasma". http://www.electricalfun.com/plasma.htm. Retrieved March 5, 2007. 
  16. ^ Gallagher, R.; Ingram, P. (2001). Chemistry for Higher Tier. University Press. ISBN 9780199148172. http://books.google.com/books?id=SJtWSy69eVsC&pg=PA96. 
  17. ^ Morse, David (January 26, 1996). "Galileo Probe Science Result". Galileo Project. http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/sl9/gll38.html. Retrieved February 27, 2007. 

External links


fluorineneonsodium
He

Ne

Ar
10Ne
Appearance
colorless gas exhibiting an orange-red glow when placed in a high voltage electric field
File:Neon-glow.jpg
File:Neon.jpg
Spectral lines of Neon
General properties
Name, symbol, number neon, Ne, 10
Pronunciation /ˈnɒn/
Element category noble gases
Group, period, block 182, p
Standard atomic weight 20.1797(6)g·mol−1
Electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6
Electrons per shell 2, 8 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
0.9002 g/L
Liquid density at b.p. 1.207[1] g·cm−3
Melting point 24.56 K, -248.59 °C, -415.46 °F
Boiling point 27.07 K, -246.08 °C, -410.94 °F
Triple point 24.5561 K (-249°C), 43[2][3] kPa
Critical point 44.4 K, 2.76 MPa
Heat of fusion 0.335 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 1.71 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) 20.786 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 12 13 15 18 21 27
Atomic properties
Oxidation states no data
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 2080.7 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 3952.3 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 6122 kJ·mol−1
Covalent radius 58 pm
Van der Waals radius 154 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure face-centered cubic
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[4]
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 49.1x10-3  W·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (gas, 0 °C) 435 m/s
Bulk modulus 654 GPa
CAS registry number 7440-01-9
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of neon
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
20Ne 90.48% 20Ne is stable with 10 neutrons
21Ne 0.27% 21Ne is stable with 11 neutrons
22Ne 9.25% 22Ne is stable with 12 neutrons

Neon ( /ˈnɒn/) is the chemical element that has the symbol Ne and an atomic number of 10. Although a very common element in the universe, it is rare on Earth. A colourless, inert noble gas under standard conditions, neon gives a distinct reddish-orange glow when used in discharge tubes and neon lamps and advertising signs.[5][6] It is commercially extracted from air, in which it is found in trace amounts.

Contents

History

's photographic plate are the separate impact marks for the two isotopes of neon: neon-20 and neon-22.]] Neon (Greek νέον (neon) meaning "new one") was discovered in 1898 by the British chemists Sir William Ramsay (1852–1916) and Morris W. Travers (1872–1961) in London.[7] Neon was discovered when Ramsay chilled a sample of the atmosphere until it became a liquid, then warmed the liquid and captured the gases as they boiled off. After nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, the three gases that boiled off were krypton, xenon, and neon.[8]

In December 1910, French engineer Georges Claude made a lamp from an electrified tube of neon gas. In 1912, Claude's associate began selling neon discharge tubes as advertising signs. They were introduced to U.S. in 1923, when two large neon signs were bought by a Los Angeles Packard car dealership. The glow and arresting red colour made neon advertising completely different from the competition.[9]

Neon played a role in the basic understanding of the nature of atoms in 1913, when J. J. Thomson, as part of his exploration into the composition of canal rays, channeled streams of neon ions through a magnetic and an electric field and measured their deflection by placing a photographic plate in their path. Thomson observed two separate patches of light on the photographic plate (see image), which suggested two different parabolas of deflection. Thomson eventually concluded that some of the atoms in the neon gas were of higher mass than the rest. Though not understood at the time by Thompson, this was the first discovery of isotopes of stable atoms. It was made by using a crude version of an instrument we now term as a mass spectrometer.

Creation

Stable forms of neon are produced in stars. It is created in fusing helium and oxygen in the alpha process, which requires temperatures above 100 megakelvin and masses greater than 3 solar masses.

Isotopes

Neon is the second lightest inert gas. Neon has three stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%). 21Ne and 22Ne are nucleogenic and their variations are well understood. In contrast, 20Ne (the cosmogenic primordial isotope made in stellar nucleosynthesis) is not known to be nucleogenic, save for cluster decay production, which is thought to produce only a small amount. The causes of the variation of 20Ne in the Earth have thus been hotly debated.[10] The principal nuclear reactions which generate neon isotopes are neutron emission, alpha decay reactions on 24Mg and 25Mg, which produce 21Ne and 22Ne, respectively. The alpha particles are derived from uranium-series decay chains, while the neutrons are mostly produced by secondary reactions from alpha particles. The net result yields a trend towards lower 20Ne/22Ne and higher 21Ne/22Ne ratios observed in uranium-rich rocks such as granites. Isotopic analysis of exposed terrestrial rocks has demonstrated the cosmogenic production of 21Ne. This isotope is generated by spallation reactions on magnesium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium. By analyzing all three isotopes, the cosmogenic component can be resolved from magmatic neon and nucleogenic neon. This suggests that neon will be a useful tool in determining cosmic exposure ages of surficial rocks and meteorites.[11]

Similar to xenon, neon content observed in samples of volcanic gases are enriched in 20Ne, as well as nucleogenic 21Ne, relative to 22Ne content. The neon isotopic content of these mantle-derived samples represents a non-atmospheric source of neon. The 20Ne-enriched components are attributed to exotic primordial rare gas components in the Earth, possibly representing solar neon. Elevated 20Ne abundances are found in diamonds, further suggesting a solar neon reservoir in the Earth.[12]

Characteristics

File:Neon discharge
Neon discharge tube

Neon is the second-lightest noble gas. It glows reddish-orange in a vacuum discharge tube. According to recent studies, neon is the least reactive noble gas and thus the least reactive of all elements.[13] Also, neon has the narrowest liquid range of any element: from 24.55 K to 27.05 K (−248.45 °C to −245.95 °C, or −415.21 °F to −410.71 °F). It has over 40 times the refrigerating capacity of liquid helium and three times that of liquid hydrogen (on a per unit volume basis).[14] In most applications it is a less expensive refrigerant than helium.[15]

Neon plasma has the most intense light discharge at normal voltages and currents of all the noble gases. The average colour of this light to the human eye is red-orange due to many lines in this range; it also contains a strong green line which is hidden, unless the visual components are dispersed by a spectroscope.[16]

Two quite different kinds of neon lights are in common use. Glow-discharge lamps are typically tiny, and often designed to operate at 120 volts; they are widely used as power-on indicators and in circuit-testing equipment. Neon signs and other arc-discharge devices operate instead at high voltages, often 3–15 kilovolts; they can be made into (often bent) tubes a few meters long.

Occurrence

Neon is actually abundant on a universal scale: the fifth most abundant chemical element in the universe by mass, after hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and carbon (see chemical element). Its relative rarity on Earth, like that of helium, is due to its relative lightness, high vapor pressure at very low temperatures, and chemical inertness, all properties which tend to keep it from being trapped in the condensing gas and dust clouds which resulted in the formation of smaller and warmer solid planets like Earth.

Neon is monatomic, making it lighter than the molecules of diatomic nitrogen and oxygen which form the bulk of Earth's atmosphere; a balloon filled with neon will rise in air, albeit more slowly than a helium balloon.[17]

Mass abundance in the universe is about 1 part in 750 and in the Sun and presumably in the proto-solar system nebula, about 1 part in 600. The Galileo spacecraft atmospheric entry probe found that even in the upper atmosphere of Jupiter, the abundance of neon is reduced (depleted) by about a factor of 10, to a level of 1 part in 6,000 by mass. This may indicate that even the ice-planetesimals which brought neon into Jupiter from the outer solar system, formed in a region which was too warm for them to have kept their neon (abundances of heavier inert gases on Jupiter are several times that found in the Sun).[18]

Neon is a monatomic gas at standard conditions. Neon is rare on Earth, found in the Earth's atmosphere at 1 part in 65,000 (by volume) or 1 part in 83,000 by mass. It is industrially produced by cryogenic fractional distillation of liquefied air.[14]

Applications

[[File:|thumb|upright|Neon gas-discharge lamps forming the symbol for Neon "Ne".]] Neon is often used in signs and produces an unmistakable bright reddish-orange light. Although still referred to as "neon", all other colours are generated with the other noble gases or by many colours of fluorescent lighting.

Neon is used in vacuum tubes, high-voltage indicators, lightning arrestors, wave meter tubes, television tubes, and helium-neon lasers. Liquefied neon is commercially used as a cryogenic refrigerant in applications not requiring the lower temperature range attainable with more extreme liquid helium refrigeration.

Liquid neon is expensive – for small quantities, its price can be more than 55 times that of liquid helium. The driver for expense is rarity of neon, not the liquefaction process.

The triple point temperature of neon (24.5561 K) is a defining fixed point in the International Temperature Scale of 1990.[2]

Compounds

Neon is the first p-block noble gas. Theoretically neon is the least reactive of all noble gases (including helium which produces a metastable compound HHeF),[13] and therefore generally considered to be inert. The calculated bond energies of neon with noble metals, hydrogen, beryllium and boron are lesser than that of helium or any other noble gas. No true compounds including the neutral compounds of neon are known. However, the ions Ne+, (NeAr)+, (NeH)+, and (HeNe+) have been observed from optical and mass spectrometric studies, and there are some unverified reports of an unstable hydrate.[14]

See also

References

  1. ^ http://encyclopedia.airliquide.com/Encyclopedia.asp?LanguageID=11&CountryID=19&Formula=&GasID=46&UNNumber=&EquivGasID=13&VolLiquideBox=&MasseLiquideBox=&VolGasBox=&MasseGasBox=&RD20=29&RD9=8&RD6=64&RD4=2&RD3=22&RD8=27&RD2=20&RD18=41&RD7=18&RD13=71&RD16=35&RD12=31&RD19=34&RD24=62&RD25=77&RD26=78&RD28=81&RD29=82
  2. ^ a b Preston-Thomas, H. (1990). "The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90)". Metrologia 27: 3-10. http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/its-90.html. 
  3. ^ "Section 4, Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds; Melting, boiling, triple, and critical temperatures of the elements". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85th edition ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. 2005. 
  4. ^ Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  5. ^ Coyle, Harold P. (2001). Project STAR: The Universe in Your Hands. Kendall Hunt. pp. 464. ISBN 9780787267636. http://books.google.com/?id=KwTzo4GMlewC&pg=PA127. 
  6. ^ Kohmoto, Kohtaro (1999). "Phosphors for lamps". In Shionoya, Shigeo; Yen, William M.. Phosphor Handbook. CRC Press. pp. 940. ISBN 9780849375606. http://books.google.com/?id=lWlcJEDukRIC&pg=PA380. 
  7. ^ Ramsay, William, Travers, Morris W. (1898). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "On the Companions of Argon"]. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 63: 437–440. doi:10.1098/rspl.1898.0057. 
  8. ^ "Neon: History". Softciências. http://nautilus.fis.uc.pt/st2.5/scenes-e/elem/e01000.html. Retrieved February 27, 2007. 
  9. ^ Mangum, Aja (December 8, 2007). "Neon: A Brief History". New York Magazine. http://nymag.com/shopping/features/41814/. 
  10. ^ Dickin, Alan P (2005). "Neon". Radiogenic isotope geology. p. 303. ISBN 9780521823166. http://books.google.com/?id=z8ZCg2HRvWsC&pg=PA303. 
  11. ^ "Neon: Isotopes". Softciências. http://nautilus.fis.uc.pt/st2.5/scenes-e/elem/e01093.html. Retrieved February 27, 2007. 
  12. ^ Anderson, Don L.. "Helium, Neon & Argon". Mantleplumes.org. http://www.mantleplumes.org/Ne.html. Retrieved July 2, 2006. 
  13. ^ a b Lewars, Errol G. (2008-11-17). Modelling Marvels. Springer. pp. 70–71. ISBN 1402069723. http://books.google.com/?id=IoFzgBSSCwEC&pg=PA70. 
  14. ^ a b c Hammond, C.R. (2000). The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition. CRC press. p. 19. ISBN 0849304814. http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elements.pdf. 
  15. ^ "NASSMC: News Bulletin". December 30, 2005. http://www.nassmc.org/bulletin/dec05bulletin.html#table. Retrieved March 5, 2007. 
  16. ^ "Plasma". http://www.electricalfun.com/plasma.htm. Retrieved March 5, 2007. 
  17. ^ Gallagher, R.; Ingram, P. (2001-07-19). Chemistry for Higher Tier. University Press. pp. 282. ISBN 9780199148172. http://books.google.com/?id=SJtWSy69eVsC&pg=PA96. 
  18. ^ Morse, David (January 26, 1996). "Galileo Probe Science Result". Galileo Project. http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/sl9/gll38.html. Retrieved February 27, 2007. 

External links

frr:Neon


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also neon, neón, néon, and néón

Contents

German

Chemical Element: Ne (atomic number 10)

Pronunciation

Noun

Neon n

  1. neon

Related terms

  • Neonröhre

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Neon valentulus

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Classis: Arachnida
Ordo: Araneae
Subordo: Opisthothelae
Infraordo: Araneomorphae
Taxon: Neocribellatae
Series: Entelegynae
Sectio: Dionycha
Superfamilia: Salticoidea
Familia: Salticidae
Subfamilia: Euophryinae
Tribus: Chalcoscirtini
Genus: Neon
Species: N. acoreensis - N. avalonus - N. caboverdensis - N. convolutus - N. ellamae - N. kiyotoi - N. kovblyuki - N. levis - N. minutus - N. muticus - N. nelli - N. nigriceps - N. ningyo - N. nojimai - N. pictus - N. pixii - N. plutonus - N. punctulatus - N. rayi - N. reticulatus - N. robustus - N. sumatranus - N. valentulus - N. wangi - N. zonatus

Name

Neon Simon, 1876

Type species: Salticus reticulatus Blackwall, 1853

References

  • Simon, E. 1876: Les arachnides de France 3: 1-364. [210]
  • Gertsch, W. J. & W. Ivie. 1955. The spider genus Neon in North America. American Museum Novitates 1743: 1-17. PDF
  • Platnick, N. I. 2008. The World Spider Catalog, version 9.0. American Museum of Natural History. [1]

Vernacular names

한국어: 네온깡충거미속

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|Neon]] Neon is a noble gas. It is chemical element 10 on the periodic table. Its symbol is Ne.

The word "neon" comes from the Greek word meaning "new". It was discovered by William Ramsay and Morris W. Travers in 1898.

Neon does not react with other elements, so it is found by itself. There is not much neon in the air, and it is clear, so we do not see it.

Neon gas is used in lamps. When electricity goes through the neon, it lights up in many different colors. Due to this quality, it is used in signs.

Neon is also a term referring to a type of color that is very bright, such as lime green.

No true chemical compounds including the neutral compounds of neon are known. Where there is the helium compound HHeF, which might be stable, the analogous componund with Neon is not.[1]

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References

  1. Errol G. Lewars: Modeling Marvels: Computational Anticipation of Novel Molecules. Springer Verlag, 2008, ISBN 978-1-4020-6972-7, S. 69–80.
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