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Neonatal Fc receptor: Wikis

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Fc fragment of IgG, receptor, transporter, alpha
Identifiers
Symbol FCGRT
Entrez 2217
HUGO 3621
OMIM 601437
RefSeq NM_004107
UniProt P55899
Other data
Locus Chr. 19 q13.3

The neonatal Fc receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FCGRT gene.[1][2]

The neonatal Fc receptor is an Fc receptor which is similar in structure to MHC class I. It was first discovered in rodents as a unique receptor capable of transporting IgG from mother's milk across the endothelium of newborn rodent's gut. Further studies revealed a similar receptor in humans. In humans, however, it is found in the placenta to help facilitate transport of mother's IgG to the growing fetus and it has also been shown to play a role in monitoring IgG turnover.

There is also evidence that this receptor also plays a role in adult salvage of IgG through its occurrence in the pathway of endocytosis in endothelial cells. Fc receptors in endosomes bind to IgG internalized through pinocytosis, recycling it to the cell surface and preventing it from undergoing lysosomal degradation. This mechanism may provide an explanation for the greater half-life of IgG in the blood compared to other isotypes.[3] It has been shown that conjugation of some drugs to Fc receptors significantly increases their half-life, likely through this mechanism.[4]

References

  1. ^ Story CM, Mikulska JE, Simister NE (December 1994). "A major histocompatibility complex class I-like Fc receptor cloned from human placenta: possible role in transfer of immunoglobulin G from mother to fetus". J. Exp. Med. 180 (6): 2377–81. PMID 7964511.  
  2. ^ Kandil E, Egashira M, Miyoshi O, Niikawa N, Ishibashi T, Kasahara M, Miyosi O (1996). "The human gene encoding the heavy chain of the major histocompatibility complex class I-like Fc receptor (FCGRT) maps to 19q13.3". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 73 (1-2): 97–8. PMID 8646894.  
  3. ^ Goebl NA, Babbey CM, Datta-Mannan A, Witcher DR, Wroblewski VJ, Dunn KW (December 2008). "Neonatal Fc receptor mediates internalization of Fc in transfected human endothelial cells". Mol. Biol. Cell 19 (12): 5490–505. doi:10.1091/mbc.E07-02-0101. PMID 18843053.  
  4. ^ Lee TY, Tjin Tham Sjin RM, Movahedi S, Ahmed B, Pravda EA, Lo KM, Gillies SD, Folkman J, Javaherian K (March 2008). "Linking antibody Fc domain to endostatin significantly improves endostatin half-life and efficacy". Clin. Cancer Res. 14 (5): 1487–93. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-1530. PMID 18316573.  

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