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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Anatomy of the human brain.

Neuroanatomy is the study of the anatomy of nervous tissue and neural structures of the nervous system. In vertebrates the routes that the myriad nerves take from the brain to the rest of the body (or "periphery"), and the internal structure of the brain in particular, are both extremely elaborate. As a result, the study of neuroanatomy has developed into a discipline in itself, although it also represents a specialization within neuroscience. The delineation of distinct structures and regions of the brain has figured centrally in investigating how it works. For example, much of what neuroscientists have learned comes from observing how damage or "lesions" to specific brain areas affects behavior or other neural functions.

Neuroanatomy is that branch of neuroscience which deals with the study of gross structure of the brain and the nervous system.



Para-sagittal MRI of the head in a patient with benign familial macrocephaly.

The human nervous system is divided into the central and peripheral nervous systems. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, and plays a key role in controlling behavior. The peripheral nervous system is made up of all the neurons in the body outside of the central nervous system, and is further subdivided into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems. The somatic nervous system is made up of afferent neurons that convey sensory information from the sense organs to the brain and spinal cord, and efferent neurons that carry motor instructions to the muscles. The autonomic nervous system also has two subdivisions. The sympathetic nervous system is a set of nerves that activate what has been called the "fight-or-flight" response that prepares the body for action. The parasympathetic nervous system instead prepares the body to rest and conserve energy.


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Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

It is the anatomy of the nervous system;which can be divided into the central nervous system (C.N.S) & peripheral nervous system. central nervous system is the brain & spinal cord. which represent the origin of peripheral nerves C.N.S can be divided into following functional areas; 1- cerebral hemispheres 2- cerebellum 3- mid brain 4- pons 5- medulla 6- spinal cord

Cranial Nerves

I = Olfactory
II = Optic
III = Oculomotor
IV = Trochlear
V = Trigeminal
VI = Abducens
VII = Facial
VIII = Vestibulocochlear
IX = Glossopharyngeal
X = Vagus
XI = Accessory
XII = Hypoglossal

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Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Neuroscience/Neuroanatomy article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

< Neuroscience


A human brain

The human nervous system (neurological system) consists of the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS is made up of the human brain and the spinal cord. The PNS is basically all those nerves outside the CNS, that allow the CNS to communicate with the various organ systems. The PNS can be subdivided into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems. (The former allows voluntary actions and allows one to perceive all sorts of sensation e.g. the classic five senses and to deliberately move a body part. The latter permits mainly subconscious actions and sensations e.g. to control breathing.)

The brain is the center of the central nervous system in humans and the primary control center for the peripheral nervous system.

The brain controls "lower", unconscious activities such as heartbeat, respiration, and digestion - these are known as autonomic functions. The brain also controls "higher" order, conscious activities, such as thought, reasoning, and abstraction. The human brain is more capable of these higher order activities than any other species' brain.

The adult brain weighs 1500g and is encased by the skull. The brain is artificially divided into the forebrain (cerebrum or two cerebral hemispheres) and the much smaller hindbrain. The cerebrum consists of a superficial part (the 4 cerebral lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital) and a deep part (the thalamus, the various basal ganglia, the internal capsule, and the ventricular system). The hindbrain consists of the cerebellum and the brain stem, the latter consisting, from top to bottom, of midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The medulla is directly continuous with the spinal cord. The big difference in size between the brains of humans and other mammals is mainly due to the size of the four lobes of the forebrain, which makes these areas the natural place to look for the location of the so-called cognitive functions and memory. The other parts of the brain either serve as conduits for signals (white matter tracts) or regulate (grey matter nuclei) the various subconscious activities common to all mammals. Some examples of these vegetative functions are the heart rate and blood pressure, breathing, satiety and digestion, sleeping and wakefullness, hormone production, posture, and reflexes.

  • Brain Stem
  1. REDIRECT:[1] Surviving Clinical Neuroanatomy - an unauthorized illustrated clinical guidebook for medical students - by Henry David Nava Dimaano, MD, FPOA (UP Psych '89 - '94 / UP Medicine Class '99)

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