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Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal, about 1905

Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system. Traditionally, neuroscience has been seen as a branch of biology. Nevertheless, it is currently an interdisciplinary science that involves other disciplines such as psychology, computer science, statistics, physics, philosophy, and medicine. As a result, the scope of neuroscience has broadened to include different approaches used to study the molecular, developmental, structural, functional, evolutionary, computational, and medical aspects of the nervous system. The techniques used by neuroscientists have also expanded enormously, from biophysical and molecular studies of individual nerve cells to imaging of perceptual and motor tasks in the brain. Recent theoretical advances in neuroscience have also been aided by the use of computational modeling of neural networks. The term neurobiology is usually used interchangeably with the term neuroscience, although the former refers specifically to the biology of the nervous system, whereas the latter refers to the entire science of the nervous system.

Given the ever-increasing number of neuroscientists that study the nervous system, several prominent neuroscience organizations have been formed to provide a forum to all neuroscientists and educators. For example, the International Brain Research Organization was founded in 1960,[1] the European Brain and Behaviour Society in 1968,[2] and the Society for Neuroscience in 1969.[3]

Contents

History

The study of the nervous system dates back to ancient Egypt. Evidence of trepanation, the surgical practice of either drilling or scraping a hole into the skull with the aim of curing headaches or mental disorders or relieving cranial pressure, being performed on patients dates back to Neolithic times and has been found in various cultures throughout the world. Manuscripts dating back to 1700BC[4] indicated that the Egyptians had some knowledge about symptoms of brain damage.

Early views on the function of the brain regarded it to be a "cranial stuffing" of sorts. In Egypt, from the late Middle Kingdom onwards, the brain was regularly removed in preparation for mummification. It was believed at the time that the heart was the seat of intelligence. According to Herodotus, during the first step of mummification: "The most perfect practice is to extract as much of the brain as possible with an iron hook, and what the hook cannot reach is mixed with drugs".[citation needed]

The view that the heart was the source of consciousness was not challenged until the time of Hippocrates. He believed that the brain was not only involved with sensation, since most specialized organs (e.g., eyes, ears, tongue) are located in the head near the brain, but was also the seat of intelligence. Aristotle, however, believed that the heart was the center of intelligence and that the brain served to cool the blood. This view was generally accepted until the Roman physician Galen, a follower of Hippocrates and physician to Roman gladiators, observed that his patients lost their mental faculties when they had sustained damage to their brains.

In al-Andalus, Abulcasis, the father of modern surgery, developed material and technical designs which are still used in neurosurgery. Averroes suggested the existence of Parkinson's disease and attributed photoreceptor properties to the retina. Avenzoar described meningitis, intracranial thrombophlebitis, mediastinal tumours and made contributions to modern neuropharmacology. Maimonides wrote about neuropsychiatric disorders and described rabies and belladonna intoxication.[5] Elsewhere in medieval Europe, Vesalius (1514-1564) and René Descartes (1596-1650) also made several contributions to neuroscience.

Studies of the brain became more sophisticated after the invention of the microscope and the development of a staining procedure by Camillo Golgi during the late 1890s that used a silver chromate salt to reveal the intricate structures of single neurons. His technique was used by Santiago Ramón y Cajal and led to the formation of the neuron doctrine, the hypothesis that the functional unit of the brain is the neuron. Golgi and Ramón y Cajal shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1906 for their extensive observations, descriptions and categorizations of neurons throughout the brain. The hypotheses of the neuron doctrine were supported by experiments following Galvani's pioneering work in the electrical excitability of muscles and neurons. In the late 19th century, DuBois-Reymond, Müller, and von Helmholtz showed neurons were electrically excitable and that their activity predictably affected the electrical state of adjacent neurons.

In parallel with this research, work with brain-damaged patients by Paul Broca suggested that certain regions of the brain were responsible for certain functions. At the time Broca's findings were seen as a confirmation of Franz Joseph Gall's theory that language was localized and certain psychological functions were localized in the cerebral cortex.[6][7] The localization of function hypothesis was supported by observations of epileptic patients conducted by John Hughlings Jackson, who correctly deduced the organization of motor cortex by watching the progression of seizures through the body. Wernicke further developed the theory of the specialization of specific brain structures in language comprehension and production. Modern research still uses the Brodmann cytoarchitectonic (referring to study of cell structure) anatomical definitions from this era in continuing to show that distinct areas of the cortex are activated in the execution of specific tasks.[8]

Foundations of modern neuroscience

The scientific study of the nervous systems underwent a significant increase in the second half of the twentieth century, principally due to revolutions in molecular biology, electrophysiology, and computational neuroscience. It has become possible to understand, in much detail, the complex processes occurring within a single neuron. However, how networks of neurons produce intellectual behavior, cognition, emotion, and physiological responses is still poorly understood.

The task of neural science is to explain behavior in terms of the activities of the brain. How does the brain marshal its millions of individual nerve cells to produce behavior, and how are these cells influenced by the environment...? The last frontier of the biological sciences – their ultimate challenge – is to understand the biological basis of consciousness and the mental processes by which we perceive, act, learn, and remember. — Eric Kandel, Principles of Neural Science, fourth edition
Stained neuron

The nervous system is composed of a network of neurons and other supportive cells (such as glial cells). Neurons form functional circuits, each responsible for specific tasks to the behaviors at the organism level. Thus, neuroscience can be studied at many different levels, ranging from molecular level to cellular level to systems level to cognitive level.

At the molecular level, the basic questions addressed in molecular neuroscience include the mechanisms by which neurons express and respond to molecular signals and how axons form complex connectivity patterns. At this level, tools from molecular biology and genetics are used to understand how neurons develop and die, and how genetic changes affect biological functions. The morphology, molecular identity and physiological characteristics of neurons and how they relate to different types of behavior are also of considerable interest. (The ways in which neurons and their connections are modified by experience are addressed at the physiological and cognitive levels.)

At the cellular level, the fundamental questions addressed in cellular neuroscience are the mechanisms of how neurons process signals physiologically and electrochemically. They address how signals are processed by the dendrites, somas and axons, and how neurotransmitters and electrical signals are used to process signals in a neuron. Another major area of neuroscience is directed at investigations of the development of the nervous system. These questions of neural development include the patterning and regionalization of the nervous system, neural stem cells, differentiation of neurons and glia, neuronal migration, axonal and dendritic development, trophic interactions, and synapse formation.

At the systems level, the questions addressed in systems neuroscience include how the circuits are formed and used anatomically and physiologically to produce the physiological functions, such as reflexes, sensory integration, motor coordination, circadian rhythms, emotional responses, learning and memory. In other words, they address how these neural circuits function and the mechanisms through which behaviors are generated. For example, systems level analysis addresses questions concerning specific sensory and motor modalities: how does vision work? How do songbirds learn new songs and bats localize with ultrasound? How does the somatosensory system process tactile information? The related field of neuroethology, in particular, addresses the complex question of how neural substrates underlies specific animal behavior.

Para-sagittal MRI of the head in a patient with benign familial macrocephaly

At the cognitive level, cognitive neuroscience addresses the questions of how psychological/cognitive functions are produced by the neural circuitry. The emergence of powerful new measurement techniques such as neuroimaging (e. g., fMRI, PET, SPECT), electrophysiology and human genetic analysis combined with sophisticated experimental techniques from cognitive psychology allows neuroscientists and psychologists to address abstract questions such as how human cognition and emotion are mapped to specific neural circuitries.

Neuroscience is also allied with the social and behavioral sciences, and burgeoning interdisciplinary fields such as neuroeconomics, decision theory, social neuroscience are addressing complex questions on the interactions of the brain with its environment.

Neuroscience and medicine

Neurology, psychiatry, and neuropathology are medical specialties that specifically address the diseases of the nervous system. These terms also refer to clinical disciplines involving diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. Neurology deals with diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and stroke, while psychiatry focuses on behavioural, cognitive, and emotional disorders. Neuropathology focuses upon the classification and underlying pathogenic mechanisms of central and peripheral nervous system and muscle diseases, with an emphasis on morphologic, microscopic and chemically observable alterations. The boundaries between these specialties have been blurring recently, and they are all influenced by basic research in neuroscience.

Integrative neuroscience makes connections across these specialized areas of focus.

Major branches

Current neuroscience education and research activities can be very roughly categorized into the following major branches, based on the subject and scale of the system in examination as well as distinct experimental or curricular approaches. Individual neuroscientists, however, often work on questions that span several distinct subfields.

Branch Major topics Experimental and theoretical methods
Molecular and Cellular neuroscience neurocytology, glia, protein trafficking, ion channel, synapse, action potential, neurotransmitters, neuroimmunology PCR, immunohistochemistry, patch clamp, voltage clamp, molecular cloning, gene knockout, biochemical assays, linkage analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization, Southern blots, DNA microarray, green fluorescent protein, calcium imaging, two-photon microscopy, HPLC, microdialysis
Behavioral neuroscience behavioral genetics, biological psychology, circadian rhythms, neuroendocrinology, neuroethology, hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neurotransmitters, homeostasis, dimorphic sexual-behavior, motor control, sensory processing, photo reception, organizational/activational effects of hormones, drug/alcohol effects animal models (gene knockout), in situ hybridization, golgi stain, fMRI, immunohistochemistry, functional genomics, PET, pattern recognition, EEG, MEG
Systems neuroscience primary visual cortex, somatosensory system, perception, audition, sensory integration, population coding, Pain and nociception, spontaneous and evoked activity, color vision, olfaction, taste, motor system, spinal cord, sleep, homeostasis, arousal, attention single-unit recording, intrinsic signal imaging, microstimulation, voltage sensitive dyes, fMRI, patch clamp, genomics, training awake behaving animals, local field potential, ROC, cortical cooling, calcium imaging, two-photon microscopy
Developmental neuroscience cell proliferation, neurogenesis, axon guidance, dendrite development, neuronal migration, growth factors, neuromuscular junction, neurotrophins, apoptosis, synaptogenesis Xenopus oocyte, protein chemistry, genomics, Drosophila, Hox gene
Cognitive neuroscience attention, cognitive control, behavioral genetics, decision making, emotion, language, memory, motivation, motor learning, perception, sexual behavior, social neuroscience experimental designs from cognitive psychology, psychometrics, EEG, MEG, fMRI, PET, SPECT, single-unit recording, human genetics
Theoretical and computational neuroscience cable theory, Hodgkin–Huxley model, neural networks, Voltage-gated ion channels, Hebbian learning Markov chain Monte Carlo, simulated annealing, high performance computing, partial differential equations, self-organizing nets, pattern recognition, swarm intelligence
Diseases and aging: Neurology and Psychiatry dementia, Parkinson's disease, stroke, peripheral neuropathy, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, autonomic nervous system, schizophrenia, psychosis, depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, addiction, memory loss, sleep disorders clinical trials, neuropharmacology, deep brain stimulation, neurosurgery
Neural engineering Neuroprosthetic, Brain-computer interface (BCI) Signal acquisition through EEG, ECoG, MEG, fMRI, Near infrared spectroscopy, EMG; signal processing through pattern recognition algorithms
Neurolinguistics language, Broca's area, language acquisition, speech perception, sentence processing theoretical models from psycholinguistics, cognitive science, and computer science;
experimental methods include EEG and ERP, MEG, fMRI, PET, transcranial magnetic stimulation, aphasiology, direct cortical stimulation
Neuroscience studies Neuroscience education: undergraduate models, best practices, interface of neuroscience with all liberal arts disciplines, neuroscience and society, philosophy of neuroscience, interdisciplinary research, neuroscience and popular culture, neuroscience and the media
Neuroimaging structural imaging, functional imaging Computed tomography, diffuse optical imaging, event-related optical signal, magnetic resonance imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography

Note: In 1990s, neuroscientist Jaak Panksepp coined the term "affective neuroscience"[9] to emphasize that emotion research should be a branch of neurosciences, distinguishable from the nearby fields like cognitive neuroscience or behavioral neuroscience. More recently, the social aspect of the emotional brain has been integrated in what is called "social-affective neuroscience" or simply social neuroscience.

There has also been some research published arguing that some aspects of fair play and the Golden Rule may be stated and rooted in terms of neuroscientific and neuroethical principles.[10]

Public education and outreach

In addition to conducting traditional research in laboratory settings, neuroscientists have also been involved in the promotion of knowledge and awareness about the nervous system among the general public and government officials. Such promotion has been by individual neuroscientists to large organizations. For example, individual neuroscientists have promoted neuroscience education among young students by organizing the International Brain Bee (IBB), which is an academic competition for high school or secondary school students worldwide.[11] Large organizations such as the Society for Neuroscience in the United States have promoted neuroscience education by developing a primer called Brain Facts,[12] collaborating with members of public education to develop Neuroscience Core Concepts for K-12 teachers and students,[13] and cosponsoring a campaign called Brain Awareness Week with the Dana Foundation to increase public awareness about the progress and benefits of brain research.[14]

In addition to promoting public awareness, neuroscientists have also collaborated with other education experts to study and refine educational techniques to optimize learning among students.[15] Federal Agencies in the United States such as the National Institute of Health (NIH) and National Science Foundation (NSF) have also funded research that pertain to best practices in teaching and learning of neuroscience concepts.

Future directions

See also

References

  1. ^ "International Brain Research Organization (IBRO)". http://www.ibro.info/Pub/Pub_Front.asp. 
  2. ^ "ABOUT EBBS". http://www.ebbs-science.org/about_ebbs.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  3. ^ "Society for Neuroscience: Presidents". http://www.sfn.org/index.cfm?pagename=presidents&section=about_SfN. 
  4. ^ http://www.ibro.info/Pub/Pub_Main_Display.asp?LC_Docs_ID=3199
  5. ^ Martin-Araguz, A.; Bustamante-Martinez, C.; Fernandez-Armayor, Ajo V.; Moreno-Martinez, J. M. (2002). "Neuroscience in al-Andalus and its influence on medieval scholastic medicine", Revista de neurología 34 (9), p. 877-892.
  6. ^ Greenblatt, SH., (1995) "Phrenology in the science and culture of the 19th century, " Neurosurgery 37 790-805.
  7. ^ Bear, M. F.; B. W. Connors, and M. A. Paradiso (2001). Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain. Baltimore: Lippincott. ISBN 0-7817-3944-6.
  8. ^ Principles of Neural Science, 4th ed. Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, Thomas M. Jessel, eds. McGraw-Hill:New York, NY. 2000.
  9. ^ Panksepp, J., 1990 - A role for “affective neuroscience” in understanding stress: The case of separation distress circuitry. In: Puglisi-Allegra, S. and Oliverio, A., Editors, 1990, Psychobiology of stress, Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 41–58.
  10. ^ Pfaff, Donald W., "The Neuroscience of Fair Play: Why We (Usually) Follow the Golden Rule", Dana Press, The Dana Foundation, New York, 2007. ISBN 9781932594270
  11. ^ "The International Brain Bee". http://www.internationalbrainbee.com/index.html. 
  12. ^ "Brain Facts". http://www.sfn.org/index.cfm?pagename=brainfacts. 
  13. ^ "Neuroscience Core Concepts". http://www.sfn.org/index.cfm?pagename=core_concepts. 
  14. ^ "Brain Awareness Week". http://www.dana.org/brainweek/. 
  15. ^ "Goswami U (2004) Neuroscience, education and special education. British Journal of Special Education 31: 175-183". http://www.neuroscience.me/wp-content/uploads/Neuroscience-and-education.pdf. 

Further reading

  • Squire, L. et al. (2003). Fundamental Neuroscience, 2nd edition. Academic Press; ISBN 0-12-660303-0
  • Byrne and Roberts (2004). From Molecules to Networks. Academic Press; ISBN 0-12-148660-5
  • Sanes, Reh, Harris (2005). Development of the Nervous System, 2nd edition. Academic Press; ISBN 0-12-618621-9
  • Siegel et al. (2005). Basic Neurochemistry, 7th edition. Academic Press; ISBN 0-12-088397-X
  • Rieke, F. et al. (1999). Spikes: Exploring the Neural Code. The MIT Press; Reprint edition ISBN 0-262-68108-0
  • section.47 Neuroscience 2nd ed. Dale Purves, George J. Augustine, David Fitzpatrick, Lawrence C. Katz, Anthony-Samuel LaMantia, James O. McNamara, S. Mark Williams. Published by Sinauer Associates, Inc., 2001.
  • section.18 Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular, and Medical Aspects 6th ed. by George J. Siegel, Bernard W. Agranoff, R. Wayne Albers, Stephen K. Fisher, Michael D. Uhler, editors. Published by Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1999.
  • Andreasen, Nancy C. (March 4 2004). Brave New Brain: Conquering Mental Illness in the Era of the Genome. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195145090. http://www.oup.com/uk/catalogue/?ci=9780195145090. 
  • Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York, Avon Books. ISBN 0-399-13894-3 (Hardcover) ISBN 0-380-72647-5 (Paperback)
  • Gardner, H. (1976). The Shattered Mind: The Person After Brain Damage. New York, Vintage Books, 1976 ISBN 0-394-71946-8
  • Goldstein, K. (2000). The Organism. New York, Zone Books. ISBN 0-942299-96-5 (Hardcover) ISBN 0-942299-97-3 (Paperback)
  • Llinas R. (2001). I of the Vortex: From Neurons to Self MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-12233-2 (Hardcover) ISBN 0-262-62163-0 (Paperback)
  • Luria, A. R. (1997). The Man with a Shattered World: The History of a Brain Wound. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-224-00792-0 (Hardcover) ISBN 0-674-54625-3 (Paperback)
  • Luria, A. R. (1998). The Mind of a Mnemonist: A Little Book About A Vast Memory. New York, Basic Books, Inc. ISBN 0-674-57622-5
  • Medina, J. (2008). Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School. Seattle, Pear Press. ISBN 0-979-777704 (Hardcover with DVD)
  • Pinker, S. (1999). How the Mind Works. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-31848-6
  • Pinker, S. (2002). The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature. Viking Adult. ISBN 0-670-03151-8
  • Robinson, D. L. (2009). Brain, Mind and Behaviour: A New Perspective on Human Nature (2nd ed.). Dundalk, Ireland: Pontoon Publications. ISBN 978-0-9561812-0-6. 
  • Ramachandran, V. S. (1998). Phantoms in the Brain. New York, New York Harper Collins. ISBN 0-688-15247-3 (Paperback)
  • Rose, S. (2006). 21st Century Brain: Explaining, Mending & Manipulating the Mind ISBN 0099429772 (Paperback)
  • Sacks, O. The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. Summit Books ISBN 0-671-55471-9 (Hardcover) ISBN 0-06-097079-0 (Paperback)
  • Sacks, O. (1990). Awakenings. New York, Vintage Books. (See also Oliver Sacks) ISBN 0-671-64834-9 (Hardcover) ISBN 0-06-097368-4 (Paperback)
  • Sternberg, E. (2007) Are You a Machine? The Brain, the Mind and What it Means to be Human. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

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Wikibook Development Stages
Sparse text 00%.svg Developing text 25%.svg Maturing text 50%.svg Developed text 75%.svg Comprehensive text: 100%.svg
A human brain

The Opensource Handbook of Neuroscience Development stage: 25% (as of {{{2}}})

Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system.

Such studies may include the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology of the nervous system. Traditionally it is seen as a branch of biological sciences. It can involve convergence of interest from many allied disciplines, including psychology, computer science, statistics, physics, and medicine. The scope of neuroscience has now broadened to include any systematic scientific experimental and theoretical investigation of the central and peripheral nervous system of biological organisms. The methodologies employed by neuroscientists have been enormously expanded, from biochemical and genetic analysis of dynamics of individual nerve cells and their molecular constituents to imaging representations of perceptual and motor tasks in the brain. Neuroscience is at the frontier of investigation of the brain and mind. The study of the brain is becoming the cornerstone in understanding how we perceive and interact with the external world and, in particular, how human experience and human biology influence each other.

Learning and Memory -

Preface
Introduction
Neurophysiology (Electrophysiology)
Cellular NeurobiologyDevelopment stage: 50% (as of {{{2}}})
Developmental Neurobiology
Neuroanatomy
Neuropsychiatry
Neuropsychology
Cognitive Neuroscience
Computational Neurobiology
Neurobiology of Disease
Sleep

Simple English

cerebellum by Santiago Ramón y Cajal]]
The English Wiktionary has a dictionary definition (meanings of a word) for:

Neuroscience is the scientific study of brain and mind and the whole nervous system. It helps to understand how we perceive and interact with the outside world and, in particular, how human experience and human biology influence each other.

Its studies may include genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology of the nervous system. Traditionally it is seen as a branch of biological sciences. However, recently there has been an effort to draw together many related areas, including psychology, computer science, statistics, physics, and medicine.

Contents

Major Branches of Neuroscience

Current neuroscience research activities can be very roughly divided into the following major branches, based on what they study and at what scale they study, as well as what experimental approaches they use. Individual neuroscientists, however, often work on questions that span several different subfields.

Branch Major Topics and Concepts Experimental and Theoretical Methods
Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience behavioral genetics, neurocytology, glia, protein trafficking, ion channel, synapse, action potential, neurotransmitters, neuroimmunology PCR, immunohistochemistry, patch clamp, voltage clamp, molecular cloning, gene knockout, biochemical assays, linkage analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization, Southern blots, DNA microarray, green fluorescent protein, calcium imaging, two-photon microscopy
Behavioral Neuroscience biological psychology, circadian rhythms, neuroendocrinology, hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neurotransmitters, homeostasis, dimorphic sexual-behavior, motor control, sensory processing, photo reception, organizational/activational effects of hormones, drug/alcohol effects animal models (gene knockout), in-situ hybridization, golgi stain, fMRI, immunohistochemistry, functional genomics, PET, pattern recognition, EEG, MEG
Systems Neuroscience primary visual cortex, perception, audition, sensory integration, population coding, pain, spontaneous and evoked activity, color vision, olfaction, taste, motor system, spinal cord, sleep, homeostasis, arousal, attention, play single unit recording, intrinsic signal imaging, microstimulation, voltage sensitive dyes, fMRI, patch clamp, genomics, training awake behaving animals, local field potential, ROC, cortical cooling, calcium imaging, two-photon microscopy
Developmental Neuroscience axon guidance, neural crest, growth factors, growth cone, neuromuscular junction, cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, cell survival and apoptosis, synaptic formation, motor differentiation, injury and regeneration Xenopus oocyte, protein chemistry, genomics, Drosophila, Hox gene
Cognitive Neuroscience language, emotion, motor learning, sexual behavior, decision making, behavioral genetics, motivation, social neuroscience psychometrics, EEG, MEG, fMRI, PET, SPECT, single unit recording, human genetics
Computational and Theoretical Neuroscience cable theory, Hodgkin-Huxley model, neural networks, voltage-gated currents, Hebbian learning Markov chain Monte Carlo, simulated annealing, high performance computing, partial differential equations, self-organizing nets, pattern recognition
Neuroscience of Diseases and Aging dementia, peripheral neuropathy, spinal cord injury, autonomic nervous system, depression, anxiety, Parkinson's disease, addiction, memory loss clinical trials, neuropharmacology, deep brain stimulation, neurosurgery
Neural engineering Neuroprosthetic, brain-computer interface

Major Themes of Research

Neuroscience research from different areas can also be seen as focusing on a set of specific themes and questions. (Some of these are taken from http://www.northwestern.edu/nuin/fac/index.htm)

Allied and Overlapping Fields

The English Wikibooks has more about this subject:

Textbooks

  • Bear, M.F.; B.W. Connors, and M.A. Paradiso (2001). Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain. Baltimore: Lippincott. ISBN 0-7817-3944-6. 
  • Kandel, ER; Schwartz JH, Jessell TM (2000). Principles of Neural Science (4th ed. ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-8385-7701-6. 
  • Squire, L. et al. (2003). Fundamental Neuroscience, 2nd edition. Academic Press; ISBN 0-12-660303-0
  • Byrne and Roberts (2004). From Molecules to Networks. Academic Press; ISBN 0-12-148660-5
  • Sanes, Reh, Harris (2005). Development of the Nervous System, 2nd edition. Academic Press; ISBN 0-12-618621-9
  • Siegel et al. (2005). Basic Neurochemistry, 7th edition. Academic Press; ISBN 0-12-088397-X
  • Rieke, F. et al. (1999). Spikes: Exploring the Neural Code. The MIT Press; Reprint edition ISBN 0-262-68108-0

Online textbooks

  • Neuroscience 2nd ed. Dale Purves, George J. Augustine, David Fitzpatrick, Lawrence C. Katz, Anthony-Samuel LaMantia, James O. McNamara, S. Mark Williams. Published by Sinauer Associates, Inc., 2001.
  • Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular, and Medical Aspects 6th ed. by George J. Siegel, Bernard W. Agranoff, R. Wayne Albers, Stephen K. Fisher, Michael D. Uhler, editors. Published by Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

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