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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

New Brunswick
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: Latin: Spem reduxit
("Hope restored")
Capital Fredericton
Largest city Saint John
Largest metro Metro Moncton
Official languages English, French
Demonym New Brunswicker[1]
Lieutenant-Governor Graydon Nicholas
Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal)
Federal representation in Canadian Parliament
House seats 10
Senate seats 10
Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st)
Area  Ranked 11th
Total 72,908 km2 (28,150 sq mi)
Land 71,450 km2 (27,590 sq mi)
Water (%) 1,458 km2 (563 sq mi) (2.0%)
Population  Ranked 8th
Total (2009) 750,457 (est.)[2]
Density 10.50 /km2 (27.2 /sq mi)
GDP  Ranked 8th
Total (2006) $25.221 billion[3]
Per capita C$33,664 (12th)
Postal NB
ISO 3166-2 CA-NB
Time zone UTC-4
Postal code prefix E
Flower Purple Violet
Tree Balsam Fir
Bird Black-capped Chickadee
Rankings include all provinces and territories

New Brunswick (French: Nouveau-Brunswick; pronounced: [nuvobʁɔnzwik]) is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and is the only constitutionally bilingual province (English and French) in the federation.[4] The provincial capital is Fredericton. Statistics Canada estimates the provincial population in 2009 to be 748,329; a majority are English-speaking, but there is also a large Francophone minority (33%), chiefly of Acadian origin.

The province's name comes from the English and French translation for the city of Braunschweig in north Germany (and former duchy of the same name), the ancestral home of the Hanoverian King George III of the United Kingdom.



New Brunswick is bounded on the north by Quebec's Gaspé Peninsula and by Chaleur Bay. Along the east coast, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and Northumberland Strait form the boundaries. In the southeast corner of the province, the narrow Isthmus of Chignecto connects New Brunswick to the Nova Scotia peninsula. The south of the province is bounded by the Bay of Fundy, which, with a rise of 16 m (52 ft), has some of the highest tides in the world. To the west, the province borders the U.S. state of Maine.

New Brunswick differs from the other Maritime provinces physiographically, climatologically, and ethnoculturally. Both Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island are either surrounded or almost surrounded by water; oceanic effects, therefore, tend to define their climate, economy, and culture. On the other hand, New Brunswick—although it has a significant seacoast—is sheltered from the Atlantic Ocean proper and has a large interior that is removed from oceanic influences. As a result, the climate tends to be more continental in character rather than maritime. The settlement patterns and the economy of New Brunswick also are different from its Maritime neighbours in that they are based more on the province's river systems rather than its seacoasts.

The major river systems of the province include the St. Croix River, Saint John River, Kennebecasis River, Petitcodiac River, Miramichi River, Nepisiguit River, and the Restigouche River. Northern New Brunswick lies within the Appalachian Mountains, and the New Brunswick Lowlands form the eastern and central portions of the province. The Caledonia Highlands and St. Croix Highlands extend along the Bay of Fundy coastal region, reaching elevations of more than 300 m (984 ft). The northwestern part of the province consists of the remote and more rugged Miramichi Highlands as well as the Chaleur Uplands and the Notre Dame Mountains, with a maximum elevation at Mount Carleton of 817 m (2,680 ft). The total land and water area of the province is 72,908 km2 (28,150 sq mi), over 80% of which is forested. Agricultural lands are found mostly in the upper Saint John River valley, with lesser amounts of farmland in the southeast of the province, especially in the Kennebecasis and Petitcodiac river valleys. The three major urban centres are in the southern third of the province.


The original First Nations inhabitants of New Brunswick were members of three distinct tribes. The largest tribe was the Mi'kmaq.[5], and they occupied the eastern and coastal areas of the province. They were responsible for the Augustine mound which was built about 2500 BC, near Metepnákiaq (Red Bank First Nation). The western portion of the province was the traditional home of the Wolastoqiyik (Maliseet) people.  The smaller Passamaquoddy tribe occupied lands in the southwest of the province.

The French Colonial era

The first known exploration of New Brunswick was that of French explorer Jacques Cartier in 1534, who discovered and named the Bay of Chaleur. The next French contact was in 1604, when a party led by Pierre du Gua de Monts and Samuel de Champlain set up camp for the winter on St.Croix Island, between New Brunswick and Maine. The colony relocated the following year across the Bay of Fundy to Port Royal, Nova Scotia. Over the next 150 years, other French settlements and seigneuries were founded along the St. John River, the upper Bay of Fundy region, in the Tantramar Marshes at Beaubassin, and finally at St. Pierre (site of present day Bathurst). The whole maritime region (as well as parts of Maine) were at that time proclaimed to be part of the French colony Acadia.

One of the provisions of the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713 was the surrender of peninsular Nova Scotia to the British. The bulk of the Acadian population thus found themselves residing in the new British colony of Nova Scotia. The remainder of Acadia (including the New Brunswick region) was only lightly populated and poorly defended. In 1750, in order to protect their territorial interests in what remained of Acadia, France built two forts (Fort Beauséjour and Fort Gaspareaux) along the frontier with Nova Scotia at either end of the Isthmus of Chignecto. A major French fortification (Fortress of Louisbourg) was also built on Ile Royale (now Cape Breton Island), but the function of this fort was mostly to defend the approaches to the colony of Canada, not Acadia.

As part of the Seven Years' War (1756–63), the British extended their control to include all of New Brunswick. Fort Beauséjour (near Sackville) was captured by a British force commanded by Lt. Col. Robert Monckton in 1755. Acadians of the nearby Beaubassin and Petitcodiac regions were subsequently expelled in the Great Upheaval. Some of the Acadians in the Petitcodiac and Memramcook region escaped, and under the leadership of Joseph Broussard continued to conduct guerrilla action against the British forces for a couple of years. Other actions in the war included British expeditions up the St. John River in both 1758 and 1759. Fort Anne (Fredericton) fell during the 1759 campaign, and following this, all of present-day New Brunswick came under British control.

The British Colonial era

After the Seven Years' War, most of New Brunswick (and parts of Maine) were absorbed into the colony of Nova Scotia and designated as Sunbury County. New Brunswick's relatively isolated location on the Bay of Fundy, away from the Atlantic coastline proper tended to discourage settlement during the postwar period. There were several exceptions however, such as the coming of New England Planters to the Sackville region and the arrival of Pennsylvania Dutch settlers in Moncton in 1766. In both these cases, the new settlers took up land originally belonging to displaced Acadians after the deportation.

The American Revolutionary War had little direct effect on the New Brunswick region, aside from an attack on Fort Cumberland (the renamed Fort Beauséjour) by rebel sympathizers led by Jonathan Eddy. Significant population growth in the area finally came when 14,000 refugee Loyalists from the United States arrived on the Saint John River in 1783. Influential Loyalists such as Harvard-educated Edward Winslow saw themselves as the natural leaders of their community and that they should be recognized for their rank and that their loyalty deserved special compensation.[6] However they were not appreciated by the pre-loyalist population in Nova Scotia. As Colonel Thomas Dundas wrote from Saint John, "They [the loyalists] have experienced every possible injury from the old inhabitants of Nova Scotia."[7] Therefore 55 prominent merchants and professionals petitioned for 5,000-acre grants each. Winslow pressed for the creation of a "Loyalist colony" — an asylum that could become "the envy of the American states".[8] Nova Scotia was therefore partitioned, and the colony of New Brunswick was created on August 16, 1784; Sir Thomas Carleton was appointed as Lieutenant-Governor in 1784, and in 1785 a new assembly was established with the first elections.

During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, some of the deported Acadians from Nova Scotia found their way back to "Acadie," where they settled mostly along the eastern and northern shores of the new colony of New Brunswick. Here, they lived in relative (and in many ways, self-imposed) isolation.

Additional immigration to New Brunswick in the early part of the 19th century was from Scotland; western England; and Waterford, Ireland, often after first having come through (or having lived in) Newfoundland. A large influx of settlers arrived in New Brunswick after 1845 from Ireland as a result of the Potato Famine; many of these people settled in Saint John or Chatham. Both Saint John and the Miramichi region remain largely Irish today.

The northwestern border between Maine and New Brunswick had not been clearly defined by the Treaty of Paris (1783) that had ended the American Revolution. By the late 1830s, population growth and competing lumber interests in the upper Saint John River valley created the need for a definite boundary in the area. During the winter of 1838–39, the situation quickly deteriorated, with both Maine and New Brunswick calling out their respective militias. The "Aroostook War" was bloodless (but politically very tense), and the boundary was subsequently settled by the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842.

Throughout the mid 19th century, shipbuilding, both on the Bay of Fundy shore and also on the Miramichi River, became the dominant industry in New Brunswick. The Marco Polo, the fastest clipper ship ever built, was launched from Saint John in 1851. Resource-based industries such as logging and farming were also important components of the New Brunswick economy during this time.

A Canadian province

Current licence plate.

New Brunswick, one of the four original provinces of Canada, entered the Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867. The Charlottetown Conference of 1864, which ultimately led to the confederation movement, originally had been intended to discuss only a Maritime Union, but concerns over the American Civil War as well as Fenian activity along the border led to an interest in expanding the scope of the proposed union. This interest in an expanded union arose from the Province of Canada (formerly Upper and Lower Canada, later Ontario and Quebec), and a request was made by the Canadian political leaders to the organizers of the Maritime conference to have the meeting agenda altered. Although the Maritime leaders were swayed by the arguments of the Canadians, many ordinary residents of the Maritimes wanted no part of this larger confederation for fear that their interests and concerns would be ignored in a wider national union. Many politicians who supported confederation, such as Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley (New Brunswick's best-known Father of Confederation), found themselves without a seat after the next election; nevertheless, backers of the wider confederation eventually prevailed.

Following confederation, the fears of the anti-confederates were proven correct as new national policies and trade barriers were soon adopted by the central government, thus disrupting the historic trading relationship between the Maritime Provinces and New England. The situation in New Brunswick was exacerbated by both the Great Fire of 1877 in Saint John and the decline of the wooden shipbuilding industry; skilled workers were thus forced to move to other parts of Canada or to the United States to seek employment. As the 20th century dawned, however, the province's economy again began to expand. Manufacturing gained strength with the construction of several textile mills; and in the crucial forestry sector, the sawmills that had dotted inland sections of the province gave way to larger pulp and paper mills. The railway industry, meanwhile, provided for growth and prosperity in the Moncton region. Nevertheless, unemployment remained high throughout the province, and the Great Depression brought another setback. Two influential families, the Irvings and the McCains, emerged from the Depression to begin to modernise and vertically integrate the provincial economy—especially in the vital forestry, food processing, and energy sectors.

The Acadians in northern New Brunswick had long been geographically and linguistically isolated from the more numerous English-speakers, who lived in the south of the province. Government services were often not available in French, and the infrastructure in predominantly Francophone areas was noticeably less developed than in the rest of the province; this changed with the election of Premier Louis Robichaud in 1960. He embarked on the ambitious Equal Opportunity Plan, in which education, rural road maintenance, and health care fell under the sole jurisdiction of a provincial government that insisted on equal coverage of all areas of the province. County councils were abolished, and the rural areas came under direct provincial jurisdiction. The 1969 Official Languages Act made French an official language.



First Nations in New Brunswick include the Mi'kmaq and Maliseet (Wolastoqiyik). The first European settlers, the Acadians, are today descendants of survivors of the Great Expulsion (1755), which drove several thousand French residents into exile in North America, Britain, and France for refusing to take an oath of allegiance to King George III during the French and Indian War. American Acadians, who were deported to Louisiana, are referred to as Cajuns.

Much of the English Canadian population of New Brunswick is descended from Loyalists who fled the American Revolution. This is commemorated in the province's motto, Spem reduxit ("hope was restored"). There is also a significant population with Irish ancestry, especially in Saint John and the Miramichi Valley. People of Scottish descent are scattered throughout the province, with higher concentrations in the Miramichi and in Campbellton.

In the 2001 Canadian census, the most commonly reported ethnicities were 193,470 French (26.9%); 165,235 English (23.0%); 135,835 Irish (18.9%); 127,635 Scottish (17.7%); 27,490 German (3.8%); 26,220 Acadians (3.6%); 23,815 "North American Indian" (First Nations) (3.3%); 13,355 Dutch (Netherlands) (1.9%); and 7,620 Welsh (1.1%). It should be noted that 242,220 people (33.7%) identified themselves as simply "Canadian" or "Canadien," while 173,585 (24.1%) also selected another ethnicity—for a total of 415,810 (57.8%) calling themselves Canadian. (Each person could choose more than one ethnicity.)[9]

Population since 1851

Year Population Five year
 % change
Ten year
 % change
Rank among
1851 193,800 n/a n/a 4
1861 252,047 n/a 30.0 4
1871 285,594 n/a 13.3 4
1881 321,233 n/a 12.5 4
1891 321,263 n/a 0.0 4
1901 331,120 n/a 3.1 4
1911 351,889 n/a 6.3 8
1921 387,876 n/a 10.2 8
1931 408,219 n/a 5.2 8
1941 457,401 n/a 12.0 8
1951 515,697 n/a 12.7 8
1956 554,616 7.5 n/a 8
1961 597,936 7.8 15.9 8
1966 616,788 3.2 11.2 8
1971 634,560 2.9 6.9 8
1976 677,250 6.7 9.8 8
1981 696,403 2.8 9.7 8
1986 709,445 1.9 4.8 8
1991 723,900 2.0 3.9 8
1996 738,133 2.0 4.0 8
2001 729,498 -1.2 0.8 8
2006 729,997 0.1 -0.1 8



The 2006 Canadian census showed a population of 729,997. Of the 708,145 singular responses to the census question concerning "mother tongue," the most commonly reported languages were:

1. English 463,163 64.83%
2. French 232,975 32.61%
3. Míkmaq 2,515 0.35%
4. Chinese 2,160 0.30%
5. German 1,935 0.27%
6. Dutch 1,290 0.18%
7. Spanish 1,040 0.15%
8. Arabic 970 0.14%
9. Korean 630 0.09%
10. Italian 590 0.08%
11. Malecite 490 0.07%
12. Persian 460 0.06%

In addition, there were 560 responses of both English and a "nonofficial language"; 120 of both French and a nonofficial language; 4,450 of both English and French; 30 of English, French, and a nonofficial language; and about 10,300 people who either did not respond to the question, reported multiple nonofficial languages, or gave some other unenumerated response. New Brunswick's official languages are shown in bold. Figures shown are for the number of single-language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses.[12]


The largest denominations by number of adherents according to the 2001 census were the Roman Catholic Church, with 385,985 (54%); Baptists, with 80,490 (11%); the United Church of Canada, with 69,235 (10%); the Anglicans, with 58,215 (8%); the Pentecostals with 20,155 (3%).[13][14]


New Brunswick's urban areas have modern, service-based economies dominated by the health care, educational, retail, finance, and insurance sectors. These sectors are reasonably equitably distributed in all three principal urban centres. In addition, heavy industry and port facilities are found in Saint John; Fredericton is dominated by government services, universities, and the military; and Moncton has developed as a commercial, retail, transportation, and distribution centre with important rail and air terminal facilities.

The rural primary economy is best known for forestry, mining, mixed farming, and fishing.

Forestry is important in all areas of the province, but especially in the heavily forested central regions. There are many sawmills in the smaller towns and several large pulp and paper mills located in Saint John, Miramichi, Nackawic, and Edmundston.

Heavy metals, including lead and zinc, are mined in the north around Bathurst. One of the world's largest potash deposits is located in Sussex; a second potash mine, costing over a billion dollars, is in development in the Sussex region. Oil and natural gas deposits are also being developed in the Sussex region.

Farming is concentrated in the upper Saint John River valley (in the northwest portion of the province), where the most valuable crop is potatoes. Mixed and dairy farms are found elsewhere, but especially in the southeast, concentrated in the Kennebecasis and Petitcodiac river valleys.

The most valuable fish catches are lobster, scallops and king crab. The farming of Atlantic salmon in the Passamaquoddy Bay region is an important local industry.

The largest employers in the province are the Irving group of companies, several large multinational forest companies, the government of New Brunswick, and the McCain group of companies.


Some of the province's tourist attractions include the New Brunswick Museum, Kouchibouguac National Park, Mactaquac Provincial Park, the Beaverbrook Art Gallery, Kings Landing Historical Settlement, Village Historique Acadien, Les Jardins de la Republique, Parlee Beach, Hopewell Rocks, La Dune de Bouctouche, Saint John Reversing Falls, Magnetic Hill and the Magnetic Hill Zoo, Crystal Palace, Magic Mountain Water Park, Cape Jourimain National Wildlife Preserve, Sugarloaf Provincial Park, Sackville Waterfowl Park, Fundy National Park, and the 41 km (25 mi) Fundy Hiking Trail.

Government and politics

NB Legislative Building, seat of New Brunswick Government since 1882.

New Brunswick has a unicameral legislature with 55 seats. Elections are held at least every five years, but may be called at any time by the Lieutenant Governor (the viceregal representative) on consultation with the Premier. The Premier is the leader of the party that holds the most seats in the legislature.

There are two dominant political parties in New Brunswick, the Liberal Party and the Progressive Conservative Party. While consistently polling approximately 10% of the electoral vote since the early 1980s, the New Democratic Party has elected few members to the Legislative Assembly. From time to time, other parties, such as the Confederation of Regions Party, have held seats in the legislature, but only on the strength of a strong protest vote.

The dynamics of New Brunswick politics are different from those of other Canadian provinces. The lack of a dominant urban centre in the province means that the government has to be responsive to issues affecting all areas of the province. In addition, the presence of a large Francophone minority dictates that consensus politics is necessary, even when there is a majority government present. In this manner, the ebb and flow of New Brunswick provincial politics parallels the federal stage.

Since 1960, the province has elected a succession of young bilingual leaders. This combination of attributes has permitted recent premiers of New Brunswick to be disproportionately influential players on the federal stage. Former Premier Bernard Lord (Progressive Conservative) has been touted as a potential leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. Frank McKenna (premier, 1987–97), had been considered to be a front-runner to lead the Liberal Party of Canada. Richard Hatfield (premier, 1970–87) played an active role in the patriation of the Canadian constitution and creation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Louis Robichaud (premier, 1960–70) was responsible for a wide range of social reforms.

On September 18, 2006, the Liberals won a majority, with 29 out of 55 seats, making 38-year old Shawn Graham the new Premier of New Brunswick.[15]


Fredericton in 2006.
Saint John in Summer 2002.

Metropolitan Moncton (Moncton, Riverview, Dieppe), with a population of 126,424 (Canada 2006 census), is the largest urban centre in the province. Saint John is the largest city and has a metropolitan population (Saint John, Quispamsis, Rothesay) of 122,389. Greater Fredericton has a census agglomeration population of 85,000.

Moncton is the fastest-growing metropolitan area in the province and is among the top ten fastest growing urban areas in Canada. Its economy is principally based on the transportation, distribution, information technology,[16] commercial, and retail sectors. Moncton has a sizeable Francophone Acadian minority population (35%) and became officially bilingual in 2002.

Saint John is one of the busiest shipping ports in Canada in terms of gross tonnage. Saint John has become a major energy hub for the East Coast. It is the home of Canada's biggest oil refinery and an LNG terminal has also been constructed in the city. In addition, there are both large oil-fired and nuclear power plants located in or near the city. Due to recent prosperity, the retail, commercial, and residential sectors are currently experiencing a resurgence.

Fredericton, the capital of the province, is home to the Beaverbrook Art Gallery, the University of New Brunswick, and St. Thomas University. Canada's largest military base, CFB Gagetown, is located near suburban Oromocto. The economy of Fredericton is tied to the governmental, military, and university sectors.


Sir Howard Douglas Hall on the UNB Fredericton campus, currently the oldest university building still in use in Canada.
Convocation Hall from the swan pond, Mount Allison University.

Public education in the province is administered by the Department of Education, a department of the Government of New Brunswick.

New Brunswick has a comprehensive parallel system of Anglophone and Francophone public schools providing education to both the primary and secondary levels. There are also several secular and religious private schools in the province.

The New Brunswick Community College system has campuses in all regions of the province. This comprehensive trade school system offers roughly parallel programs in both official languages at either Francophone or Anglophone campuses. Each campus, however, tends to have areas of concentration to allow for specialisation. There are also a number of private colleges for specialised training in the province, such as the Moncton Flight College, one of the top pilot-training academies in Canada.

There are four publicly funded secular universities and four private degree-granting institutions with religious affiliation in the province. The two comprehensive provincial universities are the University of New Brunswick and Université de Moncton. These institutions have extensive postgraduate programs and Schools of Law. Medical education programs are currently in development at both the Universite de Moncton and at UNBSJ in Saint John. Mount Allison University in Sackville, currently ranks as the best liberal arts university in Canada and has produced 48 Rhodes Scholars—more than any other liberal arts university in the British Commonwealth and also more than any other university in North America.

Publicly funded provincial comprehensive universities

Publicly funded undergraduate liberal arts universities

Private Christian undergraduate liberal arts university

Private degree granting religious training institutions


Early New Brunswick culture was aboriginal in flavour, influenced by the native populations who made their home along the coast and riverbanks until the arrival of French-speaking (in the early 17th century) and English-speaking settlers (in the 18th century).

As described by Arthur Doyle[17] in a paper written in 1976, an invisible line separated the two founding European cultures, beginning on the eastern outskirts of Moncton and running diagonally across the province northwest towards Grand Falls. Franco-New Brunswick (Acadie) lay to the northeast of this divide, and Anglo-New Brunswick lay to the southwest.

Doyle's statement was made not long after government reforms by former premier Louis J. Robichaud had significantly improved the status of French-speaking Acadians within the province and initiated their journey towards cultural recognition and equality with their English-speaking counterparts.

The Capitol Theatre in Moncton.

Nineteenth-century New Brunswick was influenced by colonial ties to France, England, Scotland, and Ireland as well as by its geographical proximity to New England and the arrival of about 40,000 Loyalists.

As local society was founded in forestry and seaborne endeavours, a tradition of lumber camp songs and sea chanties prevailed. Acadian cloggers and Irish and Scots step dancers competed at festivals to expressive fiddle and accordion music. The art of storytelling, well-known to the native populations, passed on to the early settlers, and poetry—whether put to music or not—was a common form of commemorating shared events, as the voice of a masterful poet or soulful musician easily conquered the province's language barriers.

Other cultural expressions were found in family gatherings and the church; both French and English cultures saw a long and early influence of ecclesiastical architecture, with Western European and American influences dominating rather than any particular vernacular sense. Poets produced the first important literary contributions in the province. Cousins Bliss Carman and Sir Charles G.D. Roberts found inspiration in the landscape of the province, as would later writers as well. In painting, individual artists such as Anthony Flower worked in obscurity, either through design or neglect. Few 19th-century artists emerged, but those who did often benefited from fine arts training at Mount Allison University in Sackville, which began classes in 1854. The program came into its own under John A. Hammond, who served from 1893 to 1916; Alex Colville and Lawren Harris later studied and taught art there. Both Christopher Pratt and Mary Pratt were trained at Mount Allison. The university’s art gallery—which opened in 1895 and is named for its patron, John Owens of Saint John—is Canada’s oldest (it actually opened in Saint John ten years earlier, but was moved to Sackville). In French-speaking New Brunswick, it would not be until the 1960s that a comparable institution was founded, the Université de Moncton. Then, a cultural renaissance occurred under the influence of Acadian historians and such teachers as Claude Roussel through coffeehouses, music, and protest; an outpouring of Acadian art, literature, and music has pressed on unabated since that time. Popular exponents of modern Acadian literature and music include Antonine Maillet and Édith Butler. The current New Brunswick Lieutenant Governor, Herménégilde Chiasson, is a poet. (See also "Music of New Brunswick").

Dr. John Clarence Webster and Max Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook have made important endowments to provincial museums. Dr. Webster gave his art collection to the New Brunswick Museum in 1934, thereby endowing the museum with one of its greatest assets. James Barry's Death of General Wolfe[18] ranks as a Canadian national treasure. Courtesy of Lord Beaverbrook, the Beaverbrook Art Gallery in Fredericton has a collection of world-class art, including works of such luminaries as Salvador Dalí.

The performing arts have a long tradition in New Brunswick, dating back to travelling road shows and 19th-century opera in Saint John. The early crooner Henry Burr was discovered at the Imperial Theatre in Saint John. Based in Fredericton, the most important proponent of theatre today is Theatre New Brunswick, originally under the direction of Walter Learning, which tours plays around the province; Canadian playwright Norm Foster saw his early works premiere at TNB. Other live theatre troops include Théâtre l’Escaouette in Moncton, the Théatre populaire d'Acadie in Caraquet, and Live Bait Theatre in Sackville. All three major cities have significant performance spaces. The refurbished Imperial and Capitol Theatres are found in Saint John and Moncton, respectively; the more modern Playhouse is located in Fredericton.

In modern literature, writers Alfred Bailey and Alden Nowlan dominated the New Brunswick literary scene in the last third of the 20th century; world-renowned literary critic Northrop Frye was influenced by his upbringing in Moncton. The annual Frye Festival in Moncton celebrates his legacy. The expatriate British poet John Thompson, who settled outside Sackville, proved influential in his short-lived career. Douglas Lochhead and K. V. Johansen are other prominent writers living in the town of Sackville. David Adams Richards, born in the Miramichi, has become a well-respected Governor-General's Award-winning author. Canadian novelist, story-writer, biographer and poet, Raymond Fraser, grew up in Chatham and lives now in Fredericton.

The Atlantic Ballet Theatre of Canada, based in Moncton and featuring Russian and European trained dancers, has recently flourished and has started touring both nationally and internationally. Symphony New Brunswick, based in Saint John, also tours extensively in the province.

Media outlets

New Brunswick has four daily newspapers (three of which are in English), the largest being the Times & Transcript (40,000 daily), based in Moncton and serving eastern New Brunswick. Also, there is the Telegraph-Journal (37,000 daily), which serves Saint John and is distributed throughout the province, and the provincial capital daily The Daily Gleaner (25,000 daily), based in Fredericton. The French-language daily is L'Acadie Nouvelle (12,000 daily), based in Caraquet. There are also several weekly newspapers that are local in scope and based in the province's smaller towns and communities.

The three English-language dailies and the majority of the weeklies are owned and operated by Brunswick News, privately owned by J.K. Irving. The other major media group in the province is Acadie Presse, which publishes L'Acadie Nouvelle.

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation has various news bureaus throughout the province, but its main Anglophone television and radio operations are centred in Fredericton. Télévision de Radio-Canada (CBC French) service is based in Moncton. Global TV is based in Halifax, with news bureaus in Fredericton, Moncton and Saint John. CTV Atlantic, the regional CTV station, is based in Halifax and has offices in Moncton, Fredericton, and Saint John.

There are many private radio stations in New Brunswick, with each of the three major cities having a dozen or more stations. Most smaller cities and towns also have one or two stations.

Photo gallery

See also


  1. ^ New Brunswicker is the prevalent demonym, and is used by the Government of New Brunswick. According to the Oxford Guide to Canadian English Usage (ISBN 0-19-541619-8; p. 335), New Brunswickian is also in use.
  2. ^ Statistics Canada. "Canada's population estimates 2009-26-03". Retrieved 2009-07-04. 
  3. ^ Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory
  4. ^ Section Sixteen of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
  5. ^ Nova Scotia Museum (1997). "Spelling Of Mi'kmaq". Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  6. ^ Gerald Hallowell, ed. Oxford Companion to Canadian History (2004) p. 368-9
  7. ^ Quoted in S.D. Clark, Movements of Political Protest in Canada, 1640–1840, (1959), pp. 150-51
  8. ^ Hallowell, ed. Oxford Companion to Canadian History p. 369
  9. ^ Ethnic Origin (232), Sex (3) and Single and Multiple Responses (3) (2001 Census)
  10. ^ Population and dwelling counts, for Canada provinces and territories, 2006 and 2001 censuses - 100% data. Statistics Canada, 2007.
  11. ^ Canada's population. Statistics Canada. Last accessed September 28, 2006.
  12. ^ Detailed Mother Tongue (186), Knowledge of Official Languages (5), Age Groups (17A) and Sex (3) (2006 Census)
  13. ^ Religions in Canada
  14. ^ Anglican Schism fact sheet by province compiled by CBC News.
  15. ^ CBC (September 2006). "Liberals topple Lord's Tories in New Brunswick". Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  16. ^ "Final Research Report" (PDF). 
  17. ^ Arthur T. Doyle, Front Benches & Back Rooms, Green Tree (1976), p. 6
  18. ^ Death of General Wolfe


  • L.W. Bailey and D.R. Jack, Woods and Minerals of New Brunswick (Fredericton, 1876)
  • William H. Benedict. New Brunswick in History (2001)
  • S.D. Clark, Movements of Political Protest in Canada, 1640–1840, University of Toronto Press, 1959.
  • Tim Frink, New Brunswick: A Short History (1997)
  • W. Reavley Gair and Reavley W. Gair, A Literary and Linguistic History of New Brunswick (1986)
  • Godfrey, W. G. "Carleton, Thomas," Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online (2000) online edition
  • James Hannay, History of New Brunswick (St. John, 1909)
  • William Kingsford, History of Canada (London, 1887–98)
  • Greg Marquis, "Commemorating the Loyalists in the Loyalist City: Saint John, New Brunswick, 1883–1934" Urban History Review, Vol. 33, 2004
  • M.H. Perley, On the Early History of New Brunswick (St. John, 1891)
  • A.R.C. Selwyn and G.M. Dawson, Descriptive Sketch of the Physical Geography and Geology of the Dominion of Canada (Montreal, 1884)
  • Robert Summerby-Murray, "Interpreting Deindustrialised Landscapes of Atlantic Canada: Memory and Industrial Heritage in Sackville, New Brunswick" The Canadian Geographer, Vol. 46, 2002
  • William Menzies Whitelaw, The Maritimes and Canada before Confederation Oxford University Press, 1934
  • A.B. Willmott, The Mineral Wealth of Canada (London, 1898)

External links

Coordinates: 46°42′N 66°7′W / 46.7°N 66.117°W / 46.7; -66.117 (New Brunswick)

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Flag of New Brunswick
Flag of New Brunswick

For the article on the city in New Jersey see New Brunswick (New Jersey).

New Brunswick (French: Nouveau Brunswick) [1] is one of the Atlantic Provinces of Canada, and the only constitutionally bilingual province in the country. The provincial capital is Fredericton. Statistics Canada estimates the provincial population in 2008 to be 751,527; a majority are English-speaking, but there is also a large Francophone minority (32%), chiefly of Acadian origin.

The province's name comes from the English and French translation for the city of Braunschweig in north Germany, the ancestral home of the Hanoverian King George III of the United Kingdom.

New Brunswick is a relatively sparsely populated province, with considerable forests forming the main body. The core of the province is virtually uninhabited, with the population very focused on the Eastern, Western, and Southern coastlines.


History and language

New Brunswick is part of historic Acadia, an early 17th century French land claim in North America. Governed by the British in the 19th century, Acadia was forcibly depopulated by the British and its inhabitants dispersed.

As such, there is a noticeable divide within New Brunswick. If one splits the province diagonally from Moncton in the Southeast to Grand Falls in the Northwest, the Acadian (Northeast) and anglophone (Southwest) divide is almost exact. This divide does not result in significant ill will, however the divide definitely exists within older generations of the province.


If one were to callously describe the landscape of New Brunswick, one would describe it as largely being comprised of trees. Logging is a major industry within the province, and softwood forests dominate the interior of the province. Outside of those forests are a number of areas of maple forests, resulting in the production of maple products such as maple syrup in the province.

The rural areas of New Brunswick offer a range of small rivers, lakes, and swampland which make canoeing a common weekend activity in much of the province. Hiking paths are also common, though more prevalent within parklands.

In coastal areas, the scenery of New Brunswick comes to the fore, ranging from the warm sandy beaches of the East coast in Kouchibouguak National Park to the rugged southern coastline. New Brunswick is also home to large tidal forces, and as such has claim to the highest tides in the world.


Much of New Brunswick's climate is moderated by the extreme proximity of the ocean, resulting in mild summers, and winters which are mild relative to the temperatures seen in Ontario and the prairie provinces. The recorded temperature has ranged from -47.2° C (-53° F) in 1955, at Sisson Dam in the northwest, to 39.4° C (102.9° F) in 1935, at Nepisiguit Falls in the northeast. That said, winter temperatures are most commonly in the range of -5° C to -15° C, and summer temperatures from 15° C to 25° C.

Snowfall is common during the winter months, however snow does not typically accumulate in large amounts until late December.


Tourism is a good source of revenue for much of the province, and during busy periods of the summer, it is advisable to book ahead to ensure rooms are available. Due to the relatively limited range of options within the province when following the trans-Canadian highway, a very busy weekend could result in being informed the closest available rooms are hours of travel away. That said, outside of peak times, accommodations are quite plentiful.

New Brunswick sees a large amount of through-traffic, as it is often seen as little more than a gateway to the rest of the Maritimes; Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and Cape Breton are all reached via New Brunswick. That said, parts of New Brunswick such as the Southern coast and the South-Eastern coast offer lovely scenery, as well as some excellent beaches.


There are a few major junior hockey teams in New Brunswick. These are the Saint John Sea Dogs, who play in the city of Saint John, the Moncton Wildcats who play in the city of Moncton and the Acadie-Bathurst Titans who play in the city of Bathurst and have been ranked as the number one junior team in Canada for the 2005-2006 hockey season.


New Brunswick is the only province in Canada that is officially bilingual (English and French). Francophones speak a dialect known as Acadian French. Acadian is not related to Quebec French, since Acadia's history is separated from the one of Quebec. Acadian French speakers are instantly recognizable by their charming and strongly trilled r.

Near Moncton and in other urban areas, a distinct English-French creole language known as chiaque is spoken. It's frowned upon as "bad French" by Francophones and "bad English" by Anglophones, but it's popular among young people. Some effort is being made to rehabilitate chiaque, with a nascent literature and support organizations.

The English / French split within the province is approximately a Northeast / Southwest split. Despite the split, English is spoken throughout the province. French speakers may struggle to find fluent French speakers in the Southwest of the province.

See also: French phrasebook

Get in

By car

New Brunswick has road links with Quebec, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Maine.

  • Traffic to and from Maine passes via two major points; route 95 linking Woodstock and Houlton, and route 1, which links St. Stephen in New Brunswick and Calais in Maine. Route 95 is the larger of the two connections, however the scenery in the St. Stephen / Calais area is unquestionably more attractive.
  • Traffic to Nova Scotia can pass via three routes:
    • Most traffic invariably passes via the Trans-Canada Highway, which enters Nova Scotia just after passing through Aulac. As a side note, Aulac is home to one of the chain of Irving Big Stops, and can be a good stopping point for travellers attempting to cover a large distance in a short space of time. (Food on offer is typical truck stop fare.)
    • Tourists arriving from Prince Edward Island have the option of taking New Brunswick Route 970 out of Port Elgin, which becomes Route 366 on the Nova Scotia side. This route offers a better view of rural life in the maritimes, and can be quite a nice drive when time permits. That said, the drive clearly involves smaller roads and lower speeds. Additionally, these roads are not as well maintained or cleared as the Trans-Canada Highway during winter storms.
    • Just two kilometers northeast of the Trans-Canada Highway, there is a narrow local roadway, Mount Whatley Road, which connects the communities of Whatley, New Brunswick and Fort Lawrence, Nova Scotia. This route passes through sparsely populated rural farmland and, unless intending to drive south along Route 16 to Fort Lawrence, it is unlikely that a traveler would need to use it.
  • Traffic to Quebec can follow two routes:
    • The majority of traffic passes via the Trans-Canada Highway which connects Edmunston and Riviere Du Loup.
    • Traffic headed to or from the East coast of New Brunswick will pass by Campbellton, heading to Amqui, and then either West towards Riviere Du Loup, or East towards Gaspe.
  • The Confederation Bridge [8] links New Brunswick with Prince Edward Island, and is almost a visitor attraction in and of itself, at least for bridge afficionados and those fond of large amounts of concrete. (Viewing stations on the New Brunswick side offer good photo opportunities, again for bridge lovers and engineers.) It crosses the Northumberland Strait between New Brunswick and PEI. It's reached from the mainland on TCH Route 16 near Aulac, and stretches 13 kilometers across open water to the island. The CND $41.50 toll (2 axle vehicle) is collected on the PEI side when returning to the mainland.
  • Fredericton Airport [9] (YFC)
  • Greater Moncton International Airport [10] (YQM) is a small airport, but has recently been rebuilt. The airport lies to the East of Moncton, effectively on the edge of Dieppe, which is a suburb of Moncton. The airport has relatively standard shops and fast food outlets, but bear in mind that once past security, shops and food services are extremely limited. Taxis and limited hotel shuttle services are available from the airport, but no public transport serves the airport at present. Moncton airport is currently served by Air Canada, Air Canada Jazz, Continental Airlines, and WestJet.
  • Saint John Airport [11] (YSJ)
  • Bathurst Airport (ZBF)
  • Charlo Airport [12] (YCL)
  • Chatham Airport (YCH)
  • Gagetown Airport (YCX)
  • St. Leonard Airport (YSL)

Get around

By car

Travel by car is the easiest way to see New Brunswick. Recent refurbishments and expansions of the transcanada highway have left four lane highways in place across much of the southern stretch of the province. Drivers accustomed to any major metropolitan traffic will find most intercity roads to be very lightly used, even in summer months.

The roads of New Brunswick are patrolled by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), and speed traps are sometimes in place. Speed limits have no official tolerance in them, however typically travel under 10km/h above the speed limit will not attract attention. That said, RCMP officers are not always known for their sense of humour where speeding (or anything else) is concerned, and tickets may be issued for any speed above the posted limits. If you are pulled over by the RCMP, typical North American rules for police interaction apply; keep your hands on the steering wheel while being approached by the police, and be respectful at all times.

As with much of Canada, winter roads are more dangerous, and travellers are advised to treat the roads with caution. Winter tires are recommended for long distance travel, however snow chains are only necessary on very rural roads and private roads. When travelling during the winter, drivers should carry an emergency kit with a source of heat, blankets, and an amount of food to ensure that being caught in a storm is only an inconvenience, rather than a life-threatening issue.

In some winter storm conditions, roads such as the transcanada link between New Brunswick and Nova Scotia can be closed due to whiteout conditions.

By bus

Acadian Lines Bus Service [13] serves the entire province, and is relatively standard for a bus service. Stops on some lines are frequent, and often include very small villages - wherever you are headed, there is likely to be a bus servicing the area. That said, this does mean that buses seem to stop frequently.

By train

Via Rail [14] provides a somewhat limited service along the Eastern coast of New Brunswick, entering the province at Aulac, and then passing through Moncton, up to Bathurst, and then from Campbellton across the border into Quebec, eventually terminating in Montreal. This service passes through the province once per day in each direction, and as such, travellers should not miss their train unless willing to extend their holiday.

Options for the trains vary, as two different types of rolling stock are in use. Standard class involves sitting for the entire journey, while a range of berths, single rooms, double bedrooms, and sitting rooms are available, depending on the cars in use. Standard class is feasible, but an exhausting option!


View some of the sights in the bay of Fundy:

  • Fundy National Park. Near the village of Alma, Fundy National Park is 207 square kilometres of fundy coast and inland forest. The park has multiple campgrounds which include wilderness and more comfortable ones. There are over twenty waterfalls in Fundy National Park.
  • Reversing Falls. A one of a kind adventure where the flow of the Saint John River reverses when the Bay of Fundy is at high tide!
  • Hopewell Rocks. A group of Flowerpot rocks located in the community of Hopewell Cape.

Visit New Brunswick's national parks:

  • Kouchibouguac National Park[15]. Located along the shores of the Northumberland Strait, Kouchibouguac National Park is home to much wildlife and glorious beaches. Camping is available in the park. The Kouchibouguac park is probably best known for its sand dunes, and shallow protected tidal pool beaches, which offer very warm swimming.
  • Roosevelt Campobello International Park. Former U.S president Franklin D. Roosevelts summer retreat from 1921-1936. Located on the southern portion of Campobello island, this was also the island where Franklin D. Roosevelt Jr. was born.
  • Mount Carleton [16]. A remote mountain (highest in maritimes) perfect for wilderness lovers

And see some of the other unusual attractions New Brunswick has to offer:

  • Old Sow[17]. With a diameter of 75 metres or 250 feet, Old Sow is the largest tidal whirlpool in the western hemisphere. Old Sow is located off the south-western shore of Deer Island.
  • World Pond Hockey Championships [19].
  • Hike, canoe, or camp in one of the many national parks within the province.
  • Swim in the warm water tidal pools of Kouchbouguak National Park.
  • Visit Kings Landing Historical Settlement, [20]. The historical settlement offers an excellent view of daily life in the Maritimes in the 19th century.
  • Go toLe Pays de la Saguine[21], a reproduction of an Acadian village on the East coast of New Brunswick.


The province of New Brunswick offers a wide variety of restaurants ranging from seafood to oriental to fast food to acadian. One of the provinces main dishes are fiddleheads, which are found in the Saint John River Valley area of the province. Poutine rapée is another dish served along the acadian coast area of New Brunswick.


The drinking age is 19.

  • Moosehead Breweries, [22]. Moosehead is brewed at North America's largest independent brewery.
  • Pumphouse Brewery, [23].

Get out

Many travellers pass through New Brunswick to reach other parts of the maritimes. When passing through New Brunswick, it is advisable to use the number 2 highway, which passes along the border with Maine before turning East and passing through Fredericton and Moncton. That said, more adventurous travellers can find more to see by following highway 11 up the East coast of the province, and then cutting across the province via the remote road connecting Miramichi to Plaster Rock. It should be noted by the adventurous that this road is used largely by logging trucks, and there is only one gas station, which is approximately halfway along the road.

  • Quebec City can be reached in a day's drive from most points in Western New Brunswick;
  • Boston is 8-9 hours by car, and New York City is 12-13 hours away.
  • Maine borders on New Brunswick's East, and is within three hour's drive from almost all parts of New Brunswick. While the major road connecting the two is the Woodstock to Holton route 95, much more attractive coastal scenery can be found driving along the South coast to the St. Stephen / Calais border.
  • Prince Edward Island was formerly a ferry ride away from New Brunswick, however the ferry connection with New Brunswick was closed in 1997, with the creation of the Confederation Bridge. Unfortunately, to protect transport trucks from the high winds of the Northumberland Strait, high concrete walls are in place which diminish the potentially excellent views the bridge could offer.
  • Nova Scotia is readily accessible from much of New Brunswick.
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Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary



Wikipedia has an article on:



From new + Brunswick (Braunschweig), after the German city, the ancestral home of George III of the United Kingdom (1738–1820).


  • (UK) IPA: /njuː ˈbɹʌnz.wɪk/, SAMPA: /nju: "brVnz.wIk/

Proper noun

New Brunswick


New Brunswick

  1. A province in eastern Canada with capital Fredericton.

Related terms


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