|— City —|
|City of New Brunswick|
Skyline of the City of New Brunswick as seen from across the Raritan River in Highland Park
|Nickname(s): Hub City
The Healthcare City
Location of New Brunswick in Middlesex County. Inset: Location of Middlesex County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of New Brunswick, New Jersey
|Established||December 30, 1730|
|Incorporated||September 1, 1784|
|- Type||Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council)|
|- Mayor||James M. Cahill|
|- Total||5.8 sq mi (14.9 km2)|
|- Land||5.2 sq mi (13.5 km2)|
|- Water||0.5 sq mi (1.3 km2)|
|Elevation ||69 ft (21 m)|
|- Density||9,293.5/sq mi (3,585.9/km2)|
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|- Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-5)|
|ZIP codes||08901, 08902, 08903|
|Area code(s)||732, 848|
|GNIS feature ID||0878725|
New Brunswick is a city in Middlesex County, New Jersey. It is the county seat, and the home to the seat of Rutgers University. The city is located on the Northeast Corridor rail line, 31 miles (50 km) southwest of New York City, on the southern bank of the Raritan River. The 2006 United States Census Bureau population estimate of New Brunswick was 50,172. The city is also known by the local nickname "Hub City," and has been promoted as "the Healthcare City", the former reflecting its status as a major urban center of Central Jersey, serviced by many railroads during the nineteenth century, and the latter due to the concentration of medical facilities, including Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital and Saint Peter's University Hospital, as well as the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ)-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. The corporate offices or production facilities of several large pharmaceutical companies (e.g., Johnson & Johnson, Bristol-Myers Squibb) are also within city limits.
New Brunswick was formed by Royal Charter on December 30, 1730, within other townships in Middlesex County and Somerset County and was reformed by Royal Charter with the same boundaries on February 12, 1763, at which time it was divided into north and south wards. New Brunswick was incorporated as a city by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on September 1, 1784.
New Brunswick is noted for its rich ethnic heritage. At one time, one quarter of the Hungarian population in New Jersey resided in the city. Today, much of that Hungarian community continues to thrive as well as a growing Hispanic community that has developed around French Street past Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital.
Originally inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans, the first white settlement at the site of New Brunswick was made in 1681. The settlement here was first called Prigmore's Swamp (1681-97), then Inian's Ferry (1691-1714). In 1714, the young village was given the name New Brunswick after the city of Braunschweig, in state of Lower Saxony, in Germany. Braunschweig was an influential and powerful city in the Hanseatic League, later in the Holy Roman Empire, and was an administrative seat for the Duchy (and later Principality) of Hanover. Shortly after the first settlement of New Brunswick in colonial New Jersey, George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and Elector of Hanover, of the House of Hanover (also known as the House of Brunswick), became King George I of Great Britain (1660-1727).
Centrally located between New York City and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania along an early thoroughfare known as the King's Highway and situated along the Raritan River, New Brunswick became an important hub for Colonial travelers and traders. New Brunswick was incorporated as a town in 1736 and chartered as a city in 1784. It was occupied by the British in the winter of 1776-1777 during the Revolutionary War.
The Trustees of Queen's College (now Rutgers University), founded in 1766, voted to locate the young college in New Brunswick, selecting this city over Hackensack, in Bergen County, New Jersey. Classes began in 1771 with one instructor, one sophomore, Matthew Leydt, and several freshmen at a tavern called "The Sign of the Red Lion" on the corner of Albany and Neilson Streets (now the grounds of the Johnson & Johnson corporate headquarters). Classes were held through the American Revolution in various taverns and boarding houses, and at a building known as College Hall on George Street, until Old Queens was erected in 1808. It remains the oldest building on the Rutgers University campus. The Queen's College Grammar School (now Rutgers Preparatory School) was established also in 1766, and shared facilities with the College until 1830, when it located in a building (now known as Alexander Johnston Hall) across College Avenue from Old Queens. After Rutgers University became the state university of New Jersey in 1956, the Trustees of Rutgers divested it of the Rutgers Preparatory School, which relocated in 1957 to an estate purchased from the Colgate-Palmolive Company in Franklin Township in neighboring Somerset County.
The New Brunswick Theological Seminary, founded in 1784, moved to New Brunswick in 1810 sharing its quarters with the fledgling Queen's College (Queens would close from 1810 to 1825 due to financial problems, and reopen in 1825 under the name Rutgers College). The Seminary, due to overcrowding and differences over the mission of Rutgers College as a secular institution, moved to a seven acre (28,000 m2) tract of land less than one-half mile (800 m) west, which it still occupies although the land is now in the middle of Rutgers University's College Avenue campus.
New Brunswick began attracting a Hungarian immigrant population around the turn of the century. Hungarians were primarily attracted to the city by employment at Johnson & Johnson factories located in the city. Hungarians settled mainly in what today is the second ward.
The immigrant population grew until the end of the early century immigration boom. During the Cold War, the community was revitalized by the decision to house refugees from the failed 1956 Hungarian Revolution at Camp Kilmer, in nearby Edison. Even though the Hungarian population has been largely supplanted by newer immigrants, there continues to be a Hungarian Festival in the city held on Somerset Street on the first Saturday of June each year. Many Hungarian institutions set up by the community remain and active in the neighborhood, including: Magyar Reformed Church, Ascension Lutheran Church (Elso Magyar Evangélikus Egyhaz) St. Ladislaus Roman Catholic Church, St. Joseph Byzantine Catholic Church, Hungarian American Athletic Club, Aprokfalva Montessori Preschool (Aprokfalva Mindennapos Magyar Óvoda),Széchenyi Hungarian Community School & Kindergarten (Széchenyi Magyar Iskola és Óvoda),Teleki Pál Scout Home, Hungarian American Foundation, Vers Hangja, Hungarian Poetry Group, Bolyai Lecture Series on Arts and Sciences (Bolyai Kör),Hungarian Alumni Association (Magyar Öregdiák Szövetség - Bessenyei György Kör), Hungarian Radio Program, Hungarian Civic Association, Committee of Hungarian Churches and Organizations of New Brunswick, Csűrdöngölő Folk Dance Ensemble.
Several landmarks in the city also testify to its Hungarian heritage. There is a street and a recreation park named after Louis Kossuth, the famous leader of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. The corner of Somerset Street and Plum Street is named Mindszenty Square where the first ever statue of Cardinal Joseph Mindszenty was erected. A stone memorial to the victims of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution also stands near by.
Since the 1960s, many of the new residents of New Brunswick have come from Latin America. Many citizens moved from Puerto Rico in the 1970s. In the 1980s many immigrated from the Dominican Republic, and still later from Guatemala, Honduras, Ecuador, and Mexico. There are many Latino businesses on and around French Street (N.J. Rt. 27).
New Brunswick contains a number of examples of urban renewal in the United States. In the 1960s-1970s, the downtown area became blighted as middle class residents moved to newer suburbs surrounding the city, an example of the phenomenon known as "white flight". Beginning in 1975, Rutgers University, Johnson & Johnson, and the local government collaborated through the New Jersey Economic Development Authority to form the New Brunswick Development Company (DevCo), with the goal of revitalizing the city center and redeveloping neighborhoods considered to be blighted and dangerous (via demolition of existing buildings and construction of new ones) Johnson & Johnson decided to remain in New Brunswick and built a new World Headquarters building in the area between Albany Street, Amtrak's Northeast Corridor, Route 18, and George Street, requiring many old buildings and historic roads to be removed. The Hiram Market area, a historic district which by the 1970s had become a mostly Puerto Rican and Dominican-American neighborhood, was demolished to build a Hyatt hotel and conference center, and upscale housing. Johnson & Johnson guaranteed Hyatt Hotels' investment as they were wary of building an upscale hotel in a run-down area.
The redevelopment process has been controversial. Devco, the hospitals, and the city government continue to draw ire from both historic preservationists, those opposing gentrification, and those concerned with eminent domain abuses, and tax abatements for developers.
New Brunswick is bordered by Piscataway, Highland Park, and Edison across the Raritan River to the north, and also by North Brunswick to the southwest, East Brunswick to the southeast, and Franklin Township in Somerset County.
|Piscataway and Highland Park||Edison|
|North Brunswick||East Brunswick|
New Brunswick has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) typical to New Jersey, characterised by hot, humid summers and cold winters with moderate to considerable rainfall throughout the year.
|Average high °F (°C)||38
|Average low °F (°C)||21
|Precipitation inches (mm)||4.10
|historical data sources:|
As of the census of 2000, there were 48,573 people, 13,057 households, and 7,207 families residing in the city. The population density was 9,293.5 people per square mile (3,585.9/km2). There were 13,893 housing units at an average density of 2,658.1/sq mi (1,025.6/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 48.79% White, 23.03% African American, 0.46% Native American, 5.32% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 18.08% from other races, and 4.24% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 39.01% of the population.
There were 13,057 households out of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.6% were married couples living together, 18.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 44.8% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.23 and the average family size was 3.69.
In the city the population was spread out with 20.1% under the age of 18, 34.0% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 11.3% from 45 to 64, and 6.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 24 years. For every 100 females there were 98.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.8 males. The presence of the university inflates the proportion of the 18-24 population.
The median income for a household in the city was $36,080, and the median income for a family was $38,222. Males had a median income of $25,657 versus $23,604 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,308.
Many residents of New Brunswick come from Latin America. Nearly 40 percent of New Brunswick's population identifies as Latino. Many Latino-oriented stores and markets have been opened by this new population, who mainly come from Puerto Rico, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, the Dominican Republic, and Ecuador.
As the legislative body of New Brunswick's municipal government, the City Council is responsible for approving the annual budget, ordinances and resolutions, contracts, and appointments to boards and commissions. The City Council has five members elected at large to staggered four-year terms. The Council President, elected to a 2-year term by the Council, presides over all meetings.
Jim Cahill is the 62nd Mayor of New Brunswick. He was sworn in as Mayor on January 1, 1991.
The City Council is composed of President Elizabeth Sheehan Garlatti, Vice President Blanquita Valenti, Robert Recine, Jimmie L. Cook, Jr., and Joseph V. Egan.
New Brunswick is in the Sixth Congressional District and is part of New Jersey's 17th Legislative District.
New Jersey's Sixth Congressional District, covering portions of Middlesex County and Monmouth County, is represented by Frank Pallone (D). New Jersey is represented in the Senate by Frank Lautenberg (D, Cliffside Park) and Bob Menendez (D, Hoboken).
For the 2010-2011 Legislative Session, the 17th District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Bob Smith (D, Piscataway) and in the Assembly by Upendra J. Chivukula (D, Somerset) and Joseph V. Egan (D, New Brunswick). The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham). The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).
Middlesex County is governed by a seven-member Board of Chosen Freeholders, elected at-large to three-year terms of office on a staggered basis. As of 2008, Middlesex County's Freeholders are Freeholder Director David B. Crabiel (Milltown), Freeholder Deputy Director Stephen J. "Pete" Dalina (Fords), Camille Fernicola (Piscataway), H. James Polos (Highland Park), Ronald Rios (Carteret), Christopher D. Rafano (South River) and Blanquita B. Valenti (New Brunswick).
The New Brunswick Public Schools serve students in kindergarten through twelfth grade. The district is one of 31 Abbott Districts statewide. New Brunswick's Board of Education members are appointed by the city's mayor.
Schools in the district (with 2005-06 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics) include elementary schools — Lincoln and Lincoln Annex (681 students), Livingston (458), McKinley (704), A. Chester Redshaw (719), Paul Robeson and Paul Robeson Annex (533), Roosevelt (990), Lord Stirling (720) and Woodrow Wilson (482) — New Brunswick Middle School, as well as New Brunswick High School (1,432), New Brunswick Alternative School (25) and New Brunswick Health Sciences Technology High School for grades 9-12.
The community is also served by the Greater Brunswick Charter School, a K-8 charter school with an enrollment of about 250 children from New Brunswick, Highland Park, Edison and other area communities.
Most of New Brunswick's retail businesses are within a designated Urban Enterprise Zone. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3½% sales tax rate (versus the 7% rate charged statewide).
City Hall has promoted the nickname "The Health Care City" to reflect the importance of the healthcare industry to its economy. The city is home to the world headquarters of Johnson & Johnson, along with several medical teaching and research institutions including Saint Peter's University Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital and the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers University's School of Pharmacy, and The Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital.
New Brunswick is served by New Jersey Transit and Amtrak trains on the Northeast Corridor Line. New Jersey Transit provides frequent service north to Pennsylvania Station, in Midtown Manhattan, and south to Trenton, while Amtrak's Keystone Service and Northeast Regional trains service the station. The Jersey Avenue station is also served by Northeast Corridor trains. For other Amtrak connections, riders can take New Jersey Transit to Pennsylvania Station, Trenton, Metropark, or Newark Penn Station.
New Brunswick hosts less than a mile of the New Jersey Turnpike and a few ramps that lead to Exit 9 in East Brunswick Township. The city also encompasses the intersection of U.S. Route 1 and N.J. Route 18/CR 527, and is bisected by N.J. Route 27.
Local bus service is provided by New Jersey Transit, with Rutgers University campus busing provided by Academy Bus.
New Brunswick was at the eastern terminus of the Delaware and Raritan Canal, of which there are remnants surviving or rebuilt along the river.
Three neighboring professional venues, Crossroads Theatre designed by Parsons+Fernandez-Casteleiro Architects from New York, the George Street Playhouse, and the State Theater, comprise the heart of the local theatre scene. The State Theatre is also home to the American Repertory Ballet and the Princeton Ballet School. Rutgers University has a number of student companies that perform everything from cabaret acts to Shakespeare and musical productions.
New Brunswick was an important centre for avant-garde art in the 1950s-70s with several artists such as Allan Kaprow, George Segal, George Brecht, Robert Whitman, Robert Watts, Lucas Samaras, Geoffrey Hendricks and Roy Lichtenstein; some of which had taught at Rutgers University. This group of artists were sometimes referred to as the 'New Jersey School' or the 'New Brunswick School of Painting'. For more information, see Fluxus at Rutgers University.
New Brunswick has a diverse restaurant market including Nouvelle American, Italian, Middle Eastern, Indian, Ethiopian, Thai and Chinese cuisine. Various upscale restaurants serve the downtown area, while various fast-food establishments on Easton Avenue, including Stuff Yer Face, are open well into the night. Well known pubs include McCormick's, Doll's Place, Tumulty's, Olde Queens Tavern, The Golden Rail, and The Scarlet Pub. Live bands appear at The Court Tavern, The Old Bay, Nova Terra, Tumulty's, Harvest Moon Brewery and other locations.
The "Grease Trucks" are a group of truck-based food vendors located on the College Avenue campus of Rutgers University. They are known for serving "Fat Sandwiches," a sub roll containing several ingredients such as steak, chicken fingers, French fries, falafel, cheeseburgers, mozzarella sticks, gyro meat, bacon, eggs, marinara sauce, etc.
New Brunswick's bar scene has been the home to many original rock bands, including some which went on to national prominence such as The Smithereens and Bon Jovi, as well as and a center for local punk rock and underground music. Many alternative rock bands got radio airplay thanks to Matt Pinfield who was part of the New Brunswick music scene for over 20 years at Rutgers University radio station WRSU. The local pubs host many local bands, including the Court Tavern since the 1980s, and the Melody Bar during the 1980s and 1990s.
Notable current and former residents of the City of New Brunswick include: