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New Caledonia
Nouvelle-Calédonie
Flag Emblem
AnthemLa Marseillaise1
Capital
(and largest city)
Nouméa
Official language(s) French
Government Overseas territory of France
 -  Presidential Head of State Nicolas Sarkozy
 -  President of the Government of New Caledonia Philippe Gomès
 -  High Commissioner Yves Dassonville
Overseas territory of France since 1853 
Area
 -  Total 18,575 km2 (154th)
7,359 sq mi 
Population
 -  Jan. 1, 2009 estimate 249,000[1] (178th)
 -  Aug./Sept. 2004 census 230,789[2] 
 -  Density 13/km2 (200th)
34/sq mi
GDP (nominal) 2007 estimate
 -  Total US$8.82 billion[3] (not ranked)
 -  Per capita US$36,376 [3] (not ranked)
HDI (2003) n/a (unranked) (n/a)
Currency CFP franc (XPF)
Time zone (UTC+11)
Internet TLD .nc
Calling code 687
1  La Marseillaise is the official anthem, a local anthem Soyons unis, devenons frères was adopted in 2008.
.Coordinates: 20°59′31″S 165°01′12″E / 20.992°S 165.02°E / -20.992; 165.02 New Caledonia[4] (French: officially: Nouvelle-Calédonie; colloquially: (la) Calédonie; popular nicknames: (la) Kanaky, (le) Caillou), is a colonial collectivity of France located in the subregion of Melanesia in the southwest Pacific.^ It took four months to sail from France to New Caledonia around the Cape of Good Hope.
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^ The Socialists were returned to power in France and a concerted effort was made to end the bloodshed in New Caledonia.
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^ In 1854 a French naval officer, Tardy de Montravel, wanting to seal France's recent possession of New Caledonia, chose Noumea as the site for the colony's administrative centre.
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.It comprises a main island (Grande Terre), the Loyalty Islands, and several smaller islands.^ Grande Terre's cast coast, on Ile des Pins and on the Loyalty Islands, where they make up 98% of the population.
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^ In New Caledonia, they mainly landed on northern Grande Terre and the Loyalty Islands, where they intermarried with the Melanesian tribes.
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^ Between 1840 and 1850, traders operating out of Australia stripped first Ile des Pins, then the Loyalty Islands and finally Grande Terre's east coast.
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.Approximately half the size of Taiwan, it has a land area of 18,575.5 square kilometres (7,172 sq mi).^ Population: 224,000 (2002) Land area: 18,280 KM Capital: Noumea Currency: CFP franc Language: French .
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.The population was estimated in January 2009 to be 249,000.[1] The capital and largest city of the territory is Nouméa.^ Population: 224,000 (2002) Land area: 18,280 KM Capital: Noumea Currency: CFP franc Language: French .
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The currency is the CFP franc.
.Since 1986 the United Nations Committee on Decolonization has included New Caledonia on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.^ With the country on the brink of civil war, a plan that included a referendum on independence and self-government 'in association' with France was proposed in January 1985.
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^ The accords stated that a referendum on self-determination would be held in 10 years, with all New Caledonians established in the territory by 1988, and their descendants, eligible to vote.
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^ Head of Government, Pierre Frogier, since April 2001, Legislature: 54-member Territorial Assembly.
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New Caledonia is set to decide whether to remain within the French Republic or become an independent state in a referendum to be held between 2014 and 2019.[5]
.Nouméa, the capital, is also the seat of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (formerly the South Pacific Commission), an international organization.^ Soon after, it became the permanent seat of the south Pacific commission (SPC; recently renamed Secretariat of the Pacific Community), an organisation involving all countries in the region, set up to promote research throughout the South Pacific.
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Contents

Name

The name Caledonia derives from the Latin name of an area corresponding to modern Scotland, and used as a poetic name for Scotland under the influence of Neo-Classicism.
.The rugged coastline of New Caledonia allegedly reminded Captain Cook (whose father was a Scot) of Scotland, and he thus named it New Caledonia.^ The English explorer James Cook spotted Grande Terre in 1774 when midway through his second scientific expedition in search of Terra Australis, Cook named this new land New Caledonia because the terrain reminded him of the highlands of Scotland (called Caledonia by the Romans).
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^ It wasn't until the early 1970s, when political consciousness and cultural revival were on the agenda, that New Caledonia's indigenous people reclaimed and became proud of the name 'Kanak'.
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^ The islands were named by Captain Cook in 1774, as the tree-covered hills reminded him of the Scottish - Caledonian - landscape.
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.In French, Nouvelle-Calédonie is the official name, but the territory is often called only Calédonie in colloquial use, as in l'histoire de la Calédonie[6].^ Official name : Territoire d'Outre-Mer de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances.
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.The adjective néo-calédonien(ne) is seldom used; calédonien(ne) is the term most often used, even by official institutions, as in l'économie calédonienne[7] ("the New Caledonian economy").^ WWII and rhyming with the derogatory slang term 'Boche' used for the Germans), and there are still some people in New Caledonia who are not fond of the term.
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.The nickname (le) Caillou (literally "the stone" or "the pebble") is used as an endearing term by the European community of New Caledonia to designate the territory.^ New Caledonia had become a French Overseas Territory but the resulting political autonomy did not favour the Kanaks, reduced to a minority group in relation to the caldoches (descendants of Europeans who had settled a century ago).
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^ WWII and rhyming with the derogatory slang term 'Boche' used for the Germans), and there are still some people in New Caledonia who are not fond of the term.
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^ New Caledonia's status was changed from a colony to a French overseas territory after WWII and Kanaks immediately began to formulate their own political and social demands.
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.It allegedly refers to the main island of New Caledonia which is a nickel-rich, long rock formation emerging from the Pacific Ocean.^ Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia) .
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^ Alofi Island (New Caledonia) .
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^ Huan Island (New Caledonia) .
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.Another nickname, (la) Kanaky, is also used in French (usually by independence movements), English and the indigenous languages.^ The word was viewed by New Caledonia's indigenous people as an insult and it eventually died out as the French colonial authorities preferred to use 'indigene' (native).
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^ The turning point for the independence movement was 1984, the year that Les Evenements (the Events), as the French refer to the following two years of widespread chaos, began.
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This name is favored by Melanesian nationalists. .The word comes from kanaka, a Hawaiian word (elsewhere tangata and variants) meaning "human/person/people", used by Polynesians to refer to themselves.^ It is probably derived from the word 'Kanakas', which was used for people from the South Pacific who were abducted by blackbirders (slavers) to work in Australia and other places in the 19th century.
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^ The word was viewed by New Caledonia's indigenous people as an insult and it eventually died out as the French colonial authorities preferred to use 'indigene' (native).
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.The word was later used by the French to refer to all the indigenous inhabitants of the South Pacific Ocean, including the Melanesian (non-Polynesian) native inhabitants of New Caledonia.^ The word was viewed by New Caledonia's indigenous people as an insult and it eventually died out as the French colonial authorities preferred to use 'indigene' (native).
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^ His carpenter declared the wood perfect for shipping, making the island one of the few places in the South Pacific where a large ship could hope for a new mast.
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^ In New Caledonia, they mainly landed on northern Grande Terre and the Loyalty Islands, where they intermarried with the Melanesian tribes.
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The word, turned into Canaque in French, became derogatory. .In the 1960s and 1970s, when the Melanesian native inhabitants started to organize themselves into political parties and call for independence, the word was transformed into a symbol of political emancipation and pride.^ In the two provinces controlled by the pro-independence parties, a new generation of lead4ers appeared, but the situation worsened for most of the Melanesian population.
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^ One of the aims of the division was to create a Melanesian (Kanak) political and financial 'elite', taking over power from the pro-independence groups in most of the territory.
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.In 1983, during the period of political turmoil, the terms Kanak and Kanaky became political brand names and colonial whites realized the name had changed into a political statement.^ It was reserved for 'dangerous' political prisoners, and later became the home of the territory's leper colony.
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^ New Caledonia's status was changed from a colony to a French overseas territory after WWII and Kanaks immediately began to formulate their own political and social demands.
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^ It wasn't until the early 1970s, when political consciousness and cultural revival were on the agenda, that New Caledonia's indigenous people reclaimed and became proud of the name 'Kanak'.
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The official name of the territory, Nouvelle-Calédonie, could be changed in the near future due to the Nouméa Accord of 1998 which stated that "a name, a flag, an anthem, a motto, and the design of banknotes will have to be sought by all parties together, to express the Kanak identity and the future shared by all parties."[8] To date, however, there has been no consensus on a new name for the territory.[9]

History

The Western Pacific was first populated by humans about 3,000 years ago. .The Austronesians moved into the area later.^ Subsequent people, collectively known as Austronesians, moved into the area from the west, mingling with the Papuans and eventually becoming the highly diverse group of people we conveniently group together is 'Melanesians'.
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.The diverse group of people that settled over the Melanesian archipelagos are known as the Lapita.^ Subsequent people, collectively known as Austronesians, moved into the area from the west, mingling with the Papuans and eventually becoming the highly diverse group of people we conveniently group together is 'Melanesians'.
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^ Eventually the wider seas were conquered and the Austronesians, now known as Lapita, settled over the Melanesian archipelagos.
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^ Kanaks or Ti-Va-Ouere, meaning 'Brothers of the Earth', are Melanesians, the group of people who inhabit many of the islands in the south-western Pacirfic.
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.They arrived in the archipelago now commonly known as New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands around 1500 BC. The Lapita were highly skilled navigators and agriculturists with influence over a large area of the Pacific.^ The Lapita had an enormous influence over a vast area of the Pacific from 1500 to 500 BC. They were highly skilled sailors and navigators, able to cross hundreds of kilometres of sea, and trade and settlement were important to their culture.
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^ In about 1500 BC, they arrived at New Caledonia from Vanuatu.
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^ Polynesians, by comparison, probably descended from Austronesians, ancient seafarers who arrived on the Pacific archipelagos from South Asia around 4,000 BC, populating New Zealand/Aotearoa, the Samoan islands, French Polynesia, Tonga, Tahiti, Hawaii and other smaller islands where they still live.
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[10]
.From about the 11th century Polynesians also arrived and mixed with the populations of the archipelago.^ From about the 11th century AD until the 18th century, New Caledonia saw another wave of migration, this time from western Polynesian islands such as Samoa, Tonga and Wallis.
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.Europeans first sighted New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands in the late 18th century.^ It wasn't until the late 18th century that the first European arrived in New Caledonia.
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^ New Caledonia was founded as a penal colony and the first shiploads of convicts arrived in May 1864 at Port-de-France (present-day Noumea).
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^ In 1862 the first governor was appointed and, for the second half of the 19th century, new Caledonia was governed by a military regime.
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.The British explorer James Cook sighted Grande Terre in 1774 and named it New Caledonia, Caledonia being a Latin name for Scotland.^ The English explorer James Cook spotted Grande Terre in 1774 when midway through his second scientific expedition in search of Terra Australis, Cook named this new land New Caledonia because the terrain reminded him of the highlands of Scotland (called Caledonia by the Romans).
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^ In New Caledonia, they mainly landed on northern Grande Terre and the Loyalty Islands, where they intermarried with the Melanesian tribes.
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^ The Lapita were hunter-gatherers and are named after a site near Kone on New Caledonia's main island, Grande Terre, where their elaborate, pin-hole incised pottery was discovered (see the boxed text 'Lapita Pottery' in the special section 'Kanak Arts') below.
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.During the same voyage he also named the islands to the north of New Caledonia the New Hebrides (now Vanuatu), after the isles off the west coast of Scotland.^ Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia) .
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^ Isle of Pines (New Caledonia) .
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^ Alofi Island (New Caledonia) .
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.Whalers operated off New Caledonia during the 19th century.^ During the Second World War, New Caledonia became a major US military base employing Melanesians at high wages.
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^ In 1862 the first governor was appointed and, for the second half of the 19th century, new Caledonia was governed by a military regime.
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^ The French colony of New Caledonia began in the mid-nineteenth century as a settler colony centred on pastoralism, and subsequently mining, mainly of nickel.
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.Sandalwood traders were welcome but as supplies of sandalwood diminished, the traders became abusive.^ As supplies in the northern Pacific had already severely diminished, the traders' attention turned to the south.
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^ As the Chinese market expanded and sandalwood supplies diminished, the traders' tactics became more threatening and arrogant.
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.The Europeans brought new diseases such as smallpox, measles, dysentery, influenza, syphilis, and leprosy.^ The traders also brought diseases such as smallpox, measles, dysentery, influenza, syphilis and leprosy onto the islands.
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Many people died as a result of these diseases. .Tensions developed into hostilities, and in 1849 the crew of the American ship Cutter were killed and eaten by the Pouma clan.^ In 1849 the crew of the American vessel Cutter were massacred and eaten by the Futuna clan, which lived between Balade and Pouebo.
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[11]
.As trade in sandalwood declined, it was replaced by a new form of trade, "Blackbirding". Blackbirding was a euphemism for enslaving people from New Caledonia, the Loyalty Islands, New Hebrides, New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands to work in sugar cane plantations in Fiji and Queensland.^ In New Caledonia, they mainly landed on northern Grande Terre and the Loyalty Islands, where they intermarried with the Melanesian tribes.
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^ Later in the 19th century, many Kanaks were taken to work on foreign plantations as labourers blackirders (slavers; see the boxed text 'Blackbirding' in the Loyalty Islands, below).
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^ WWII and rhyming with the derogatory slang term 'Boche' used for the Germans), and there are still some people in New Caledonia who are not fond of the term.
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The trade ceased at the start of the 20th century. The victims of this trade were called Kanakas like all the Oceanian people, after the Hawaiian word for 'man'.[12] This label was later shortened to Kanak, and adopted by the indigenous population after the French annexation.[12]
.New Caledonia was made a French possession in late 1853, a part of an attempt by Napoleon III to rival the British colonies in Australia and New Zealand.^ The Socialists were returned to power in France and a concerted effort was made to end the bloodshed in New Caledonia.
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^ In 1854 a French naval officer, Tardy de Montravel, wanting to seal France's recent possession of New Caledonia, chose Noumea as the site for the colony's administrative centre.
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^ When the French flag was raised at Balade on 24 September 1853, Britain did not react because it was too busy with newly acquired possessions in new Zealand and Australia.
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Auguste Febvrier Despointes led the expedition that seized the island. .Following the example set by the United Kingdom in parts of nearby Australia, France sent a total of 22,000 convicted felons to penal colonies along the south-west coast of New Caledonia between 1864 and 1922. This number included regular criminals as well as political prisoners such as Parisian socialists and Kabyle nationalists.^ New Caledonia was founded as a penal colony and the first shiploads of convicts arrived in May 1864 at Port-de-France (present-day Noumea).
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^ It took four months to sail from France to New Caledonia around the Cape of Good Hope.
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^ The Socialists were returned to power in France and a concerted effort was made to end the bloodshed in New Caledonia.
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.Towards the end of the penal colony era, free European settlers (including former convicts) and Asian contract workers by far outnumbered the population of forced workers.^ New Caledonia was founded as a penal colony and the first shiploads of convicts arrived in May 1864 at Port-de-France (present-day Noumea).
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^ When the flow of convicts stopped in 1897, the settlers' free-labour supply was extinguished (although the Kanaks were soon brought in to fill the convicts' place).
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.The indigenous Kanak populations declined drastically in that same period due to introduced diseases and an apartheid-like system called Code de l'Indigénat which imposed severe restrictions on their livelihood, freedom of movement and land ownership.^ In 1984, several pro-independence parties merged to form a new movement, the Front de Liberation Nationale Kanak et Socialiste, commonly called the FLNKS including FULK, Palika and its largest single component, the UC, the FLNKS was seen as a legitimate mouthpiece for Melanesian independantistes.
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^ One of the major stumbling blocks between the missionaries and the Kanaks was the concept of land ownership.
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^ This period was the all-time low for the Kanaks, their population having been decimated by disease, war and the indigenat system.
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La Poule rock, Hienghène
.During World War II, the French South Pacific colonies of New Caledonia, French Polynesia and the New Hebrides joined the Free French Forces.^ His carpenter declared the wood perfect for shipping, making the island one of the few places in the South Pacific where a large ship could hope for a new mast.
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^ In 1854 a French naval officer, Tardy de Montravel, wanting to seal France's recent possession of New Caledonia, chose Noumea as the site for the colony's administrative centre.
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^ Chef Naiseline of Mare prfepared a 'native bill' and argued that, as Kanaks had fought and died under the French flag during both world wars, they were entitled to the rights of French citizens.
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Assisted by Australia,[13] the South Pacific colonies became vital Allied bases in the Pacific Ocean. .American Allied forces built up a major naval base in New Caledonia to combat the advance of Imperial Japan toward Australia, New Zealand, and the Solomon Islands.^ French people in New Caledonia chose to support President Charles de Gaulle and the Free French Forces as opposed to the collaborationist Vichy regime that took over France in WWII. the colony's US allies were given permission to set up a military base on Grande Terre and, in early 1942, 40,000 American and a smaller number of New Zealand personnel arrived.
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^ During the Second World War, New Caledonia became a major US military base employing Melanesians at high wages.
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^ In New Caledonia, they mainly landed on northern Grande Terre and the Loyalty Islands, where they intermarried with the Melanesian tribes.
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If left unchecked, Japanese advances threatened to sever the sea lanes between North America and Australia. Nouméa served as a headquarters of the United States Navy and Army in the South Pacific.[14] .Due to the proximity of the territory to the South Pacific operations, Nouméa also provided a repair base for damaged American and Allied ships.^ His carpenter declared the wood perfect for shipping, making the island one of the few places in the South Pacific where a large ship could hope for a new mast.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Nouméa declined in importance as a naval and military base as the American and Allied offensive rapidly moved north and over the Equator.
.After the war, the Allied military headquarters – a pentagonal complex – was taken over as the base for a new regional intergovernmental development organisation: the South Pacific Commission, later known as the Secretariat of the Pacific Community.^ Data Map > All Regions / Continents > All Countries > Region: South Pacific > Country: New Caledonia .
  • Joshua Project - Ethnic People Groups of New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.New Caledonia has been on the United Nations list of non-self-governing territories since 1986. Agitation by the Front de Libération Nationale Kanak Socialiste (FLNKS) for independence began in 1985. The FLNKS (led by the late Jean-Marie Tjibaou, assassinated in 1989) advocated the creation of an independent state of "Kanaky". The troubles culminated in 1988 with a bloody hostage taking in Ouvéa.^ In 1984, several pro-independence parties merged to form a new movement, the Front de Liberation Nationale Kanak et Socialiste, commonly called the FLNKS including FULK, Palika and its largest single component, the UC, the FLNKS was seen as a legitimate mouthpiece for Melanesian independantistes.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In November, the main opposition force, the Socialist Kanak National Liberation Front (FLNKS) called for a boycott of local Territorial Assembly electors, which were sure to endorse the French government plan of postponing Kanak independence indefinitely.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Caledonia had become a French Overseas Territory but the resulting political autonomy did not favour the Kanaks, reduced to a minority group in relation to the caldoches (descendants of Europeans who had settled a century ago).
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The unrest led to agreement on increased autonomy in the Matignon Accords of 1988 and the Nouméa Accord of 1998. This Accord describes the devolution process as "irreversible" and also provides for a local Caledonian citizenship, separate official symbols of Caledonian identity (such as a "national" flag), as well as mandating a referendum on the contentious issue of independence from the French Republic sometime after 2014.

Politics

Flag of the independence movements
.New Caledonia has a unique status between that of an independent country and a normal Overseas department of France.^ It took four months to sail from France to New Caledonia around the Cape of Good Hope.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Socialists were returned to power in France and a concerted effort was made to end the bloodshed in New Caledonia.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the country on the brink of civil war, a plan that included a referendum on independence and self-government 'in association' with France was proposed in January 1985.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the one hand, both a Territorial Congress (Congress of New Caledonia) and government have been established, and are increasingly empowered via the gradual implementation of a devolution of powers from France in favour of New Caledonia, pursuant to the 1998 Nouméa Accord.^ It took four months to sail from France to New Caledonia around the Cape of Good Hope.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Caledonia had become a French Overseas Territory but the resulting political autonomy did not favour the Kanaks, reduced to a minority group in relation to the caldoches (descendants of Europeans who had settled a century ago).
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It focused on the gradual transfer of power from the French State to Ne Caledonia and on the recognition of Kanak culture, and was endorsed at a referendum (72% in favour) in November 1998.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Key areas (e.g. taxation, labour law, health and hygiene, foreign trade, and others) are already in the hands of the Territorial Congress and government. Further authority will be given to the Territorial Congress in the near future. Ultimately, the French Republic should only remain in charge of foreign affairs, justice, defense, public order, and the treasury. .An additional enhancement to New Caledonian autonomy has come in the form of recently introduced territorial "citizenship": Only New Caledonian "citizens" have the right to vote in local elections.^ This will affect the voting rights of thousands of recent arrivals from France, including public servants, military personnel and recent immigrants.
  • Minority Rights Group International : New Caledonia : New Caledonia Overview 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the Noumea Accord, key administrative powers are being devolved from Paris to Noumea, though New Caledonia will vote on independence only after 2014.
  • Minority Rights Group International : New Caledonia : New Caledonia Overview 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The accords stated that a referendum on self-determination would be held in 10 years, with all New Caledonians established in the territory by 1988, and their descendants, eligible to vote.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The introduction of this right has been criticised because it creates a second-class status for French citizens living in New Caledonia who do not possess New Caledonian "citizenship" (because they settled in the territory recently).^ New Caledonia had become a French Overseas Territory but the resulting political autonomy did not favour the Kanaks, reduced to a minority group in relation to the caldoches (descendants of Europeans who had settled a century ago).
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not until 1946, when the system was abolished and Kanaks received French citizenship, were they allowed to leave their reservation without permission.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In New Caledonia, they mainly landed on northern Grande Terre and the Loyalty Islands, where they intermarried with the Melanesian tribes.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.January 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Further signs of increased autonomy for the territory include New Caledonia's right to engage in international cooperation with independent countries of the Pacific Ocean region, the continued use of a local currency (the French Pacific Franc, or CFP) rather than the Euro, as well as the authority of the Territorial Congress to pass statutes overriding French law in a number of areas.^ New Caledonia is a French overseas territory in the Melanesian region of the western Pacific.
  • Minority Rights Group International : New Caledonia : New Caledonia Overview 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Increased amounts of land were also purchased and returned to Melanesians, but invariably too little and too late to defuse tension and political pressure, which gradually shifted to demands for independence rather than increased autonomy.
  • Minority Rights Group International : New Caledonia : New Caledonia Overview 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Caledonia Country Dialing code is 687 Using New Caledonia international calling card will save your international phone bills every month Questions about selecting phone card to call New Caledonia please call: 1-800-382-1748 .
  • New Caledonia Phone Cards & New Caledonia Calling Cards to call New Caledonia from USA 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.pinfly.com [Source type: General]

.On the other hand, New Caledonia remains a part of the French Republic.^ In contrast with other ethnic groups in New Caledonia, Melanesians are a more rural population, though half the population now live in urban areas.
  • Minority Rights Group International : New Caledonia : New Caledonia Overview 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Caledonia's 'French' population has several distinct groups.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most clans were isolated from each other, leading to the evolution of the many dialects in New Caledonia.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The inhabitants of New Caledonia are French citizens, carry French passports and take part in the legislative and presidential French elections.^ New Caledonia's 'French' population has several distinct groups.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Caledonia's status was changed from a colony to a French overseas territory after WWII and Kanaks immediately began to formulate their own political and social demands.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Distinct from the Caldoche are those, of French descent, who were born in New Caledonia in recent times and who live mainly in Noumea.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Nouméa Accord provides a mechanism for the determination of the ultimate status and degree of New Caledonian territorial autonomy: pursuant to the Accord, the Territorial Congress will have the right to call for a referendum on independence at any time of its choosing after 2014.
The current president of the government elected by the territorial Congress is Philippe Gomès, from the loyalist (i.e. anti-independence) "Caledonia Together" party (Calédonie Ensemble), which split from "Future Together" (Avenir Ensemble) in 2008. "Future Together" is a party of mostly White and Polynesian New Caledonians opposed to independence, but rebelling against the hegemonic and (allegedly) corrupt anti-independence RPCR, led by Jacques Lafleur. Their toppling of the RPCR (until then seen as the only voice of New Caledonian Whites) was a surprise to many, and a sign that New Caledonian society is undergoing changes. ."Future Together," as the name implies, is opposed to a racial-oriented vision of New Caledonian political life, one based purely on the political primacy of either the Melanesian native inhabitants or the descendants of European settlers.^ New Caledonia had become a French Overseas Territory but the resulting political autonomy did not favour the Kanaks, reduced to a minority group in relation to the caldoches (descendants of Europeans who had settled a century ago).
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The accords stated that a referendum on self-determination would be held in 10 years, with all New Caledonians established in the territory by 1988, and their descendants, eligible to vote.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It wasn't until the early 1970s, when political consciousness and cultural revival were on the agenda, that New Caledonia's indigenous people reclaimed and became proud of the name 'Kanak'.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rather, it is in favour of a multicultural New Caledonia that retains its existing relationship with France, of governing principles that better reflect the reality of the existence of large populations of Polynesians, Indonesians and other immigrant communities that make up the territory's population.^ It took four months to sail from France to New Caledonia around the Cape of Good Hope.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Caledonia had become a French Overseas Territory but the resulting political autonomy did not favour the Kanaks, reduced to a minority group in relation to the caldoches (descendants of Europeans who had settled a century ago).
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grande Terre's cast coast, on Ile des Pins and on the Loyalty Islands, where they make up 98% of the population.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some members of "Future Together" are even in favour of some form of autonomy or independence, though not necessarily on the same basis as the Melanesian independence parties which seek full independence for New Caledonia.^ New Caledonia had become a French Overseas Territory but the resulting political autonomy did not favour the Kanaks, reduced to a minority group in relation to the caldoches (descendants of Europeans who had settled a century ago).
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1984, several pro-independence parties merged to form a new movement, the Front de Liberation Nationale Kanak et Socialiste, commonly called the FLNKS including FULK, Palika and its largest single component, the UC, the FLNKS was seen as a legitimate mouthpiece for Melanesian independantistes.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In New Caledonia, they mainly landed on northern Grande Terre and the Loyalty Islands, where they intermarried with the Melanesian tribes.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Representation at the national level

.New Caledonia sends two deputies to the French National Assembly, one representing the commune (municipality) of Nouméa, the commune of L'Île-des-Pins and the Loyalty Islands Province, and the other representing the rest of New Caledonia.^ Shortly after arriving in New Caledonia de Kermadec died.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grande Terre's cast coast, on Ile des Pins and on the Loyalty Islands, where they make up 98% of the population.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In New Caledonia, they mainly landed on northern Grande Terre and the Loyalty Islands, where they intermarried with the Melanesian tribes.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.New Caledonia also sends one senator to the French Senate.^ New Caledonia's 'French' population has several distinct groups.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Caledonia's status was changed from a colony to a French overseas territory after WWII and Kanaks immediately began to formulate their own political and social demands.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Distinct from the Caldoche are those, of French descent, who were born in New Caledonia in recent times and who live mainly in Noumea.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the 2007 French presidential election the voter turnout in New Caledonia was 68.14%.^ New Caledonia's 'French' population has several distinct groups.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Caledonia's status was changed from a colony to a French overseas territory after WWII and Kanaks immediately began to formulate their own political and social demands.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Distinct from the Caldoche are those, of French descent, who were born in New Caledonia in recent times and who live mainly in Noumea.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .The representative of the French central state in New Caledonia is the High Commissioner of the Republic (Haut-Commissaire de la République, locally known as "haussaire"), who is the head of civil services, and who sits as an integral part of the territorial government.^ Pottery dates back to New Caledonia's earliest known civilisation.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Caledonia had become a French Overseas Territory but the resulting political autonomy did not favour the Kanaks, reduced to a minority group in relation to the caldoches (descendants of Europeans who had settled a century ago).
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shortly after arriving in New Caledonia de Kermadec died.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Geography

New Caledonia map from CIA World Factbook
Upi Bay on the Isle of Pines
.New Caledonia is located around 21°30′S 165°30′E / 21.5°S 165.5°E / -21.5; 165.5 in the southwest Pacific Ocean, approximately 1,200 kilometres (746 mi) east of Australia and 1,500 kilometres (932 mi) northwest of New Zealand.^ Tourist visa not required Business visa required Private visa required New Caledonia tourist visa is not required for citizens of United States for a stay up to 30 days.
  • New Caledonia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for New Caledonian Visas Online. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC new-caledonia.visahq.com [Source type: News]

The island nation of Vanuatu lies to the northeast.
.New Caledonia is made up of a main island, the Grande Terre, and several smaller islands, the Belep archipelago to the north of the Grande Terre, the Loyalty Islands to the east of the Grande Terre, the Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) to the south of the Grande Terre, the Chesterfield Islands and Bellona Reefs further to the west.^ Grande Terre's cast coast, on Ile des Pins and on the Loyalty Islands, where they make up 98% of the population.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It consists of several islands, with the outlying, low lying islands, including the Loyalty Islands, dominated by the main island of Grande Terre.
  • Minority Rights Group International : New Caledonia : New Caledonia Overview 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following European contact in the mid-nineteenth century, Melanesian population numbers fell from about 50,000 to only 28,000 in 1901 and Melanesians were displaced by settlers to reservations on the east coast of the main island (the Grande Terre), though in the Loyalty Islands European settlers were absent.
  • Minority Rights Group International : New Caledonia : New Caledonia Overview 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A territorial dispute exists with regard to the uninhabited Matthew and Hunter Islands, which are claimed by both France (as part of New Caledonia) and Vanuatu.^ It took four months to sail from France to New Caledonia around the Cape of Good Hope.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Socialists were returned to power in France and a concerted effort was made to end the bloodshed in New Caledonia.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In New Caledonia, they mainly landed on northern Grande Terre and the Loyalty Islands, where they intermarried with the Melanesian tribes.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Grande Terre is by far the largest of the islands, and the only mountainous island.^ Grande Terre's cast coast, on Ile des Pins and on the Loyalty Islands, where they make up 98% of the population.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In New Caledonia, they mainly landed on northern Grande Terre and the Loyalty Islands, where they intermarried with the Melanesian tribes.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the end, only 11% of the land on Grande Terre, mostly hilly regions in scattered areas, was left to the Kanaks.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It has an area of 16,372 square kilometres (6,321 sq mi), and is elongated northwest-southeast, 350 kilometres (217 mi) in length and 50 to 70 kilometres (31–44 mi) wide. A mountain range runs the length of the island, with five peaks over 1,500 meters (4,900 ft). The highest point is Mont Panié at 1,628 meters (5,341 ft) elevation. .The total area of New Caledonia is 19,060 km2 (7,360 sq mi), 18,575 km2 (7,172 sq mi) of those being land.^ Under the Noumea Accord, key administrative powers are being devolved from Paris to Noumea, though New Caledonia will vote on independence only after 2014.
  • Minority Rights Group International : New Caledonia : New Caledonia Overview 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In New Caledonia, they mainly landed on northern Grande Terre and the Loyalty Islands, where they intermarried with the Melanesian tribes.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The territory consists of the island of New Caledonia (16,700 sq km), the Loyaute/Loyalty islands (Ouvea, Lifou, Mare and Walpole), the archipelagos of Chesterfield Avon, Huon, Beleip, and the island Noumea.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.New Caledonia is one of the northernmost parts of a (93%) submerged continent called Zealandia.^ New-caledonia calling card .

^ The French who came to New Caledonia to work for a few years with the benefit of high wages are called metros (short for metropoles, meaning from metropolitan France).
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Check our New-caledonia calling rates: .

It sank after rifting away from Australia 60–85 million years ago (mya) and from Antarctica between 130 and 85 mya. .New Caledonia itself is separated from Australia since 65 mya, and subsequently drifted in a north-easterly direction, reaching its present position about 50 mya.^ Home About us Contact us News Updates Advanced search ›› Directory › Asia and Oceania › New Caledonia › New Caledonia Overview Quick search ›› .
  • Minority Rights Group International : New Caledonia : New Caledonia Overview 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Caledonia was founded as a penal colony and the first shiploads of convicts arrived in May 1864 at Port-de-France (present-day Noumea).
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The guillotine was brought to New Caledonia in 1867 and, in the next 21 years, about 80 heads rolled.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]

Subdivisions

Saint Joseph's Bay on the Isle of Pines
Nouméa, on a cloudy day in June 2006, looking north
.Along with other Pacific Ocean territories of French Polynesia and Wallis and Futuna, New Caledonia is part of the French Republic.^ New Caledonia had become a French Overseas Territory but the resulting political autonomy did not favour the Kanaks, reduced to a minority group in relation to the caldoches (descendants of Europeans who had settled a century ago).
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Check with your airline in case you have connecting flights overseas as part of your journey to New Caledonia.
  • New Caledonia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for New Caledonian Visas Online. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC new-caledonia.visahq.com [Source type: News]

^ New Caledonia's 'French' population has several distinct groups.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its official status, unique in the French Republic, is said to be sui generis, because New Caledonia is the only French subdivision that is not a collectivité territoriale.^ When the French flag was raised at Balade on 24 September 1853, Britain did not react because it was too busy with newly acquired possessions in new Zealand and Australia.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Caledonia's 'French' population has several distinct groups.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Caledonia's status was changed from a colony to a French overseas territory after WWII and Kanaks immediately began to formulate their own political and social demands.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.New Caledonia was a colony until 1946, then an overseas territory (territoire d'outre-mer, or TOM) from 1946 to 1999. The capital is Nouméa, the only major conurbation in the territory.^ Official name : Territoire d'Outre-Mer de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Caledonia had become a French Overseas Territory but the resulting political autonomy did not favour the Kanaks, reduced to a minority group in relation to the caldoches (descendants of Europeans who had settled a century ago).
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Second World War, New Caledonia became a major US military base employing Melanesians at high wages.
  • Minority Rights Group International : New Caledonia : New Caledonia Overview 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Administratively, the archipelago is divided into three provinces:
  • South Province (province Sud). Provincial capital: Nouméa. Population: 183,007 inhabitants (2009).
  • North Province (province Nord). Provincial capital: Koné. .Population: 45,137 inhabitants (2009).
  • Loyalty Islands Province (province des îles Loyauté).^ Grande Terre's cast coast, on Ile des Pins and on the Loyalty Islands, where they make up 98% of the population.
    • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Under the accords, it was agreed that New Caledonia would be divided into three regions: the Noumea-based South Province, the North Province and the Loyalty Islands Province.
    • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Provincial capital: Lifou. Population: 17,436 inhabitants (2009).
It is further subdivided into thirty-three communes. .One commune, Poya, is divided between two provinces.^ The Palika, one of the FLNKS groups, registered separately, criticizing the leadership of the Front representatives in the two provinces controlled by the pro-independence groups.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The northern half of Poya, with the main settlement and most of the population, is part of the North Province, while the southern half of the commune, with only 127 inhabitants in 2009, is part of the South Province.^ In the two provinces controlled by the pro-independence parties, a new generation of lead4ers appeared, but the situation worsened for most of the Melanesian population.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the accords, it was agreed that New Caledonia would be divided into three regions: the Noumea-based South Province, the North Province and the Loyalty Islands Province.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

New Caledonia administrative1.png
     South Province      North Province      Loyalty Islands Province
  1. Thio
  2. Yaté
  3. L'Île-des-Pins
  4. Le Mont-Dore
  5. Nouméa
  6. Dumbéa
  7. Païta
  8. Bouloupari
  9. La Foa
  10. Sarraméa
  11. Farino
  12. Moindou
  13. Bourail
  14. Poya (part north)
  1. Poya (part south)
  2. Pouembout
  3. Koné
  4. Voh
  5. Kaala-Gomen
  6. Koumac
  7. Poum
  8. Belep
  9. Ouégoa
  10. Pouébo
  11. Hienghène
  12. Touho
  13. Poindimié
  14. Ponérihouen
  15. Houaïlou
  16. Kouaoua
  17. Canala
  1. Ouvéa
  2. Lifou
  3. Maré
There are also three administrative subdivisions, simply known as subdivisions in French, with exactly the same names and same boundaries as the three provinces, except that the commune of Poya is entirely contained inside the North Subdivision. .Contrary to the provinces, which are full political divisions with provincial assemblies and executives, the administrative subdivisions are merely deconcentrated divisions of the French central state, akin to the arrondissements of metropolitan France, with a Deputy Commissioner of the Republic (commissaire délégué de la République), akin to a subprefect of metropolitan France, in residence in each subdivision's chief town.^ In late 2006, the French government moved to finally address a central and unresolved issue on who should vote for New Caledonia’s three provincial assemblies and local Congress.
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The subdivision chief towns are the same as the provincial capitals except in the South Subdivision where the chief town is La Foa, whereas the capital of the South Province is Nouméa. Thus, although the provincial assembly of the South Province sits in Nouméa, the South Subdivision's Deputy Commissioner of the Republic is in residence in La Foa. This was decided in order to counterbalance the overwhelming weight of Nouméa in New Caledonia.
In addition, a parallel layer of administration exists for Kanak tribal affairs; these are called aires coutumières ("traditional spheres") and are eight in number (see map of the "aires coutumières"). Their jurisdiction does not encompass non-Kanaks living within these zones. The aires coutumières more or less correspond to the indigenous language areas of pre-French tribal alliances.

Climate

New Caledonia from space
New Caledonia lies astride the Tropic of Capricorn, between 19° and 23° south latitude. The climate of the islands is tropical, and rainfall is highly seasonal, brought by trade winds that usually come from the east. .Rainfall averages about 1,500 millimetres (59 in) yearly on the Loyalty Islands, 2,000 millimetres (79 in) at low elevations on eastern Grande Terre, and 2,000-4,000 millimetres (79–157.5 in) at high elevations on the Grande Terre.^ Following European contact in the mid-nineteenth century, Melanesian population numbers fell from about 50,000 to only 28,000 in 1901 and Melanesians were displaced by settlers to reservations on the east coast of the main island (the Grande Terre), though in the Loyalty Islands European settlers were absent.
  • Minority Rights Group International : New Caledonia : New Caledonia Overview 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It consists of several islands, with the outlying, low lying islands, including the Loyalty Islands, dominated by the main island of Grande Terre.
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^ Melanesians were displaced by settlers to the eastern, mountainous part of the Grande Terre.
  • Minority Rights Group International : New Caledonia : New Caledonia Overview 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The western side of the Grande Terre lies in the rain shadow of the central mountains, and rainfall averages 1,200 millimetres (47 in) per year.
There are two main seasons: a dry season, and a warm and wet season. The dry cooler months are from April to November with daily temperature ranges from 17-27 °C. During the wet season (December to March) the temperature can reach 32 °C. The south-east trade winds temper the heat, and evenings are pleasantly cool. The wet season sees the occasional cyclone hitting the islands.

Ecology

"Baie des Tortues" (Turtle Bay) near "La roche percée" (Pierced Rock) at Bourail in New Caledonia
.New Caledonia is considered one of the world's most critically endangered and botanically most important hotspots.^ During the Second World War, New Caledonia became a major US military base employing Melanesians at high wages.
  • Minority Rights Group International : New Caledonia : New Caledonia Overview 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unlike many of the Pacific Islands, which are of relatively recent volcanic origin, New Caledonia is part of Zealandia, a fragment of the ancient Gondwana super-continent.^ New Caledonia is a French overseas territory in the Melanesian region of the western Pacific.
  • Minority Rights Group International : New Caledonia : New Caledonia Overview 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Zealandia separated from Australia 60–85 million years ago,[17] and the ridge linking New Caledonia to New Zealand has been deeply submerged for millions of years. This isolated New Caledonia from the rest of the world's landmasses, and made it a Noah's Ark of sorts, preserving a snapshot of prehistoric Gondwanan forests. The country still shelters an extraordinary diversity of unique, endemic, and extremely primitive plants and animals of Gondwanan origin, as well as the second largest coral reef in the world.[citation needed]
Fossil and subfossil remains reveal that large terrestrial animals once inhabited the island but became extinct during the Holocene prior to European arrival. These include the horned turtle Meiolania, the crocodile Mekosuchus, monitor lizards and a variety of flightless birds, the largest of which was Sylviornis.
The endemic Kagu bird
Although the majority of the country's citizens are unaware of the extraordinary nature of their country's biological heritage,[citation needed] a few of the country's animals and plants have become somewhat emblematic in local culture. Among the best known is a hen-sized, flightless bird, commonly known as the Cagou or Kagu, which has a large crest and an odd barking call. Its song and image are frequently seen as nationally recognized icons. Another commonly used cultural emblem is the Columnar or Cook's Pine (Araucaria columnaris), an important symbol in Kanak culture. The Niaouli tree (also native to Australia and New Guinea), is of medicinal interest, locally and abroad. Its sap (which contains gomenol, a camphor-smelling compound), is used to treat head colds, and as an antiseptic. It also shows potential to treat other medical ailments. Before the Europeans arrived, there was no mammal other than the Roussette (aka flying fox), a large vegetarian bat, considered a local delicacy. Less well-known by the native population is the fact their country is home to a species of plant, (Amborella trichopoda), believed to be genetically close to the ancestor of all flowering plants, or the fact their nation boasts the largest number and diversity of conifer species in the world, per unit of geographic area (a remarkable fact, given that conifers are usually relatively rare in tropical regions).
Typical terrain in the south of the islands at Grand Terre
Official emblem (Nautilus)
.The islands contain two precipitation zones: Higher-rainfall areas (located on the Loyalty Islands, Isle of Pines (Île des Pins), and on the eastern side of Grande Terre) which support New Caledonia rain forests, and a more arid region, home to the now exceedingly endangered New Caledonia dry forests, located in the rain shadow on the western side of Grande Terre.^ PinFly Phone Cards [Home]   New Caledonia .
  • New Caledonia Phone Cards & New Caledonia Calling Cards to call New Caledonia from USA 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.pinfly.com [Source type: General]

Europeans settled on the dry west coast of Grande Terre, leaving the east (as well as the Loyalty Islands and the Isle of Pines) to the Kanaks, and resulting in an ethno-cultural division which coincides with the natural one. Extensive farming by Europeans in the dry forest areas, has caused these forest ecosystems to virtually disappear.
It is a vast oversimplification, however, to merely describe New Caledonia's extremely important, complex and diverse ecology in terms of precipitation zones. Species and ecological diversity is further complicated by soil type (degree and type of mineralization), altitude, and geographic location (for instance, Loyalty Islands and Isle of Pines have flora that is distinct from Grande Terre).
.In addition to the remarkable terrestrial environment of New Caledonia, the country is also home to important aquatic ecosystems.^ PinFly Phone Cards [Home]   New Caledonia .
  • New Caledonia Phone Cards & New Caledonia Calling Cards to call New Caledonia from USA 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.pinfly.com [Source type: General]

.Its freshwater ecology also evolved in long isolation, and the New Caledonia rivers and streams are home to many endemic species.^ PinFly Phone Cards [Home]   New Caledonia .
  • New Caledonia Phone Cards & New Caledonia Calling Cards to call New Caledonia from USA 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.pinfly.com [Source type: General]

.Moreover, the New Caledonia Barrier Reef, which surrounds Grande Terre and the Isle of Pines (Île des Pins), is the second-largest coral reef in the world after Australia's Great Barrier Reef, reaching a length of 1,500 kilometres (930 mi).^ During the Second World War, New Caledonia became a major US military base employing Melanesians at high wages.
  • Minority Rights Group International : New Caledonia : New Caledonia Overview 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Like its terrestrial counterpart, the Caledonian reef system has great species diversity, is home to endangered dugongs (Dugong dugong), and is an important nesting site for the Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas). The island is also a home for vagrant fur seals. The Nautilus is a living-fossil species, common during the age of the dinosaurs, which survives today in the waters surrounding New Caledonia. In January 2002, the French government proposed listing New Caledonia's reefs as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. UNESCO listed New Caledonia Barrier Reef on the World Heritage List under the name The Lagoons of New Caledonia: Reef Diversity and Associated Ecosystems on 7 July 2008.

Ecology and politics

A creek in southern New Caledonia. Red colours reveal the richness of the ground in iron oxides and nickel.
Aside from the challenges posed by charting a course for the territory's racial and political life, the current government faces an additional challenge in balancing the needs of the territory's mining-based economy with the protection of its ecologically significant areas. Thanks largely to its mining industry, based primarily on nickel ore, some ecological safeguards have been deemed necessary by special interest groups to ensure the preservation of species in the face of industrial development or ecological exploitation.[citation needed]
.New Caledonia's ecological situation has gradually became known to the world at large.^ During the Second World War, New Caledonia became a major US military base employing Melanesians at high wages.
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Of note is the recognition of activist Bruno Van Peteghem who was in 2001 awarded the Goldman Environmental Prize for his efforts on behalf of the Caledonian ecological protection movement in the face of "serious challenges" from Jacques Lafleur's RPCR party.[18] Following political pressure,[citation needed] the government has implemented some modifications to its ecological protection policies – one example being the restoration of the famed Madeleine Waterfalls Preserve (Chutes de la Madeleine).[citation needed] These modifications have, however, been deemed insufficient by ecological groups.[citation needed]
Progress has been made in a few areas in addressing the protection of New Caledonia's ecological diversity from fire, industrial and residential development, unrestricted agricultural activity and mining (such as the judicial revocation of INCO's mining license in June 2006 owing to claimed abuses[19]).

Economy

New Caledonian soils contain a considerable wealth of industrially critical elements and minerals, including about one-quarter of the world's nickel resources.[20] Mining is therefore a significant industry that greatly benefits the territory's economy. However, the country is also home to numerous, critically important[citation needed] ancient ecosystems[citation needed]. Thus, widely practiced and indiscriminate open-pit mining across much of New Caledonia is claimed to be responsible for deterioration of the territory's natural heritage[citation needed].
Tourism is playing an increasingly important role in the economy of New Caledonia. Most tourists come from France, Australia, New Zealand, Japan and South Korea.
The GDP of New Caledonia in 2007 was 8.8 billion US dollars at market exchange rates, the fourth-largest economy in Oceania after Australia, New Zealand, and Hawaii.[3] The GDP per capita was 36,376 US dollars in 2007 (at market exchange rates, not at PPP), lower than in Australia and Hawaii, but higher than in New Zealand.[3]
In 2007, exports from New Caledonia amounted to 2.11 billion US dollars, 96.3% of which were mineral products and alloys (essentially nickel ore and ferronickel).[21] Imports amounted to 2.88 billion US dollars.[21] .26.6% of imports came from Metropolitan France, 16.1% from other European countries, 13.6% from Singapore (essentially fuel), 10.7% from Australia, 4.0% from New Zealand, 3.2% from the United States, 3.0% from Japan, and 22.7% from other countries.^ Tourist visa not required Business visa required Private visa required New Caledonia tourist visa is not required for citizens of United States for a stay up to 30 days.
  • New Caledonia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for New Caledonian Visas Online. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC new-caledonia.visahq.com [Source type: News]

^ New Caledonia travel information: Travel visa F.A.Q. New Caledonia Visa Information Embassy of New Caledonia in United States New Caledonia Embassy Holidays New Caledonia Customs New Caledonia visa in Canada Social networking .
  • New Caledonia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for New Caledonian Visas Online. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC new-caledonia.visahq.com [Source type: News]

^ New Caledonia business visa is required for citizens of United States.
  • New Caledonia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for New Caledonian Visas Online. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC new-caledonia.visahq.com [Source type: News]

[21]
Woman at Noumea market.

Demography

.Though no longer a majority, the indigenous Melanesian Kanak community still represents 44.6% of the whole population (as of the 1996 census),[22] their proportion of the population having declined due to immigration and other factors.^ Melanesians gained voting rights in advance of the indigenous population of other parts of the Pacific.
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^ Though the speed of restoring land to Melanesians increased in the 1960s and 1970s it still fell short of Melanesian expectations and needs.
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^ For fifty years the Melanesian population declined, while migration from Asia and Europe emphasized their minority status.
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The rest of the population is made up of ethnic groups that arrived in New Caledonia in the last 150 years: Europeans (34.5%) (predominantly French, with German, British and Italian minorities), Polynesians (Wallisians, Tahitians) (11.8%), Indonesians (2.6%), Vietnamese (1.4%), Ni-Vanuatu (1.2%), and various other groups (3.9%), Tamils, other South Asians, Berbers, Japanese, Chinese, Fijians, Arabs, West Indian (mostly from other French territories) and a small number of ethnic Africans.[22] Some of this immigration was a direct consequence of various conflicts around the world but in particular of the crumbling of the French colonial empire.
.The Kanak are known officially as Melanesians.^ Militant pro-independence Melanesians were known as Kanaks.
  • Minority Rights Group International : New Caledonia : New Caledonia Overview 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Similarly, those whose roots are in French Polynesia are known either as Tahitians (which excludes persons originating in the other archipelagos of French Polynesia) or simply as Polynesians (which would include both Tahitians and Wallisians, as well as many other minor groups). .Whites that have lived in New Caledonia for several generations are locally known as Caldoches, whereas newcomers who have immigrated from metropolitan France are called Métros or Métropolitains.^ We carry 74 prepaid phone card to call New Caledonia as low as 16¢ / Min .
  • New Caledonia Phone Cards & New Caledonia Calling Cards to call New Caledonia from USA 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.pinfly.com [Source type: General]

^ New Caledonia Phone Card headlines: We carry over 74 New Caledonia phone cards for your to choose from Call to New Caledonia as low as 16¢ / Min.
  • New Caledonia Phone Cards & New Caledonia Calling Cards to call New Caledonia from USA 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.pinfly.com [Source type: General]

.The European population also includes some pieds noirs who came after Algeria gained independence from France,[23] some of them prominent in anti-independence politics, including Pierre Maresca, a leader of the RPCR.^ The population composition of New Caledonia consistently ensures that as long as Europeans, Asians and Polynesians vote for retention of ties with France, Kanak demands for independence are unlikely to be satisfied through the ballot box.
  • Minority Rights Group International : New Caledonia : New Caledonia Overview 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the time of the 2004 congressional elections, the RPCR’s electoral hegemony had been broken by the establishment of a new anti-independence party Avenir Ensemble (The Future Together) which linked RPCR dissidents and business leaders opposed to Jacques Lafleur, who had dominated the conservative party landscape for decades.
  • Minority Rights Group International : New Caledonia : New Caledonia Overview 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]
Within the official statistical category "Europeans" no distinction is made between Caledonian-born whites and French-born whites, though it is estimated that approximately two-thirds identify themselves with the Caldoche community while the rest see themselves primarily as French immigrants. There is a significant contingent of people that arrive from France to work for a year or two and others that have come to retire. The Caldoche usually refer to themselves simply as calédoniens and may be either white (mostly French or German) or white with an admixture of Asian, Melanesian or Polynesian ancestry. Caldoche culture has many similarities with Australian and Afrikaner culture. Until very recently the Kanak population held an economically disadvantaged position in New Caledonian society, while wealthy French expatriates formed the top of the socio-economic hierarchy. The Asian and Polynesian inhabitants dominate certain segments of the local economy.
Kanak women
There have been frequent accusations by the pro-independence movement that the French government is attempting to skew the demographic balance between the ethnic communities by clandestinely settling thousands of people from mainland France among the white Caledonians. Censuses are extremely critical to the balance of power in New Caledonia, and the organisation of a new census was regularly postponed after 1996. Eventually the census was carried out in August and September 2004, amidst raging controversies over ethnic questions. Due to an intervention by French president Jacques Chirac, questions asking for the ethnicity of people were deleted from the 2004 census, officially because they were deemed to contravene the French Constitution, which states that no distinction based on ethnicity or religion should be made among French citizens. The indigenous Melanesian Kanak leaders, who are extremely sensitive to ethnic balance issues, called for New Caledonians of Kanak ethnicity not to return census forms if questions regarding ethnicity were not asked, threatening to derail the census process. Eventually, the stalemate was resolved when the local New Caledonian statistical office (a branch of the national French statistical office INSEE) agreed to ask questions regarding ethnicity. .However, it is not known whether questions regarding ethnicity were asked to all residents of New Caledonia, and at any rate no data have been released, leaving the ethnic tables from the 1996 census as the only information on ethnicity currently available.^ Under the Noumea Accord, key administrative powers are being devolved from Paris to Noumea, though New Caledonia will vote on independence only after 2014.
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^ In contrast with other ethnic groups in New Caledonia, Melanesians are a more rural population, though half the population now live in urban areas.
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^ New Caledonia visa for citizens of United States is required for more information please contact the nearest New Caledonia embassy .
  • New Caledonia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for New Caledonian Visas Online. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC new-caledonia.visahq.com [Source type: News]

According to the 31 August 2004 census, there were 230,789 inhabitants in New Caledonia.[2] This figure has increased to 249,000 as of 1 January 2009 official estimates.[1]

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.
Population: 249,000 (1 January 2009 estimate)[1]
Age structure:
0–14 years: 28,4% (male 31 818, female 30 513)
15–64 years: 64,9% (male 71 565, female 70 815)
65 years and over: 6,6% (male 6 773, female 7 772) (2006 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.84% (in 2005), 1.91% (yearly average from January 2000 to January 2006)
Birth rate: 17.2 births/1 000 population (in 2005)
Death rate: 4.9 deaths/1 000 population (in 2005)
Net migration rate: 5.62 migrants/1 000 population (in 2005), 5.01 migrants/1 000 population (yearly average between beginning of 2000 and end of 2005)
Kanak houses
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 1,01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 7.57 deaths/1,000 live births male: 8.27 deaths/1,000 live births female: 6.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: (in 2005)
total population: 75.2 years
male: 71.9 years
female: 78.6 years
Total fertility rate: 2.20 children born/woman (in 2005)
Nationality:
noun: New Caledonian(s)
adjective: New Caledonian
Ethnic groups: (as of 1996 census) [25]) Melanesian 44.6%, European 34.5%, Wallisian 9.1%, Tahitian 2.7%, Indonesian 2.6%, Vietnamese 1.4%, Ni-Vanuatu 1.2%, other (Filipino) 3.9%
Religions: Roman Catholicism 60%, Protestantism 30%, other 10%
See also:
Languages: French (official), 33 Austronesian languages
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91%
male: 92%
female: 90% (1976 est.)

Languages

.French is the official language of New Caledonia as in the rest of the French Republic.^ New Caledonia is a French overseas territory in the Melanesian region of the western Pacific.
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^ The French colony of New Caledonia began in the mid-nineteenth century as a settler colony centred on pastoralism, and subsequently mining, mainly of nickel.
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At the 2004 census, 97.0% of people whose age was 14 or older reported that they could speak, read and write French, whereas only 0.97% reported that they had no knowledge of French.[26] At the same census, 37.1% of people whose age was 14 or older reported that they could speak (but not necessarily read or write) one of the 28 indigenous Austronesian languages of New Caledonia (see New Caledonian languages and Loyalty Island languages), whereas 58.7% reported that they had no knowledge of any of these 28 indigenous languages.[27]

Culture

Sports

Flag used at the 2007 South Pacific Games.
.The New Caledonia football team began play in 1951, and was admitted into FIFA in 2004.[28] Prior to joining FIFA, New Caledonia held observer status with the Oceania Football Confederation, and became an official member of the OFC with its FIFA membership.^ During the Second World War, New Caledonia became a major US military base employing Melanesians at high wages.
  • Minority Rights Group International : New Caledonia : New Caledonia Overview 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In New Caledonia, the anti-independence strongman Jacques Lafleur has resigned from Congress and lost the presidency of his party Rassemblement UMP, after the party lost power in May 2004 elections.
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^ Home About us Contact us News Updates Advanced search ›› Directory › Asia and Oceania › New Caledonia › New Caledonia Overview Quick search ›› .
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They have won the South Pacific Games five times, most recently in 2007, and have placed third on two occasions in the OFC Nations Cup.

Images of New Caledonia

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d (French) Institut de la statistique et des études économiques de Nouvelle-Calédonie (ISEE). "Bilan Economique et Social 2008 (on page 11)". http://www.isee.nc/pe/bilan2008/bilan2008.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  2. ^ a b (French) INSEE, Government of France. "Recensement général de la population en Nouvelle-Calédonie - 2004". http://www.insee.fr/fr/ppp/ir/accueil.asp?page=rpnc04/synt/synthese.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-24. 
  3. ^ a b c d (French) Institut de la statistique et des études économiques de Nouvelle-Calédonie (ISEE). "Chiffres clés". http://www.isee.nc/chiffresc/chiffresc.html#pib. Retrieved 2008-11-04. 
  4. ^ Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see [1]). It should be noted that French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.
  5. ^ "Regions and territories: New Caledonia", BBC News, 11 December 2008
  6. ^ (French) The phrase "l'histoire de la Calédonie" used by a school kid interviewed by RFO
  7. ^ (French) The phrase "économie calédonienne" used by the New Caledonian statistical office
  8. ^ (French) Government of New Caledonia. "Les accords de Nouméa" (PDF). http://www.gouv.nc/static/pages/outils/telechargement/accordsNoumea.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-11. 
  9. ^ (French) RFO. "Société : La Nouvelle-Calédonie choisit un hymne et une devise". http://nouvellecaledonie.rfo.fr/article424.html. Retrieved 2008-08-11. 
  10. ^ New Caledonia, p. 13, Leanne Logan and Geert Cole, Lonely Planet, 2001
  11. ^ New Caledonia, p. 15, Leanne Logan and Geert Cole, Lonely Planet, 2001
  12. ^ a b http://documents.irevues.inist.fr/bitstream/handle/2042/14373/HERMES_2002_32-33_191.pdf?sequence=1
  13. ^ "Hasluck: Clearing A Way To Total War" (PDF). http://www.awm.gov.au/cms_images/histories/30/chapters/06.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-06. 
  14. ^ World War II Pacific Island Guide, p. 71, Gordon L. Rottman, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002
  15. ^ Voter turnout in the second round of the election as per:
    (French) Minister of the Interior, Government of France. "RESULTATS DE L'ELECTION PRESIDENTIELLE — NOUVELLE CALEDONIE". http://www.interieur.gouv.fr/sections/a_votre_service/resultats-elections/PR2007/000/988/988.html. Retrieved 2007-07-02. 
  16. ^ Boyer & Giribet 2007: 355
  17. ^ Keith Lewis; Scott D. Nodder and Lionel Carter (2007-01-11). "Zealandia: the New Zealand continent". Te Ara — the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.teara.govt.nz/EarthSeaAndSky/OceanStudyAndConservation/SeaFloorGeology/1/en. Retrieved 2007-02-22. 
  18. ^ Bruno Van Peteghem, Goldman Environmental Prize website
  19. ^ "Indigenous Kanaks Take On Inco in New Caledonia", MiningWatch Canada, 19 July 2006
  20. ^ "Nickel gleams again in New Caledonia", Metal Bulletin, 3 December 2001
  21. ^ a b c (French) Institut de la statistique et des études économiques de Nouvelle-Calédonie (ISEE). "Bilan économique et social 2007 - Échanges Extérieurs (on page 23)" (PDF). http://www.isee.nc/telechargement/bilan2007.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-29. 
  22. ^ a b (French) Institut de la statistique et des études économiques de Nouvelle-Calédonie (ISEE). "Population totale, selon la communauté par commune et Province de résidence" (XLS). http://www.isee.nc/recenspop/telechargement/ind04.xls. Retrieved 2007-06-24. 
  23. ^ David A. Chappell (2005). "New Caledonia". The Contemporary Pacific 17 (2): 435–448. doi:10.1353/cp.2005.0043. http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/contemporary_pacific/v017/17.2chappell02.html. 
  24. ^ Henry Kamm (1988-07-26). "Noumea Journal; On an Island in the Pacific, but Far From at Peace". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DE7DC1E3FF935A15754C0A96E948260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all. 
  25. ^ [2]
  26. ^ (French) INSEE, Government of France. "P9-1 - Population de 14 ans et plus selon la connaissance du français, le sexe, par commune, "zone" et par province de résidence" (XLS). http://www.insee.fr/fr/ppp/ir/rpnc04/dd/excel/rpnc04_P9-1.xls. Retrieved 2007-06-24. 
  27. ^ (French) INSEE, Government of France. "P10-1 - Population de 14 ans et plus selon la connaissance d'une langue mélanésienne et le sexe, par commune, "zone" et par province de résidence" (XLS). http://www.insee.fr/fr/ppp/ir/rpnc04/dd/excel/rpnc04_P10-1.xls. Retrieved 2007-06-24. 
  28. ^ "New Caledonia joins the world football community". FIFA.com. 2004-05-24. http://www.fifa.com/aboutfifa/federation/news/newsid=92706.html. Retrieved 2009-08-06. 

References

  • Boyer, S.L. & Giribet, G. (2007): A new model Gondwanan taxon: systematics and biogeography of the harvestman family Pettalidae (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi), with a taxonomic revision of genera from Australia and New Zealand. Cladistics 23(4): 337-361. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2007.00149.x

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Oceania : New Caledonia
noframe
Flag
Image:nc-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Nouméa
Government NA
Currency Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (XPF): per US dollar - 96.04 (2004), 105.66 (2003), 126.71 (2002), 133.26 (2001), 129.43 (2000)
Area total: 19,060 km2
water: 485 km2
land: 18,575 km2
Population 216,494 (July 2006 est.)
Language French (official), 33 Melanesian-Polynesian dialects
Religion Roman Catholic 60%, Protestant 30%, other 10%
.New Caledonia (French:Nouvelle-Caledonie) is a dependent overseas territory of France lying in the western Pacific Ocean, in the Coral Sea, to the east of Australia and west of Vanuatu.^ Sunset over sea, New Caledonia, France .
  • New caledonia Images and Stock Photos. 98 New caledonia photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Matthew and hunter islands east of new caledonia claimed by france and vanuatu .
  • Jobs in New Caledonia Careers, Jobs, Education - Careers.org 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC international.careers.org [Source type: News]

^ Nouméa is the capital city of the French territory of New Caledonia.
  • TrekByBike.com - Cycling in New Caledonia - Nouméa 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

.The territory consists of the main island of Grand Terre, the archipelago of the Loyalty Islands (Iles Loyaute), and numerous small, sparsely populated islands and atolls.^ Grande Terre is the main island.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

^ It consists of the main island called Grande Terre and several smaller out islands, the Ile des Pins (Isle of the Pines), and the Loyalty Islands.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

^ Consists of the main island of New Caledonia (one of the largest in the Pacific Ocean), the archipelago of Iles Loyaute, and numerous small, sparsely populated islands and atolls.
  • Flag Counter » New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC flagcounter.com [Source type: News]

.New Caledonia offers beaches, mountaintop fondue in chalets, camping, amazing snorkeling and diving, and fabulous French food.^ Against a backdrop of mountains, rainforests, rivers, savannah and beaches live some of the most traditional communities in New Caledonia.
  • New Caledonia Travel - Holiday in Noumea - Webjet.com.au 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.webjet.com.au [Source type: News]

^ Until recently a French Overseas Territory, New Caledonia is now in the process of becoming an Overseas Country, with substantial political autonomy that stops short of full independence.
  • Biological diversity in New Caledonia - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FRENCH [ FRN ] 53,400 first language speakers in New Caledonia (1987), 35.6% of the population; 72,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA).

Map of New Caledonia
Map of New Caledonia
New Caledonia includes:
.
  • Grande Terre - The main island.^ Grande Terre is the main island.
    • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

    ^ The region's 18,972 km 2 consist of the main island of Grande Terre and the smaller Loyalty Islands to the east, Belep and Surprise Islands to the north and Isle of Pines to the south.
    • Biological diversity in New Caledonia - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Grande Terre's cast coast, on Ile des Pins and on the Loyalty Islands, where they make up 98% of the population.
    • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It is one of the largest islands in the Pacific.^ New Caledonia (one of the largest in the Pacific Ocean), the archipelago of Iles Loyaute, and numerous small, sparsely populated islands and atolls .
    • CIA - The World Factbook -- New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
    • CIA - The World Factbook 2002 -- New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC permanent.access.gpo.gov [Source type: News]
    • 1-language.com - The ESL Site: The World Factbook 2002 Online -- New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.1-language.com [Source type: News]

    ^ New Caledonia ( Nouvelle Calédonie ) One of the largest islands in Oceania which is surrounded by a group of Melanesian islands, it lies some 750 miles east of Queensland, Australia.
    • New Caledonia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: News]

    ^ His carpenter declared the wood perfect for shipping, making the island one of the few places in the South Pacific where a large ship could hope for a new mast.
    • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The barrier reef lying off New Caledonia is second only to the Great Barrier Reef in size.
The main tourist destinations are:
  • Île des Pins - Was one of the few places in the Pacific with trees tall and sturdy enough to provide replacement masts for ships.
  • Loyalty Islands (Iles Loyaute)
Ports and harbors
  • Mueo
  • Thio
  • Port Bousie

Understand

The people of New Caledonia are split into four major groups:
  • the native Kanaks
  • descendants of French prisoners and settlers
  • French citizens working in Noumea
  • Polynesian immigrants
.There is a general move towards independence in New Caledonia and it was decided in the Nouméa Accord that the territorial Congress will have the right to call for a referendum on independence after 2014, at a time of its choosing.^ New Caledonia's traffic drives on the right.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

^ Nouméa is the capital city of the French territory of New Caledonia.
  • TrekByBike.com - Cycling in New Caledonia - Nouméa 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

^ New-caledonia calling card .

History

Settled by both Britain and France during the first half of the 19th century, the island became a French possession in 1853. It served as a penal colony for four decades after 1864.
The islands have been an overseas territory of France since 1956.
The 1988 Matignon Accords grant substantial autonomy to the islands; formally under French law. .Agitation for independence during the 1980s and early 1990s seems to have dissipated.^ Agitation for independence during the 1980s and early 1990s ended in the 1998 Noumea Accord, which over a period of 15 to 20 years will transfer an increasing amount of governing responsibility from France to New Caledonia.
  • Jobs in New Caledonia Careers, Jobs, Education - Careers.org 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC international.careers.org [Source type: News]

A referendum on independence was held in 1998 but did not pass; a new referendum is scheduled for 2014.
.New Caledonia has a national holiday for Bastille Day on 14 July (1789).^ Bastille Day, 14 July (1789) .
  • New Caledonia - SPAMfighter 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spamfighter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ National Holiday: 14th July, Bastille Day (1788).
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among countries, only Australia, South Africa , and Madagascar have more endemic plant families; these nations are also vastly larger than New Caledonia.
  • Biological diversity in New Caledonia - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Climate

.New Caledonia has a semi-tropical climate, modified by southeast trade winds.^ Tropical dry forests in New Caledonia.
  • Biological diversity in New Caledonia - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Caledonia has a semi-tropical climate influenced by southeast trade winds.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

^ A recent study suggests that New Caledonia's sclerophyll forest is the most threatened tropical dry forest in the world.
  • Biological diversity in New Caledonia - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is often hot and humid in January and February.^ During the southern hemisphere summer, it is often hot and humid and during this period the islands are subject to tropical cyclones, most frequent from November to March.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

^ Nouma has a semi-tropical climate and summer in the southern hemisphere is often hot and humid.
  • TrekByBike.com - Cycling in New Caledonia - Nouméa 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

^ I am thinking of travelling to New Caledonia in mid-late January/early February but have heard it is the tropical cyclone season then, and can be rainy and humid.
  • New Caledonia Travel Forum - VirtualTourist.com 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC forum.virtualtourist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The islands are subject to tropical cyclones, most frequent from November to March.^ During the southern hemisphere summer, it is often hot and humid and during this period the islands are subject to tropical cyclones, most frequent from November to March.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

.During winter (April to August) the daytime temperature is around 22 degrees.^ However, during the winter (May to August) the daytime temperature is around 22 degrees and it is relatively dry and comfortable, a perfect climate for cycling.
  • TrekByBike.com - Cycling in New Caledonia - Nouméa 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

^ However, during the winter (April to August) the daytime temperature is around 22 degrees; and it is relatively dry and comfortable, a perfect climate for cycling.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

^ Weather in New Caledonia August/October Posted: Sun June 22, 2008 02:08 AM UTC Hi' What's the weather like in New Caledonia during August and October?
  • New Caledonia Travel Forum - VirtualTourist.com 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC forum.virtualtourist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The water may still be warm, but it often feels too cool to really want to go swimming.^ Apparently the locals often indicate that beyond a certain point there is no more water available and this may or may not be the case.
  • WORLDTWITCH - Vanuatu & New Caledonia Trip Report by Barry Wright, July 1999 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.worldtwitch.com [Source type: General]

^ Apartment blocks seemed to go up overnight, although in the villages there was still no running water or electricity.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Geography

.The main island of New Caledonia is one of the largest in the Pacific Ocean and its terrain consist of coastal plains with interior mountains.^ One of the largest islands in the Pacific, its terrain consists of coastal plains with interior mountains.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

^ Turtle hunters, Turtle Island, New Caledonia .
  • New caledonia Images and Stock Photos. 98 New caledonia photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ The region's 18,972 km 2 consist of the main island of Grande Terre and the smaller Loyalty Islands to the east, Belep and Surprise Islands to the north and Isle of Pines to the south.
  • Biological diversity in New Caledonia - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The highest point is Mont Panie (1,628 m).^ Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Mont Panie 1,628 m .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC theworldfactbook.info [Source type: News]

^ The highest point is Mont Panie (5,340 ft/1,628 m).
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

.Grand Terre is rich in minerals, and is an important source of many ores, mainly nickel and chromium.^ Grande Terre is rich in minerals, and is an important source of many ores.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

^ In New Caledonia, they mainly landed on northern Grande Terre and the Loyalty Islands, where they intermarried with the Melanesian tribes.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grande Terre's west coast, where many continue to run large cattle properties.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There is a mountainous interior green with subtropical foliage. .The outlying islands are coral-based, and have stunning white sand, and sport palm trees.^ The outlying islands are coral-based and have stunning white sand and palm trees.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

^ For the ultimate in lazy-day getaways, head to the islands of Fiji, where your most strenuous decision is which palm tree to sleep under.
  • Lonely Planet Vanuatu & New Caledonia Travel Guide 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC shop.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: News]

^ NC Coral Palms Island sets a new benchmark in elegance and luxury for our destination.
  • South Pacific Tourism Organisation - Comprehensive listings for Accommodation In New Caledonia (Full Listing) hotels, resorts, motels, guest houses, other accommodation and activities, sight seeing, things to do, including online booking reservations. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spto.org [Source type: General]

Economy

.New Caledonia has about 25% of the world's known nickel resources.^ Overview: New Caledonia has about 25% of the world's known nickel resources.

^ New Caledonia has the largest known deposits of nickel in the world.
  • Biological diversity in New Caledonia - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Caledonia has about 25% of the world's known nickel resources.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

.In recent years, the economy has suffered because of depressed international demand for nickel, the principal source of export earnings.^ In recent years the city has been going through a building spree unparalleled since the nickel-boom era.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only a small amount of the land is suitable for cultivation, and food accounts for about 20% of imports.^ Only a small amount of the land is suitable for cultivation, and food accounts for about 20% of imports.

.In addition to nickel, the substantial financial support from France and tourism are keys to the health of the economy.^ In addition to nickel, substantial financial support from France - equal to more than 15% of GDP - and tourism are keys to the health of the economy.

^ In addition to nickel, the substantial financial support from France and tourism are keys to the health of the economy.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

The situation in 1998 was clouded by the spillover of financial problems in East Asia and by lower prices for nickel. Nickel prices jumped in 1999-2000, and large additions were made to capacity. Strikes in the building industry in 2001, which lasted four months, adversely affected many other sectors of the economy. .French Government interests in the New Caledonian nickel industry are being transferred to local ownership.^ Cuisine is traditional French or New Caledonian."
  • South Pacific Tourism Organisation - Comprehensive listings for Accommodation In New Caledonia (Full Listing) hotels, resorts, motels, guest houses, other accommodation and activities, sight seeing, things to do, including online booking reservations. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spto.org [Source type: General]

^ Substantial new investment in the nickel industry, combined with the recovery of global nickel prices, brightens the economic outlook for the next several years.

^ New Caledonia is a French dependency with nineteen known endemics still possible on the mainland, the New Caledonian Owlet-Nightjar, Rail and the Lorikeet almost certainly extinct.
  • WORLDTWITCH - Vanuatu & New Caledonia Trip Report by Barry Wright, July 1999 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.worldtwitch.com [Source type: General]

.
  • New Caledonia Airport (IATA: NOU) (ICAO: NWWW), in Païta, 52km northwest of the capital city of Noumea, (687) 35 11 18, [www.cci-nc.com/tontouta] Air France provides direct flights from Paris.^ Sunset over sea, New Caledonia, France .
    • New caledonia Images and Stock Photos. 98 New caledonia photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ New Caledonia via City.Net .

    ^ From Auckland there is a direct flight on Air New Zealand to New Caledonia.
    • TrekByBike.com - Cycling in New Caledonia - Nouméa 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]
    • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

    .Regular flights are available from Tokyo on Aircalin, as New Caledonia is very popular with the Japanese.^ Common on New Caledonia, very tame.
    • WORLDTWITCH - Vanuatu & New Caledonia Trip Report by Barry Wright, July 1999 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.worldtwitch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ New Caledonia – People Photos *** Note: Only people groups with photos available are displayed here.
    • Joshua Project - Ethnic People Groups of New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Check the New Caledonia Tourism web site for rates and availability.
    • TrekByBike.com - Cycling in New Caledonia - Nouméa 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

    .Air New Zealand and Qantas also serve the airport.^ From Auckland there is a direct flight on Air New Zealand to New Caledonia.
    • TrekByBike.com - Cycling in New Caledonia - Nouméa 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]
    • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

    ^ From Australia and New Zealand there are several direct flights per week on Qantas Air, Air New Zealand, and AirCalin.
    • TrekByBike.com - Cycling in New Caledonia - Nouméa 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]
    • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

    .There are also flights from various Pacific nations, New Zealand, Australia, and Southeast Asia.^ From Auckland there is a direct flight on Air New Zealand to New Caledonia.
    • TrekByBike.com - Cycling in New Caledonia - Nouméa 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]
    • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

    ^ COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: New Caledonia is a French overseas territory located in the Southwest Pacific near Australia.

    ^ When the French flag was raised at Balade on 24 September 1853, Britain did not react because it was too busy with newly acquired possessions in new Zealand and Australia.
    • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    However, there aren't many flights overall, so beware of availability. There is little or no competition on routes, so be very wary of high flight prices.
  • Noumea-Magenta Airport (IATA: GEA) , 4 km from the city center, (687) 25 14 00. Serves all domestic flights within New Caledonia, such as the Loyalty Islands (Maré, Tiga, Lifou, Ouvéa), from Isle of Pines in the south to Belep Islands in the northern tip of the mainland as well as Koné and Koumac on the west coast and Touho on the east coast.

By boat

.Noumea is a popular port of call for people sailing around the Pacific, though most dare not sail during cyclone season.^ During the southern hemisphere summer, it is often hot and humid and during this period the islands are subject to tropical cyclones, most frequent from November to March.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

^ Europeans aside, many of these people originally came to New Caledonia to work in the mines and at the huge nickel smelter just north of the city centre; the smelter has made Noumea the South Pacific's most industrialised city.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Avoid the rainy cyclone season from December to March, since it is hot and humid during that time and not pleasant to cycle.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

Get around

By car

Rentals - cheapest are:
  • Red point (requires drivers above 24 years of age)

By bus or taxi

The buses aren't too bad and go pretty much everywhere, but they aren't frequent. However, the buses are worth trying and will save you money. .You can catch a bus that will take you very conveniently from the Baie Des Citrons to downtown Noumea that will cost 200CFP each way.^ Auguste Page Baie des Citrons .
  • South Pacific Tourism Organisation - Comprehensive listings for Accommodation In New Caledonia (Full Listing) hotels, resorts, motels, guest houses, other accommodation and activities, sight seeing, things to do, including online booking reservations. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spto.org [Source type: General]

^ Baie des Citrons,BP 3340 98846 Noumea Cedex .
  • South Pacific Tourism Organisation - Comprehensive listings for Accommodation In New Caledonia (Full Listing) hotels, resorts, motels, guest houses, other accommodation and activities, sight seeing, things to do, including online booking reservations. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spto.org [Source type: General]

^ "Ideally located by the Baie des Citrons beach, facing the most attractive beach of Noumea.
  • South Pacific Tourism Organisation - Comprehensive listings for Accommodation In New Caledonia (Full Listing) hotels, resorts, motels, guest houses, other accommodation and activities, sight seeing, things to do, including online booking reservations. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spto.org [Source type: General]

This is a good alternative to a taxi. The bus that services this route is the No 1 Bus and it is green. .This will assist you on your return to the Baie Des Citrons (and Anse Vata) since you will be looking for the Green Number 1 Bus.^ Since the signing of the Accords de Matignon in 1988, peace has returned to Noumea.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Frequently on weekends you will see cyclists pedaling around the bays of Noumea usually on the circuit between Baie d'Orphelinat and Anse Vata.
  • TrekByBike.com - Cycling in New Caledonia - Nouméa 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

^ New Caledonia, Noumea, Baie des citrons .
  • New caledonia Images and Stock Photos. 98 New caledonia photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

.The bus ride takes about 15 to 20 minutes.^ A referendum on full independence is now scheduled to take place in 15 to 20 years.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "This three-star rated resort is settled between the mountains and the sea, just about a 20 minutes ride from Noumea.
  • South Pacific Tourism Organisation - Comprehensive listings for Accommodation In New Caledonia (Full Listing) hotels, resorts, motels, guest houses, other accommodation and activities, sight seeing, things to do, including online booking reservations. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spto.org [Source type: General]

A taxi for the same destination will cost approximately 850CFP each way, compared to 200CFP each way on the bus. Taxi's do not cruise the streets to pick up passengers as in other cities. They have to be telephoned to come to where you are. .This makes the bus a good alternative because the journey time is not much longer than taking a taxi.^ To return to Noumea airport, 55 Km from we used a public bus from the bus terminal in Noumea that cost us 400 francs each, considerably less than a tourist bus or taxi, journey time one hour.
  • WORLDTWITCH - Vanuatu & New Caledonia Trip Report by Barry Wright, July 1999 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.worldtwitch.com [Source type: General]

^ "If a pandemic occurs, it will play out in a much longer timeframe (than SARS),” Chan said.

If you are in a hotel or other accommodation you just ask them to call you a taxi. The same applies in a store you are shopping at in Noumea. If you have just purchased something, even groceries in a small store they will be happy to call you a taxi.

Hitching

It is possible, but not advised. Around celebrations there are many drunk drivers on the roads. .Locals defer travel until daylight hours if possible because roads at night are very dangerous and few drivers carry sufficient insurance.^ Drinking and driving is very common and you must watch out for drunken drivers on the road on weekends and any public holidays.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

.
  • Jean-Marie Tjibaou Center, a gift from the French Government.^ The statue of the legendary Jean-Marie Tjibaou, for whom the center was named, stands on top of the hill overlooking the center.
    • TrekByBike.com - Cycling in New Caledonia - Nouméa 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

    .The architect was Renzo Piano, an Italian architect.
  • Botanical garden
  • Wandering along the waterfront in Noumea - Baie des Citrons and Anse Vata.
  • Snorkeling, diving, windsurfing
    • Îlot Canard just outside the Anse Vata is a good place for beginners
    • Aguille de Prony is an amazing underwater structure in the Prony bay south of Noumea
  • relaxing, tanning, and generally doing nothing
    • Baie des Citrons and the Anse Vata are common beaches at the Noumea peninsula
    • Îlot Maitre has a resort.^ Baie de Prony .
      • South Pacific Tourism Organisation - Comprehensive listings for Accommodation In New Caledonia (Full Listing) hotels, resorts, motels, guest houses, other accommodation and activities, sight seeing, things to do, including online booking reservations. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spto.org [Source type: General]

      ^ "Ideally located by the Baie des Citrons beach, facing the most attractive beach of Noumea.
      • South Pacific Tourism Organisation - Comprehensive listings for Accommodation In New Caledonia (Full Listing) hotels, resorts, motels, guest houses, other accommodation and activities, sight seeing, things to do, including online booking reservations. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spto.org [Source type: General]

      ^ Auguste Page Baie des Citrons .
      • South Pacific Tourism Organisation - Comprehensive listings for Accommodation In New Caledonia (Full Listing) hotels, resorts, motels, guest houses, other accommodation and activities, sight seeing, things to do, including online booking reservations. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spto.org [Source type: General]

      .This can be reached by taxi boat from the Anse Vata, and by boat from the Baie de Mouselle
    • Numerous other tourist resorts can be found throughout the Grande Terre and Île des Pins
  • eating French and local cuisine
  • hiking, camping
    • Parc Rivière Bleu in the Yaté region south of Noumea
    • Joining a hiking group is generally a good idea, since you then can really enjoy the great scenery without fear of getting lost, or having to stick with conventional tourist spots....^ Baie d'Oro Ile des Pins .
      • South Pacific Tourism Organisation - Comprehensive listings for Accommodation In New Caledonia (Full Listing) hotels, resorts, motels, guest houses, other accommodation and activities, sight seeing, things to do, including online booking reservations. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spto.org [Source type: General]

      ^ Baie de Ouaméo Ile des Pins .
      • South Pacific Tourism Organisation - Comprehensive listings for Accommodation In New Caledonia (Full Listing) hotels, resorts, motels, guest houses, other accommodation and activities, sight seeing, things to do, including online booking reservations. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spto.org [Source type: General]

      ^ "We offer you the best of both worlds: a perfect location on the famous, sweeping Bay of Anse Vata, the resort area of Noumea, yet only ten minutes from the town centre and the domestic airport of Magenta.
      • South Pacific Tourism Organisation - Comprehensive listings for Accommodation In New Caledonia (Full Listing) hotels, resorts, motels, guest houses, other accommodation and activities, sight seeing, things to do, including online booking reservations. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spto.org [Source type: General]

      cat
    • .
  • Yacht charter New Caledonia [1] Windward Islands, one of the worlds largest yacht charter companies, can take care of all charter requirements, from bareboat to luxury yacht in New Caledonia and Vanuatu.^ New Caledonia has the largest known deposits of nickel in the world.
    • Biological diversity in New Caledonia - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New Caledonia is one of the smallest hotspots in the world (the size of New Jersey).
    • Biological diversity in New Caledonia - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Exceptional plant groups found in New Caledonia include 44 species of gymnosperms, of which all but one species are endemic, including 13 endemic species of the genus Araucaria , an ancient group of Gondwanaland gymnosperms, of which there are only 19 worldwide, and the world's only parasitic conifer, Parasitaxus ustus .
    • Biological diversity in New Caledonia - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Operating from different offices worldwide (UK, USA, Honk Kong, Dubai, Germany, Italy, France, Spain and Switzerland).

Talk

.The official language is French, and it is difficult to find English speakers outside of Noumea.^ The official language is French, and it is difficult to find English speakers outside of Noumea.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

^ In Noumea, French, English, and Japanese are widely spoken at hotels, restaurants, and shops.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

^ Languages: French (official) and more than 30 Melanesian and Polynesian dialects.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Noumea, French, English, and Japanese are widely spoken at hotels, restaurants, and shops.^ In Noumea, French, English, and Japanese are widely spoken at hotels, restaurants, and shops.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

^ Comfortable hotel in the heart of Noumea, convenient for business and leisure, with restaurants, shops and theatres at your door.
  • South Pacific Tourism Organisation - Comprehensive listings for Accommodation In New Caledonia (Full Listing) hotels, resorts, motels, guest houses, other accommodation and activities, sight seeing, things to do, including online booking reservations. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spto.org [Source type: General]

^ The official language is French, and it is difficult to find English speakers outside of Noumea.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

To enjoy a place like this, you should really endeavor to learn some French.

Buy

.The cartoon series La Brousse en Folie and Le Sentier Des Hommes by Bernard Berger will give you an insight in the local culture and tradition.^ Les Paillottes de la Ouenghi .
  • South Pacific Tourism Organisation - Comprehensive listings for Accommodation In New Caledonia (Full Listing) hotels, resorts, motels, guest houses, other accommodation and activities, sight seeing, things to do, including online booking reservations. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spto.org [Source type: General]

^ Les poissons d'eau douce de la Nouvelle-Caledonie.
  • Biological diversity in New Caledonia - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Your host will be pleased to welcome you and spoil you with her traditional local and Melanesian cuisine."
  • South Pacific Tourism Organisation - Comprehensive listings for Accommodation In New Caledonia (Full Listing) hotels, resorts, motels, guest houses, other accommodation and activities, sight seeing, things to do, including online booking reservations. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spto.org [Source type: General]

The comics are written in French, the former imitating the local accent and grammar (or lack thereof)
.Other than that, plenty of conventional souvenirs shops may be found throughout Noumea.^ New Caledonia was founded as a penal colony and the first shiploads of convicts arrived in May 1864 at Port-de-France (present-day Noumea).
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Costs

.New Caledonia is very expensive, since much of the food needs to be imported.^ New Caledonia is very expensive, since much of the food needs to be imported.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

^ Common on New Caledonia, very tame.
  • WORLDTWITCH - Vanuatu & New Caledonia Trip Report by Barry Wright, July 1999 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.worldtwitch.com [Source type: General]

^ Accommodations in New Caledonia are quite expensive.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

.There is no culture of bargaining either and attempting such might cause offense.^ There is no culture of bargaining and attempting such might cause offense.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

^ The object of the theft-type offenses is the taking of money or property, but there is no force or threat of force against the victims.
  • Caledonia, New York (NY) - Sperling's BestPlaces 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: News]

.
  • Bougna, a traditional meal among the native Melanesians, which consists of some form of meat, pork, chicken, fruitbat, crab, etc, along with roots such as yams and sweet potatoes.^ Western culture has reached even the most remote villages where some forms of business and capitalist organization can be seen, along with an increasing dependence on imported products.
    • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Christianity has been gaining ground and progressively replacing traditional forms of religion, although some communities, Melanesian and Polynesian alike, continue to practice cosmic initiation rights and animism.
    • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This is wrapped in banana leaves and cooked under hot rocks heated in a fire.
  • Coconut crabs
  • Fruitbats
  • All fruits seem to taste very good
Buy food from local markets, which are common to almost every town.
Restaurants are expensive. .You can eat quite well for about 10EUR at a couple of eateries opposite the library in town.^ For longer stays, you must apply for a visa at your nearest French embassy or consulate well beforehand, as the processing time is quite long.

.For travellers on a budget, you'll need to observe what the Kanaks do for the best deals.^ Searching all our suppliers to find you the best hotel deals.
  • New Caledonia Hotels - Best Price Hotels in New Caledonia with Instant Confirmation & Last Minute Bookings 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.southtravels.com [Source type: General]

^ If you travel to New Caledonia with a device that does not accept 220 Volts at 50 Hertz, you will need a voltage converter.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

.French food is (obviously) a specialty, but the range of foods available can be a little limited.^ The French Government Tourism Office, which has a wide range of information available to travelers, can be contacted by telephone at (212) 838-7800.

^ Despite speaking no English and very little French, Neil managed to communicate to the porters in pidgin and whatever he said they understood and food appeared.
  • WORLDTWITCH - Vanuatu & New Caledonia Trip Report by Barry Wright, July 1999 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.worldtwitch.com [Source type: General]

Drink

Try kava. You can recognize a Kava bar by a red light outside and dim lighting inside. It is about 100CFP compared to 500CFP for a beer, so about a fifth of the price. .You drink the Kava immediately once you've purchased it and then go off to a dark bench to relax.^ However, once you've passed the reservation facade, you'll find they are warm people filled with natural good humour.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once your purchase is complete you will be given immediate access to view reports online.

Sleep

.There are many places around New Caledonia that are affordable and in good condition.^ It took four months to sail from France to New Caledonia around the Cape of Good Hope.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The population of New Caledonia is about 200,000, with more than half of the population living in and around Noumea, the country’s capital, located in the south of the Grande Terre.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

^ Good news is that we can travel after all, we are considered in transit passengers in New Caledonia and therefore do not require visas.
  • Visa for New Caledonia - Cruise Critic Message Boards 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC boards.cruisecritic.com [Source type: General]

.All you have to do is search around and you will find somewhere to sleep within your price range.^ Access New Caledonia Crawler on your mobile and find what you need on the go.
  • New Caledonia Crawler - The New Caledonia Search Engine and Business Directory 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.newcaledoniacrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Would you like to set New Caledonia Crawler as your default search provider?
  • New Caledonia Crawler - The New Caledonia Search Engine and Business Directory 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.newcaledoniacrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can add up to 8 phone lines under the same account and make PIN free calls from all your registered phone lines.
  • New caledonia Phone Cards : Call to New caledonia for 38.00 cents/min, New caledonia Phone Card by iDPhoneCard.com 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.idphonecard.com [Source type: General]

Work

Voluntary service

Volontariat Civil à l'Aide Technique ( VCAT [2]). .Conditions: you must be French or from another EU-member state or a country belonging to the European Economic Area.^ For longer stays, you must apply for a visa at your nearest French embassy or consulate well beforehand, as the processing time is quite long.

^ Once the ship is in the waters of a country, you're considered to be IN that country and therefore you must have the proper documentation.
  • Visa for New Caledonia - Cruise Critic Message Boards 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC boards.cruisecritic.com [Source type: General]

^ TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.

You must be between 18 and 28 years old (inclusive). .You must not have had your civic rights revoked by a court or have been convicted of certain offenses.^ For longer stays, you must apply for a visa at your nearest French embassy or consulate well beforehand, as the processing time is quite long.

Stay safe

New Caledonia is fairly safe.
.
  • When snorkeling, one should avoid direct contact with poisonous sea urchins, as well as avoid sustaining scrapes from coral structures, which tends to cause irritations and swelling.
  • A seasnake known locally as the Tricot Rayé has a potentially lethal venom, but the snake is not aggressive when left alone, and only attacks when threatened.
  • There are sharks, though rarely Great White Sharks.^ It is well worth having though some of the illustrations are not very good and there are many inaccuracies in the text.
    • WORLDTWITCH - Vanuatu & New Caledonia Trip Report by Barry Wright, July 1999 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.worldtwitch.com [Source type: General]

    .They can be quite big mind you and basically avoid shark attacks by:
    • Not having caught (bleeding) fish near yourself
    • Facing the shark, so that to the shark, you look large, vertical and difficult to bite
    • Going mountain-climbing
    • Not going near the water
  • There are no crocodiles living in New Caledonia.^ There is no U.S. embassy or consulate in New Caledonia.

    ^ New Caledonia are already SPAMfighters - are you?
    • New Caledonia - SPAMfighter 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spamfighter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The rural settlers, or Caldoches, are those who were born in New Caledonia, with ancestral ties that go back to the days of the convicts, or to the early French settlers, who were known as colons.
    • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Rogue individuals have been observed on the island no more than twice within the past 200 years. Probably swept out from the Solomon Islands.

Stay healthy

Iodine or a similar disinfectant is invaluable to fight off small infections, which quite commonly occur in most sores and scratches.
Some mosquitoes carry the dengue fever virus. There is no vaccination for this. .Consult a doctor for more information, and see the Wikitravel article.^ For more information, see the boxed text below: .
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.NEW CALEDONIA (Fr.^ New Caledonia tourism www.nouvelle-caledonie-tourisme.fr www.nouvellecaledonietourisme-sud.com .
  • New Caledonia, Noumea, an Aircalin destination 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC jp.aircalin.com [Source type: News]

^ New Caledonia Fr.
  • New Caledonia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: News]

^ NEW CALEDONIA (Fr.

.Nouvelle-Caledonie), an island in the western Pacific Ocean, belonging to France.^ Nouvelle-Caledonie), an island in the western Pacific Ocean , belonging to France .

^ Chief of state: President of France Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995) Geography: Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia.
  • New Caledonia - Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies - Melanesia - South Pacific - Kanaky :: geography, economy, science, people, culture, environment, government and history 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.nationsonline.org [Source type: News]

^ The question political authorities of this Pacific island territory of France must ...

.(For map, see Pacific Ocean.^ (For map , see Pacific Ocean .

) It is about 250 m. long, and has an extreme breadth of 35 m. and an area including adjacent islets of 6450 sq. m.; is situated at the southern extremity of .Melanesia, between 20° 5' and 22° 16' S., and between 164° and 167° 30' E., and, like all the chief islands of that chain and the chain itself, lies north-west and south-east.^ This is the prevailing type in the east and south of the island.

^ Melanesia , between 20° 5' and 22° 16' S., and between 164° and 167° 30' E., and, like all the chief islands of that chain and the chain itself, lies north-west and south-east.

^ Chief of state: President of France Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995) Geography: Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia.
  • New Caledonia - Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies - Melanesia - South Pacific - Kanaky :: geography, economy, science, people, culture, environment, government and history 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.nationsonline.org [Source type: News]

.An almost unbroken barrier reef skirts the west shore at about 5 m.^ An almost unbroken barrier reef skirts the west shore at about 5 m.

distance, enclosing a navigable channel; on the east, which is more abrupt and precipitous, it is much interrupted. .To the north the reefs continue, marking the former extension of the land, for about 160 m., ending with the Huon Islands.^ The d’Entrecasteaux Reefs is consist of two separate lagoons centered on tiny Huon and Surprise Islands, with a deep strait 10 km wide between.

^ The Loyalty Islands account for more than one-tenth of New Caledonia’s total land area and about one-tenth of the population.
  • New Caledonia (French overseas country, Pacific Ocean) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ The islands and reefs at the south end of New Caledonia offer a plethora of snug anchorages and interesting places for diving and snorkeling.
  • New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.j40.org [Source type: News]

.The Isle of Pines, so called from its araucarias (its native name is Kunie), geologically a continuation of New Caledonia, lies 30 m.^ What is the official name of New Caledonia?

^ New Caledonia calling card: 16.7 .
  • New Caledonia Calling Cards and New Caledonia Phone Cards 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.alosmart.com [Source type: News]

^ The Isle of Pines, so called from its araucarias (its native name is Kunie), geologically a continuation of New Caledonia, lies 30 m.

from its southeast extremity. .It formerly abounded in sandalwood, and consists of a central plateau surrounded by a belt of cultivation.^ It formerly abounded in sandalwood , and consists of a central plateau surrounded by a belt of cultivation.

.At the two extremities of New Caledonia, parallel longitudinal ranges of mountains enclose valleys; for the rest the island consists essentially of confused masses and ranges of mountains, rising to an extreme elevation of 5387 ft., the plains being chiefly the deltas of rivers.^ What is the largest island in New Caledonia?
  • New Caledonia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: News]

^ At the two extremities of New Caledonia, parallel longitudinal ranges of mountains enclose valleys; for the rest the island consists essentially of confused masses and ranges of mountains, rising to an extreme elevation of 5387 ft., the plains being chiefly the deltas of rivers.

^ Turtle hunters, Turtle Island, New Caledonia .
  • New caledonia Images and Stock Photos. 98 New caledonia photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

.The landscape is rich and beautiful, varied with grand rock scenery, the coast-line being broken by numerous small bays, into which flow streams rarely navigable even for short distances, but often skilfully utilized by the natives for irrigation; and sometimes flowing in subterranean channels.^ The landscape is rich and beautiful, varied with grand rock scenery, the coast-line being broken by numerous small bays, into which flow streams rarely navigable even for short distances, but often skilfully utilized by the natives for irrigation ; and sometimes flowing in subterranean channels.

^ Between these lesser ranges stretch good-sized plains of great fertility, admirably watered by numerous streams which the natives skilfully utilize for purposes of irrigation.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The streams of the same basin usually unite to form one river which is navigable for vessels of light draught for about a dozen miles from the coast.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The larger rivers in the wet season form impassable morasses, especially in the S.E., where the mountains rise in isolated masses from flat plains.^ The larger rivers in the wet season form impassable morasses, especially in the S.E., where the mountains rise in isolated masses from flat plains.

^ At the two extremities of New Caledonia, parallel longitudinal ranges of mountains enclose valleys; for the rest the island consists essentially of confused masses and ranges of mountains, rising to an extreme elevation of 5387 ft., the plains being chiefly the deltas of rivers.

Geology.' - .Speaking generally, New Caledonia may be described as a band of Palaeozoic and probably Lower Palaeozoic rocks, associated doubtless with some Archean beds; this band runs from north-west to south-east, through the whole length of the island.^ Turtle hunters, Turtle Island, New Caledonia .
  • New caledonia Images and Stock Photos. 98 New caledonia photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ New Caledonia for several generations.
  • Kanaks of New Caledonia - World Directory of Minorities 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: News]

^ Is New Caledonia one island?
  • travel to New Caledonia, South Pacific islands 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.southpacific.org [Source type: News]

.The second element in the composition of the island consists of Mesozoic beds, which occur in a broken band along most of the south-western coast.^ Triassic beds of the Pacific coastal type occur in a band along the south-western coast.

^ The second element in the composition of the island consists of Mesozoic beds, which occur in a broken band along most of the south-western coast.

^ The region's 18,972 km 2 consist of the main island of Grande Terre and the smaller Loyalty Islands to the east, Belep and Surprise Islands to the north and Isle of Pines to the south.
  • Biological diversity in New Caledonia - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of the island is occupied by the band of the old rocks, which include mica, glaucophane and sericite-schists and slates; there are small intrusions of granite, and numerous dikes and masses of basic eruptive rocks.^ Most of the island is occupied by the band of the old rocks, which include mica , glaucophane and sericite- schists and slates; there are small intrusions of granite , and numerous dikes and masses of basic eruptive rocks.

^ New Caledonia (one of the largest in the Pacific Ocean), the archipelago of Iles Loyaute, and numerous small, sparsely populated islands and atolls People .
  • New Caledonia Facts 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.tet.org [Source type: News]

^ New Caledonia (one of the largest in the Pacific Ocean), the archipelago of Iles Loyaute, and numerous small, sparsely populated islands and atolls .
  • New Caledonia - SPAMfighter 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spamfighter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The slates are interbedded with limestones containing fossil brachiopods, which have led to their determination as Silurian or Devonian; but L. Peletan classes all these limestones as Triassic.^ The slates are interbedded with limestones containing fossil brachiopods, which have led to their determination as Silurian or Devonian ; but L. Peletan classes all these limestones as Triassic.

.Triassic beds of the Pacific coastal type occur in a band along the south-western coast.^ Triassic beds of the Pacific coastal type occur in a band along the south-western coast.

^ The second element in the composition of the island consists of Mesozoic beds, which occur in a broken band along most of the south-western coast.

^ Between 1864 and 1922 France sent a total of 22,000 convicted felons to penal colonies along the south west coast of the island.

.They are covered by marine Jurassic beds and they in turn by Cretaceous coal-bearing, terrestrial deposits, resembling those of New Zealand.^ They are covered by marine Jurassic beds and they in turn by Cretaceous coal -bearing, terrestrial deposits, resembling those of New Zealand .

^ According to E. Glasser, the basic igneous rocks which are associated with the mineral deposits of New Caledonia were intrusive in Cainozoic times, at the severing of the connexion between New Caledonia and New Zealand .

^ However New Caledonia were not intimidated as they gradually turned aggressive and physical defensively.
  • New Caledonian Basketball, Teams, Scores, Stats, News, Standings - AUSTRALIABASKET 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.australiabasket.com [Source type: General]

.According to E. Glasser, the basic igneous rocks which are associated with the mineral deposits of New Caledonia were intrusive in Cainozoic times, at the severing of the connexion between New Caledonia and New Zealand.^ TIME SQUARE rate to New Caledonia .
  • New Caledonia Calling Cards and New Caledonia Phone Cards 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.alosmart.com [Source type: News]

^ Several airlines serve New Caledonia.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

^ According to E. Glasser, the basic igneous rocks which are associated with the mineral deposits of New Caledonia were intrusive in Cainozoic times, at the severing of the connexion between New Caledonia and New Zealand .

.New Caledonia is part of the Australasian Festoon, and in its general characters resembles the geology of New Zealand.^ New Caledonia is part of the Australasian Festoon , and in its general characters resembles the geology of New Zealand.

^ New Caledonia for several generations.
  • Kanaks of New Caledonia - World Directory of Minorities 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: News]

^ In 1774 James Cook was the first to land on Grande Terre, and named it New Caledonia because he believed it resembled the highlands of Scotland (to the Romans, Caledonia).

.The main mineral deposits are the nickel ores, occurring as veins of garnierite, associated with peridotite dikes, in the ancient rocks of the eastern slope of the island.^ The main mineral deposits are the nickel ores, occurring as veins of garnierite, associated with peridotite dikes, in the ancient rocks of the eastern slope of the island.

^ According to E. Glasser, the basic igneous rocks which are associated with the mineral deposits of New Caledonia were intrusive in Cainozoic times, at the severing of the connexion between New Caledonia and New Zealand .

^ These rocks have weathered to form the striking terre rouge (i.e., red soils that overlie the island’s extensive deposits of nickel, chrome, and cobalt ore).
  • New Caledonia (French overseas country, Pacific Ocean) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

.1 The basis of knowledge of the geology of New Caledonia was laid by Garnier, Ann.^ The basis of knowledge of the geology of New Caledonia was laid by Garnier, Ann.

^ New Caledonia is part of the Australasian Festoon , and in its general characters resembles the geology of New Zealand.

^ Our knowledge of the flora of New Caledonia: Endemism and diversity in relation to vegetation types and substrates.
  • Biological diversity in New Caledonia - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

des Mines,
ser. 6, vol. xii. (1867). .Later accounts are by E. Glasser, "Les Richesses minerales de la Nouvelle Caledonie," Ann.^ Les Paillottes de la Ouenghi .
  • South Pacific Tourism Organisation - Comprehensive listings for Accommodation In New Caledonia (Full Listing) hotels, resorts, motels, guest houses, other accommodation and activities, sight seeing, things to do, including online booking reservations. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spto.org [Source type: General]

^ Les poissons d'eau douce de la Nouvelle-Caledonie.
  • Biological diversity in New Caledonia - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later accounts are by E. Glasser, "Les Richesses minerales de la Nouvelle Caledonie," Ann.

des Mines,
ser. 10, vol. iv. mem. pp. 299-392, pl. xi., and vol. v. mem. pp. 2 9-54, 5 0 3-7 01, pl. ii. and xii. .(1904); and by L. Peletan, Les Richesses minerales des colonies francaises (Paris, 1902).^ Later accounts are by E. Glasser, "Les Richesses minerales de la Nouvelle Caledonie," Ann.

^ L. Peletan, Les Richesses minerales des colonies francaises (Paris, 1902).

Table of contents

Climate, Flora, Fauna

.The hottest and wettest months are from December to March, but there is usually a fresh trade-wind blowing and the climate is healthy.^ The climate of the islands is tropical, and rainfall is highly seasonal, brought by trade winds that usually come from the east.
  • New Caledonia Airports, Airports in New Caledonia, New Caledonia Air Ports, Pacific 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.airgorilla.com [Source type: News]

^ The fresh season (June to September) averages around 20C with rainfall at its highest in the months December to March.
  • Guidebooks: New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.talpacific.com [Source type: News]

^ Trade winds from the northeast to the southeast blow most of the year at an average of 16 -18 knots.

.There is much less moisture, and the flora is of a less tropical character than farther north; it has some Polynesian and New Zealand affinities, and on the west coast a partially Australian character; on the higher hills it is stunted; on the lower, however, there are fine .^ French sui generis collectivity located in the South Pacific, 1,500 km east of Australia and 1,700 km north of New Zealand .
  • New Caledonia (Sui Generis Collectivity, France) 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.crwflags.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Melanesian, being closer culturally to the people of Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea than to the French, Polynesian and Asian migrants they now have to share their land with.
  • New Caledonia: Mediterranean Melanesia - New Caledonia - VirtualTourist.com 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC members.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

^ Perhaps not the cheapest place to provision, Noumea however offers a remarkable range of products imported from New Zealand, Australia and France.
  • Noonsite: New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.noonsite.com [Source type: News]

.And Grassland">grass lands, and a scattered growth of niaulis (Melaleuca viridiflora), useful for its timber, bark and cajeput oil.^ Melaleuca viridiflora ), useful for its timber , bark and cajeput oil.

.There is a great variety of fine timber trees.^ There is a great variety of fine timber trees.

.The bread-fruit, sago, banana, vanilla, ginger, arrowroot and curcuma grow wild.^ The bread-fruit , sago , banana , vanilla , ginger , arrowroot and curcuma grow wild.

.The cocoa nut, maize, sugar-cane, coffee, cotton, rice and tobacco (which last does not suffer like other crops from the locusts) do well.^ The cocoa nut , maize , sugar - cane , coffee , cotton , rice and tobacco (which last does not suffer like other crops from the locusts) do well.

^ This most likely took place during trading expeditions to other islands, as the Vanuatus use Kava extensively in ritual as well as every day use.
  • New Caledonia and Kava | Kava dot com 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.kava.com [Source type: News]

.The orange, indigo, lucerne and European vegetables are grown.^ The orange, indigo , lucerne and European vegetables are grown.

.Mammals are very few; they include the rat and Pteropus and other bats.^ Mammals are very few; they include the rat and Pteropus and other bats.

^ The only native mammals are the flying fox, a bat, and the rat.
  • New Caledonia Travel Guide, South Pacific Islands 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.southpacific.org [Source type: News]

.The commonest birds are pigeons (the large notou and other varieties), doves, parrots, kingfishers and ducks.^ The commonest birds are pigeons (the large notou and other varieties), doves, parrots, kingfishers and ducks.

^ PIGEONS AND DOVES: Columbidae Metallic Pigeon Columba vitiensis A strangely difficult bird in much of its range (e.g.
  • TROPICAL BIRDING New Caledonia trip report 2007 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.tropicalbirding.com [Source type: General]

^ "Birds The beautiful notou pigeon (Ducula goliath) is th...
  • New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: News]

.The kagu (Rhinochetus jubatus), a peculiar "wingless" bird, is found here only.^ The kagu ( Rhinochetus jubatus ), a peculiar "wingless" bird , is found here only.

^ Fighting for a Living Planet Birds such as the Kagu (Rhynochetos jubatus) , the only living representative of an entire family unique to New Caledonia, are seriously reduced in numbers and are now confined to isolated fragments of their former range.
  • Birding in New Caledonia with Grandma 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ There are estimated to be only around 400 birds left, almost all of which are found in this large park.
  • TROPICAL BIRDING New Caledonia trip report 2007 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.tropicalbirding.com [Source type: General]

.Turtle abound on the coast, and fish, of which some kinds, as the tetrodons (globe-fish), are poisonous, especially at certain seasons.^ Turtle abound on the coast, and fish , of which some kinds, as the tetrodons (globe-fish), are poisonous, especially at certain seasons.

^ High attack rates of ciguatera poisoning from eating large reef-dwelling fish have been reported on some of the islands.
  • Health Information for New Caledonia (France) | CDC Travelers' Health 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC wwwnc.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was a simple aquarium but did house some beautiful tanks of tropical fish, turtles and sharks.

.Land and marine molluscs are numerous, and include various edible kinds.^ Land and marine molluscs are numerous, and include various edible kinds.

Population

.At the census of 1901 the population of New Caledonia numbered 51,415, consisting of 12,25 3 free Europeans (colonists, soldiers, officials), 2 9 ,106 natives, io,056 convicts.^ At the census of 1901 the population of New Caledonia numbered 51,415, consisting of 12,25 3 free Europeans (colonists, soldiers, officials), 2 9 ,106 natives, io,056 convicts.

^ Languages French is New Caledonia's official language.
  • Guidebooks: New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.talpacific.com [Source type: News]

^ New Caledonia is free from malaria.

.In 1898, however, the introduction of convicts into the island ceased.^ In 1898, however, the introduction of convicts into the island ceased.

.The centres of population are Noumea (Numea), the capital, on a fine harbour of the west coast near the southern extremity of the island, with 7000 inhabitants; Bourail, an agricultural penitentiary (1800); La Foa, in the centre of the coffee plantations; Moindu, St Louis and St Vincent.^ The centres of population are Noumea (Numea), the capital, on a fine harbour of the west coast near the southern extremity of the island, with 7000 inhabitants; Bourail, an agricultural penitentiary (1800); La Foa, in the centre of the coffee plantations; Moindu, St Louis and St Vincent .

^ This Noumea property is located near Noumea Harbour.
  • New Caledonia Hotels - Compare Hotels in New Caledonia and Book With Expedia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.expedia.com [Source type: General]

^ The insurrection of 1856–59 near Nouméa and the uprising of 1878–79, which extended along the west coast from Bouloupari to Poya, seriously endangered French occupation.
  • New Caledonia (French overseas country, Pacific Ocean) :: History -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The natives, whom the French call Kanakas (Canaques, a word meaning "man," applied indiscriminately to many Pacific peoples), live on reservations.^ The natives, whom the French call Kanakas ( Canaques, a word meaning "man," applied indiscriminately to many Pacific peoples), live on reservations.

^ Many people understand English but it should not be expected.?@Whenever you can, using the little French that you know will be greatly appreciated.
  • New Caledonia Restaurants - New Caledonia Restaurants Reviews - VirtualTourist.com 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

^ Some people have likened this sophisticated French Territory to the French Riviera transported to the South Pacific.
  • South Pacific Tourism Organisation - New Caledonia Accommodation Activities Calendar Photo Gallery 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spto.org [Source type: News]

.They are Melanesians of mixed blood, of two fairly distinct types, one sub-Papuan and the other Polynesian.^ They are Melanesians of mixed blood, of two fairly distinct types, one sub-Papuan and the other Polynesian.

^ In modern times, the country became home to a mix of Melanesian and Polynesian countrymen.
  • History of New Caledonia - New Caledonia Travel Guide 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.thebigday.com [Source type: News]

^ One building represented the main island while the other two represented the Loyalty Islands to the East and the Island of Pines to the South.

.Of the first the physical characteristics are a small, thin-limbed body, hair black, short and woolly, projecting jaws, rounded, narrow, retreating forehead, long and narrow head, enormous eyebrow ridges, flat nose and dark skin.^ Of the first the physical characteristics are a small, thin-limbed body, hair black, short and woolly, projecting jaws, rounded, narrow, retreating forehead, long and narrow head, enormous eyebrow ridges, flat nose and dark skin.

^ The second type is characterized by a lighter skin, sometimes of a reddish-yellow, longer, less woolly hair, body taller with better-proportioned limbs, and head broader.

^ There is nowhere a real defining line between the two (many New Caledonians having black skins and woolly hair with Polynesian superiority of limb ), but the Polynesian type is generally found among the chiefs and their kindred.

.The second type is characterized by a lighter skin, sometimes of a reddish-yellow, longer, less woolly hair, body taller with better-proportioned limbs, and head broader.^ The second type is characterized by a lighter skin, sometimes of a reddish-yellow, longer, less woolly hair, body taller with better-proportioned limbs, and head broader.

^ Of the first the physical characteristics are a small, thin-limbed body, hair black, short and woolly, projecting jaws, rounded, narrow, retreating forehead, long and narrow head, enormous eyebrow ridges, flat nose and dark skin.

^ There is nowhere a real defining line between the two (many New Caledonians having black skins and woolly hair with Polynesian superiority of limb ), but the Polynesian type is generally found among the chiefs and their kindred.

.This is the prevailing type in the east and south of the island.^ This is the prevailing type in the east and south of the island.

^ The region's 18,972 km 2 consist of the main island of Grande Terre and the smaller Loyalty Islands to the east, Belep and Surprise Islands to the north and Isle of Pines to the south.
  • Biological diversity in New Caledonia - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia .
  • New Caledonia Facts 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.tet.org [Source type: News]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • CIA - The World Factbook 2002 -- New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC permanent.access.gpo.gov [Source type: News]
  • 1-language.com - The ESL Site: The World Factbook 2002 Online -- New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.1-language.com [Source type: News]

.There is nowhere a real defining line between the two (many New Caledonians having black skins and woolly hair with Polynesian superiority of limb), but the Polynesian type is generally found among the chiefs and their kindred.^ There is nowhere a real defining line between the two (many New Caledonians having black skins and woolly hair with Polynesian superiority of limb ), but the Polynesian type is generally found among the chiefs and their kindred.

^ Many types of birds are also found in this country.
  • New Caledonia Information, New Caledonia Geography 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.mapsofworld.com [Source type: News]

^ They are Melanesians of mixed blood, of two fairly distinct types, one sub-Papuan and the other Polynesian.

.Both sexes among the natives pierce the lobes of the ear for ornaments.^ Both sexes among the natives pierce the lobes of the ear for ornaments.

Tattooing is almost entirely confined to the women. .Both sexes go naked, or with the scantiest loin-cloth.^ Both sexes go naked, or with the scantiest loin -cloth.

.Their huts are usually beehive-shaped, with a single apartment, low narrow door, and no chimney.^ Their huts are usually beehive-shaped, with a single apartment, low narrow door , and no chimney .

.There are various degrees of hereditary chiefships, and a supreme chief recognized by all.^ There are various degrees of hereditary chiefships, and a supreme chief recognized by all.

^ We also thank Guy Dutson for his snippets of information on the area and lastly we thank all the people of Vanuatu for there help in various ways and not ripping us off too much?
  • WORLDTWITCH - Vanuatu & New Caledonia Trip Report by Barry Wright, July 1999 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.worldtwitch.com [Source type: General]

.As in some other Pacific islands, when a son is born the chiefship passes to him, but the father continues to govern as regent.^ Leptospirosis is common on some of the Pacific Islands.
  • Health Information for New Caledonia (France) | CDC Travelers' Health 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC wwwnc.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As in some other Pacific islands, when a son is born the chiefship passes to him, but the father continues to govern as regent .

^ Like what occurred in most other Pacific islands, the missionaries did their best to eradicate the New Caledonian culture.

.All property descends to the eldest son by birth or adoption, though custom demands that the younger members of the family should have a share.^ All property descends to the eldest son by birth or adoption, though custom demands that the younger members of the family should have a share.

.The people have to work on the chief's plantations and fisheries, and also work in parties for each other, breaking up new land, &c.^ The people have to work on the chief's plantations and fisheries , and also work in parties for each other, breaking up new land, &c.

^ Population Total population is approximately 200,000 made up of the local Melanesian people, Europeans, Tahitians and Wallisians, Indonesians, Vietnamese and other origins.
  • Guidebooks: New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.talpacific.com [Source type: News]

^ It is probably derived from the word 'Kanakas', which was used for people from the South Pacific who were abducted by blackbirders (slavers) to work in Australia and other places in the 19th century.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This often ends in feasting and in dances (pilu pilu), which include allegorical representations of events or ideas.^ This often ends in feasting and in dances (pilu pilu), which include allegorical representations of events or ideas.

.The supreme chief's authority is limited by the advice of a council of elders, whom he is obliged to summon in certain emergencies.^ The supreme chief's authority is limited by the advice of a council of elders, whom he is obliged to summon in certain emergencies.

.The standard of morality is low; women are practically slaves, and infanticide was formerly common.^ The standard of morality is low; women are practically slaves, and infanticide was formerly common.

.The Kanakas are excellent agriculturists, being accounted superior in this matter to every other race of the Pacific.^ The Kanakas are excellent agriculturists, being accounted superior in this matter to every other race of the Pacific.

^ It is probably derived from the word 'Kanakas', which was used for people from the South Pacific who were abducted by blackbirders (slavers) to work in Australia and other places in the 19th century.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.About the middle of the 19th century the indigenous population was 60,000. Returns for 1904 showed that this had fallen to rather less than half.^ Returns for 1904 showed that this had fallen to rather less than half.

^ About the middle of the 19th century the indigenous population was 60,000.

^ Less Than $20,000 .
  • Caledonia, New York (NY) - Sperling's BestPlaces 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: News]

.The languages of the different tribes are mutually unintelligible.^ The languages of the different tribes are mutually unintelligible.

^ New Caledonian tribes were widespread and frequently isolated along the coasts, giving rise to the many different indigenous languages.

They express abstract ideas imperfectly. Thus there are several words for eating, each applied to a particular article of food. .Their reckoning shows the same peculiarity.^ Their reckoning shows the same peculiarity.

.The numbers go up to five, and for living objects the word bird is added, for inanimate yam, for large objects ship.'- There are other terms for bundles of sugarcanes, rows (planted) of yams, &c.; and sometimes things are counted by threes.^ There are estimated to be only around 400 birds left, almost all of which are found in this large park.
  • TROPICAL BIRDING New Caledonia trip report 2007 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.tropicalbirding.com [Source type: General]

^ "This little homestay, based provides three fully self-contained cabins for up to five people.
  • South Pacific Tourism Organisation - Comprehensive listings for Accommodation In New Caledonia (Full Listing) hotels, resorts, motels, guest houses, other accommodation and activities, sight seeing, things to do, including online booking reservations. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spto.org [Source type: General]

^ In order to trek up Pic Santo it is a simple case of a very long walk; there is no other option.
  • WORLDTWITCH - Vanuatu & New Caledonia Trip Report by Barry Wright, July 1999 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.worldtwitch.com [Source type: General]

.Ten is two fives, 15 three fives, 20 is a "man" (ten fingers and ten toes), 100 is "five men," and so on.^ Choose from 20 studios, 72 one bedroom, 20 two bedroom or 40 three bedroom appartments.

Administration and Industries

.The colony is administered by a governor, who exercises military power through a marine infantry colonel, and civil power with the assistance of a privy '- A similar usage exists in Malay; see paper by Yule in Jour.^ The colony is administered by a governor, who exercises military power through a marine infantry colonel, and civil power with the assistance of a privy '- A similar usage exists in Malay; see paper by Yule in Jour.

^ It was led by Maurice Lenormand, a Frenchman who had been sent to the colony for military servide3 20 years earlier.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Anthrop. Inst. ix.
290.
council, a director of the interior, a judicial head, and a director of the penitentiary administration. .There is also an elective general council.^ There is also an elective general council.

Noumea is the seat of a superior tribunal, a tribunal of first instance, and a tribunal of commerce. .The island and its dependencies' are divided into five arrondissements.^ The mainland has a chain of high mountains which run the length of the island, dividing the island into two distinct regions.
  • Travel Online > Travel Guide > South Pacific > New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.travelonline.co.nz [Source type: General]

^ Administratively the territory is divided into three provinces (Northern, Southern, and the Loyalty Islands), each with its own assembly.
  • New Caledonia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: News]

^ Under the accords, it was agreed that New Caledonia would be divided into three regions: the Noumea-based South Province, the North Province and the Loyalty Islands Province.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Noumea alone has (since 1879) a municipality, other localities being administered by commissions. There are about 1600 sq. m. of cultivable lands in the alluvial valleys, where coffee, maize, tobacco, sugar-cane, the vine, vegetables, potatoes, and some of the cereals are grown with success. Coffee was introduced about 1870, and has prospered well. .Cheap agricultural labour is supplied by the convicts, by the liberated convicts, the Kanakas, and (to some extent) labourers from the New Hebrides.^ Although the prime concern of the early colonial administration was the reception and control of about 22,000 French convicts sent to New Caledonia between 1864 and 1897, the French also attempted to attract free settlers and obtain a supply of cheap labour.
  • New Caledonia (French overseas country, Pacific Ocean) :: History -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the flow of convicts stopped in 1897, the settlers' free-labour supply was extinguished (although the Kanaks were soon brought in to fill the convicts' place).
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The soil is in three domains: that of the state, for the working of which concessions may be granted; that of the penitentiary administration; and that of the native reserve. .Many horses, cattle and sheep have been imported, and the meat-preserving industry is prosecuted.^ There is subsistence farming, and cattle and poultry are raised, but many foodstuffs must still be imported.
  • New Caledonia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: News]

.Gold is found in the valley of the Diahot, as well as lead and copper at Balade.^ The island of New Caledonia is rich in mineral resources, including nickel, chrome, iron, cobalt, manganese, silver, gold, lead, and copper.
  • New Caledonia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: News]

Iron is found everywhere. .The yearly output of nickel and chrome is considerable, and these minerals, with cobalt, constitute the characteristic wealth of the island.^ These rocks have weathered to form the striking terre rouge (i.e., red soils that overlie the island’s extensive deposits of nickel, chrome, and cobalt ore).
  • New Caledonia (French overseas country, Pacific Ocean) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ The island of New Caledonia is rich in mineral resources, including nickel, chrome, iron, cobalt, manganese, silver, gold, lead, and copper.
  • New Caledonia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: News]

^ Other minerals are also mined including chrome, iron, cobalt and manganese.
  • KANAKY (NEW CALEDONIA) 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.cwo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Coal has been worked near Noumea, and kaolin is found in places.^ Most of these shops are found in town near the Place des Cocotiers, along the Anse Vata and Baie des Citrons and Port Plaisance.
  • Travel Online > Travel Guide > South Pacific > New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.travelonline.co.nz [Source type: General]

Gypsum and marble also deserve mention. .The chief industrial establishments are smelting furnaces for cobalt, meat-preserving works at Ouaco, sugar-works and distilleries at Noumea and La Foa, tobacco, oil and soap factories at Noumea.^ Some of the best land was taken from local leader, Chef Ataf (Chief Ataf) to be used for a women's prison farm at Ponwhary, near La Foa.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LA FOA Just 110km from Noumea, signals the start of “cattle country” and a good base for the exploration of Dogny Plateau and the village of Koindé.

The commerce in 1888 amounted to £480,000, of which ,200,000 represented the trade with France. .In 1900 the total had risen to £820,000, of which £480,000 was for imports and £340,000 for exports, the share of France in that year having been 45% of imports and 47% of exports.^ In 1998, New Caledonians approved a power-sharing agreement with France, and agreed to put off an independence referendum for 15-20 years.
  • New Caledonia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: News]

^ Also in 1871, 26,000 Arab warriors in Algeria, France's North African colony, revolted against the past 40 years' colonisation.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Political consciousness was raised by the first Kanak university students, who returned from France in 1969 having witnessed the student protests in Paris the year before.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The island imports wines, spirits, tissues, clothing and ironmongery; and exports ores, nickel, cobalt and chrome (which represent over three-quarters of the total exports in value), preserved meats and hides, coffee, copra and other colonial produce.^ The local economy is driven by the nickel industry (mining and processing), which employs 3,200 workers and generate 90 per cent of total exports.
  • New Caledonia profile - For Australian exporters - Austrade - Austrade 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.austrade.gov.au [Source type: News]

^ These rocks have weathered to form the striking terre rouge (i.e., red soils that overlie the island’s extensive deposits of nickel, chrome, and cobalt ore).
  • New Caledonia (French overseas country, Pacific Ocean) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

There are about 150 m. of .carriage roads, and in' the mountainous regions there are many footpaths.^ There is little traffic, beautiful scenery, and the roads have great surfaces; and, unless you cross the central mountain range, the gradients are generally gentle.
  • TrekByBike.com - Touring New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.trekbybike.com [Source type: News]

.A railway running north-westward from Noumea to Dumbea, &c., is designed to connect the capital with Bourail.^ BOURAIL 162kms north of Noumea is Bourail.

^ In Noumea, the capital, the fine French restaurants, designer boutiques, and cosmopolitan crowds all proclaim that this is the Paris of the Pacific.
  • New Caledonia Travel Guide, South Pacific Islands 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.southpacific.org [Source type: News]

^ The population is largely confined to what is referred to as 'Greater Noumea', which includes the capital and nearby towns of Dumbea, Paita and Mont-Dore.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The islands annexed to the colony of New Caledonia are the Isle of Pines, used as a place of detention for habitual criminals; the Loyalty Islands, E. of New Caledonia; the Huon Islands, a practically barren group; the Wallis Archipelago; and Futuna and Alofa, S. of the Wallis group.^ What is the largest island in New Caledonia?
  • New Caledonia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: News]

^ Wallis and Futuna to New Caledonia (2006 est.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]

^ The capital is Nouméa on New Caledonia island.
  • New Caledonia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: News]

History

.New Caledonia was discovered by Captain Cook in 1774. He touched at the haven of Balade (the original name of the island) near the north-western extremity, as did d'Entrecasteaux in 1793, who closely explored the coast and surrounding seas.^ What is the largest island in New Caledonia?
  • New Caledonia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: News]

^ Sunset over sea, New Caledonia, France .
  • New caledonia Images and Stock Photos. 98 New caledonia photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Discovered in 1774 by Captain Cook , the islands were annexed by France in 1853.
  • New Caledonia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: News]

.They subsequently became known to sealers and traders in sandalwood, who, however, established no friendly relations with the natives.^ Nine seat were held by Kanaks, including one by Roch Pidjot, the man who later became known as the 'grandfather of the independence struggle'.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the Chinese market expanded and sandalwood supplies diminished, the traders' tactics became more threatening and arrogant.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1843 French missionaries arrived at the island, and it was claimed for France, but on British representations the claim was renounced.^ Settled by both Britain and France during the first half of the 19th century, the island was made a French possession in 1853.
  • Flag Counter » New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC flagcounter.com [Source type: News]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: News]
  • Jobs in New Caledonia Careers, Jobs, Education - Careers.org 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC international.careers.org [Source type: News]
  • Flag Counter » New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC s05.flagcounter.com [Source type: News]

^ Territorial Dispute: Matthew and Hunter Islands east of New Caledonia claimed by France  and Vanuatu .

^ Paddon was given a large tract of land at Palta in exchange for the island and, in 1864, the first ship, Iphigenie, arrived with 248 convicts from France.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1851 a landing party from a French vessel lying at Balade was attacked by the natives, and massacred with the exception of a single member.^ In 1849 the crew of the American vessel Cutter were massacred and eaten by the Futuna clan, which lived between Balade and Pouebo.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.France was now determined on the annexation, and the flag was raised at the same spot in 1853, but simultaneously the commander of a British vessel was in negotiation with the native chief of the Isle of Pines, and the British flag was hoisted there.^ There is a higher risk of the east coast, Loyalty Islands and Isle of Pines being affected.
  • Travel Advice for New Caledonia - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.smartraveller.gov.au [Source type: News]

^ When the French flag was raised at Balade on 24 September 1853, Britain did not react because it was too busy with newly acquired possessions in new Zealand and Australia.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Tucked away at the end of Kanumera Bay, Ouré Lodge is situated in one of the most beautiful spots of Isle of Pines.
  • South Pacific Tourism Organisation - Comprehensive listings for Accommodation In New Caledonia (Full Listing) hotels, resorts, motels, guest houses, other accommodation and activities, sight seeing, things to do, including online booking reservations. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spto.org [Source type: General]

The chief, however, subsequently sided with the French, and the British claim was finally withdrawn. .The capital, Noumea, was founded in 185 4 (it was then called Port de France); in 1860 New Caledonia became a colony distinct from the French possessions in the Pacific at large; in 1864 the first penal settlement was made on Nou Island, off Noumea.^ Sunset over sea, New Caledonia, France .
  • New caledonia Images and Stock Photos. 98 New caledonia photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ New Caledonia was founded as a penal colony and the first shiploads of convicts arrived in May 1864 at Port-de-France (present-day Noumea).
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Caledonia's 'French' population has several distinct groups.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1878 there was a serious native insurrection, and another in 1881 was only put down after much bloodshed.
.See H. Riviere, Souvenirs de la Nouvelle-Caledonie: l'insurrection canaque (Paris, 1881); Gallet, La Nouvelle-Caledonie (Noumea, 1884); Cordeil, Origines et progres de la Nouvelle-Caledonie (Noumea, 1885); C. Lemire, La Colonisation.^ Annuaire de Tourisme Nouvelle Caledonie .
  • Ports of Entry, New Caledonia, Customs clearance, New Caledonia, Entry formalities, New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.cruising-newcaledonia.com [Source type: General]

^ Official name : Territoire d'Outre-Mer de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies conventional short form: New Caledonia local long form: Territoire des Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances local short form: Nouvelle-Caledonie .
  • New Caledonia Facts 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.tet.org [Source type: News]

en .Nouvelle-Caledonie
(Paris, 1878); Ibid. (Noumea, 1893); Voyage a pied en NouvelleCaledonie (Paris, 1884); M. A. Legrand, Au pays des Canaques (Paris, 1893); Moncelon, Le Bagne et la colonisation penale a la Nouvelle-Caledonie (Paris, 1886); A. Bernard, L'Archipel de la Nouvelle-Caledonie (Paris, 1895); Nouvelle-Caledonie, ses richesses, son avenir (Paris Exhibition, 1900); G. Griffith, In an unknown Prison Land (London, 1901); Carol, La Nouvelle-Caledonie miniere et agricole (Paris, 1900); Vallet, La Colonisation francaise en NouvelleCaledonie (Paris, 1905).^ Les Paillottes de la Ouenghi .
  • South Pacific Tourism Organisation - Comprehensive listings for Accommodation In New Caledonia (Full Listing) hotels, resorts, motels, guest houses, other accommodation and activities, sight seeing, things to do, including online booking reservations. 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.spto.org [Source type: General]

^ Catalogue des Plantes Introduites et Cultivees en Nouvelle-Caledonie.
  • Biological diversity in New Caledonia - Encyclopedia of Earth 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Official name : Territoire d'Outre-Mer de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances.
  • About New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]



Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA: /ˈnjuː ˌkæl.ɪˈdəʊ.ni.ə/, /ˈnjuː ˌkæl.əˈdəʊ.ni.ə/
  • (US) IPA: /ˈnu ˌkæl.ɪˈdoʊ.ni.ə/, /ˈnu ˌkæl.əˈdoʊ.ni.ə/
  •  Audio (US)help, file

Proper noun

Singular
New Caledonia
Plural
-
.
  1. Overseas territory of France in Oceania.^ They are an overseas territory of France .
    • New Caledonia@Everything2.com 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC everything2.com [Source type: News]

    ^ The island is actually an overseas territory of France.
    • New Caledonia Flight Guide | Cheap flights to New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.jetlo.com.au [Source type: News]

    ^ Government: Overseas territory of France .

    .Official name: Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies.
  2. (historical) A district of the west coast of British North America traded by the Hudson's Bay Company.^ Historical abortion statistics, New Caledonia .
    • Historical abortion statistics, New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.johnstonsarchive.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Call New Caledonia from outside North America .
    • Call New Caledonia - How to Call New Caledonia 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.smartglobalcall.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Nouvelle Calédonie, officially Territory of New Caledonia ...
    • New Caledonia and Dependencies: History, Geography, Government, and Culture — FactMonster.com 15 January 2010 14:31 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: General]

    It became the colony of British Columbia in 1858.
  3. (historical) A short-lived (1698-1700) Scottish colony in Panama, around Darien (which was renamed New Edinburgh as its capital)

Derived terms

Translations

See also


Simple English

New Caledonia (French: Nouvelle-Calédonie; popular names: Kanaky, Le caillou) is a "sui generis collectivity" (in practice an overseas territory) of France, made up of a main island (Grande Terre) and several smaller islands. It is located in the region of Melanesia in the southwest Pacific. At about half the size of Taiwan, it has a land area of 18,575.5 square kilometres (7,172 sq mi). The population at the 2004 census was 230,789 inhabitants. It has an Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) of .nc. The capital and largest city of the territory is Nouméa. The currency is the CFP franc. The inflation rate is -0.6%. The unemployment rate is 17.1%

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 30, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on New Caledonia, which are similar to those in the above article.








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