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State of New Hampshire
Flag of New Hampshire State seal of New Hampshire
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Granite State
Motto(s): Live Free or Die
before statehood, known as
the Province of New Hampshire
Map of the United States with New Hampshire highlighted
Official language(s) English
Demonym Granite Stater, New Hampshirite
Capital Concord
Largest city Manchester
Area  Ranked 46th in the US
 - Total 9,350 sq mi
(24,217 km2)
 - Width 68 miles (110 km)
 - Length 190 miles (305 km)
 - % water 4.1
 - Latitude 42° 42′ N to 45° 18′ N
 - Longitude 70° 36′ W to 72° 33′ W
Population  Ranked 41st in the US
 - Total 1,324,575 (2009 est.)[1]
1,235,786 (2000)
 - Density 146.7/sq mi  (56.65/km2)
Ranked 20th in the US
 - Median income  $60,441 (6th)
Elevation  
 - Highest point Mt. Washington[2]
6,288 ft  (1,917 m)
 - Mean 1,000 ft  (305 m)
 - Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[2]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to Union  June 21, 1788 (9th)
Governor John Lynch (D)
Lieutenant Governor None[3]
U.S. Senators Judd Gregg (R)
Jeanne Shaheen (D)
U.S. House delegation 1: Carol Shea-Porter (D)
2: Paul Hodes (D) (list)
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations NH N.H. US-NH
Website http://www.nh.gov

New Hampshire (Listeni /nˈhæmpʃər/) is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire. It borders Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. New Hampshire ranks 44th in land area, 46th in total area of the 50 states, and 41st in population. It became the first post-colonial sovereign nation in the Americas when it broke off from Great Britain in January 1776, and was one of the original thirteen states that founded the United States of America six months later. In June 1788, it became the ninth state to ratify the United States Constitution, bringing that document into effect. New Hampshire was the first U.S. state to have its own state constitution. It has no general sales tax, nor is personal income (other than interest and dividends) taxed at either the state or local level.[4] Concord is the state capital, while Manchester is the largest city in the state.

It is known internationally for the New Hampshire primary, the first primary in the quadrennial U.S. presidential election cycle.

Its license plates carry the state motto: "Live Free or Die." The state nickname is "The Granite State", in reference to its geology and its tradition of self-sufficiency. To accentuate this, many state agencies and New Hampshire license plates carry the image of the Old Man of the Mountain, a former granite stone face in the White Mountains. Several other official nicknames exist but are rarely used.[5]

Among prominent individuals from New Hampshire are founding father Nicholas Gilman, Senator Daniel Webster, Revolutionary War hero John Stark, editor Horace Greeley, founder of the Christian Science religion Mary Baker Eddy, poet Robert Frost, and author Dan Brown. New Hampshire has produced one president, Franklin Pierce.

New Hampshire's major recreational attractions include skiing, snowmobiling and other winter sports, hiking and mountaineering, observing the fall foliage, summer cottages along many lakes and the seacoast, motor sports at the New Hampshire Motor Speedway, and Motorcycle Week, a popular motorcycle rally held in Weirs Beach near Laconia in June. The White Mountain National Forest links the Vermont and Maine portions of the Appalachian Trail, and boasts the Mount Washington Auto Road, where visitors may drive to the top of 6,288 ft Mount Washington.

Contents

Geography

Mount Adams (5,774 feet) is part of New Hampshire's Presidential Range
See List of counties in New Hampshire, mountains, lakes, and rivers

New Hampshire is part of the New England region. It is bounded by Quebec, Canada to the north and northwest; Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east; Massachusetts to the south; and Vermont to the west. New Hampshire's major regions are the Great North Woods, the White Mountains, the Lakes Region, the Seacoast, the Merrimack Valley, the Monadnock Region, and the Dartmouth-Lake Sunapee area. New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any U.S. coastal state, with a length of 18 miles (29 km).

New Hampshire, showing roads, rivers and major cities

New Hampshire was home to the rock formation called the Old Man of the Mountain, a face-like profile in Franconia Notch, until the formation fell apart in May 2003.

The White Mountains range in New Hampshire spans the north-central portion of the state, with Mount Washington the tallest in the northeastern U.S. - site of the second-highest wind speed ever recorded[6] - and other mountains like Mount Madison and Mount Adams surrounding it. With hurricane-force winds every third day on average, over 100 recorded deaths among visitors, and conspicuous krumholtz (dwarf, matted trees much like a carpet of bonsai trees), the upper reaches of Mount Washington claim the title of "worst weather on earth."[citation needed] A non-profit weather observatory is on the peak.

In the flatter southwest corner of New Hampshire, the landmark Mount Monadnock has given its name to a class of earth-forms—a monadnock—signifying, in geomorphology, any isolated resistant peak rising from a less resistant eroded plain.

Major rivers include the 110-mile (177 km) Merrimack River, which bisects the lower half of the state north-south and ends up in Newburyport, Massachusetts. Its tributaries include the Contoocook River, Pemigewasset River, and Winnipesaukee River. The 410-mile (660 km) Connecticut River, which starts at New Hampshire's Connecticut Lakes and flows south to Connecticut, defines the western border with Vermont. The state border is not in the center of that river, as usually the case, but at the low-water mark on the Vermont side; meaning that the entire river along the Vermont border (save for areas where the water level has been raised by a dam) lies within New Hampshire.[7] Only one town - Pittsburg - shares a land border with the state of Vermont. The "northwesternmost headwaters" of the Connecticut also define the Canadian border with New Hampshire.

The Piscataqua River and its several tributaries form the state's only significant ocean port where they flow into the Atlantic at Portsmouth. The Salmon Falls River and the Piscataqua define the southern portion of the border with Maine. The Piscataqua River boundary was the subject of a border dispute between New Hampshire and Maine in 2001, with New Hampshire claiming dominion over several islands (primarily Seavey's Island) that include the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. The U.S. Supreme Court dismissed the case in 2002, leaving ownership of the island with Maine.

The largest of New Hampshire's lakes is Lake Winnipesaukee, which covers 71 square miles (184 km2) in the east-central part of New Hampshire. Lake Umbagog along the Maine border, approximately 12.3 square miles (31.9 km2), is a distant second.

Lake Winnipesaukee.

Hampton Beach is a popular local summer destination. About 10 miles (16 km) offshore are the Isles of Shoals, nine small islands (four of which are in New Hampshire) known as the site of a 19th century art colony founded by poet Celia Thaxter, as well as the alleged location of one of the buried treasures of the pirate Blackbeard.

It is the second most forested state in the country, after Maine, in percentage of land covered by woods. This change was caused by the abandonment of farms during the 20th century as many farmers took wage jobs in urban areas or moved to more productive areas. The return of woodlands from open fields forms the subject of many poems by Robert Frost.

The northern third of the state is locally referred to as the "north country" or "north of the notches," in reference to White Mountain passes that channel traffic. It contains less than 5% of the state's population, suffers relatively high poverty, and is losing population as the logging and paper industries decline. However, the tourist industry, in particular visitors who go to northern New Hampshire to ski, snowboard, hike and mountain bike has helped offset economic losses from mill closures.

Climate

New Hampshire experiences a humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dfa in southern areas and Dfb in the north), with warm, humid summers, cold, wet winters, and uniform precipitation all year. The climate of the southeastern portion is moderated by the Atlantic Ocean and averages relatively milder and wetter weather, while the northern and interior portions experience cooler temperatures and lower humidity. Winters are cold and snowy throughout the state, and especially severe in the northern and mountainous areas. Average annual snowfall ranges from 60 inches (150 cm) to over 100 inches (250 cm) across the state.[8]

Average daytime highs are in the mid 70s°F to low 80s°F (around 24-28 °C) throughout the state in July, with overnight lows in the mid 50s°F to low 60s°F (13-15 °C). January temperatures range from an average high of 34 °F (1 °C) on the coast to overnight lows below 0 °F (−18 °C) in the far north and at high elevations. Average annual precipitation statewide is roughly 40 inches (100 cm) with some variation occurring in the White Mountains due to differences in elevation and annual snowfall.

Extreme snow is often associated with a nor'easter, such as the Blizzard of '78 and the Blizzard of 1993, when several feet accumulated across portions of the state over 24 to 48 hours. Lighter snowfall of several inches occur frequently throughout winter, often associated with an Alberta Clipper.

New Hampshire, on occasion, is affected by hurricanes and tropical storms although by the time they reach the state they are often extratropical, with most storms striking the southern New England coastline and moving inland or passing by offshore in the Gulf of Maine. Most of New Hampshire averages fewer than 20 days of thunderstorms per year and an average of 2 tornadoes occur annually statewide.[9]

The National Arbor Day Foundation plant hardiness zone map depicts zones 3, 4, 5, and 6 occurring throughout the state[10] and indicates the transition from a relatively cooler to warmer climate as one travels southward across New Hampshire.

Metropolitan areas

Metropolitan areas in the New England region are defined by the U.S. Census Bureau as New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs). The following is a list of NECTAs in New Hampshire:
From The New Hampshire Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau

History

Various Algonquian (Pennacook) tribes inhabited the area prior to European settlement. English and French explorers visited New Hampshire in 1600–1605, and English fishermen settled at Odiorne's Point in present-day Rye in 1623. The first permanent settlement was at Hilton's Point (present-day Dover). By 1631, the Upper Plantation comprised modern-day Dover, Durham and Stratham; in 1679, it became the "Royal Province."

New Hampshire was one of the thirteen colonies that rebelled against British rule during the American Revolution. By the time of the American Revolution, New Hampshire was a divided province. The economic and social life of the Seacoast revolved around sawmills, shipyards, merchant's warehouses, and established village and town centers. Wealthy merchants built substantial homes, furnished them with the finest luxuries, and invested their capital in trade and land speculation. At the other end of the social scale, there developed a permanent class of day laborers, mariners, indentured servants, and even slaves. It was the first state to declare its independence[citation needed], but the only battle fought there was the raid on Fort William and Mary, December 14, 1774 in Portsmouth Harbor, which netted the rebellion sizable quantities of gunpowder, small arms, and cannon (General Sullivan, leader of the raid, described it as, "remainder of the powder, the small arms, bayonets, and cartouch-boxes, together with the cannon and ordnance stores") over the course of two nights. This raid was preceded by a warning to local patriots the previous day, by Paul Revere on December 13, 1774 that the fort was to be reinforced by troops sailing from Boston. According to unverified accounts, the gunpowder was later used at the Battle of Bunker Hill, transported there by Major Demerit, who was one of several New Hampshire patriots who stored the powder in their homes until it was transported elsewhere for use in revolutionary activities.

The New Hampshire State House is the oldest U.S. state capitol where legislators meet in their original chambers.

New Hampshire was a Jacksonian stronghold; the state sent Franklin Pierce to the White House in the election of 1852. Industrialization took the form of numerous textile mills, which in turn attracted large flows of immigrants from Quebec (the "French Canadians") and Ireland. The northern parts of the state produced lumber and the mountains provided tourist attractions. After 1960, the textile industry collapsed, but the economy rebounded as a center of high technology and a service provider.

Since 1952, New Hampshire gained national and international attention for its presidential primary held early in every presidential election year. It immediately became the most important testing grounds for candidates for the Republican and Democratic nominations. The media gave New Hampshire (and Iowa) about half of all the attention paid to all states in the primary process, magnifying the state's decision powers (and spurring repeated efforts by out-of-state politicians to change the rules.)

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1790 141,885
1800 183,858 29.6%
1810 214,460 16.6%
1820 244,155 13.8%
1830 269,328 10.3%
1840 284,574 5.7%
1850 317,976 11.7%
1860 326,073 2.5%
1870 318,300 −2.4%
1880 346,991 9.0%
1890 376,530 8.5%
1900 411,588 9.3%
1910 430,572 4.6%
1920 443,083 2.9%
1930 465,293 5.0%
1940 491,524 5.6%
1950 533,242 8.5%
1960 606,921 13.8%
1970 737,681 21.5%
1980 920,610 24.8%
1990 1,109,252 20.5%
2000 1,235,786 11.4%
Est. 2009[1] 1,324,575 7.2%

As of 2005, New Hampshire has an estimated population of 1,309,940, which is an increase of 10,771, or 0.8%, from the prior year and an increase of 74,154, or 6.0%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 23,872 people (that is 75,060 births minus 51,188 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 51,968 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 11,107 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 40,861 people.

The center of population of New Hampshire is located in Merrimack County, in the town of Pembroke.[11] The center of population has moved south 12 miles (19 km) since 1950,[12] a reflection of the fact that the fastest growth in the state has been along its southern border, which is within commuting range of Boston and other Massachusetts cities.

Demographics of New Hampshire (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 97.56% 1.05% 0.64% 1.56% 0.06%
2000 (Hispanic only) 1.50% 0.13% 0.04% 0.02% 0.01%
2005 (total population) 96.97% 1.29% 0.63% 2.04% 0.07%
2005 (Hispanic only) 2.04% 0.18% 0.04% 0.03% 0.01%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 5.36% 30.39% 3.96% 38.30% 13.91%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) 4.76% 29.02% 3.69% 38.47% 20.29%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 43.91% 39.72% 7.81% 26.49% -25.23%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
New Hampshire Population Density Map

As of 2004, the population includes 64,000 residents born outside the United States (4.9%).

In 2006, New Hampshire had the lowest birth rate in the nation.[13]

Ancestry groups

The largest ancestry groups in New Hampshire are:[14]

The large Irish American and French-Canadian populations are descended largely from mill workers, and many still live in the former mill towns, like Manchester. New Hampshire has the highest percentage of residents of French/French-Canadian ancestry of any U.S. state.

According to the 2000 U.S. Census, 3.41% of the population aged 5 and older speak French at home, while 1.60% speak Spanish.[15]

Religion

Percentage of New Hampshire residents by religion (from USA Today):[16]

Mormon/Latter Day Saints, Churches of Christ, non-denominational, Jehovah's Witnesses, Assemblies of God, Muslim/Islamic, Buddhist, Evangelical, Church of God, and Seventh-Day Adventist

A survey suggests that people in New Hampshire and Vermont[17] are less likely than other Americans to attend weekly services and only 54% say that they are "absolutely certain there is a God" compared to 71% in the rest of the nation.[18][19] New Hampshire and Vermont are also at the lowest levels among states in religious commitment. About 23% percent of the respondents attend religious service at least once a week (39% nationally). Thirty-six percent said religion is very important to them (56% nationally).[20] According to the ARDA the largest single Protestant denominations are the United Church of Christ with 34,299; and the United Methodist Church with 18,927 members. The Catholic Church had 431,259 members.[21]

Economy

New Hampshire quarter, reverse side, 2000.jpg

The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that New Hampshire's total state product in 2008 was $60 billion, tenth lowest in the United States.[22] Median household income in 2008 was $49,467, seventh highest in the country. Its agricultural outputs are dairy products, nursery stock, cattle, apples and eggs. Its industrial outputs are machinery, electric equipment, rubber and plastic products and tourism.[23]

New Hampshire experienced a significant shift in its economic base during the last century. Historically, the base was composed of the traditional New England manufactures of textiles, shoe-making, and small machining shops drawing upon low-wage labor from nearby small farms and from parts of Quebec. Today, these sectors contribute only 2% for textiles, 2% for leather goods, and 9% for machining of the state's total manufacturing dollar value (Source: U.S. Economic Census for 1997, Manufacturing, New Hampshire). They experienced a sharp decline due to obsolete plants and the lure of cheaper wages in the South.

The state's budget in FY2008 was $5.11 billion, including $1.48 billion in federal funds. The issue of taxation is controversial in New Hampshire, which has a property tax (subject to municipal control) but no broad sales tax or income tax. The state does have narrower taxes on meals, lodging, vehicles, business and investment income, and tolls on state roads.

According to the Energy Information Administration, New Hampshire's energy consumption and per capita energy consumption are among the lowest in the country. The Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant, located near Portsmouth, is the largest nuclear reactor in New England and provides about 30 percent of New Hampshire’s electricity. Two natural gas-fired plants and some fossil-fuel powered plant, including the coal-fired Merrimack Station plant in Bow, provide most of the rest.

New Hampshire’s residential electricity use is low compared with the national average, in part because demand for air-conditioning is low during the generally mild summer months and because few households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating. Over half of New Hampshire households use fuel oil for winter heating. New Hampshire has potential for renewable energies like wind power, hydroelectricity, and wood fuel.[24]

The state has no general sales tax and no personal state income tax (the state does tax, at a 5 percent rate, income from dividends and interest) and the legislature has exercised fiscal restraint. Efforts to diversify the state's general economy have been ongoing.

Additionally, New Hampshire's lack of a broad-based tax system (aside from the controversial state-wide property tax) has resulted in the state's local communities having some of the nation's highest property taxes. Overall, New Hampshire remains ranked 49th among states in combined average state and local tax burden.[25]

Law and government

State line on NH Rt. 111 in Hollis

The Governor of New Hampshire is John Lynch (Democrat). New Hampshire's two U.S. senators are Judd Gregg (Republican) and Jeanne Shaheen (Democrat). New Hampshire's two U.S. representatives are Carol Shea-Porter (Democrat) and Paul Hodes (Democrat).

New Hampshire is an alcoholic beverage control state, and through the State Liquor Commission it takes in $100 million from the sale and distribution of liquor.[26]

The LGBT rights in New Hampshire are mostly the same as non-LGBT residents persons in New Hampshire. Same-sex sexual activity is legal in New Hampshire, and the state has offered civil unions since 1 January 2008, and same-sex marriage in New Hampshire became legal on January 1, 2010.

Governing documents

The New Hampshire State Constitution of 1783 is the supreme law of the state, followed by the New Hampshire Revised Statutes Annotated and the New Hampshire Code of Administrative Rules. These are roughly analogous to the Federal United States Constitution, United States Code and Code of Federal Regulations respectively.

The attributes of New Hampshire law, as they pertain to victimless crimes, kindergarten, and civil unions, are described in the article on Government of New Hampshire.

Branches of government

New Hampshire has a bifurcated executive branch, consisting of the governor and a five-member executive council which votes on state contracts worth more than $5,000 and "advises and consents" to the governor's nominations to major state positions such as department heads and all judgeships and pardon requests. New Hampshire does not have a lieutenant governor; the Senate president serves as "acting governor" whenever the governor is unable to perform the duties.

The legislature is called the General Court. It consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. There are 400 representatives, making it one of the largest elected bodies in the English-speaking world,[27] and 24 senators. Most are effectively volunteers, nearly half of which are retirees. (For details, see the article on Government of New Hampshire.)

The state's sole appellate court is the New Hampshire Supreme Court. The Superior Court is the court of general jurisdiction and the only court which provides for jury trials in civil or criminal cases. The other state courts are the Probate Court, District Court, and the Family Division.

New Hampshire is a "Dillon Rule" state, meaning that the state retains all powers not specifically granted to municipalities. Even so, the legislature strongly favors local control, particularly with regard to land use regulations. Except for slightly more than a dozen communities incorporated as cities, local government in New Hampshire centers on town meetings. Some municipalities make final budgetary decisions by secret ballot at the same election where they vote for municipal officials.

Politics

The Republican Party and the Democratic Party are the only official parties. A majority of voters are registered independent, and can choose either ballot in the primary, and then regain their independent status after voting.[28] The Libertarian Party had official party status from 1990 to 1994.

New Hampshire primary

New Hampshire is internationally famous for the New Hampshire primary, the first primary in the quadrennial American presidential election cycle. State law requires that the Secretary of State schedule this election at least one week before any "similar event." However, the Iowa caucus has preceded the New Hampshire primary. This primary, as the nation's first contest that uses the same procedure as the general election, draws more attention than those in other states, and has often been decisive in shaping the national contest.

In Dixville Notch in Coos County and Hart's Location in Carroll, the polls open at midnight on Election Day. State law permits a town where all registered citizens have voted to close early and announce its results. These are traditionally the first towns in both New Hampshire and the U.S. to vote in presidential primaries and elections.

Nominations for all other partisan offices are decided in a separate primary election. In Presidential election cycles, this is the second primary election held in New Hampshire.

Saint Anselm College in Manchester, New Hampshire has become a popular campaign spot for politicians as well as several national presidential debates because of its proximity to Manchester-Boston Regional Airport.[29][30][31]

Election results

In the past, New Hampshire has often voted Republican. Some sources trace the founding of the Republican Party to the town of Exeter in 1853. Prior to 1992, New Hampshire had only strayed from the Republican Party for three presidential candidates—Woodrow Wilson, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Lyndon B. Johnson.

Beginning in 1992, New Hampshire became a swing state in both national and local elections. The state supported Democrats Bill Clinton in 1992 and 1996, John Kerry in 2004, and Barack Obama in 2008. It was the only U.S. state to support Republican George W. Bush in the 2000 election, but not in the 2004 election, in which Democrat John Kerry, a senator from neighboring Massachusetts, won the state.

The Democrats dominated elections in New Hampshire as they did nationally in 2006 and 2008. In 2006, Democrats won both Congressional seats (electing Carol Shea-Porter in the 1st district and Paul Hodes in the 2nd district), re-elected Governor John Lynch, and gained a majority on the Executive Council and in both houses of the legislature for the first time since 1911. Democrats had not held both the legislature and the governorship since 1874.[32] Neither U.S. Senate seat was up for a vote in 2006. In 2008, Democrats retained their majorities, governorship, and Congressional seats; and former governor Jeanne Shaheen defeated incumbent Republican John E. Sununu for the U.S. Senate in a rematch of the 2002 contest.

The 2008 elections resulted in women holding a majority, 13 of the 24 seats, in the New Hampshire Senate, a first for any legislative body in the United States.[33]

Free State Project

The Free State Project is a proposal to have 20,000 individuals move to New Hampshire, with the intent of reducing the size and scope of government at the local, state, and federal levels. The Free State Project holds the annual New Hampshire Liberty Forum[34] and the annual Porcupine Freedom Festival, also known as PorcFest.[35]

Transportation

Highways

New Hampshire has a well-maintained, well-signed network of Interstate highways, U.S. highways, and state highways. State highway markers still depict the Old Man of the Mountain despite that rock formation's demise in 2003. Several route numbers align with the same route numbers in neighboring states. State highway numbering does not indicate the highway's direction. Major routes include:

  • I-89.svg Interstate 89 runs northwest from near Concord to Lebanon on the Vermont border.
  • I-93.svg Interstate 93 is the main Interstate highway in New Hampshire and runs north from Salem (on the Massachusetts border) to Littleton (on the Vermont border). I-93 connects the more densely populated southern part of the state to the Lakes Region and the White Mountains further to the north.
  • I-95.svg Interstate 95 runs north-south briefly along New Hampshire's seacoast to serve the city of Portsmouth, before entering Maine
  • US 1.svg U.S. Route 1 runs north-south briefly along New Hampshire's seacoast to the east of and paralleling I-95.
  • US 2.svg U.S. Route 2 runs east-west through Coos County from Maine, intersecting Route 16, skirting the White Mountain National Forest passing through Jefferson and into Vermont.
  • US 3.svg U.S. Route 3 is the longest numbered route in the state, and the only one to run completely through the state from the Massachusetts border to the Canadian border. It generally parallels Interstate 93 except south of Manchester, where it heads toward and through Nashua.
  • US 4.svg U.S. Route 4 terminates at the Portsmouth Traffic Circle and runs east-west across the southern part of the state connecting Durham, Concord, Boscawen and Lebanon.
  • NH Route 16.svg New Hampshire Route 16 is a major north-south highway in the eastern part of the state that generally parallels the border with Maine, eventually entering Maine as Maine Route 16. The southernmost portion of NH 16 is a four lane freeway, co-signed with U.S. Route 4.
  • NH Route 101.svg New Hampshire Route 101 is a major east-west highway in the southern part of the state that connects Keene with Manchester and the Seacoast region. East of Manchester, NH 101 is a four-lane, limited access freeway that runs to Hampton Beach and I-95.

Air

New Hampshire has 25 public-use airports, four of which have scheduled commercial passenger service. By far the busiest airport in the state is Manchester-Boston Regional Airport in the south, which serves the Greater Boston metropolitan area.

Public transportation

Long-distance intercity passenger rail service is provided by Amtrak's Vermonter and Downeaster lines.

As of 2009, Boston-centered MBTA Commuter Rail services reach only as far as northern Massachusetts. The New Hampshire Rail Transit Authority is working to extend "Capital Corridor" service from Lowell, Massachusetts to Nashua, Concord, and Manchester, including Manchester-Boston Regional Airport; and "Coastal Corridor" service from Haverhill, Massachusetts to Plaistow, New Hampshire.[36][37]

Eleven public transit authorities operate local and regional bus services around the state, and eight private carriers operate express bus services which link with the national intercity bus network.[38] The New Hampshire Department of Transportation operates a statewide ride-sharing match service,[39] in addition to independent ride matching and guaranteed ride home programs.[38]

Tourist railroads include the Conway Scenic Railroad, Hobo-Winnipesaukee Railroad, and the Mount Washington Cog Railway.

Freight railways

Freight railways in New Hampshire include Pan Am Railways, the New England Central Railroad, the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad, and New Hampshire Northcoast Corporation.

Education

High schools

The first high schools in the state were the Boys' High School and the Girls' High School of Portsmouth, established either in 1827 or 1830 depending on the source.[40][41][42]

New Hampshire has more than 150 public high schools, many of which serve more than one town. The largest is Pinkerton Academy in Derry, which is owned by a private non-profit organization and serves as the public high school of a number of neighboring towns. There are at least 30 private high schools in the state.

In 2008 the state tied with Massachusetts as having the highest scores on the SAT and ACT standardized tests given to high school students.[43]

Colleges and universities

Thompson Hall, at UNH, was built in 1892
Saint Anselm College's Alumni Hall

Media

Daily newspapers

Other publications

Radio stations

See List of radio stations in New Hampshire.

Television stations

Sports

The following professional sports teams are located in New Hampshire:

Club Sport / League
American Defenders of New Hampshire Minor league baseball
New Hampshire Fisher Cats Minor league baseball
Manchester Monarchs Minor league hockey
Manchester Wolves Arena football
Manchester Millrats Premier Basketball League
New Hampshire Phantoms Minor league soccer

The New Hampshire Motor Speedway in Loudon is an oval track which has been visited by national motorsport championships such as the NASCAR Cup Series, the NASCAR Nationwide Series, the NASCAR Camping World Truck Series, the Champ Car and the IndyCar Series.

Annually since 2002, high school statewide all stars compete against Vermont in ten sports during "Twin State" playoffs.[44] New Hampshire also has two amateur roller derby leagues with the ManchVegas Roller Girls (USARS) and New Hampshire Roller Derby (WFTDA Apprentice League[45]).

Culture

In the spring, New Hampshire's many sap houses hold sugaring-off open houses. In summer, New Hampshire is home to many county fairs, the largest being the Hopkinton State Fair, in Contoocook. New Hampshire's lake region is home to many summer camps, especially around Lake Winnipesaukee, and is a popular tourist destination. The Peterborough Players have performed every summer in Peterborough, New Hampshire since 1933. In the fall New Hampshire is host to the New Hampshire Highland Games. New Hampshire has also registered an official tartan with the proper authorities in Scotland, used to make kilts worn by the Lincoln Police Department while its officers serve during the games. The fall foliage peaks in mid October. In the winter, New Hampshire's ski areas and snowmobile trails attract visitors from a wide area.[46] After the lakes freeze over they become dotted with ice fishing ice houses, known locally as bobhouses.

In fiction

Literature
Comics
Film and television

Notable residents or natives

See article List of people from New Hampshire.

Granite State firsts

  • On January 5, 1776 at Exeter, the Provincial Congress of New Hampshire ratified the first independent constitution in the Americas, free of British rule.
  • On June 12, 1800, Fernald's Island in the Piscataqua River became the first government-sanctioned US Navy shipyard.
  • Started in 1822, Dublin's Juvenile Library was the first free public library.
  • In 1828, the first women's strike in the nation took place at Dover's Cocheco Mills.
  • Founded in 1833, the Peterborough Town Library was the first public library, supported with public funds, in the world.[48]
  • In 1845, the machine shop of Nashuan John H. Gage was considered the first shop devoted to the manufacture of machinists' tools.
  • On August 29, 1866, Sylvester Marsh demonstrated the first mountain-climbing "cog" railway.
  • Finished on June 27, 1874, the first trans-Atlantic telecommunications cable between Europe and America stretched from Balinskelligs Bay, Ireland, to Rye Beach, New Hampshire.
  • On February 6, 1901, a group of nine conservationists founded the Society for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests, the first forest conservation advocacy group in the US.
  • In 1908, Monsignor Pierre Hevey organized the nation's first credit union, in Manchester, to help mill workers save and borrow money.
  • In 1933 the League of New Hampshire Craftsmen held the first crafts fair in the nation.[49]
  • In 1934, the current record for the highest recorded surface wind gust (231 mph) was set on Mount Washington.[50]
  • In 1937 the Belknap Recreation Area installed the first chairlift for skiing in the East.
  • In 1938 Earl Tupper, of Berlin, invented Tupperware and founded Tupper Plastics Company.
  • In July 1944, the Bretton Woods Agreement, the first fully-negotiated system intended to govern monetary relations among independent nation-states, was signed at the Mount Washington Hotel.
  • On May 5, 1961, Alan Shepard of Derry rode a Mercury spacecraft and became the first American in space.
  • In 1963, New Hampshire's legislature approved the nation's first modern state lottery, which began play in 1964.
  • In 1966, Ralph Baer of Sanders Associates, Inc., Nashua, recruited engineers to develop the first home video game.
  • Christa McAuliffe of Concord became the first private citizen selected to venture into space. She perished with her six space shuttle Challenger crewmates on January 28, 1986.
  • On May 17, 1996 New Hampshire became the first state in the country to install a green LED traffic light. NH was selected because they were the first to start installing the red and yellow ones statewide.[51]
  • On May 31, 2007 New Hampshire became "...the first state to embrace same-sex unions without a court order or the threat of one."[52][53]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/NST-ann-est.html. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  2. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved November 6, 2006. 
  3. ^ In the event of a vacancy in the office of Governor, the President of the State Senate is first in line for succession.
  4. ^ NH has a room and meals sales tax and a business profits income tax. Alaska does not have a statewide sales or income tax, but many Alaska towns have a sales tax.
  5. ^ NH Department of Resources and Economic Development - State Facts
  6. ^ Filipov, David (January 31, 2010). "Record blown away, but pride stays put: N.H. summit's claim to nasty weather intact". The Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/local/new_hampshire/articles/2010/01/31/record_blown_away_but_pride_stays_put/. Retrieved 9 February 2010. 
  7. ^ VERMONT v. NEW HAMPSHIRE, 289 U.S. 593 (1933)
  8. ^ Dellinger, Dan (2004-06-23). "Snowfall — Average Total In Inches". NOAA. http://lwf.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/online/ccd/snowfall.html. Retrieved 2007-05-25. 
  9. ^ "Annual average number of tornadoes 1953–2004". NOAA. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/img/climate/research/tornado/small/avgt5304.gif. Retrieved 2007-05-25. 
  10. ^ "2006 arborday.org Hardiness Zone Map". National Arbor Day Foundation. http://www.arborday.org/media/zones.cfm. Retrieved 2007-05-25. 
  11. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt. Retrieved 2008-12-05. 
  12. ^ "Population Center of New Hampshire, 1950–2000" (PDF). NH Office of Energy and Planning. October 2007. http://www.nh.gov/oep/programs/DataCenter/Geography/documents/popcenter.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-10. 
  13. ^ Associated Press (August 22, 2008). Vt. birth rate ranks second lowest in U.S.. Burlington Free Press. 
  14. ^ American Community Survey
  15. ^ MLA Language Map Data Center
  16. ^ ""What is your religion...if any?"". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/graphics/news/gra/gnoreligion/flash.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-03. 
  17. ^ which were polled jointly
  18. ^ 86% in Alabama and South Carolina
  19. ^ Politico.com
  20. ^ Burlingtonfreepress.com retrieved July 29, 2008
  21. ^ Thearda.com
  22. ^ Bea.gov
  23. ^ "State at a Glance — New Hampshire". U.S. Department of Labor. 2007-10-12. http://stats.bls.gov/eag/eag.nh.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-14. 
  24. ^ "EIA State Energy Profiles: New Hampshire". 2008-06-12. http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/state/state_energy_profiles.cfm?sid=NH. Retrieved 2008-06-24. 
  25. ^ The Tax Foundation - New Hampshire's State and Local Tax Burden, 1970–2006
  26. ^ State of New Hampshire Department of Administrative Services - Monthly Revenue Focus (FY 2005)
  27. ^ "House Fast Fact", New Hampshire House of Representatives
  28. ^ Independents Become Largest Voting Bloc in New Hampshire retrieved 29 December 2008
  29. ^ http://blogs.saintanselmcollege.net/category/politics/face-the-nation/
  30. ^ http://www.anselm.edu/news+and+events/college+news/news/2007-11-29-primarydebates.htm
  31. ^ http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/01/07/politics/uwire/main3684304.shtml
  32. ^ Kocher, Fred (2006-12-22). ""Storm of change sweeps through N.H. Legislature"". Mass High Tech: The Journal of New England Technology. http://www.bizjournals.com/masshightech/stories/2006/12/25/focus2.html. Retrieved 2008-04-28. 
  33. ^ Senate President Sylvia Larsen, quoted in "Women make up majority in state Senate," the Manchester Union-Leader, November 6, 2008.
  34. ^ Liberty Forum
  35. ^ PorcFest
  36. ^ NH.gov
  37. ^ Nashuarpc.org
  38. ^ a b NG.gov
  39. ^ NH.gov
  40. ^ Grizzell, Emit Duncan (1923), Origin and Development of the High School in New England Before 1865, New York: Macmillan Company, p. 181, ISBN 9781406742589, OCLC 1921554, http://books.google.com/books?id=jP20VWHFqV4C&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0#PPA181,M1 
  41. ^ Bush, George Gary (1898), № 22, History of Education in New Hampshire, United States Bureau of Education Circular of Information, № 3, 1898, Washington, D. C.: GPO, p. 134, OCLC 817663, http://books.google.com/books?id=MEIXAAAAYAAJ&printsec=toc#PRA2-PA134,M1 
  42. ^ Wallace, R. Stuart; Hall, Douglas E., A New Hampshire Education Timeline, New Hampshire Historical Society, http://www.nhhistory.org/edu/support/nhlearnmore/nhedtimeline.pdf, retrieved 2009-01-28 
  43. ^ The IQ-Trapper
  44. ^ Fantino, John A. (July 20, 2008). Vermont breaks through. Burlington Free Press. 
  45. ^ http://wftda.com/leagues/apprentice
  46. ^ http://www.nhtrails.org/
  47. ^ Susan Morse, "Last of the Yankees", Portsmouth Herald, July 4, 2004.
  48. ^ The Peterborough Town Library
  49. ^ League of New Hampshire Craftsmen's Fair Accessed November 9, 2007
  50. ^ The Story of the World Record Wind
  51. ^ Sending a bright signal, Concord Monitor pg B-6, May 18, 1996
  52. ^ Wang, Beverley. (April 26, 2007) State Senate approves civil unions for same-sex couples Concord Monitor. Accessed April 26, 2007.
  53. ^ NH Firsts & Bests Accessed November 9, 2007

Further reading

  • Sletcher, Michael (2004). New England. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 031332753X. 
  • Land Use in Cornish, N.H., a 2006 documentary presentation by James M. Patterson of the Valley News, depicts various aspects of the societal and cultural environment of Northern New Hampshire

External links

State Government
U.S. Government
Other

Related information

Preceded by
South Carolina
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Ratified Constitution on June 21, 1788 (ninth)
Succeeded by
Virginia

Coordinates: 44°00′N 71°30′W / 44°N 71.5°W / 44; -71.5


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

New Hampshire [1] is a state in New England in the north east of the United States of America. Noted for its terse and independent inhabitants and cold winters, New Hampshire has much natural beauty.

Regions of New Hampshire
Regions of New Hampshire
Dartmouth Lake Sunapee
Great North Region
Lakes Region
Monadnock Region
Merrimack Valley
Seacoast
White Mountains

Cities

Some of the major cities are:

Understand

Residents of the state are proud of the nature around them, so careless actions that damage the local environment are not appreciated. If hiking in the White Mountains, make certain that your travel plans are sound, as volunteer rescue teams do not appreciate being called in the middle of the night to find lost tourists. However, as tourism is the main industry in New Hampshire, tourists are certainly greatly appreciated.

Talk

Not a big surprise, but the main language is English. Because of the immigration of French Canadians, some French speakers can be found in the northern part of the state, especially in the Berlin area. The southern regions have a growing Spanish speaking population, especially Manchester and Nashua, but it is a small percentage when compared to larger US cities

  • Manchester - Boston Regional Airport, Brown Av. Route 101 exit 2, Manchester, Phone: +1 603 624-6556, [2]. A convenient way to get to the city and much of southern New Hampshire. Sometimes used as a low-cost, low hassle alternative to Logan International Airport in Boston.
  • Vermont Transit, Toll free: +1 800-552-8737, [3]. Service from Montréal, Vermont, and Maine.
  • Concord Trailways, Toll free: +1 800-639-3317, [4]. Service from Boston.

By Train

There is only one Amtrak line in New Hampshire, the Downeaster. It only serves the seacoast region, passing through from Boston North Station to Portland, Maine. Note that if coming from south of Boston on the NE Corridor, trains terminate at Boston South Station, and you must connect via the T or taxi to North Station. Alternatively, buses (see above) leave directly from South Station.

Get around

Concord Trailways and Dartmouth Coach offer service to much of the state, however the easiest way to get around is by car. Most areas are underserved by bus (and train) so there may be no other option.

  • Manchester is a revitalized historical mill town.
  • The White Mountains is a beautiful region with good hiking and skiing.
  • Dartmouth College is an Ivy League school in Hanover with a beautiful campus.
  • Visit a small town outside of the "Golden Triangle" (Area from Salem to Nashua to Manchester) and check out the atmosphere.
  • Mount Washington (6,288 feet) is the largest mountain in the Northeast, and the site of the highest recorded windspeed in the world (231 miles per hour). Mount Washington provides an excellent experience for a hiker, contains Tuckerman's Ravine, a popular and difficult skiing destination reached only on foot.
  • Downtown Warner, Route 103, [5]. Beautiful small town in the Dartmouth/Sunapee region. Hike Mt. Kearsarge, visit downtown (fantastic local bookstore/gallery, many artists are local, Foothills Restaurant for breakfast, unique shops, telephone museum, wonderful public library), come for the Farmer's Market or the Fall Foliage Festival or anytime at all.  edit

Skiing

Not as popular as neighboring Vermont, but still plenty of good skiing.

  • Attitash, Barlett, +1 603 374-2368, [6].
  • The Balsams, Dixville Notch, +1 800-255-0600, E-mail: thebalsams@aol.com, [7].
  • Black Mountain, in Jackson.
  • Bretton Woods Mountain Resort, in Bretton Woods is New Hampshire's largest.
  • Cannon Mountain, Franconia.
  • Dartmouth Skiway, Lyme, +1 603 795-2143, [8].
  • Gunstock, in Gilford.
  • King Pine, East Madison, +1 603 367-8896, E-mail: info@kingpine.com, [9].
  • Loon Mountain, in Lincoln.
  • Cranmore Mountain, in North Conway.
  • Mount Sunapee, Mount Sunapee, +1 603 763-2356, E-mail: info@mtsunapee.com, [10].
  • Pats Peak, Henniker, +1 603 428-3245, E-mail: info@patspeak.com, [11].
  • Ragged Mountain, Danbury, +1 603 768-3600, E-mail: ragged@ragged-mt.com, [12].
  • Tenney Mountain, Plymouth, +1 603 536-4125, E-mail: info@tenneymtn.com, [13].
  • Waterville Valley, Campton, +1 603 236-8311, [14].
  • Whaleback, Lebanon, +1 603 448-1489, E-mail: whaleback@tpk.net, [15].
  • Wildcat, in Jackson.

Hiking

The White Mountains are a common destination for hiking, located in the middle part of the state.

Drink

While the state is not known for its nightlife, there are some clubs to check out in Manchester.

There are several breweries and brewpubs worth a visit in New Hampshire.

  • Smuttynose Brewing Company, Portsmouth.
  • Redhook Brewery, Portsmouth.
  • The Portsmouth Brewery in, you guess it, Portsmouth.
  • Seven Barrel Brewery, Lebanon.
  • Tuckerman Brewing, Conway.
  • Flying Goose Brewpub, New London. 603-526-6899
  • Elm City Brewpub, Keene.
  • Budweiser, Merrimack. Yes, there is a Budweiser brewery in Merrimack which you can tour. 603-595-1202.

Stay safe

New Hampshire is an extremely safe part of the country. Crime is typically not a problem, but make sure to be careful while driving—especially if you're unfamiliar with winter driving. Moose often wander onto the roads in the White Mountains region and Northward and are a serious hazard. When hiking, bear encounters are possible and the weather can change rapidly at higher elevations, especially in the Presidential Range.

Respect

New Hampshire's LGBT community is relatively obscure when compared with the other New England states, although the census reports it has among the highest concentrations of gay and lesbian residents of any U.S. state. Gay venues do exist in the urbanized far south, the heavily forested and backwoods north still retain some remarkably homophobic attitudes. The situation is less friendly than its neighbors.

This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

New Hampshire
by John Greenleaf Whittier

God bless New Hampshire! for her granite peaks
Once more the voice of Stark and Langdon speaks.
The long-bound vassal of the exulting South
    For very shame her self-forged chain has broken;
Torn the black seal of slavery from her mouth
    And in the clear tones of her old time spoken!
Oh, all undreamed of, all unhoped for changes!
    The tyrant's ally proves his sternest foe;
To all his biddings, from her mountain ranges,
    New Hampshire thunders an indignant No!
Who is it now despairs? Oh, faint of heart,
    Look upward to those Northern mountains cold,
    Flouted by freedom's victor-flag unrolled,
And gather strength to bear a manlier part!
All is not lost. The angel of God's blessing
    Encamps with Freedom on the field of fight;
Still to her banner, day by day, are pressing
    Unlooked for allies, striking for the right!
Courage, then, Northern hearts! Be firm, be true;
What one brave State hath done, can ye not also do?


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

NEW HAMPSHIRE, a North Atlantic state of the United States, one of the New England group, and one of the Original Thirteen, lying between latitudes 42° 40' and 45° 18' 23" N., and between longitudes 70° 37' and 72° 37' W. It is bounded N. by the Canadian province of Quebec; E. by Maine, by the Salmon Falls river, which separates it in part from Maine, and by the Atlantic Ocean; S.E. and S. by Massachusetts; W. and N.W. by Vermont (from which it is separated by the Connecticut river - low water mark on the W. bank of the Connecticut is New Hampshire's W. boundary), and by Halls Stream which separates it from Quebec. The state has an area of 9341 sq. m., of which 310 sq. m. are water surface.

Table of contents

Physical Features

The delightful scenery of mountains, lakes, streams and woodlands gives to the greater part of New Hampshire, which is in the New England physiographic province, the appearance of a vast and beautiful park; and the state is a favourite summer resort. In the N. central portion, the White Mountains, a continuation of the Appalachian system, rise very abruptly in several short ranges and in outlying mountain masses from a base level of 700-1500 ft. to generally rounded summits, the heights of several of which are nowhere exceeded in the eastern part of the United States except in the Black and the Unaka mountains of North Carolina; seventy-four rise more than 3000 ft. above the sea, twelve more than 5000 ft., and the highest, Mount Washington, attains an elevation of 62 9 3 ft.

The principal ranges, the Presidential, the Franconia and the Carter-Moriah, have a north-eastern and south-western trend. The Presidential, in the north-eastern part of the region, is separated from the Franconia on the south-west by the Crawford, or White Mountain Notch, about 2000 ft. in depth, in which the Ammonoosuc and Saco rivers find a passage, and from the Carter-Moriah, parallel to it on the east, by the Glen-Ellis and Peabody rivers, the former noted for its beautiful falls. On the Presidential range, which is about 20 m. in length, are Mount Washington and nine other peaks exceeding 5000 ft. in height: Mount Adams, 5805 ft.; Mount Jefferson, 5725 ft.; Mount Sam Adams, 5585 ft.; Mount Clay, 5554 ft.; Boot Spur, 5520 ft.; Mount Monroe, 5390 ft.; J. Q. Adams Peak, 5384 ft.; Mount Madison, 5380 ft.; and Mount Franklin, 5028 ft. On the Franconia, a much shorter range, are Mount Lafayette, 5269 ft.; Mount Lincoln, 5098 ft.; and four others exceeding 4000 ft. The highest peak on the Carter-Moriah range is Carter Dome, 4860 ft., but seven others exceed 4000 ft. Loftiest of the isolated mountains is Moosilanke noted for its magnificent view-point 4810 ft. above the sea. Separating Franconia and Pemigewasset ranges is the romantic Franconia Notch, overlooking which from the upper cliffs of Profile Mountain is a remarkable human profile, The Great Stone Face, immortalized by Nathaniel Hawthorne; here, too, is the Franconia Flume, a narrow upright fissure, 60 ft. in height, with beautiful waterfalls.

The whole White Mountain region abounds in deep narrow valleys, romantic glens, ravines, flumes, waterfalls, brooks and lakes. The part of the state which lies N. of the White Mountains is occupied by ridges and wide rolling valleys, the ridges rising occasionally to heights of 2000 ft. or more. South of the mountains a plateau-like surface - a part of the New England Uplands - broken by residual mountains, or " monadnocks " (a term derived from Mount Monadnock, 3186 ft. high, near the S.W. corner of the state) and lenticular hills, or drumlins, but having a general S.E. slope toward the sea, extends from the intervales of the Connecticut river to the E. border of the Merrimac Valley. Between the Merrimac Valley and the sea is the only low surface in the state; a considerable portion of this region is less than 500 ft. above the sea, but even here are numerous ridges 1000 ft. in height or more, and small drumlins. The seashore, about 18 m. in length, is for the most part a low sandy beach; here and there, however, especially to the northward, it is somewhat rocky, and to the southward are two bluffs. The only harbour is at Portsmouth near the mouth of the Piscataqua. About 9 m. from the shore are the bleak and nearly barren Isles of Shoals, nine in number, a part of which belong to New Hampshire and a part to Maine.

Extending from Mount Monadnock in Cheshire, the S.W. corner county, to the headwaters of the Connecticut river in the N.E. corner is a water-parting, W. of which the state is drained southward into Long Island Sound by the Connecticut and its tributaries and E. of which it is drained south-eastward into the Atlantic Ocean principally by the Merrimac in the S., the Saco and the headwaters of the Merrimac in the White Mountain region, and the Androscoggin in the N. The Piscataqua is a tidal estuary fed chiefly by the Salmon Falls, Lamprey and Exeter rivers. The headwaters of the rivers are for the most part mountain streams or elevated lakes; farther on their swift and winding currents - flowing sometimes between wide intervales, sometimes between rocky banks - are marked by numerous falls and fed by lakes.

The lakes and ponds, numbering several hundred, were formed by glacial action and the scenery of many of them is scarcely less attractive than that of the mountains. The largest and most widely known is Lake Winnepesaukee on the S. border of the White Mountain region; this is about 20 m. long and from 1 to 8 m. wide, is dotted by 274 islands, mostly verdant, and has clear water and a rather level shore, back of which hills or mountains rise on all sides. Among the more prominent of many others that are admired for their beauty are Squam, New Found, Sunapee and Ossipee, all within a radius of a few miles from Winnepesaukee; Massabesic farther S.; and Diamond Ponds, Umbagog and Connecticut lakes, N. of the White Mountains. The rivers with their numerous falls and the lakes with their high altitudes furnish a vast amount of water power for manufacturing, the Merrimac, in particular, into which many of the larger lakes, including Winnepesaukee, find an outlet, is one of the greatest power-yielding streams of the world.

Flora

Except on the summits of the higher mountains New Hampshire was originally an unbroken forest of which the principal trees were the white pine, hemlock, sugar maple, yellow birch, beech, red oak, and white oak in the S., red spruce, balsam, and white birch on the upper mountain slopes, and red spruce, white pine, sugar maple, white spruce and white cedar in the other parts of the N. The primeval forests have nearly disappeared, but much of the N. third of the state and many abandoned farms in the S. have become reforested with much the same trees, except that on the lower levels in the N. yellow birch, sugar maple and beech have to a considerable extent supplanted spruce, white pine and hemlock, and that wherever forest fires have occurred there is much bird cherry, yellow birch and aspen. The butternut, hickory and chestnut are common nut-bearing trees in the S. Among indigenous fruit-bearing trees, shrubs and vines the state has the bird cherry, black cherry, blueberry, cranberry, raspberry, blackberry, gooseberry, strawberry, grape and black currant; and conspicuous among a very great variety of shrubs and flowering plants are the rose, dogwood, laurel, sumac, holly, winterberry, trilliums, anemones, arbutuses, violets, azaleas, eglantine, clematis, blue gentians, orange lilies, orchids, asters and golden rod. The summits of some of the mountains are too high for trees and above belts of dwarf spruce, balsam and birch they are clothed chiefly with sandworts, diapensia, cassiope, rushes, sedges and lichens.

Fauna

The N. section of the state was originally a favourite hunting-ground of the Indians, for here in abundance were the moose, caribou, deer, wolf, bear, lynx, otter, beaver, fox, sable, mink, musk-rat, porcupine, wood-chuck, ruffed grouse and pigeon. These were rapidly reduced in number by the white man, the wild pigeons are extinct, and the moose, caribou, bear, wolf, lynx and beaver have become rare, but, under the protection of laws enacted during the latter part of the 19th century, deer and ruffed grouse are again quite plentiful. Rabbits, squirrels, raccoons, woodcock and quail are also common game. Many of the lakes and rivers have been stocked with trout and salmon or bass; some, with smelt; the fresh waters of the state also contain pickerel, perch, pouts, eels, suckers, dace, sunfish and shiners. In the S. half of New Hampshire are many song birds belonging to the Alleghany faunal area; in the N. part many others belonging to the Canadian faunal area. The hermit thrush, veery, song sparrow, red-eyed vireo, bunting, warbler and wren are among the song birds of the forests.

Climate

The winters are usually long and severe, and the summers cool and salubrious, but the diversity of surface together with unequal distances from the sea cause marked variations for the different regions. The mean annual temperature ranges from about 42° F. at only moderate elevations in the White Mountain region and farther N. to 47° F. at low altitudes in the S.E. The greatest extremes of temperature occur in the deep mountain valleys where it sometimes rises to 102° F. or above, in summer, and falls to-38°F. or below in winter; higher up on the mountains it is never so warm and along the sea-coast both extremes are considerably less. The highest recorded winter mean is 25° F., at Nashua in the lower valley of the Merrimac, and at Durham near the sea-coast; the lowest recorded winter mean is 18° F., at Bethlehem 1470 ft. above the sea in the White Mountain region; the highest recorded summer mean is 69° F. at Nashua, and the lowest recorded summer mean is 64° F. at Bethlehem. The mean annual precipitation for the entire state is about 40 in.; it is 43 in. at Nashua, 45.3 in. at Durham, and perhaps still more on the E. slopes of the mountain ranges, but it is only 37.7 in. at Bethlehem in the N.W. part of the mountain_ region and only 35.5 in. at Stratford in the upper valley of theConnecticut. The distribution is quite even throughout the year,, but summer and autumn are slightly more wet than winter and spring. Among the mountains and in the N. part of the state the annual fall of snow is from 7 to 8 ft., but in the S.E. corner it is. little more than one-half that amount. The prevailing winds are generally N.W., but in the vicinity of the sea they are S.E. during; summer.

Agriculture

Fertile soil in New Hampshire is confined largely to the bottom-lands of the Merrimac and Connecticut rivers, where on deposits of glacial drift, which are generally quite deep in the southern half of the state, there is considerable alluvium. In the south-eastern section is also a moderately productive soil derived largely from the disintegration of slate. Elsewhere south of the mountains the surface soil is mostly hard pan or till, this being deepest on the drumlins. In the mountain region the soil is mostly a sandy loam composed of disintegrated granitic gneiss and organic matter; on the lower and more gentle slopes as well as in the valleys this is generally deep enough for a luxuriant vegetable growth but on the upper and more precipitous slopes it is thin, or the rocks are entirely bare.

Farms in the more sterile parts of New Hampshire were abandoned when the depleted soil and the old methods of agriculture made it impossible for owners or tenants to compete with western farmers. This abandonment led in 1889 to the adoption by the state Board of Agriculture of measures which promoted the development of the state, especially the central and northern parts, as a summer resort. Abandoned farms were advertised as suitable for country homes, and within fifteen years about two thousand were bought; and the carriage roads were improved, game preserved and the interests of visitors studied. Agriculture on the farms still operated was now greatly modified, and the production of vegetables, fruits, dairy products, poultry and eggs was largely substituted for the production of cereals. The total acreage of all land included in farms increased from 3,459,018 acres in 1890 to 3,609,784 acres in 1900, or from 60% to 62.6% of the total land area of the state, but the improved portion of this decreased during the decade from 1,727,387 acres to 1,076,879 acres, or from 49'9% to 29.8%; in no other state east of the Mississippi river was so small a proportion of the farm land improved at the close of the decade, although in Florida it was only a trifle larger. The total number of farms increased from 29,151 in 1890 to 29,324 in 1900, and the average size increased from 119 acres to 123.1 acres, but as a result of the more intensive form of agriculture, farms containing less than 50 acres increased from 8188 in 1890 to 8764 in 1900, and those containing 50 acres or more decreased during this decade from 20,963 to 20,560. Of the total number of farms in 1900, 26,344, or 89.8%, were operated by owners or part owners, 1639 by cash tenants and 546 by share tenants.

Hay is the principal crop; in 1909 the acreage was 640,000 acres and the yield was 621,000 tons. The total acreage of cereals decreased from 88,559 acres in 1879 to 61,498 acres in 1889, and to 4 2 ,335 acres in 1899; during the latter decade that of Indian corn increased from 23,746 acres. to 25,694 acres (30,000 acres in 1909), but that of oats decreased from 26,618 acres to 12,589 acres (14,000 acres in 1909), that of wheat decreased from 2027 acres to 271 acres (none reported in 1909), that of barley decreased from 4934 acres to 1596 acres (2000acres in 1909), that of buckwheat decreased from 3117 acres to 1835 acres (2000 acres in 1909), and that of rye decreased from 1056 acres to 350 acres (none reported in 1909). With the exception of dairy cows and horses there was likewise a corresponding decrease in the number of livestock during these years: the number of hogs decreased from 58,585 in 1890 to 56,970 in 1900 (51,000 in 1910); of sheep, from 211,825 in 1880 to 105,702 in 1900 (74,000 in 1910); and of neat cattle other than dairy cows, from 141,841 in 1880 to 116,835 in 1900 (93,000 in 1910); but the number of horses increased from 52,458 in 1890 to 77,233 in 1900 (59, 000 in 1910), and the number of dairy cows from 90,564 in 1890 to 115,036 in 1900 (122,000 in 1910). The value of the poultry and egg product of 1899 was $1,824,399, which was more than twice that of the cereals and nearly one-third of that of the hay and forage. The potato crop of the same year was grown on 19,422 acres and amounted to 2,420,668 bushels valued at $1,090,495; in 1909 the acreage was 21,000, and the crop was 2,730,000 bushels, valued at $1,747,000. The acreage of other vegetables in 1899 was 26,780 and the value of the market garden produce, including small fruits, which was sold, increased from $187,049 in 1889 to $394,283 in 1899 or 110.8%. Although the crop of orchard fruits was no greater in 1899 than in 1889 the Number of apple trees increased during the decade from 1,744,779 to 2,034,398, the number of peach trees from 19,057 to 48,819 and the number of plum trees from 10,151 to 18,137; in the number of pear trees and of cherry trees there was a slight decrease. The fruit crop of 1899 included 1 ,97 8 ,797 bushels of apples, 19,341 bushels of pears, 6054 bushels of peaches, 4942 bushels of plums, 1183 bushels of cherries, 487,500 It) of grapes, 568,640 qts. of strawberries, 124,760 qts. of raspberries and 105,290 qts. of blackberries and dewberries. The valley of the Merrimac is the leading section for the production of hay, small fruits and dairy products. In the bottom lands of the Merrimac and of the Connecticut, south of the White Mountains, a large part of the Indian corn and vegetables is grown. Potatoes, however, are grown in large quantities north and west of the White Mountains; and this district leads in the number of cattle and sheep, and in the production of all the cereals except Indian corn. Apples, pears and grapes are successfully grown throughout the central and southern sections, but peaches and cherries chiefly south of Lake Winnepesaukee. Hillsboro and Rockingham counties, in the south-east, lead in the production of poultry and eggs.

Forests.-The White Mountain region and Coos county to the north of it, embracing in all nearly one-third of the total area of the state, is essentially a forest country. In 1903, however, only about 12% of this was still occupied by a virgin merchantable forest and 69.8% was cut-over or culled land. In the southern part of the state there is in the aggregate nearly as large an area of young forests on lands, most of which were until about 1850 used for agricultural purposes. The principal merchantable timber of the state is red spruce, and this is found chiefly in the virgin forests which remain in the north, especially in those on the steep mountain slopes between elevations of 1800 ft. and 3500 ft. All except a few scattered trees of the white pine, which was once abundant in all parts of the state below 1500 ft. in elevation, has been cut; but some of the second growth in the south is already merchantable. The most common hardwood trees are sugar maple, yellow birch, white birch and beech; these are widely distributed throughout the state, but are for the most part too young to be cut for lumber. White cedar is almost wholly confined to the swamps of the north, and white oak is found chiefly on the more fertile lands of the south. Most of the virgin forests of the northern section were cut in the latter half of the 19th century, while abandoned farms in the south were becoming reforested, and the value of the state's lumber and timber products increased from $1,099,492 in 1850 to $4,286,142 in 1870, and to $9,218,310 in 1900 and then decreased to $7,519,431 in 1905; since 1890 large quantities of wood, chiefly spruce, have also been used in the manufacture of paper and wood pulp. In 1909 a forestry commission was established.

Fisheries.-Although the trout and salmon of the fresh waters in the interior are a great attraction to sportsmen,. the commercial fisheries, which are confined to Rockingham county, on the coast, are of small and declining importance. The take of 1898 consisted chiefly of cod, haddock, lobsters, mackerel, alewives, pollock and hake, but was valued at only $48,987, which was a decrease of 67% from that of 1889; in 1905 the total take was valued at $51,944, of which $32,575 was the value of lobsters and $8166 was the value of fresh cod-the only other items valued at more than $loon were soft clams ($2770), Irish moss ($2400), alewives, fresh and salted ($1220), and haddock ($1048).

Minerals.-The most important of the mineral products of New Hampshire, which has long been known as " the Granite State," is granite, which is quarried in the southern part of the state in the area of " Lake Winnepesaukee gneiss," near Concord, Merrimack county, near Milford, Hillsboro county, and E. of Manchester in Rockingham county; in Sullivan county, near Sunapee; and in the east central part of the state in Carroll county, near Conway and Madison. In 1908 there were 8 quarries at Concord, all on Rattlesnake Hill, and all within 2 m. of the state house in Concord. The Concord granite is a medium bluish-grey coloured muscovitebiotite granite, with mica plates so abundant as to effect the durability of the polish of the stone; it is used for building-the outer walls of the Library of Congress at Washington, D.C., are made of this stone-to a less degree for monuments, for which the output of one quarry is used exclusively, and for paving blocks. The output of the Milford quarries, which numbered in 1908 fifteen-twelve south and south-west and three north-west of Milford-consists of fine and mostly even-grained, quartz monzonites (i.e. granites with an unusually large proportion of soda-lime feldspar), of various grey shades, sometimes tinged with blue, pink or buff, and always marked with black mica; the finer varieties take a high polish and are used for monuments, and the coarser grades are used for construction, especially of railway bridges, and for paving and curbing. The output of the Auburn quarry, 7 m. E. of Manchester, is a deep pink quartz monzonite, marked with fine black dots, which has a fine texture, takes a good polish and is used for monuments. The Conway quarries, four in number in 1908, are on either side of the Saco river, south-east and south-west of North Conway; their output is coarse constructional stones, all biotite or biotite-hornblende, but varying in colour, pinkish (" red ") and dark-yellow greenish-grey (" green ") varieties being found remarkably near each other at Redstone, on the east side of the Saco valley. About 22 m. E. of Sunapee are quarried two kinds of monumental stone: the " light Sunapee," a light bluish-grey biotite-muscovite, finer than the Concord granite, and capable of a good polish and of fine carving; and the " black pearl " or " dark Sunapee," a dark bluish-grey quartz-diorite, which seems black mottled with white when polished, and which is coarser than the " light Sunapee." New Hampshire granites were used for building as early as 1623. The value of granite quarried in the state increased from $195,000 in 1887 to $1,147,097 in 1902, when building stone was valued at $619,916, monumental stone at $346,735 and paving stone at $101,548. In that year New Hampshire ranked fourth among the states in output of granite, with 6.3% of the total value of granite quarried in the entire country; in 1908 the value of granite ($867,028) was exceeded by that of each of seven other states but was more than one-half of the total value of all mineral products of the state. Of this total the only other large items were clay and clay products (valued at $371,640), and mineral waters ($259,520; of which $150,512 was the value of table waters) from nine springs, four in Rockingham, three in Hillsboro county and one each in Coos and Carrol counties-and other mineral waters were used in the manufacture of soft drinks. Mica, first mined at grafton|Grafton, Grafton county, in 1803, found also in the northern part of Merrimack county and in the north-western corner of Cheshire county in such quantities that for sixty years:New Hampshire was the largest producer of mica in the United States, is no longer an important product: in 1907 its value ($7227) was less than that of the mica produced in South Dakota, Alabama, North Carolina or Colorado. A quartz schist, suitable for making whetstones and oilstones, was discovered in 1823 by Isaac Pike at Pike Station, Grafton county, and the Pike Manufacturing Company now owns and operates quarries outside this state also; in 1907 New Hampshire was the principal producer of scythe-stones in the United States, and the total value of whetstones made in 1907 (including the value of precious stones') was $59,870.

Manufactures.-The heavy precipitation on the elevated central and northern parts, and the hundreds of lakes and ponds which serve as reservoirs, give to the lower southern part of the state on the Merrimac and other rivers such an abundant and constant water-power that southern New Hampshire has become an important manufacturing district, and manufacturing has become the leading industry of the state. During the last two decades of the 19th century the number of inhabitants engaged in agricultural pursuits decreased from 45,122 to 38,782; and the number engaged in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits increased from 57,283 to 75,945. Many farmers abandoned their sterile farms and made new homes in the West, where soil yielded larger returns for labour, and a foreign-born population, consisting largely of French Canadians, came to the cities in response to the demand for labour in the mills and factories.

From 1850 to 1860 the value of the manufactured products increased 62.3%; in the decade of the Civil War they further increased in value 89%; from 1890 to 1900 the increase was from $ 8 5,77 0 ,549 to $118,709,308, or 38.4%; and from 1900 to 1905 the value of the factory products increased from $107,590,803 to $123,610,904, or 14.9%. Textiles, and boots and shoes represented ' Gems are not sought for systematically in New Hampshire. Topaz occurs on Baldface Mountain, near North Chatham.

in 1905 more than one-half the total value. Cotton goods, the manufacture of which was introduced in 1804, increased in value only slightly during the last decade of the 19th century, from $21,958,002 to $22,998,249, but from 1900 to 1905 their value increased 28.4%, or to $29,540,770; except in 1900 the manufacture of cotton goods had long ranked first, measured by the value of the product, among the state's manufacturing industries. Factorymade boots and shoes increased in value from $11,986,003 in 1890 to $23,405,558 in 1900, or 95.3%, the industry ranking first in 1900; but in 1905 there was a decrease to $22,425,700, the industry then ranking second; in 1900 the value of boots and shoes was 21.8% and in 1905 it was 18.1% of the total value of all factory products, and in no other state was the degree of specialization in this industry so great as in New Hampshire. Woollen goods, third in rank, decreased in value from $10,963,250 in 1890 to $10,381,056 in 1900, but the factory product increased in value from $7,624,062 in 1900 to $11,013,982, in 1905, or 44.5%. Paper and wood pulp, for the manufacture of which the spruce forests of the state are so largely used, increased in value from $1,282,022 in 1890 to $7,244,733 in 1900, or 465.1%, and to $8,930,291 in 1905; and this industry rose from ninth in rank in 1890 to fifth in 1900 and to fourth in 1905. The manufacture of lumber and timber products, one of the oldest industries of the state, ranked fifth in 1905; these products had increased in value from $5,641,445 in 1890 to $9,218,310 in 1900, or 63.4%, but decreased to $7,519,431 in 1905, the decrease being in large measure due to the great demand for spruce at the paper and pulp mills. Foundry and machine shop products, hosiery and knit goods, wooden boxes, flour and grist mill products, and malt liquors are other important manufactures; the value of wooden boxes increased from $979,758 in 1900 to $2,565,612 in 1905, or 161.9%, and the value of hosiery and knit goods increased during the same period from $2,592,829 to $3,974,290, or 53.3%. As compared with other states of the Union, New Hampshire in 1905 ranked fifth in the manufacture of factory-made boots and shoes, and in woollen goods, sixth in cotton goods, and seventh in paper and wood pulp, in hosiery and knit goods, and in the dyeing and finishing of textiles. In 1905 the value of the products in the eight cities of Manchester, Nashua, Concord, Dover, Rochester, Laconia, Keene, and Portsmouth, all of which are south of Lake Winnepesaukee, was 59.5% of that for the entire state. Nearly one-half the cotton goods were manufactured in Manchester. Boots and shoes were manufactured chiefly in cities near the southern border. Dover led in the manufacture of woollens; Laconia in the manufacture of hosiery and knit goods; and Berlin, the chief manufacturing centre north of the White Mountains, in the manufacture of paper and wood pulp.

Transportation

With the exception of a Grand Trunk line in the northern part of the state the several steam railways are owned or leased by the Boston & Maine. Up the steep slope of Mount Washington runs a cog railway. The first steps in railway building were taken in 1835, when the Boston & Maine, the Concord, and the Nashua & Lowell railways were incorporated. The Boston & Maine was opened from Boston, Mass., to Dover, N.H., in 1842. In 1850 there were in operation 467 m.; this mileage had increased to 1015 in 1880 and to 1167.14 on the 1st of January 1909. Portsmouth, the only port of entry, has a very small foreign trade, but there is a considerable traffic in coal and building materials here and on the Cocheco, which is navigable to Dover.

183,858

in 1800;

214,460 in 1810; 244,161

in 1820; 269,328

in 1830;

284,574

in 1840; 317,976 in 1850;

326,073 in 1860;

Population

The population of the state was 141,885 in 1790; 318,300 in' 1870; 346,991 in 1880; 376,530 in 1890; and 411,588 in 1900; and 430,572 in 1910; the per cent of increase was 9.3 from 1890 to 1900 and 4.6 from 1900 to 1910. Of the total in 1900, 88,107 were foreign-born; 58,967, or 66.9%, were natives of Canada (44,420 French and 14,547 English), 13,547 of Ireland, 5100 of England, 2019 of Scotland, 2006 of Germany, and 2032 of Sweden. Of the 323,481 native-born, 80,435, or 24.8%, were natives of other states than New Hampshire; 56,210 of these were natives of other New England states, however, and 7502 were natives of New York. At the same time there were 124,561 natives of New Hampshire numbered among the inhabitants of other states, principally Massachusetts, Vermont, Maine, New York, Illinois, California, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Ohio, New Jersey, Kansas and Nebraska, and to induce these to return for a holiday season to their native state the " Old Home Week" festival, now held throughout New England, was planned in 1899 by Frank West Rollins (b. 1860), who was then governor of New Hampshire. The Roman Catholic Church in 1906 had more members than any other religious denomination (119,86 3 out of 190,298 communicants of all denominations); in the same year there were 19,070 Congregationalists, 15,974 Baptists, 12,529 Methodist Episcopalians (North) and 4892 Protestant Episcopalians. Of the total population in 1890 the rural constituted 6 7.4% and the urban 37.6%, but in 1900 the rural constituted only 53.3% of the total and the urban 46.7%. The eleven cities having a population in 1900 of 5000 or more were: Manchester (56,987); Nashua (23,898); Concord (19,632); Dover (13,207); Portsmouth (10,637); Keene (9165); Berlin (8886); Rochester (8466); Laconia (8042); Somersworth (7023), and Franklin (5846).

Administration

New Hampshire was the first of the original thirteen states to establish a government wholly independent of Great Britain. This was designed to be only temporary,' but was in operation from the 5th of January 1776 to the 2nd of June 1784. The constitution which then went into effect provided for a General Court consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives and made the Council a body advisory to the state president; the 1784 instrument was much amended in 1792, when the title of president was changed to governor, but with the amendments adopted in that year it is in large measure the constitution of to-day. For sixty years there was no change whatever, and only three amendments, those of 1852 (removing the property qualifications of representatives, senators and the governor), were adopted until 1877, when twelve amendments were adopted, - the most important being those providing for biennial (instead of annual) state elections in November (instead of March), and those doing away with the previous requirement that representatives, senators and the governor " be of the Protestant religion." Five amendments were ratified in 1889 and four in 1902. New Hampshire is the only state in the Union in which amendments to the constitution may be proposed only by a constitutional convention, and once in seven years at the general election a popular vote is taken on the necessity of a revision of the constitution. A radical revision of the constitution is rendered especially difficult by a provision that ma amendment proposed by a convention shall be adopted without the approval of two-thirds of the electors who vote on the subject when it is referred to them. Prior to 1902 every male inhabitant of a town who was twenty-one years of age or over, a citizen of the United States, and not a pauper or excused from paying taxes at his own request, had a right to vote, but an amendment adopted in this year made ability to read English and to write additional qualifications, except in the case of those physically unable to read or to write, of those then having the franchise, and of persons 60 years of age or more on the 1st of January 1904. Various other amendments have been proposed from time to time, but have been defeated at the polls. By an act approved on the 9th of April 1909 provision was made for direct nominations of candidates at primaries conducted by regular election officers.

There is a governor's council of five members, one from each councillor district, which has advisory duties and shares with the governor most of his powers. There is no lieutenant-governor. The governor and the councillors are elected for a term of two years; and a majority of the votes cast is necessary to a choice. Where no candidate receives such a majority the Senate and the House of Representatives by joint ballot choose one of the two having the greatest number. No person is eligible for either office who shall not at the time of his election be at least thirty years of age and have been an inhabitant of the state for the seven years next preceding; a councillor must be an inhabitant of the district from which he is chosen. The governor and council appoint all judicial ' The constitution of 1776 provided that the Congress which framed it " assume the name, power and authority of a House of Representatives "; that said house choose twelve persons to be " a distinct and separate branch of the legislature by the name of a Council that the Council appoint a president; that civil officers for the colony and for each county (except clerks of court, county treasurers and recorders) should be appointed by the two houses; and that " if the present unhappy dispute with Great Britain should continue longer than this present year, and the Continental Congress give no instruction or direction to the contrary, the Council be chosen by the people of each respective county in such manner as the Council and House of Representatives shall order." A constitution framed by a Convention which met in Concord on the Toth of June 1778 was rejected by the people in 1779.

officers, the attorney-general, auditor, important administrative boards, coroners and certain naval and military officers; they have power to pardon offences; and they may exercise some control over expenditure through the constitutional requirement of the governor's warrant for drawing money from the treasury. The governor may veto within five days, besides Sunday, after it has been presented to him, any bill or resolution of which he disapproves, and a two-thirds vote of the members of both houses is required to pass over his veto.

A Senate and a House of Representatives, which together constitute the General Court, meet at Concord on the first Wednesday in January of every odd-numbered year, and at such other times as the governor may appoint for a special session, principally for the making of laws and for the election of the secretary of state, the state treasurer, and the commissary-general. The Senate is composed of 24 members, one from each senatorial district, and these districts are formed so as to be approximately equal with respect to the amount of direct taxes paid in each; representation in this body is therefore apportioned on the basis of property. In the House of Representatives, which has the large membership of 390, representation is on the basis of population, but is so arranged as to favour the rural districts; thus every town or ward of a city having 600 inhabitants is allowed one representative, but, although for every additional representative 1200 additional inhabitants are required, any town having less than 600 inhabitants is allowed a representative for such proportionate part of the time the legislature is in session as the number of its inhabitants bears to 600. Senators and representatives are elected for a term of two years. A representative must have been an inhabitant of the state for at least two years next preceding his election, and must be an inhabitant of the town, parish or ward he is chosen to represent; a senator must be at least thirty years of age, must have been an inhabitant of the state for at least seven years next preceding his election, and must be an inhabitant of the district by which he is chosen. The constitution of New Hampshire places scarcely any restrictions on the powers of the legislature. By an amendment of 1877, however, it is forbidden to authorize any town to lend money or give credit for the benefit of any corporation whose object is profit. Although money bills may originate only in the House of Representatives the Senate may propose amendments. In 1909 the office of state auditor was created.

For the administration of justice the state has a supreme court and a superior court, each county has a probate court, and some towns as well as the cities have a police court. The supreme court and the superior court consist each of one justice and four associate justices. The supreme court holds one general term each year at Concord and on the first Tuesday of every month except July and August sits to hear arguments, make orders and render decisions; the superior court holds one or two sessions a year in every county. Both of these courts have extensive jurisdiction. Each probate court, consisting of a single judge, has jurisdiction within its county of the probate of wills, of the granting of administration, in insolvency proceedings, and in relation to the adoption of children; it may appoint and remove guardians of minors, insane persons and spendthrifts, and, upon application, may change a person's name. The court of a justice of the peace has jurisdiction in criminal cases only where the punishment is by fine not exceeding twenty dollars, or by imprisonment not exceeding six months, or by both, and in civil cases only where the title to real estate is not involved and the damage demanded does not exceed thirteen dollars and thirty-three cents. A police court has the same jurisdiction as that of a justice of the peace, and, in addition, concurrent jurisdiction with the superior court in certain cases where the title to real estate is not involved and the damage demanded does not exceed one hundred dollars.

J udges and justices are appointed by the governor and council, and with the exception of justices of the peace they hold office during good behaviour or until they have attained the age of seventy years; justices of the peace are appointed for a term of five years only, but they may be reappointed.

Local affairs are administered by counties, towns (townships) village districts and cities. In each county a convention, composed of representatives from the towns, meets every two years to levy taxes and to authorize expenditures for grounds and buildings whenever more than one thousand dollars are required. For the discharge of other county functions the qualified electors of each county elect every two years three commissioners, a sheriff, a solicitor, a treasurer, a register of deeds and a register of probate; two auditors also are appointed annually by the supreme court. The county commissioners have the care of county buildings, consisting chiefly of a court house, gaol and house of correction, but are not allowed to expend more than one thousand dollars for repairs, new buildings or grounds, without authority from the county convention; the commissioners have the care also of all other county property, as well as of county paupers; and once every four years they are required to visit each town of their county, inspect the taxable property therein, determine whether it is incorrectly assessed and report to the state board of equalization. In each town a regular annual meeting of the qualified electors is called on the second Tuesday in March for the transaction of miscellaneous business and the election of town officers. These officers always include three selectmen, a clerk, a treasurer and one or more auditors, and they may include any or all of the following: assessors, who together with the selectmen constitute a board for the assessment of taxes, one or more collectors of taxes, overseers of the poor, constables, surveyors of highways, fence-viewers, sealers of weights and measures, measurers of wood and bark, surveyors of lumber, cullers of staves, a chief fireward or engineer and one or more assistants, a clerk of the market and a pound keeper. The moderator of the town meeting is elected at the general election in November for a term of two years, and a board of health, consisting of three members, is appointed by the selectmen, one member each year. The general business of the town, other than that which comes before the town meeting, is managed by the selectmen, and they are specially intrusted with the regulation of the highways, sidewalks and commons. A village district is a portion of a town, including a village, which is set apart and organized for protection from fire, for lighting or sprinkling the streets, for providing a water-supply, for the construction and maintenance of sewers, and for police protection; to serve these interests three commissioners, a moderator, a clerk, a treasurer and such other officers as the voters of the district may deem necessary are chosen, each for a term of one year. The government of cities is in part determined by general laws and in part by individual charters. In accordance with the general laws each city elects a mayor, a board of aldermen, and a common council in whom is vested the administration of its " fiscal, prudential and municipal affairs "; the mayor presides at the meetings of the board of aldermen, and has a veto on any measure of this body, and no measure can be passed over his veto except by an affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of all the aldermen; each ward elects three selectmen, a moderator and a clerk in whom is vested the charge of elections; the city marshal and assistant marshals are appointed by the mayor and aldermen, but the city clerk and city treasurer are elected by the aldermen and common council in joint session.

Under the laws of New Hampshire the property rights of husband and wife are nearly equal. The wife may hold, acquire and manage property the same as if she were single; she is also subject to the same liabilities in relation to her property as a single woman except that no contract or conveyance by her as surety or guarantor for her husband is binding. Rights of dower and courtesy both obtain. Where there is no will or its provisions are waived, the right of a widow, in addition to her dower and homestead rights, in the personal estate of a deceased husband is the same as that of a widower, in addition to his estate by courtesy and homestead right, in the personal estate of a deceased wife, i.e. one-half if there is no surviving issue and one-third if there is such issue. By releasing his or her right of dower or courtesy together with the homestead right, if any, the surviving widower or widow is also entitled, in fee, to one-half the real estate, if said deceased leaves no issue surviving; if the husband leaves issue by the widow surviving, she is entitled in fee to one-third of his real estate; if the wife leaves issue by him surviving, the husband also is entitled in fee to one-third of her estate; but if the wife leaves issue not by him, he is entitled only to a life interest in one-third of her real estate. Among the grounds for a divorce are adultery, impotency, extreme cruelty, conviction of a crime punishable in the state with imprisonment for more than a year and actual imprisonment under such conviction, treatment seriously injuring the health or endangering the reason, wilful desertion for three years, or joining a religious sect or society which professes to believe the relation of husband and wife unlawful, and conduct in accordance therewith for six months.

The homestead law of New Hampshire exempts from seizure for debt five hundred dollars' worth of any person's homestead except for the enforcement of a mortgage upon it, for the collection of debts incurred in making repairs or improvements, or for the collection of taxes. The law also provides that except where a mortgage is given to secure payment of the purchase money, the homestead right of a married person shall not be encumbered without the consent of both husband and wife. The surviving wife or husband and the minor children, if any, may occupy the homestead right during the minority of the children, and the surviving wife or husband is entitled to the right during the remainder of her or his lifetime.

From 1855 to 1903 the liquor law was essentially prohibitory, but in the latter year an act licensing the traffic was passed. However, some option still remains with each town and city. Once every four years in cities and once in two years in towns the question of licence or no-licence must be submitted to a vote of the electorate, and in a no-licence town or city no bar-room or saloon is to be permitted; in such a town or city, however, malt liquor, cider and light wines may be sold at a railway restaurant and an inn-keeper may serve liquors to his bona-fide registered guests.

Capital punishment for murder in the first degree is inflicted only upon the request of a jury.

The general supervision of railways is vested in a board of three commissioners appointed by the governor and council for a term of three years, one each year. The board is specially directed to prescribe the manner in which the railway corporations shall keep their accounts, to examine these accounts from time to time, to examine the railways at least once a year, to investigate the cause of all accidents and upon the petition of an interested party to fix rates for the transportation of persons and freight. In 1909 an anti-pass law was enacted.

Education

New Hampshire formed a part of Massachusetts when, in 1647, the General Court of that province passed the famous act requiring every town in which there were fifty householders to maintain a school for teaching reading and writing, and every town in which there were one hundred householders to maintain a grammar school with an instructor capable of preparing young men for college. Although not much enforced, this, with some slight changes, continued to be the school law until the close of the colonial era. The beginning of the new era was marked by the founding of Phillips Exeter Academy (1781), and later several other similar schools were opened. Their excellence aroused a much greater interest in the common school system, and throughout the 19th century various experiments for improving it were tried; among them were the division of towns into districts, the appointment of county school commissioners, and the establishment of a state board of education. These, however, have been abandoned, and the system is now administered chiefly by towns and a few special districts under the general supervision of a state superintendent.

Each town is constituted a school district, and some special districts are organized under special acts of the legislature. Some of the business relating to the schools is transacted at the annual district school meeting in which women as well as men have a vote, but the schools of each district are managed very largely by a school board elected at this meeting, one-third each year; in districts without a high school the board has only three members, but in districts having a high school the board may have three, six or nine members. The superintendent of public instruction is appointed by the governor and council for a term of two years, and it is his duty to prescribe the form of register to be kept in the schools, to investigate the condition of the schools, to make suggestions and recommendations for improving them, to lecture upon educational subjects in the towns and cities, to hold at least one teachers' institute each year in each of the counties, and to designate the times and places for holding examinations of those who wish to teach. The free school system now provides free high schools for all children within the state; for an act of 1903 requires any town not maintaining a high school, or school of corresponding grade, or not uniting with adjoining towns in maintaining one, to pay the tuition of any of its children who attend a high school or academy within the state. Evening schools for the instruction of persons over fourteen years of age must be established in any city or town of more than 5000 inhabitants if 5% of its legal voters petition for them. Any town upon application, and by contracting to appropriate annually a certain fixed sum for its maintenance, may receive state aid for establishing a library, and in 1904 libraries had been established by this means in 146 towns. Every district is required to keep its schools open at least twenty weeks each year.

All children between the ages of eight and fourteen and those between the ages of fourteen and sixteen who cannot read and write English are required to attend either a public or an approved private school for the full term unless excused by the school board on account of physical or mental infirmity. The schools are maintained chiefly out of the proceeds of a district school tax, which must not be less in any district than seven hundred and fifty dollars for every dollar of public taxes apportioned to the town or district, a proportion which has gradually increased from five to one in 1789 and from ninety to one in 1817. To this is added a " Literary Fund " (designed originally for founding a college) which is derived from the proceeds of a state tax on the deposits, stock, &c. of savings banks, trust companies, loan and trust companies, building and loan associations and other similar corporations not residing in the state, and a portion of the proceeds of a dog tax, both of which are distributed among the several districts in proportion to the number of pupils not less than five years of age who have attended school at least two weeks. The state also makes appropriations for the payment of a portion of the tuition in high schools and academies distributing it among the districts in proportion to the rate of school tax in each, appropriations for paying a portion of the salary of school superintendents where two or more districts unite to form a supervising district, and appropriations for general school purposes to be distributed among the districts according to the number of teachers trained in normal schools and to average school attendance.

The plan of 1821 to use the Literary Fund for founding and maintaining a state college for instruction in the higher branches of science and literature was abandoned in 1828 and the only state institutions of learning are the Plymouth Normal School (1870) at Plymouth, the Keene Normal School (1909) at Keene, and the New Hampshire College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, organized as a department of Dartmouth College in 1866, but removed to Durham, Strafford county, as a separate institution in 1891. The normal schools are managed by a board of trustees consisting of the governor, the superintendent of public instruction and five other members appointed by the governor and council for a term of five years, one each year, and they are maintained out of annual state appropriations. The College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts is managed by a board of trustees consisting of the governor, the president of the college, one member chosen by the alumni, and ten members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the council for a term of four years, and it is maintained out of the proceeds of grants by the United States government, annual state appropriations and a private endowment. The principal institutions of higher learning in the state are Dartmouth College (non-sectarian, opened in 1769), at Hanover, and Saint Anselm's College (Roman Catholic, opened in 1893), at Manchester. Dartmouth College receives some aid from the state.

The state charitable and correctional institutions consist of the New Hampshire School for Feeble-minded Children, at Laconia; the New Hampshire Soldiers' Home, at Tilton; the New Hampshire Industrial School, at Manchester; the New Hampshire Hospital for the Insane, and the State Prison, at Concord; and the New Hampshire Sanatorium for consumptives (1909) near Warren Summit, about 75 m. north of Concord. The state also makes annual appropriations for the care and education of blind and deaf and dumb persons in institutions outside of the state. Each county has an almshouse and house of correction. Here, too, many of the insane of the state were formerly confined; but by an act of 1903 the counties were entirely relieved of this care, and the insane were removed to the state hospital. Within the state are also sixteen orphan asylums, and though these are private institutions, in all but one of them children are boarded at county or city expense. Each of the state institutions is under the management of an officer or board of trustees appointed by the governor and council. In 1895 the legislature established a State Board of Charities and Correction. This consists of five members appointed by the governor and council for a term of five years, one each year, and its duties are chiefly advisory and supervisory. It is required to inspect both state and county charitable and correctional institutions, except the state prison and the state hospital, to recommend such changes to the state government as may seem desirable, and to have a special care for dependent children whether in institutions or placed in permanent homes.

Finance

The income of the state, counties and towns is derived mainly from taxes levied on real estate, on male polls between the ages of twenty-one and seventy, on stock in public funds, on stock in corporations that pay a dividend and are not subject to some special form of tax, on surplus capital in banks, on stock in trade, on live-stock, on railways, on telegraph and telephone lines, on savings banks and on the stock of fire insurance companies. Except in the case of railways, telegraph and telephone lines, savings banks, building and loan associations and fire insurance companies, the taxes are assessed and collected by town officers, but every fourth year the county commissioners are required to inspect the taxable property in the towns and report any misappraisal to the state board of equalization whose duty it is to equalize the valuation of property in the several towns. This board, which is composed of five members appointed by the supreme court for a term of two years, also assesses the taxes on the railways, and on telegraph and telephone lines; for railways the average rate of taxation is assessed on the estimated actual value of the road beds, rolling stock and equipment, and for the telegraph and telephone lines this rate is assessed on the estimated actual value of the poles, wires, instruments, apparatus, office furniture and fixtures. Savings banks pay to the state treasurer a tax of three-fourths of 1% upon the amount of deposits on which they pay interest; building and loan associations pay to him a tax of three-fourths of 1% upon the whole amount of their capital stock paid in or shares in force, less the value of their real estate and loans secured by mortgages on real estate situated within the state and bearing interest not exceeding 5%; and fire insurance companies pay to the same officer a tax of I % upon the amount of their paid-up capital. The railway tax is distributed as follows: one-fourth is paid to the towns through which the railways pass; such a portion of the remainder is paid to any town as is equal to the portion of stock owned in that town; and what is left is reserved as a part of the state tax. Such a portion of 75% of the tax on fire insurance companies is distributed among the several towns, in proportion to the amount of stock owned in each, as the amount of stock owned within the state bears to the whole amount of stock, and the remainder is reserved as a part of the state tax. All taxes on savings banks are distributed to the towns in which the depositors reside, the tax on non-resident depositors constituting a Literary Fund which is distributed to the towns on the basis of the number of pupils in each. The whole tax received by the state treasurer from each building and loan association is paid by him to the treasurer of the town in which it is located. The state also derives an income from fees charged for chartering banks, railways, insurance companies and other corporations. The financial condition at the close of the War of Independence was alarming, and in September 1785 a mob at Exeter demanded relief through the issue of more paper currency. This was refused them however, and by the beginning of the Civil War the state was almost free of debt. During that war the state incurred an indebtedness of about $4,236,000; this it reduced to $2,205,695 in 1872, and then assumed the war debt of the towns and cities, making its total indebtedness again $4,138,124. On the 1st of September 1908 the funded debt of the state was $706,700.

History

Martin Pring was at the mouth of the Piscataqua in 1603 and, returning to England in the same year, gave an account of the New England coast from Casco Bay to Cape Cod Bay. Samuel de Champlain discovered the Isles of Shoals and sailed along the New Hampshire coast in 1605, and much more information concerning this part of the New World was gathered in 1614 by Captain John Smith, who in his Description of New England refers to the convenient harbour at the mouth of the Piscataqua and praises the country back from the rocky shore. Under the leadership of Sir Ferdinando Gorges there was formed in 1620 the Council for New England, which procured from King James I. a grant of all the country from sea to sea between 40 0 and 48°, N. latitude, and which made the following grants bearing upon the history of New Hampshire by their inducement to settlement, by determining the boundaries or by causing strife through their conflicts with one another: to John Mason, who has been called " the founder of New Hampshire," on the 9th of March 1622, a grant of the region between the Salem and Merrimac rivers, under the name of Mariana; to John Mason and Sir Ferdinando Gorges jointly, on the loth of August 1622, a grant of the region between the Merrimac and Kennebec rivers for 60 m. inland, under the name of the Province of Maine; to David Thomson and associates, in 1622, a grant of six thousand acres near the mouth of the Piscataqua; to Sir Henry Roswell and associates, on the 19th of March 1628, a grant of the region from 3 m. south of the Charles river, " or to the southward of any and every part thereof " to 3 11. N. of the Merrimac river, or to the northward of any and every part thereof," and extending west to the South Sea or Pacific Ocean, under the name of Massachusetts; to John Mason alone, on the 7th of November 1629, a grant of that portion of the " Province of Maine " which lay between the Merrimac and the Piscataqua, under the name of New Hampshire; to the Laconia Company, consisting of Gorges, Mason and associates, on the 17th of November 1629, a grant of an extensive territory (which was called Laconia) around the Lake of the Iroquois (Lake Champlain) together with one thousand acres at some place to be selected along the sea coast; to Edward Hilton, on the 12th of March 1630, the grant of a tract on and about the lower part of Dover Neck; to the Laconia Company, in November 1631, a grant of a tract on both sides of the Piscataqua river near its mouth, known as the Pescataway grant; and finally to John Mason, on the 22nd of April 1635, a short time before the Council surrendered its charter, a grant of the region between the Salem river on the south and the Piscataqua and Salmon Falls rivers on the north-east and extending 60 m. inland, under the name of New Hampshire. Mason died in December of this year, and New Hampshire, unlike the other colonies from which the United States originated, New Jersey and Delaware excepted, never received a royal charter.

The first settlement of which there is indisputable evidence was established in 1623 by David Thomson at Little Harbor, now in the town of Rye. Thomson was the head of a company which was organized for fishing and trading and whose entire stock was to be held jointly for five years. He built a house on Odiorne's Point overlooking Little Harbor, and, although he removed to an island in Boston Harbor in 1626, he may have continued to superintend the business of the company .until the expiration of the five-year term. At least there was a settlement here which was assessed in 1628, and it may not have been :completely abandoned when colonists sent over by the Laconia Company arrived in 1630. The Laconia Company received - its first grant under the erroneous impression that the Piscataqua river had its source in or near Lake Champlain, and its principal object was to establish an extensive fur trade with the Iroquois Indians. Although Lake Champlain could not be reached by;boat up the Piscataqua, and although the enterprise was ulti mately a failure, the company sent over colonists who occupied the house left standing by Thomson, and, not far away, built " Mason Hall " or the " Great House " in what is now Portsmouth, a name (for the entire settlement) that replaced " Strawberry Banke " in 1653. Edward Hilton with a few associates appears to have established a settlement on Dover Point about the time of Thomson's arrival at Little Harbor, and in the Hilton grant of 1630 it is stated that he had already built houses and planted there; as early as 1639 this settlement was named Dover. In 1638 the Rev. John Wheelwright, an Antinomian leader who had been banished] from Massachusetts, founded Exeter on land claimed to have been bought by him from the Indians. In the same year Massachusetts encouraged friendly Puritans to settle Hampton on the same purchase, and about a year later this colony organized Hampton as a town with the right to send a deputy to the General Court. Serious dissensions had already arisen between Puritan and Anglican factions in Dover, and Captain John Underhill, another Antinomian, became for a time a leader of the Puritan faction. Puritan Massachusetts was naturally hostile to the Antinomians at Exeter as well as to the Anglicans at Strawberry Banke. Although Exeter, in 1639, Dover, in 1640, and Strawberry Banke, not later than 1640, adopted a plantation covenant, these settlements were especially weak from lack of a superior tribunal, and appeals had been made to Massachusetts as early as 1633. Moreover, the grants of Massachusetts and Mariana were clearly in conflict. Under these conditions Massachusetts discovered a new claim for its northern boundary. The charter of that colony was drafted under the impression that the Merrimac flowed east for its entire course, but now an investigation was in progress which was to show that its source in Lake Winnepesaukee was several miles north of any of the four settlements in New Hampshire. Accordingly, Massachusetts. resolved to make the most of the clause in the charter which described the northern boundary as three English miles north of the Merrimac river, " or to the northward of any and every part thereof," to ignore the conflicting grants to Mason and to extend its jurisdiction over the offending settlements. Dover submitted in 1641, Strawberry Banke (Portsmouth) soon afterwards and Exeter in 1643.

The heirs of Mason protested, but little was done about the matter during the period of Puritan ascendancy in the mother country. Immediately after the resignation of Richard Cromwell,. however, Robert Tufton Mason (a grandson of the original proprietor), who had become sole heir in 1655, began petitioning first parliament and later the king, for relief. The attorneygeneral, to whom the petition to the king was referred, reported that the petitioner had a " good and legal right and title to the lands." The commission appointed by the king in 1664 to hear and determine complaints in New England decided that Mason's lands were not within the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, and made an attempt to set up a government under which his claims could be tried, but this was a failure. In 1674 Mason offered to surrender his rights to the Crown in return for one-third of the customs, rents, fines, and other profits derived therefrom, but although the offer was at first favourably considered it was finally declined. Mason then petitioned again, and this time Massachusetts was requested to send agents to England to answer his complaints. They arrived in December 1676, and the case was tried before the Lords Chief Justices of the King's Bench and Common Pleas in April 1677. Mason presented no claim to the right of government, and as to the title to the lands claimed by him the court decided that this was a question between him and the several tenants to be determined by the local court having jurisdiction in such matters. Thereupon Mason, in January 1679, petitioned the king to appoint a governor who should have jurisdiction over all the lands which he claimed, and on the 18th of September of this year New Hampshire was constituted a separate province with a government vested in a president and council appointed by the king and an assembly chosen by the people. This was the principal outcome of Mason's persistent efforts to establish his rights to the land; for although he succeeded in procuring the appointment of officers who supported his claims, and although decrees were issued in his favour, the tenants, who contended that they had profited nothing from what his grandfather had done or that they were on lands which Wheelwright had bought from the Indians, resisted the enforcement of those decrees. The contest, however, especially for the waste. lands, was continued by Mason, his heirs and assigns until near the close of the 18th century.

From 1686 to. 1689 New Hampshire formed a part of the Dominion of New England, which, after the first few months, was under Sir Edmund Andros as governor-general. There being no provincial authority in New Hampshire at the close of this period, a convention of the leading citizens of its four towns attempted to establish -one. Upon the failure of this attempt, a temporary nominal union with Massachusetts was formed, but in 1692 Samuel Allen, the assign of Mason, caused a royal government to be established with his son-in-law, John Usher, as lieutenant-governor, and during the remainder of the colonial era New Hampshire was separate from Massachusetts except that from 1699 to 1741 the two had the same governor. The boundary between the two provinces was yet to be determined. Massachusetts proposed to confine New Hampshire to less than one-fourth its present area; that is, on the west to a line drawn 3 m. east of the south course of the Merrimac and on the north-east to a line drawn north-west from the source of the Salmon Falls river. New Hampshire claimed for its southern boundary a line drawn west from a point 3 m. north of the mouth of the Merrimac and for its upper eastern boundary a line running north by slightly west from the source of the Salmon Falls river. Both provinces granted townships within the disputed territory; Massachusetts arrested men there who refused to pay taxes to its officers, and sought to defer the settlement of the dispute. New Hampshire, being on the more friendly terms with the home government, finally petitioned the king to decide the matter, and in 1737 a royal order referred it to a commission to be composed of councillors from New York, Nova Scotia and Rhode Island. This body agreed upon the present eastern boundary but evaded deciding the southern one. Both parties then appealed to the king, and in 1741 the king in council confirmed the decision of the commission in regard to the eastern boundary and decided that the southern boundary should be a line corresponding to the course of the Merrimac from 3 m. north of its mouth to 3 m. north of Pawtucket Falls, at its most southerly bend, and thence due west to the next English province. This gave New Hampshire much more territory on the south than it had claimed. But the western boundary was not yet defined, and as early as 1749 a controversy over that arose with New York. New Hampshire asked for the territory west to within 20 m. of the Hudson river, or as far as the western boundaries of Massachusetts and Connecticut, while New York claimed east to the Connecticut river. Within a few years the governor of New Hampshire granted in the disputed territory 138 townships which were rapidly settled by those whom it was the duty of the province to protect. But there was a reluctance to incur the expense of a contest with so powerful a neighbour as New York, and in 1764 that province procured from the king in council a royal order declaring the western boundary of New Hampshire to be the western bank of the Connecticut river. The controversy, however, continued for some years thereafter (see Vermont).

From 1676 to 1759 New Hampshire suffered greatly from the Indians, and the fear of them, together with the boundary disputes and Mason's claims, retarded settlement. But where these troubles were removed the population increased rapidly, and at the outbreak of the War of Independence the province had about 80,000 inhabitants, the great majority of whom were with the patriot or Whig party during that struggle. By June 1775 the once popular governor, Sir John Wentworth, was a refugee; on the 5th of January 1776 the fifth Provincial Congress established a provisional government; on the 5th of the following June the first Assembly elected under that government declared for independence; and on the 16th of August 1777 the important victory at Bennington was won by New Hampshire and Vermont troops under the command of General John Stark, who had a commission from New Hampshire. Six states had ratified the Federal constitution when the New Hampshire convention met at Exeter on the 13th of February 1788, to accept or reject that instrument, and so great was the opposition to it among the delegates from the central part of the state that after a discussion of ten days the leaders in favour of ratification dared not risk a decisive vote, but procured an adjournment in order that certain delegates who had been instructed to vote against it might consult their constituents. Eight states had ratified when the convention reassembled at Concord on the 17th of June, and four days later, when a motion to ratify was carried by a vote of 57 to 47, adoption by the necessary nine states was assured. The War of Independence left the state heavily burdened with debt and many of its citizens threatened with a debtor's prison. As a means of relief a number of citizens demanded of the legislature the issue of paper money equal in amount to the state's debt, and as this was refused, an armed mob numbering about 200 surrounded the meeting-house in Exeter in which the legislature was in session, towards evening on the loth of September 1786. But General John Sullivan (1740-1795) was at that time president of the state, and on the next day he, with 2000 or more militia and volunteers, captured 39 of the leaders and suppressed the revolt without bloodshed.

National elections in New Hampshire were carried by the Federalists until 1816, except in 1804 when President Thomas Jefferson won by a small majority; but within this period of Federalist supremacy in national politics the Democrat-Republicans elected the governor from 1805 to 1812 inclusive except in 1809. In 1816 the Democrats won both state and national elections; and out of the transition from Federalist to Democratic control, which was effected under the leadership of William Plumer (1759-1850), a prominent politician in New Hampshire for half a century, a United States senator from 1802 to 1807 and governor of the state in1812-1813and 1816-1819, arose the famous Dartmouth College Case. As the trustees of this institution were Federalists with the right to fill vacancies in their number, the Democrats attempted to gain control by converting it into a state university and increasing the number of trustees, but when the case reached the Supreme Court of the United States that body pronounced (1819) the charter a contract which the Federal constitution forbade the state to violate. Heretofore the Federalist regime had taxed the people to support the Congregational Church, but now the Baptists, Methodists and Universalists joined the Democrats, and in 1819 this state support was abolished by the " Toleration Act." Because of Daniel Webster's arguments in the Dartmouth College Case, and because his party had favoured the support of the Congregational Church by public taxation, he became very unpopular in this his native state. Accordingly, his denunciation of President Andrew Jackson's bank policy added strength to the Jacksonian Democracy, and, later, his Whig connexions were the greatest source of the Whig party's weakness in New Hampshire. John Quincy Adams was an intimate friend of William Plumer, the Democratic leader, and carried the state both in 1824 and 1828, but a Jackson man was elected governor in 1827, 1829, 1830 and 1831. The Whigs never won a national or state election, and often their vote was only about one-half that of the Democrats.. But the Democrats broke into two factions in 1846 over the question of slavery (see Hale, John Parker); the American or " Know-Nothing " party elected a governor in 1855 and 1856; and then control of the state passed to the Republican party which has held it to the present. After 1890 the railway corporations were charged with a corrupt domination of the legislature and the courts, and in 1906 a " Lincoln Republican " movement was organized under the leadership of the well-known novelist Winston Churchill (b. 1871), with the object of freeing the state from this influence. - .

The governors or presidents of the province and state have been: Province. John Cutt, president..1679-1681Richard Waldron, president..1681-1682Edward Cranfield, lieutenant-governor.1682-1685Walter Barefoot, deputy-governor.1685-1686Joseph Dudley, president of Council for New England.1686-1687Edmund Andros, governor-general of New England..1687-1689Without a government.1689-1690Nominally united with Massachusetts1690-1692Samuel Allen, governor.1692-1698Richard Coote, earl of Bellamont, governor1699-1701Joseph Dudley, governor.1702-1715Samuel Shute, governor..1716-1723John Wentworth, lieutenant-governor1723-1728William Burnett, governor1729-1730Jonathan Belcher, governor.1730-1741Benning Wentworth, governor.1741-1767John Wentworth, governor. 1767-1775 Transition from Province to State. Matthew Thornton, president of the Pro vincial Convention. 1775 State Presidents. Mesheck Weare John Langdon John Sullivan John Langdon John Sullivan Josiah Bartlett State Governors. Josiah Bartlett. John Taylor Gilman John Langdon. Jeremiah Smith. John Langdon. William Plumer. John Taylor Gilman William Plumer. Samuel Bell Levi Woodbury David Lawrence Morril Benjamin Pierce John Bell Benjamin Pierce Matthew Harvey Joseph Morrill Harper (acting) Samuel Dinsmoor William Badger. Isaac Hill .

John Page. Henry Hubbard. John Hardy Steele Anthony Colby.. Jared Warner Williams Samuel Dinsmoor. Noah Martin Nathaniel Bradley Baker Ralph Metcalf .

William Haile .

Ichabod Goodwin. Nathaniel Springer Berry Joseph Albree Gilmore Frederick Smyth Walter Harriman Onslow Stearns.. James Adams Weston Ezekiel Albert Straw. James Adams Weston Person Colby Cheney. Benjamin Franklin Prescott Natt Head.. Charles Henry Bell. Samuel Whitney Hale Moody Currier .

Charles Henry Sawyer David Harvey Goodell Hiram Americus Tuttle John Butler Smith. Charles Albert Busiel George Allen Ramsdell Frank West Rollins. Chester Bradley Jordan Nahum Josiah Bachelder John McLane .

Charles M. Floyd. Henry B. Quinby Robert P. Bass .

Bibliography.-C. H. Hitchcock, Geology of New Hampshire (Concord, 1874-1878); New Hampshire Annual Reports (1871), especially those of the Forestry Commission, Fish and Game Commission, Board of Agriculture and Board of Charities and Correction; J. F. Colby, Manual of the Constitution of the State of New Hampshire (Concord, 1902), containing an historical sketch of the constitutions of the state; F. A. Ward, " The New Hampshire Constitution," in The New England Magazine, N.S., vol. 29 (September 1903); Laws of New Hampshire, including Public and Private Acts and Resolves and the Royal Commissions and Instructions, with Historical and Descriptive Notes, edited by A. S. Batchellor (Manchester, 1904); Captain John Mason, the Founder of New Hampshire, including his tract on Newfoundland, the American charters in which he was a grantee, with letters and other historical documents, together with a memoir by C. W. Tuttle (Boston, 1887), edited by J. W. Deane; New Hampshire Provincial Papers; documents and records relating to the province from the earliest period of its settlement (Concord, 1867-1873); J. Belknap, The History of New Hampshire (Philadelphia, 1784); Life of William Plumer (Boston, 1857), by his son William Plumer, Jr.; G. Barstow, The History of New Hampshire from its discovery, in 1614, to the passage of the toleration act, in 1819 (New York, 1853); E. A. Charlton, New Hampshire as it is (Claremont, 1857); J. N. McClintock, History of New Hampshire (Boston, 1889); F. B. Sanborn, New Hampshire, an Epitome of Popular Government (Boston, 1904) in the " American Commonwealths Series "; and W. H. Fry, New Hampshire as a Royal Province (New York, 1908).


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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English

Map of US highlighting New Hampshire

Etymology

From Hampshire, a county of southern England.

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
New Hampshire

Plural
-

New Hampshire

  1. A state of the United States of America. Capital: Concord.

Derived terms

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Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

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State of New Hampshire
Flag of New Hampshire State seal of New Hampshire
Flag of New Hampshire SealImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Nickname(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: The Granite State
Motto(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Live Free or Die
Map of the United States with New Hampshire highlighted
Official language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif English
CapitalImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Concord
Largest cityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Manchester
AreaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 46thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total 9,350 sq miImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
(24,217 km²Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Width 68 miles (110 kmImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Length 190 miles (305 km)
 - % water 4.1
 - Latitude 42° 42′ N to 45° 18′ N
 - Longitude 70° 36′ W to 72° 33′ W
PopulationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 41stImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total (2000Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif) 1,235,786
 - DensityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif 137.8/sq mi 
53.20/km² (20th)
 - Median incomeImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  $57,323 (1st)
ElevationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - Highest point Mt. Washington[1]
6,288 ft  (1,917 m)
 - Mean 1,000 ft  (305 m)
 - Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[1]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to UnionImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  June 21, 1788 (9th)
GovernorImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif John Lynch (D)
U.S. SenatorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Judd Gregg (R)
John Sununu (R)
Congressional DelegationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif ListImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Time zoneImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations NHImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif N.H.Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif US-NHImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Web site www.nh.gov

New Hampshire (IPA: /nuːˈhæmpʃər/) is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America named after the southern English county of Hampshire. The state ranks 44th in land area, 46th in total area of the 50 states, and 41st in population. It became the first post-colonial sovereign nation in the Americas when it broke off from Great Britain in January 1776, and was one of the original thirteen States that founded the United States of America six months later. It was the ninth state to ratify the United States Constitution, bringing that document into effect. New Hampshire was the first U.S. state to have its own state constitution, and is the only state with neither a general sales tax nor a personal income tax.[2]

It is internationally famous for the New Hampshire primary, the first primary in the quadrennial U.S. presidential election cycle.

Its license plates carry the state motto: "Live Free or Die." The state nickname is "The Granite State", in reference both to its geology and to its tradition of self-sufficiency. Several other official nicknames exist but are rarely used.[3]

A number of famous individuals come from New Hampshire, such as Senator Daniel Webster, editor Horace Greeley, founder of the Christian Science religion Mary Baker Eddy, author Dan Brown, and comedians Adam Sandler, Sarah Silverman, and Seth Meyers. New Hampshire has produced one president, Franklin Pierce.

New Hampshire's recreational attractions include skiing and other winter sports, observing the fall foliage, summer cottages along many lakes, motor sports at the New Hampshire International Speedway, and Bike Week, a popular motorcycle rally held in Laconia in June.

Contents

Geography

See List of counties in New Hampshire, mountains, lakes, and rivers

New Hampshire is part of the New England region. It is bounded by Quebec, Canada to the north and northwest; Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east; Massachusetts to the south; and Vermont to the west. New Hampshire's major regions are the Great North Woods, the White Mountains, the Lakes Region, the Seacoast, the Merrimack Valley, the Monadnock Region, and the Dartmouth-Lake Sunapee area. New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any U.S. state, with a length of 18 miles (29 km).

The New Hampshire State House in Concord was designed by Albe Cady. It is the oldest U.S. state capitol where legislators still meet in their original chambers.
New Hampshire, showing roads, rivers and major cities
New Hampshire was home to the rock formation called the Old Man of the Mountain, a face-like profile in Franconia Notch, until the formation fell apart in May 2003.

The White Mountains range in New Hampshire spans the north-central portion of the state, with Mount Washington being the tallest in the northeastern U.S., and other mountains like Mount Madison and Mount Adams surrounding it. With hurricane-force winds every third day on the average, over 100 recorded deaths among visitors, and conspicuous krumholtz (dwarf, matted trees much like a carpet of bonsai trees), the upper reaches of Mount Washington claim the title of having the "worst weather on earth." A non-profit weather observatory is located on the peak.

In the flatter southwest corner of New Hampshire, the prominent landmark Mount Monadnock, has given its name to a general class of earth-forms—a monadnock signifying, in geomorphology, any isolated resistant peak rising from a less resistant eroded plain.

Major rivers include the 110 mile (177 km) Merrimack River, which bisects the lower half of the state north-south and ends up in Newburyport. Its major tributaries include the Contoocook River, Pemigewasset River, and Winnipesaukee River. The 410 mile (670 km) Connecticut River, which starts at New Hampshire's Connecticut Lakes and flows south to Connecticut, defines the western border with Vermont. Oddly, the state border is not in the center of that river, as is usually the case, but lies at the low-water mark on the Vermont side; so New Hampshire actually owns the entire river where it runs adjacent to Vermont. The "northwesternmost headwaters" of the Connecticut also define the Canadian border with New Hampshire.

The Piscataqua River and its several tributaries form the state's only significant ocean port where they flow into the Atlantic at Portsmouth. The Salmon Falls River and the Piscataqua define the southern portion of the border with Maine. The state has an ongoing boundary dispute with Maine in the area of Portsmouth Harbor, with New Hampshire claiming dominion over several islands (now known as Seavey Island) that include the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard as well as to the Maine towns of Kittery and Berwick.

The largest lake is Lake Winnipesaukee, which covers 72 square miles (186 km²) in the east-central part of New Hampshire.

Hampton Beach is a popular local summer destination. About 10 miles (16 km) offshore are the Isles of Shoals, nine small islands (4 belonging to the state) best known as the site of a 19th century art colony founded by poet Celia Thaxter, as well as the alleged location of one of the buried treasures of the pirate Blackbeard.

It is the second-most-forested state in the country, after Maine, in terms of percentage of land covered by woods. This change was caused by the abandonment of farms during the 20th century as many farmers took wage jobs in urban areas or moved to more productive areas. The return of woodlands from open fields forms the subject of many poems by Robert Frost.

The northern third of the state is locally referred to as the "north country" or "north of the notches," in reference to White Mountain passes that channel traffic. It contains less than 5% of the state's population, suffers from relatively high poverty rates, and is losing population as the logging and paper industries decline. However, the tourist industry, in particular visitors who go to northern New Hampshire to take advantage of the winter skiing season, has helped to offset economic losses from mill closures.

Climate

New Hampshire experiences a humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dfa in southern areas and Dfb in the north), with warm, humid summers, cold, wet winters, and uniform precipitation all year. The climate of the southeastern portion of the state is moderated somewhat by the Atlantic Ocean and averages relatively milder and wetter weather, while the northern and interior portions experience relatively cooler temperatures and lower humidity. Winters are cold and snowy throughout the state, and are especially severe in the northern and mountainous areas. Average annual snowfall ranges from 60" to over 100" across the state.[4]

Average daytime highs are generally in the mid 70s°F to low 80s°F (around 24-28 °C) throughout the state in July, with overnight lows in the mid 50s°F to low 60s°F (13-15 °C). January temperatures range from an average high of 34 °F (1 °C) on the coast to overnight lows below 0 °F (-18 °C) in the far north and at high elevations. Average annual precipitation statewide is roughly 40" with some variation occurring in the White Mountains due to differences in elevation and annual snowfall.

Extreme snow events are often associated with a nor'easter, such as the Blizzard of '78 and the Blizzard of 1993, when several feet of snow accumulated across portions of the state over a period of 24 to 48 hours. Lighter snowfall accumulations of several inches occur frequently throughout the winter months, often associated with an Alberta Clipper.

New Hampshire, on occasion, is affected by hurricanes and tropical storms although by the time they reach the state they are often extratropical, with most storms striking the southern New England coastline and moving inland or passing by offshore in the Gulf of Maine. Most of New Hampshire averages fewer than 20 days of thunderstorms per year and an average of about 2 tornadoes occur annually statewide.[5]

The National Arbor Day Foundation plant hardiness zone map depicts zones 3, 4, 5, and 6 occurring throughout the state[6] and indicates the transition from a relatively cooler to warmer climate as one travels southward across New Hampshire.

Metropolitan areas

Metropolitan areas in the New England region are defined by the U.S. Census Bureau as New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs). The following is a list of NECTAs in New Hampshire:

From The New Hampshire Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau

History

Various Algonquian tribes inhabited the area prior to European settlement. Europeans explored New Hampshire in 1600–1605 and settled in 1623. By 1631, the Upper Plantation comprised modern-day Dover, Durham and Stratham; in 1679, it became the "Royal Province."

It was one of the thirteen colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution. By the time of the American Revolution, New Hampshire was a divided province. The economic and social life of the Seacoast revolved around sawmills, shipyards, merchant's warehouses, and established village and town centers. Wealthy merchants built substantial homes, furnished them with the finest luxuries, and invested their capital in trade and land speculation. At the other end of the social scale, there developed a permanent class of day laborers, mariners, indentured servants, and even slaves. It was the first state to declare its independence, but the only battle fought there was the raid on Fort William and Mary, December 14, 1774 in Portsmouth Harbor, which netted the rebellion sizable quantities of gunpowder, small arms, and cannon (General Sullivan, leader of the raid, described it as, "remainder of the powder, the small arms, bayonets, and cartouch-boxes, together with the cannon and ordnance stores") over the course of two nights. This raid was preceded by a warning to local patriots the previous day, by Paul Revere on December 13, 1774 that the fort was to be reinforced by troops sailing from Boston. According to unverified accounts, the gunpowder was later used at the Battle of Bunker Hill, transported there by Major Demerit, who was one of several New Hampshire patriots who stored the powder in their homes until it was transported elsewhere for use in revolutionary activities.

Lake Winnepesaukee.

New Hampshire was a Jacksonian stronghold; the state sent Franklin Pierce to the White House in the election of 1852. Industrialization took the form of numerous textile mills, which in turn attracted large flows of immigrants from Quebec (the "French Canadians") and Ireland. The northern parts of the state produced lumber and the mountains provided tourist attractions. After 1960, the textile industry collapsed, but the economy rebounded as a center of high technology and a service provider.

Since 1952, New Hampshire gained national and international attention for its presidential primary held early in every presidential election year. It immediately became the most important testing grounds for candidates for the Republican and Democratic nominations. The media give New Hampshire (and Iowa) about half of all the attention paid to all states in the primary process, magnifying the state's decision power (and spurring repeated efforts by out-of-state politicians to change the rules.)

Demographics

As of 2005, New Hampshire has an estimated population of 1,309,940, which is an increase of 10,771, or 0.8%, from the prior year and an increase of 74,154, or 6.0%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 23,872 people (that is 75,060 births minus 51,188 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 51,968 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 11,107 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 40,861 people.

The center of population of New Hampshire is located in Merrimack County, in the town of Pembroke [1]. {{US DemogTable|New Hampshire|03-33.csv|= | 97.56| 1.05| 0.64| 1.56| 0.06|= | 1.50| 0.13| 0.04| 0.02| 0.01|= | 96.97| 1.29| 0.63| 2.04| 0.07|= | 2.04| 0.18| 0.04| 0.03| 0.01|= | 5.36| 30.39| 3.96| 38.30| 13.91|= | 4.76| 29.02| 3.69| 38.47| 20.29|= | 43.91| 39.72| 7.81| 26.49| -25.23}}

New Hampshire Population Density Map

As of 2004, the population includes 64,000 foreign-born (4.9%).

Ancestry groups

The largest ancestry groups in New Hampshire are: [2]

People of old colonial ("Yankee") ancestry live throughout most of New Hampshire.

The large Irish American and French-Canadian populations are descended largely from mill workers, and many still live in the former mill towns, like Manchester. New Hampshire has the highest percentage of residents of French/French-Canadian ancestry of any U.S. state. The fastest growth is along the southern border, which is within commuting range of Boston and other Massachusetts cities.

According to the 2000 U.S. Census, 3.41% of the population aged 5 and over speak French at home, while 1.60% speak Spanish [3].

Religion

The religious affiliations of the people of New Hampshire are (due to rounding the total percent is greater than 100):

Economy

The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that New Hampshire's total state product in 2003 was $49 billion. Per capita personal income in 2005 was $37,835, 6th in the nation and 110 percent of the national average ($34,495). Its agricultural outputs are dairy products, nursery stock, cattle, apples, and eggs. Its industrial outputs are machinery, electric equipment, rubber and plastic products, and tourism.[7] New Hampshire experienced a significant shift in its economic base during the last century. Historically, the base was composed of the traditional New England manufactures of textiles, shoe-making, and small machining shops drawing upon low-wage labor from nearby small farms and from parts of Quebec. Today, these sectors contribute only 2% for textiles, 2% for leather goods, and 9% for machining of the state's total manufacturing dollar value (Source: U.S. Economic Census for 1997, Manufacturing, New Hampshire). They experienced a sharp decline due to obsolete plants and the lure of cheaper wages in the South.

The state has no general sales tax, no personal income tax (the state does tax, at a 5 percent rate, income from dividends and interest) and the legislature has exercised fiscal restraint. Efforts to diversify the state's general economy have been ongoing.

Additionally, New Hampshire's lack of a broad-based tax system (aside from the controversial state-wide property tax) has resulted in the state's local communities having some of the nation's highest property taxes. Overall, New Hampshire remains ranked 49th among states in combined average state and local tax burden.[8] Nevertheless, ongoing efforts from unhappy homeowners for property tax relief continues. They have argued that residents of Massachusetts and other neighboring states are shopping in New Hampshire tax-free, and New Hampshire homeowners are paying them for the privilege. See tax-free shopping.

See also State income tax.

Law and government

State line on NH Rt. 111 in Hollis
Main article: Government of New Hampshire

The Governor of New Hampshire is John Lynch (Democrat). New Hampshire's two U.S. senators are Judd Gregg (Republican) and John E. Sununu (Republican). New Hampshire's two U.S. representatives are Carol Shea-Porter (Democrat) and Paul Hodes (Democrat).

New Hampshire has a bifurcated executive branch, consisting of the Governor and a five-member Executive Council which votes on state contracts over $5,000 and "advises and consents" to the governor's nominations to major state positions such as department heads and all judgeships and pardon requests. New Hampshire does not have a Lieutenant Governor; the Senate President serves as "Acting Governor" whenever the Governor is unable to perform the duties.

The New Hampshire General Court is a bicameral legislative body, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The House of Representatives is the third-largest legislative body in the English speaking world with 400 members. Only the United States House of Representatives and the British House of Commons are larger.[9] Presumably because the position pays just $100 per year plus mileage, members are more likely to be retired. A survey published by the Associated Press in 2005 found that nearly half the members of the House are retired, with an average age close to 60. [4] The General Court meets in the New Hampshire State House.

The state's sole appellate court is the New Hampshire Supreme Court. The Superior Court is the court of general jurisdiction and the only court which provides for jury trials in civil or criminal cases. The other state courts are the Probate Court, District Court, and the Family Division.

The New Hampshire State Constitution is the supreme law of the state, followed by the New Hampshire Revised Statutes Annotated. The State Constitution is the nation's only state constitution which acknowledges the right of revolution, and one of the few that does not expressly mandate the provision of a public school system.

New Hampshire is also the only state with no mandatory seatbelt law for adults, and also has no motorcycle helmet law for adults nor mandatory vehicle insurance for automobiles. Although the state retains the death penalty for limited crimes, the last execution was conducted in 1939. New Hampshire is the only state that does not mandate public kindergarten, partly out of frugality and lack of funding, and partly out of belief in local control, a philosophy under which towns and cities, not the state, make as many decisions as possible. As of 2005, all but two dozen communities in the state provided public kindergarten.

New Hampshire is a "Dillon Rule" state, meaning that powers not specifically granted to municipalities are retained by the state government. Even so, there is within the state's legislature a strong sentiment favoring local control, particularly with regard to land use regulations. Traditionally, local government in New Hampshire is conducted by town meetings, but in 1995, municipalities were given the option of using an official ballot to decide local electoral and budgetary questions, as opposed to the more open and public town meeting.

New Hampshire is an Alcoholic Beverage Control state, and through the State Liquor Commission it takes in $100 million from the sale and distribution of liquor.[10] The state also leads the country in per capita sales of all forms of alcohol.[11]

On May 31, 2007, Governor Lynch signed HB 437, a civil union bill, into law, which will grant all the rights associated with marriage in the state to same-sex couples effective January 1, 2008.[12]

Politics

New Hampshire is internationally famous for the New Hampshire primary, the first primary in the quadrennial American presidential election cycle. The primary draws more attention by far than all other primaries, and has often been decisive in shaping the national contest. Critics from other states have tried repeatedly but failed to reduce the state's primary clout. In Dixville Notch in Coos County and Hart's Location in Carroll County, the few dozen residents of these small towns vote at midnight the Tuesday the primary is being held. State law grants that a town where all registered citizens have voted may close early and announce their results. These are traditionally the first towns in both New Hampshire and the U.S. to vote in presidential primaries and elections.

In the past, New Hampshire has often voted Republican. Some sources trace the founding of the Republican party to the town of Exeter in 1853. The state is considered to be the most conservative state in the Northeast. However, the state supported Bill Clinton in 1992 and 1996, but prior to that had only strayed from the Republican Party for three candidates—Woodrow Wilson, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Lyndon B. Johnson.

In recent years, however, in both national and local elections it became a swing state. It was the only U.S. state to give its electoral votes to George W. Bush in the 2000 election but then go Democratic in the 2004 election. New Hampshire gave its four electoral votes to John Kerry in 2004 with 50.2% of the vote. The change from voting Republican was solidified by the 2006 midterm elections, in which both Congressional seats were won by Democrats (Charlie Bass was defeated by Paul Hodes, and Jeb Bradley was defeated by Carol Shea-Porter); Democratic Governor John Lynch was re-elected in an historic landslide with 74% of the vote; Democrats gained a majority on the Executive Council; and Democrats took both houses of the State Legislature for the first time since 1911. Democrats now hold both the legislature and the governorship for the first time since 1874. [5] Republicans hold both U.S. Senate seats, which were not up for a vote in 2006. Prior to the 2006 elections, New Hampshire was the only New England state in which Republicans held majorities in both legislative chambers.[13] The New Hampshire General Assembly is the largest among state legislatures in the U.S., with 400 members, and has the most representatives per capita (approximately one for every 3,200 citizens). New Hampshire has been known for a Libertarian-like political tradition that values individual freedom and limited exercise of state governmental powers. The Free State Project selected New Hampshire as its destination due to its "Live Free or Die" libertarian-esque heritage.[14]

Education

High schools

New Hampshire has more than 150 public high schools, many of which serve more than one town. The largest is Pinkerton Academy in Derry, which is owned by a private non-profit organization and serves as the public high school of a number of neighboring towns. In March 2007 Governor John Lynch and lawmakers proposed a constitutional amendment that would require the state to provide at least 50% of the state-wide cost of an adequate education.[15]

There are at least twenty private high schools in the state.

See also: List of high schools in New Hampshire

Colleges and universities



Media

Daily newspapers

Main article: List of newspapers in New Hampshire

Other publications

Radio stations

Main article: List of radio stations in New Hampshire

Television stations

Main article: List of television stations in New Hampshire

Culture

In the spring, New Hampshire's many sap houses hold sugaring off open houses. In summer, New Hampshire is home to many county fairs, the largest being the Hopkinton State Fair, in Contoocook. New Hampshire's lake region is home to many summer camps, especially around Lake Winnipesaukee, and is a popular tourist destination. In the fall New Hampshire is host to the New Hampshire Highland Games. New Hampshire has also registered an official tartan with the proper authorities in Scotland, used to make kilts worn by the State Police while they serve during the games. The fall foliage peaks in mid October. In the winter, New Hampshire's ski areas attract visitors from a wide area, and New Hampshire has more miles of snowmobile trails than roads.[16] After the lakes freeze over they become dotted with ice fishing ice houses, known locally as bobhouses.

Professional sports teams

Minor league baseball teams
Minor league hockey team
Arena football team
Minor league soccer team

In fiction

Notable residents or natives

Main article: List of people from New Hampshire

Granite State firsts

See List of New Hampshire-related topics

  • On January 5, 1776 at Exeter, the Provincial Congress of New Hampshire ratified the first independent state constitution, free of British rule. Having done this six months before co-founding the United States of America, New Hampshire was the first post-colonial sovereign country in the Americas.
  • On June 12, 1800, Fernald's Island in the Piscataqua River became the first government-sanctioned US Navy shipyard.
  • Started in 1822, Dublin's Juvenile Library was the first free public library.
  • In 1828, the first women's strike in the nation took place at Dover's Cocheco Mills.
  • In 1845, the machine shop of Nashuan John H. Gage was considered the first shop devoted to the manufacture of machinists' tools.
  • On August 29, 1866, Sylvester Marsh demonstrated the first mountain-climbing "cog" railway.
  • Finished on June 27, 1874, the first trans-Atlantic telecommunications cable between Europe and America stretched from Balinskelligs Bay, Ireland, to Rye Beach, New Hampshire.
  • On February 6, 1901, a group of nine conservationists founded the Society for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests, the first forest conservation advocacy group in the US.
  • In 1908, Monsignor Pierre Hevey organized the nation's first credit union, in Manchester, to help mill workers save and borrow money.
  • In 1933 the League of New Hampshire Craftsmen held the first crafts fair in the nation.[18]
  • In 1934, the current record for the highest recorded surface wind gust (231 mph) was set on Mount Washington.[19]
  • In 1937 The Belknap Recreation Area installed the first chairlift for skiing in the East.
  • In 1938 Earl Tupper, of Berlin, invented Tupperware and founded Tupper Plastics Company.
  • In July 1944, the Bretton Woods Agreement, the first fully-negotiated system intended to govern monetary relations among independent nation-states, was signed at the Mount Washington Hotel.
  • On May 5, 1961, Alan Shepard of Derry rode a Mercury spacecraft and became the first American in space.
  • In 1963, New Hampshire's legislature approved the nation's first modern state lottery, which began play in 1964.
  • In 1966, Ralph Baer of Sanders Associates, Inc., Nashua, recruited engineers to develop the first home video game.
  • Christa McAuliffe of Concord became the first private citizen selected to venture into space. She perished with her six space shuttle Challenger crewmates in January 28, 1986.
  • On May 17, 1996 New Hampshire became the first state in the country to install a green LED traffic light. NH was selected because they were the first to start installing the red and yellow ones statewide.[20]
  • On May 31, 2007 New Hampshire became "...the first state to embrace same-sex unions without a court order or the threat of one."[21][22]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 6, 2006.
  2. ^ NH has a room and meals sales tax and a business profits income tax. Alaska does not have a statewide sales or income tax, but many Alaska towns have a sales tax. No New Hampshire towns have a sales tax.
  3. ^ NH Department of Resources and Economic Development - State Facts
  4. ^ {{cite web |url=http://lwf.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/online/ccd/snowfall.html |title=Snowfall - Average Total In Inches |work=NOAA
  5. ^ {{cite web |title=Annual average number of tornadoes 1953-2004 |url=http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/img/climate/research/tornado/small/avgt5304.gif |work=NOAA
  6. ^ {{cite web |url=http://www.arborday.org/media/zones.cfm |title=2006 arborday.org Hardiness Zone Map |work=National Arbor Day Foundation
  7. ^ State at a Glance - New Hampshire. U.S. Department of Labor (2007-10-12). Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
  8. ^ The Tax Foundation - New Hampshire's State and Local Tax Burden, 1970–2006
  9. ^ "House Fast Fact", New Hampshire House of Representatives
  10. ^ State of New Hampshire Department of Administrative Services - Monthly Revenue Focus (FY 2005)
  11. ^ National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism - SURVEILLANCE REPORT #73: APPARENT PER CAPITA ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION: NATIONAL, STATE, AND REGIONAL TRENDS, 1977–2003
  12. ^ Office of the Governor of the State of New Hampshire (2007-05-31). Governor Signs Law Establishing Civil Unions in New Hampshire. Press releaseImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif. Retrieved on 2007-07-14Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif.
  13. ^ "State Vote 2006: Partisan Composition of State Legislatures: New Hampshire" National Conference of State Legislatures, retrieved November 17, 2006.
  14. ^ "Free State Project: State Vote Results"
  15. ^ New Hampshire May Pay Half of Education Costs. March 23, 2007.
  16. ^ It's Time for Winter Fun
  17. ^ Susan Morse, "Last of the Yankees", Portsmouth Herald, July 4, 2004.
  18. ^ [http://www.nhcrafts.org/annualfair.htm League of New Hampshire Craftsmen's Fair] Accessed 9 November 2007
  19. ^ The Story of the World Record Wind
  20. ^ Sending a bright signal, Concord Monitor pg B-6, May 18, 1996
  21. ^ Wang, Beverley. (26 April 2007) State Senate approves civil unions for same-sex couples Concord Monitor. Accessed 26 April 2007.
  22. ^ NH Firsts & Bests Accessed 9 November 2007

Further reading

  • Michael Sletcher. New England. Westport, CT, 2004.

External links

All wikimedia projects
Articles on this topic in other Wikimedia projects can be found at: New Hampshire


Preceded by
South Carolina
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Ratified Constitution on June 21, 1788 (9th)
Succeeded by
Virginia

CoordinatesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: 44° N 71.5° W

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Simple English

State of New Hampshire
File:Flag of New File:Seal of New
Flag of New Hampshire Seal of New Hampshire
Also called: The Granite State
Saying(s): Live Free or Die
[[File:|center|Map of the United States with New Hampshire highlighted]]
Official language(s) English
Capital Concord
Largest city Manchester
Area  Ranked 46th
 - Total 9,359 sq mi
(24,239 km²)
 - Width 68 miles (110 km)
 - Length 190 miles (305 km)
 - % water 3.4
 - Latitude 42°40'N to 45°18'N
 - Longitude 70°37'W to 72°37'W
Number of people  Ranked 41st
 - Total (2010) {{{2010Pop}}}
 - Density {{{2010DensityUS}}}/sq mi 
{{{2010Density}}}/km² (20th)
 - Average income  $57,323 (1st)
Height above sea level  
 - Highest point Mt. Washington[1]
6,288 ft  (1,917 m)
 - Average 1,000 ft  (305 m)
 - Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[1]
0 ft  (0 m)
Became part of the U.S.  June 21, 1788 (9th)
Governor John Lynch (D)
U.S. Senators Judd Gregg (R)
Jeanne Shaheen (D)
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations NH N.H. US-NH
Web site www.nh.gov

New Hampshire is a state in the United States. Its capital is Concord and its largest city is Manchester.

New Hampshire was a British colony before the American War of Independence. It became the ninth state on June 21, 1788, when it accepted the United States Constitution.

The state motto is "Live Free or Die" and the nickname is the Granite State. The state flower is the lilac and the state bird is the purple finch. New Hampshire is part of New England. It is bordered by Maine in the East, Massachusetts to the South, Vermont to the West, and Quebec, a Canadian province, to the North.

New Hampshire's tourist attractions include the Lakes Region, the White Mountains, the autumn leaves, and the New Hampshire Motor Speedway in Loudon. Some famous people from New Hampshire are Franklin Pierce, Mary Baker Eddy, Adam Sandler, and members of the band Aerosmith. New Hampshire is also famous for being the first state to vote in the Presidential primaries.

Its population was estimated to be 1,315,809 in 2008.[2]

References

frr:New Hampshire







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