The Full Wiki

New Lanark: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coordinates: 55°40′N 3°47′W / 55.66°N 3.78°W / 55.66; -3.78

New Lanark
New Lanark Mill Hotel and Waterhouses by River Clyde
New Lanark is located in Scotland
New Lanark

 New Lanark shown within Scotland
Population 200 (approx.)
Council area South Lanarkshire
Lieutenancy area Lanarkshire
Country Scotland
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LANARK
Postcode district ML11
Dialling code 01555
Police Strathclyde
Fire Strathclyde
Ambulance Scottish
EU Parliament Scotland
UK Parliament Lanark and Hamilton East
Scottish Parliament Clydesdale
List of places: UK • Scotland •
New Lanark*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
State Party United Kingdom United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iv, vi
Reference 429
Region** Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 2001  (25th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.

New Lanark is a village on the River Clyde, approximately 1.4 miles (2.2 kilometres) from Lanark, in South Lanarkshire, Scotland. It was founded in 1786 by David Dale, who built cotton mills and housing for the mill workers. Dale built the mills there to take advantage of the water power provided by the river. Under the ownership of a partnership that included Dale's son-in-law, Robert Owen, a Welsh philanthropist and social reformer, New Lanark became a successful business and an epitome of utopian socialism.

The New Lanark mills operated until 1968. After a period of decline, the New Lanark Conservation Trust (NLCT) was founded in 1975 to prevent demolition of the village. By 2006 most of the buildings have been restored and the village has become a major tourist attraction. It is one of five UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Scotland and an Anchor Point of ERIH - The European Route of Industrial Heritage.

Contents

History

The New Lanark cotton mills were founded in 1786 by David Dale. Dale was one of the self-made "Burgher Gentry" of Glasgow who, like most of this gentry, had a summer retreat, an estate at Rosebank, Cambuslang, not far from the Falls of Clyde, which have been painted by J. M. W. Turner and many other artists.

Dale sold the mills, lands and village in the early 19th century for £60,000, payable over 20 years, to a partnership that included his son-in-law Robert Owen. Owen was an industrialist who carried on his father-in-law's philanthropic approach to industrial working and who subsequently became an influential social reformer. New Lanark, with its social and welfare programmes, epitomised his Utopian socialism (see also Owenism).

The New Lanark mills depended upon water power. A dam was constructed on the Clyde above New Lanark and water was drawn off the river to power the mill machinery. The water first travelled through a tunnel, then through an open channel called the lade. It then went to a number of water wheels in each mill building. It was not until 1929 that the last waterwheel was replaced by a water turbine. Water power is still used in New Lanark. A new water turbine has been installed in Mill Number Three to provide electricity for the tourist areas of the village.

In Owen's time some 2,500 people lived at New Lanark, many from the poorhouses of Glasgow and Edinburgh. Although not the grimmest of mills by far, Owen found the conditions unsatisfactory and resolved to improve the workers' lot. He paid particular attention to the needs of the 500 or so children living in the village (one of the tenement blocks is named Nursery Buildings) and working at the mills, and opened the first infants' school in Britain in 1816.

The mills thrived commercially, but Owen's partners were unhappy at the extra expense incurred by his welfare programmes. Unwilling to allow the mills to revert back to the old ways of operating, Owen bought out his partners.

New Lanark became celebrated throughout Europe, with many leading royals, statesmen and reformers visiting the mills. They were astonished to find a clean, healthy industrial environment with a content, vibrant workforce and a prosperous, viable business venture all rolled into one. Owen’s philosophy was contrary to contemporary thinking, but he was able to demonstrate that it was not necessary for an industrial enterprise to treat its workers badly to be profitable. Owen was able to show visitors the village’s excellent housing and amenities, and the accounts showing the profitability of the mills.

As well as the mills' connections with reform, socialism and welfare, they are also representative of the Industrial Revolution that occurred in Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries and which fundamentally altered the shape of the world.

In 1825, control of New Lanark passed to the Walker family. The Walkers managed the village until 1881, when it was sold to Birkmyre and Sommerville. They and their successor companies remained in control until the mills closed in 1968.

After the mills closed people started to move away from the village, and the buildings began to deteriorate. In 1963 the New Lanark Association (NLA) was formed as a housing association and commenced the restoration of Caithness Row and Nursery Buildings. In 1970 the mills, other industrial buildings and the houses used by Dale and Owen were sold to Metal Extractions Limited, a scrap metal company. In 1974 the NLCT was founded to prevent demolition of the village. A compulsory purchase order was used in 1983 to recover the mills and other buildings from Metal Extractions. They are now controlled by the NLCT. By 2005 most of the buildings have been restored and the village has become a major tourist attraction.

Living Conditions

In the mid 19th century, an entire family would have been housed in a single room. Some sense of such living conditions can be obtained by visiting the David Livingstone Centre at Blantyre. David Dale, who founded New Lanark, was also involved in the mills at Blantyre. Only one tenement row has survived in Blantyre, and that building is now a museum. This is mostly devoted to David Livingstone, who was born there in 1813, but it includes a re-creation of the single~room living conditions of the time at New Lanark, featuring trundle beds for children such as Livingstone would have used. The David Livingstone Centre is 18 miles by road from New Lanark, between Glasgow and Hamilton.

The living conditions in the village gradually improved, and by the early 20th century families would have had the use of several rooms. It was not until 1933 that the houses had interior cold water taps for sinks and the communal outside toilets were replaced by inside facilities.

From 1898 the village proprietors provided free electricity to all the homes in New Lanark, but only enough power was available for one dim bulb in each room. The power was switched off at 10 pm Sunday-Friday, 11 pm Saturday. In 1955 New Lanark was connected to the National Grid.

Dereliction in New Lanark in 1983.

New Lanark today

It has been estimated that over 400,000 people visit the village each year. The importance of New Lanark has been recognised by UNESCO as one of Scotland's five World Heritage Sites, the others being Edinburgh Old and New Towns, Heart of Neolithic Orkney, St Kilda and the Antonine Wall.

About 200 people live in New Lanark. Of the residential buildings, only Mantilla Row and Double Row have not been restored. Some of the restoration work was undertaken by the NLA and the NLCT. Braxfield Row and most of Long Row were restored by private individuals who bought the houses as derelict shells and restored them as private houses. In addition to the 20 owner-occupied properties in the village there are 45 rented properties let by the NLA, which is a registered housing association. The NLA also owns other buildings in the village. It has been criticised for its failure to restore Double Row and rebuild Mantilla Row.

In 2009 the NLA was wound up as being financially and administratively unviable, and responsibility for the village's tenanted properties passed to the NLCT.

Considerable attention has been given to maintaining the historical authenticity of the village. No television aerials or satellite dishes are allowed in the village, and services such as telephone, television and electricity are delivered though buried cables. To provide a consistent appearance all external woodwork is painted white, and doors and windows follow a consistent design. Householders used to be banned from owning dogs, but this rule is no longer enforced.

Some features introduced by the NLCT, such as commercial signage and a glass bridge connecting the Engine House and Mill Number Three, have been criticised. The retention of a 1924-pattern red telephone box in the village square has also been seen as inappropriate.

The mills, the hotel and most of the non-residential buildings in the village are owned and operated by the NLCT.

Buildings

Rosedale Street with Long Row to left, Double Row to near right and Wee Row to middle right
Robert Owen's house
  • Braxfield Row, built c1790 – a tenement block converted to ten owner-occupied houses, nine four-storey and one five-storey.
  • Long Row, built c1790 - a tenement block converted to 14 three-storey houses. Ten are owner occupied, four are tenanted.
  • Double Row, built c1795 – a five-storey tenement block, containing back-to-back apartments. The side facing the river was also known as Water Row. The row is currently derelict.
  • Mantilla Row, built c1795 – a tenement block demolished when it became structurally unsafe. New foundations and a retaining wall have been laid, but the row has not been rebuilt.
  • Wee Row, built c1795 – a tenement block converted to a youth hostel in 1994, operated by the Scottish Youth Hostels Association.
  • New Buildings, built 1798 – a four-storey building containing the bell tower. The bell, which once summoned the workers to the mills, is now sounded at midnight on the last day of the year. The building contains a museum and tenanted flats.
  • Nursery Buildings, built 1809 – a three-storey building that has been converted to tenanted flats. Once used to house the orphan children who worked in the mills.
  • Caithness Row, built 1792 – a three-storey tenement block that has been converted to tenanted flats. Caithness is a district in the Scottish Highlands and the row was supposedly named after a group of Highlanders recruited to work in the mills.
  • Village Church, built 1898 – now used for social purposes.
  • Mill Number One, built 1789 – originally built in 1785 and started spinning in March 1786. It burnt down on 9 October 1788 and was rebuilt in 1789. In 1802 the mill had three waterwheels driving 6556 spindles. In 1811 558 people, 408 of them female, worked in the mill. In 1945 it had its top two floors removed. The building became derelict and was demolished and rebuilt as the New Lanark Mill Hotel. The hotel opened in 1998.
  • Waterhouses, built c1799-1818 – a row of one- and two-storey buildings next to Mill Number One, converted into holiday flats.
  • Mill Number Two, built 1788 - in 1811 it had three waterwheels and employed 486 people, 283 of them women. It was widened in 1884-5 to accommodate ring frames. The extension is the only brick faced building in the village. It is now used for tourist purposes.
  • Mill Number Three, built 1790-92 - known as 'the jeanies house' and contained a large number of water powered jennies. It burned down in 1819 and was rebuilt circa 1826-33. In 1811 it employed 398 people, 286 of them women. It is now used for tourist purposes. It also contains a water turbine that generates electricity for parts of the village.
  • Mill Number Four, built circa 1791-3 - initially used as a storeroom and workshop. It also housed '275 children who have no parents' (Donnachie and G. Hewitt). It was destroyed by fire in 1883 and has not been rebuilt. In 1990 a waterwheel was brought from Hole Mill Farm, Fife, and installed on the site of the mill.
  • Institute for the Formation of Character, built 1816 – a four-storey building that is now used for tourism and business purposes.
  • Engine House, built 1881 – attached to the Institute for the Formation of Character and contains a restored steam engine.
  • School, built 1817 – a three-storey building that is now a museum. It housed the first school for working-class children in Scotland.
  • Mechanics Workshop, built 1809 – a three-storey building that once housed the craftsmen who built and maintained the mill machinery.
  • Dyeworks, built ? – originally a brass and iron foundry with its own waterwheel. It now contains shops and a visitor centre.
  • Gasworks with octagonal chimney, built by 1851 - used as a store.
  • Owens House, built 1790 – used as a museum.
  • Dales House, built 1790 – occupied by a firm of book publishers, Waverley Books.
  • Mill Lade - dug to carry water from the River Clyde to power the mill machinery.
  • Graveyard - on the hill above New Lanark, between the village and the visitors' car park. Many of the first villagers are buried there.
  • 1 & 2 New Lanark Road - two opposing two-storey gatehouses some distance from the village. These marked the entrance to New Lanark. They are now in private ownership.

Visiting New Lanark

The Scottish Wildlife Trust visitor centre for the Falls of Clyde nature reserve.

There is a large free car park on the outskirts of the village. Only disabled visitors may park in the village. There is a bus service from Lanark, which has a railway station with half-hourly services from Glasgow.

The village has a three-star hotel, the New Lanark Mill Hotel, owned and operated by the New Lanark Conservation Trust; holiday flats, the Waterhouses, let by the hotel; and a youth hostel operated by the Scottish Youth Hostels Association. There are restaurants and shops in the village, and a visitors' centre.

The Clyde walkway long distance footpath passes through the village and the Scottish Wildlife Trust's visitor centre for the Falls of Clyde Nature reserve is based in a group of mill buildings.

Photographs

See also

References

  • Historic New Lanark, I. Donnachie and G. Hewitt. Edinburgh University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-7486-0420-0.
  • Historical Tours in the Clyde Valley. Published by the Clyde Valley Tourist Association and the Lanark & District Archaeological Association. Printed by Robert MacLehose and Company Limited, Renfrew, Scotland. 1982.
  • David Dale, Robert Owen and the story of New Lanark. Moubray House Press, Edinburgh, Scotland. 1986. ISBN 0-948473-02-9.
  • New Lanark World Heritage Site Management Plan 2003-2008.

External links

Advertisements

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

New Lanark [1] is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and an anchor point on the European Route of Industrial Heritage in southern Scotland, south of Glasgow.

Understand

New Lanark is worth visiting for two main reasons: to see its fine examples of restored historic buildings such as mills and tenements, and to learn about the activities of Robert Owen, a reformer who improved living and working conditions for mill workers and their families in the early 19th century. The complex was managed by Owen until 1825, when he moved to Indiana and purchased the town of New Harmony, to continue his communitarian work.

Get in

The nearest town for national public transport connections is Lanark. Lanark train and bus stations are adjacent to each other and it's a downhill walk of a bit more than a mile from there to the village. Stuart's Coaches runs the 135 service from Lanark bus station to New Lanark.

By train

Travellers from Glasgow can take the train from Glasgow Central station direct to Lanark. Travellers from Edinburgh can take a train to Motherwell (don't change at Holytown, which has no station facilities) and change there for a train to Lanark.

By bus

There's no direct coach or bus from Edinburgh, but you can make local connections by taking the bus to Biggar, from where you can catch a bus to Lanark bus station.

By car

New Lanark is signposted from the M8 motorway and is under an hour's drive from Edinburgh. There is a large car park which is up quite a steep hill above the rest of the village but there is disabled parking in the main street of the village for those requiring it.

By foot

The Clyde Walkway is nearby so walkers can pass through the village on the walk.

Get around

The village is quite small and can only be navigated by foot. There are few cars and it is usually quite busy with people so it is safe to just wander round the sights on the roads and paths provided.

See

New Lanark is the site of historic cotton mills and most of the buildings are still there and are listed.

There is a visitors centre where tickets for entrance to the mills which are available to the public and for the historic ride named the "Millennium Experience" can be bought. There are working models of the spinning machines and there is a working waterwheel which is used to generate electricity in a small power station. There are also many picnic areas and a children's play park which can be used for free within the village.

There is also the Clyde Walkway which can take visitors up the River Clyde to a hydro-electric power station and to the spectacular Falls of Clyde and beyond.

Sleep

Mill 1 was converted into the three-star New Lanark Mill Hotel and the neighbouring waterhouses offer four-star self-catering accommodation.

The Scottish Youth Hostels Association runs a three-star youth hostel in Wee Row.

This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

Simple English

New Lanark is a village in South Lanarkshire, Scotland. It is next to Lanark.

New Lanark was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2001. It is a restored 18th century industrial cotton mill village in South Lanarkshire. It was built by Robert Owen as an experiment in utopian socialism. Restoration was organised by the New Lanark Conservation Trust, which was formed in 1974.



Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message