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Brick City redirects here. For the township in Ocean County, see Brick Township, New Jersey.
City of Newark
—  City  —

Flag

Seal
Nickname(s): The Brick City
Map of Newark in Essex County. Inset: Location of Essex County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of Newark, New Jersey
Coordinates: 40°44′7″N 74°11′6″W / 40.73528°N 74.185°W / 40.73528; -74.185Coordinates: 40°44′7″N 74°11′6″W / 40.73528°N 74.185°W / 40.73528; -74.185
Country United States
State New Jersey
County Essex
Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836
Government
 - Type Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council)
 - Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010
Area [1]
 - City 26.0 sq mi (67.3 km2)
 - Land 23.8 sq mi (61.6 km2)
 - Water 2.2 sq mi (5.7 km2)
Elevation 30 ft (9 m)
Population (2008)[2]
 - City 278,980 (65th)
 Density 11,400/sq mi (4,400/km2)
 Metro 18,818,536
 - Demonym Newarkian
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 07100-07199
Area code(s) 862, 973
FIPS code 34-51000[3][4]
GNIS feature ID 0878762[5]
Website http://www.ci.newark.nj.us/

Newark is the largest city in New Jersey, and the county seat of Essex County. Newark has a population of 281,402,[2] making it the largest municipality in New Jersey and the 65th largest city in the U.S. Newark is also home to major corporations, such as Prudential Financial.

It is located approximately 8 miles (13 km) west of Manhattan and 2 miles (3.2 km) north of Staten Island. Its location near the Atlantic Ocean on Newark Bay has helped make its port facility, Port Newark, the major container shipping port on Newark Bay and for New York Harbor. It is the home of Newark Liberty International Airport, which was the first major airport to serve the New York metropolitan area.

Newark was originally formed as a township on October 31, 1693, based on the Newark Tract, which was first purchased on July 11, 1667. Newark was granted a Royal Charter on April 27, 1713, and was incorporated as one of New Jersey's initial 104 townships by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798. During its time as a township, portions were taken to form Springfield Township (April 14, 1794), Caldwell Township (February 16, 1798, now known as Fairfield Township), Orange Township (November 27, 1806), Bloomfield Township (March 23, 1812) and Clinton Township (April 14, 1834, remainder reabsorbed by Newark on March 5, 1902). Newark was reincorporated as a city on April 11, 1836, replacing Newark Township, based on the results of a referendum passed on March 18, 1836. The previously independent Vailsburg borough was annexed by Newark on January 1, 1905.[6] Newark is divided into five wards; North Ward, South Ward, West Ward, East Ward, and Central Ward.

Contents

History

Newark was originally founded in 1666 by Connecticut Puritans led by Robert Treat from the New Haven Colony. The city experienced tremendous industrial growth during the 19th and early 20th centuries, only to see decline and racial tensions in the second half of the 20th century, exemplified by the 1967 Newark riots. The city has experienced some revitalization during the 1990s and early 2000s.

Geography and climate

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Geography

Map of the Newark metropolitan area, including adjacent suburbs

Located at 40° 44' 14" north and 74° 10' 55" west, Newark is 24.14 square miles (62.5 km2) in area. It has the second smallest land area among 100 most populous cities in the U.S, after neighboring Jersey City. The city's altitude ranges from 0 to 273.4 feet (83.3 m) above sea level, with the average being 55 feet (17 m).[7] Newark is essentially a large basin sloping towards the Passaic River, with a few valleys formed by meandering streams. Historically, Newark's high places have been its wealthier neighborhoods. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the wealthy congregated on the ridges of Forest Hill, High Street, and Weequahic.

Until the 20th century, the marshes on Newark Bay were difficult to develop. The marshes were essentially wilderness, with a few dumps, warehouses, and cemeteries on their edges. In the 19th century, Newarkers mourned that a fifth of their city could not be used for development. However, in the 20th century, the Port Authority was able to reclaim much of the marshland for the further expansion of Newark Airport, as well as the growth of the port lands.

Newark is surrounded by residential suburbs to the west (on the slope of the Watchung Mountains), the Passaic River and Newark Bay to the east, dense urban areas to the south and southwest, and middle-class residential suburbs and industrial areas to the north. The city is the center of New Jersey's Gateway Region.

Map of Downtown Newark and surrounding areas

Neighborhoods

Newark is New Jersey's largest and second-most diverse city, after neighboring Jersey City. Its neighborhoods are populated with people from various backgrounds, such as African Americans, Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, Italians, Albanians, Irish, Spaniards, Jamaicans, Haitians, Mexicans, West Africans, Brazilians, Ecuadorians, Trinidadians and Portuguese population.

The city is divided into five political wards, which are often used by residents to identify their place of habitation. In recent years, residents have begun to identify with specific neighborhood names instead of the larger ward appellations. Nevertheless, the wards remain relatively distinct. Industrial uses, coupled with the airport and seaport lands, are concentrated in the East and South Wards, while residential neighborhoods exist primarily in the North, Central, and West Wards.

The geography of the city is such that only the predominantly poor Central Ward shares an unbroken border with the downtown area (the North Ward is separated from the downtown by Interstate 280 and the East Ward is separated by railroad tracks; the South and West Wards do not share a border with the downtown area).

Newark's North Ward is the ridge to the east of Branch Brook Park. The still-affluent Forest Hill is in the North Ward, as are heavily Latino areas east of Mount Prospect Avenue. The Central Ward contains much of the city's original history including the Lincoln Park, Military Park and the James Street Commons Historic Districts. The Ward also contains the University Heights Neighborhood. In the 19th century it was inhabited by Germans. The German inhabitants were later replaced by Jews, who were then replaced by blacks. The West Ward comprises the neighborhoods of Roseville and Vailsburg. Vailsburg is largely black, while Roseville is mainly Latino and Italian American. The South Ward comprises poor and crime-ridden areas and the low-income Weequahic district. It was the last part of Newark to be developed. At the southern end of the ward is Weequahic Park. Finally, the East Ward consists of Newark's downtown commercial district, as well as the heavily Portuguese Ironbound neighborhood, where much of Newark's industry was located in the 19th century. Today, due to the enterprise of its immigrant population, the Ironbound (also known as "Down Neck") is a very successful part of Newark.

Climate

Newark has a humid subtropical climate according to the Köppen climate classification, with cool to cold winters and warm to hot & humid summers. Its proximity to the ocean has a moderating effect. Also, being near to the Atlantic Ocean means Newark tends to have warmer winters than cities at a similar latitude or even somewhat further south, such as Chicago, Columbus, Pittsburgh, and St. Louis. Temperatures below 0 °F (−18 °C) are rare, but temperatures between 10 °F (−12 °C) and 20 °F (−7 °C) are not uncommon during winter nights. The average high temperature during the winter ranges from 38 °F (3 °C) to 42 °F (6 °C). Accumulated snow on the ground does not usually remain for very long. Springs in Newark are quite mild, with average high temperatures ranging from the 40 °F (4 °C)s in March to the 70 °F (21 °C)s/80 °F (27 °C)s by early June. Summers are particularly hot and humid, with day temperatures usually in the 80 °F (27 °C)s and exceeding 90 °F (32 °C)s on many days. Heat advisories are not uncommon during the summer months, particularly July and August, the hottest months of the year when temperatures can reach 100 °F (38 °C) with high humidity. The city cools off during autumn, with high temperatures ranging between the 50 °F (10 °C)s and 70 °F (21 °C)s.

The city receives precipitation ranging from 3 inches (76 mm) to 4.5 inches (110 mm) monthly. Measurable snowfall occurs each winter, but in lesser amounts than cities in the midwest at a similar latitude.

Climate data for Newark, New Jersey
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 74
(23)
76
(24)
89
(32)
97
(36)
99
(37)
103
(39)
105
(41)
105
(41)
105
(41)
92
(33)
85
(29)
76
(24)
105
(41)
Average high °F (°C) 38
(3.3)
41
(5)
50
(10)
61
(16.1)
71
(21.7)
80
(26.7)
85
(29.4)
83
(28.3)
76
(24.4)
65
(18.3)
54
(12.2)
43
(6.1)
59
(15)
Average low °F (°C) 24
(-4.4)
27
(-2.8)
34
(1.1)
44
(6.7)
54
(12.2)
64
(17.8)
69
(20.6)
68
(20)
60
(15.6)
48
(8.9)
39
(3.9)
30
(-1.1)
47
(8.3)
Record low °F (°C) -8
(-22)
-7
(-22)
6
(-14)
16
(-9)
33
(1)
43
(6)
52
(11)
45
(7)
35
(2)
28
(-2)
15
(-9)
-1
(-18)
-8
(-22)
Precipitation inches (mm) 3.98
(101.1)
2.96
(75.2)
4.21
(106.9)
3.92
(99.6)
4.46
(113.3)
3.40
(86.4)
4.68
(118.9)
4.02
(102.1)
4.01
(101.9)
3.16
(80.3)
3.88
(98.6)
3.57
(90.7)
46.25
(1,174.8)
Source: weather.com[8] 2009-07-09

Demographics

Newark, New Jersey
Census Pop.  %±
1790 1,000
1800 6,000 500.0%
1830 10,953
1840 17,290 57.9%
1850 38,894 125.0%
1860 71,941 85.0%
1870 105,059 46.0%
1880 136,508 29.9%
1890 181,830 33.2%
1900 246,070 35.3%
1910 347,469 41.2%
1920 414,524 19.3%
1930 442,337 6.7%
1940 429,760 −2.8%
1950 438,776 2.1%
1960 405,220 −7.6%
1970 381,930 −5.7%
1980 329,248 −13.8%
1990 275,221 −16.4%
2000 273,546 −0.6%
Est. 2008 278,980 [2] 2.0%
Population 1930 - 1990.[9]

As of the census[3] of 2000, there are 273,546 people, 91,382 households, and 61,956 families residing in Newark; recent census projections show that the population has already increased to around 280,000. The population density was 11,400/mile² (4,400/km²), or 21,000/mile² (8,100 km²) once airport, railroad, and seaport lands are excluded, Newark has the eighth highest density in the nation of any city with over 250,000 residents.

The racial makeup of the city was 53.46% Black or African American, 26.52% White, 1.19% Asian, 0.37% Native American, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 14.05% from other races, and 4.36% from two or more races. 29.47% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There is a significant Portuguese-speaking community, made up of Brazilian and Portuguese ethnicities, concentrated mainly at the Ironbound district.

There were 91,382 households out of which 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.0% were married couples living together, 29.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.2% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.85 and the average family size was 3.43.

Poverty rates, as of 2003

In the city the population was spread out with 27.9% under the age of 18, 12.1% from 18 to 24, 32.0% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, and 9.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.2 males. For every 100 females of age 18 and over, there were 91.1 males.

Poverty and lack of investment

Poverty remains a consistent problem in Newark, despite its revitalization in recent years. The 1967 riots resulted in a significant population loss of both white and black middle classes which continued from the 1970s through to the 1990s. The city lost over 100,000 residents between 1960 and 1990.

The median income for a household in the city was $26,913, and the median income for a family was $30,781. Males had a median income of $29,748 versus $25,734 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,009. 28.4% of the population and 25.5% of families were below the poverty line. 36.6% of those under the age of 18 and 24.1% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. In 2003, the city's unemployment rate was 12%.

Government

Local government

Effective as of July 1, 1954, the voters of the city of Newark, by a referendum held on November 3, 1953 and under the Optional Municipal Charter Law (commonly known as the Faulkner Act), adopted the Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council) Plan C as the form of local government.[10]

There are nine council members are elected on a nonpartisan basis at the regular municipal election or at the general election for terms of four years: one council member from each of five wards and four council members on an at-large basis. The mayor is also elected for a term of four years.

The Municipal Council is the legislative branch of city government. It enacts by ordinance, resolution or motion the local laws which govern the people of the city, and is responsible for approval of the municipal budget, establishment of financial controls, and setting of salaries of elected officials and top appointed administrators. It may reduce or increase appropriations requested by the Mayor. By these methods the Council decides "what" the city will do about any particular matter, and then the Mayor and cabinet members decide "how" to do it. It also renders advice and consent on the Mayor's appointments and policy programs, and may investigate, when necessary, any branch of municipal government. The Council also authorizes a continuing audit by an outside firm, of all city financial transactions.

As established by ordinance, regular public meetings of the Municipal Council are held on the first Wednesday of each month at 1:00 p.m., and the third Wednesday of each month at 7:00 p.m. in the Municipal Council Chamber in City Hall. Exceptions are made for national or religious holidays. During July and August only one meeting is held each month. A special meeting of the Municipal Council may be called by the President or a majority of its members or by the Mayor whenever an emergency requires immediate action.

As of 2008, Newark's Municipal Council include the following members:

  • Mildred C. Crump (Council President/Council Member-at-Large)
  • Augusto Amador (Council Member, East Ward)
  • Charles A. Bell (Council Member, Central Ward)
  • Carlos M. Gonzalez (Council Member-at-Large)
  • Oscar S. James, II (Council Member, South Ward)
  • Donald M. Payne, Jr. (Council Member-at-Large) Who is also a Freeholder-at-Large
  • Luis A. Quintana (Council Vice President/Council Member-at-Large)
  • Anibal Ramos, Jr. (Council Member, North Ward)
  • Ronald C. Rice (Council Member, West Ward)

On Election Day, May 9, 2006, Newark's nonpartisan election took place. Cory Booker, who had lost to Sharpe James in the 2002 mayoral race, won with 72% of the vote, soundly defeating Ronald Rice, the former Deputy Mayor.

Federal, state and county representation

Newark is in both the Tenth and Thirteenth Congressional Districts and is part of New Jersey's 27th, 28th and 29th Legislative Districts.[11]

Politics

On the national level, Newark leans strongly toward the Democratic Party. In 2008, Democrat Barack Obama received 91% of the vote.[12]

Political turmoil

Newark has been marred with episodes of political corruption throughout the years. Five of the last seven Mayors of Newark have been indicted on criminal charges, including its three most recent Mayors: Hugh Addonizio, Kenneth Gibson, and Sharpe James.

Addonizio was mayor of Newark from 1962 to 1970. A son of Italian immigrants, he ran on a reform platform, defeating the incumbent, Leo Carlin, who, ironically, he characterized as corrupt and a part of the political machine of the era. During the 1967 riots, it was found that Addonizio and other city officials were taking kickbacks from city contractors. He was convicted of extortion and conspiracy in 1970, and was sentenced to ten years in federal prison.

His successor was Kenneth Gibson, the city's first African American mayor, elected in 1970. He pleaded guilty to federal tax evasion in 2002 as part of a plea agreement on fraud and bribery charges. During his tenure as Mayor in 1980, he was tried and acquitted of giving out no-show jobs by an Essex County jury.[13]

Sharpe James, who defeated Gibson in 1986 and declined to run for a sixth term in 2006, was indicted on 33 counts of conspiracy, mail fraud, and wire fraud by a federal grand jury sitting in Newark. The grand jury charged that James illegally used city-owned credit cards for personal gain, illegally spending $58,000, and that James orchestrated a scheme to sell city-owned land at below-market prices to his companion, who immediately re-sold the land to developers and gained profit of over $500,000. James had an initial appearance on July 12, 2007 and entered a plea of not guilty to the 25 counts facing him. However, James was eventually found guilty on fraud charges by a federal jury on April 17, 2008 for his role in the conspiring to rig land sales at nine city-owned properties. The former mayor will now serve up to 27 months in prison.

Crime

In 1996, TIME Magazine ranked Newark "The Most Dangerous City in the Nation."[14] By 2007, however, the city recorded a total of 99 homicides for the year, representing a significant drop from the record of 161 murders set in 1981.[15][16][17][18] The number of murders in 2008 dropped to 65, a decline of 30% from the previous year and the lowest in the city since 2002 when there was also 65 murders.[19]

In the 2006 survey, Newark was ranked as the 22nd most dangerous city in the United States, out of 371 cities included nationwide in the 13th annual Morgan Quitno survey.[20] In the 2007 rankings, now performed by CQ Press, Newark was the 20th most dangerous city in America of 378 cities surveyed. In 2008, Newark was ranked as the 24th most dangerous city.[21]

Economy

Panorama of Newark from Harrison

Newark has over 300 types of businesses. These include 1,800 retail, 540 wholesale establishments, eight major bank headquarters (including those of New Jersey's three largest banks), and twelve savings and loan association headquarters. Deposits in Newark-based banks are over $20 billion.

Newark is the third-largest insurance center in United States, after New York City and Hartford. Prudential Financial and Mutual Benefit Companies originated in Newark. The former, one of the largest insurance companies in the world, is still headquartered in Newark. Many other companies are headquartered in the city, including International Discount Telecommunications, New Jersey Transit, Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE&G), and Horizon Blue Cross and Blue Shield of New Jersey.

Though Newark is not the industrial colossus of the past, the city does have a considerable amount of industry. The southern portion of the Ironbound, also known as the Industrial Meadowlands, has seen many factories built since World War II, including a large Anheuser-Busch brewery. The service industry is also growing rapidly, replacing those in the manufacturing industry, which was once Newark's primary economy. In addition, transportation has become a growing business in Newark, accounting for 24,000 jobs in 1996.

Newark based Companies:

The Consulate-General of Ecuador in New Jersey is located on the 4th Floor at 400 Market Street.[22] The Consulate-General of Portugal is located at the main floor of the Legal Center at One Riverfront Plaza.[23] The Vice Consulate of Italy is located in Suite 100 at 1 Gateway Center.[24] The Mission of the Central African Republic to the United Nations is located in Suite 2008 at 51 Clifton Avenue in Newark.[25]

Port Newark

Newark Bay with the New Jersey Turnpike and Newark Bay Bridge visible.

Port Newark is the part of Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal that is in Newark. It is a port facility on Newark Bay run by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey that serves as the principal container ship facility for goods entering and leaving the New York metropolitan region and the northeastern quadrant of North America. The Port is the fifteenth busiest in the world today, but was number one as recently as 1985.[26] In 2003 the Port moved over $100 billion in goods. Plans are underway for billions of dollars of improvements - larger cranes, bigger railyard facilities, deeper channels, and expanded wharves.

Urban Enterprise Zone

Portions of Newark are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the Zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3½% sales tax rate (versus the 7% rate charged statewide).[27]

Education

Colleges and universities

Newark is the home of the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), Rutgers University - Newark, Seton Hall University School of Law, the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (Newark Campus), Essex County College, and a Berkeley College campus. Most of Newark's academic institutions are located in the city's University Heights district. Rutgers-Newark and NJIT are in the midst of major expansion programs, including plans to purchase, and sometimes raze, surrounding buildings, as well as revitalize current campuses. With more students requesting to live on campus, the universities have plans to build and expand several dormitories. Such overcrowding is contributing to the revitalization of nearby apartments. Nearby restaurants primarily serve college students. Well lit, frequently policed walks have been organized by the colleges to encourage students to venture downtown.

Public schools

Educational attainment, as of 2003

The Newark Public Schools, a state-operated school district, enrolls approximately 45,000 students, making it the largest school system in New Jersey. The district is one of 31 Abbott Districts statewide.[28] The city's public schools are among the lowest-performing in the state, even after the state government decided to take over management of the city's schools in 1995, which was done under the presumption that improvement would follow. The school district continues to struggle with low high school graduation rates and low standardized test scores.

The total school enrollment in Newark city was 75,000 in 2003. Pre-primary school enrollment was 12,000 and elementary or high school enrollment was 46,000 children. College enrollment was 16,000.

As of 2003, 64% of people 25 years and over had at least graduated from high school and 11% had a bachelor's degree or higher. Among people 16 to 19 years old, 10% were dropouts; they were not enrolled in school and had not graduated from high school.[29]

Private schools

Link Community School is a non-denominational coeducational day school located serving approximately 128 students in seventh and eighth grades. Saint Benedict's Preparatory School is an all boys Roman Catholic high school founded in 1868 and conducted by the Benedictine monks of Newark Abbey. Its campus has grown to encompass both sides of MLK Jr. Blvd. near Market Street and includes a dormitory for boarding students. Christ The King Prep, founded in 2007, is part of the Cristo Rey Community.

Saint Vincent Academy [1], is a private school founded and sponsored by the Sisters of Charity of Saint Elizabeth and operated continuously since 1869.

Culture

Architecture and sculptures

Cathedral of the Sacred Heart, one of the largest gothic cathedrals in the U.S.

There are several notable Beaux-Arts buildings, such as the Veterans' Administration building, the Newark Museum, the Newark Public Library, and the Cass Gilbert-designed Essex County Courthouse. Notable Art Deco buildings include several 1920s era skyscrapers, such as the National Newark Building, (Newark's tallest building) 1180 Raymond Boulevard, (Newark's second tallest building) the intact Newark Penn Station, and Arts High School. Gothic architecture can be found at the Cathedral of the Sacred Heart by Branch Brook Park, which is one of the largest gothic cathedrals in the United States. It is rumored to have as much stained glass as the Cathedral of Chartres. Newark also has two public sculpture works by Gutzon BorglumWars of America in Military Park and Seated Lincoln in front of the Essex County Courthouse.

Museums and galleries

The Newark Museum is the largest in New Jersey. It has a first class American art collection and its Tibetan collection is considered one of the best in the world. The Museum also contains science galleries, a planetarium, a mini zoo, a gallery for children's exhibits, a fire museum, a sculpture garden and an 18th century schoolhouse. Also part of the Museum is the historic Ballantine House, a restored Victorian mansion which is a National Historic Landmark.

The city is also home to the New Jersey Historical Society, which has rotating exhibits on New Jersey and Newark. The Newark Public Library also produces a series of historical exhibits.

The Newark Public Library is the state's largest public library with more than a million volumes. The Library has frequent exhibits on a variety of topics, many feature items from its Fine Print and Special Collections.

In February 2004, plans were announced for a new Smithsonian-affiliated Museum of African American Music to be built in the city's Coast/Lincoln Park neighborhood. The museum will be dedicated to black musical styles, from gospel to rap. The new museum will incorporate the facade of the old South Park Presbyterian Church, where Abraham Lincoln once spoke.[30] Groundbreaking is planned for winter 2006 with the grand opening scheduled for 2007.

On December 9, 2007 the Jewish Museum of New Jersey [2] located at 145 Broadway in the Broadway neighborhood held its grand opening. The museum is dedicated to the portrayal of the rich cultural heritage of New Jersey’s Jewish people. The museum is housed at Congregation Ahavas Sholom [3], the last continually operating synagogue in Newark. At one time there were fifty synagogues in Newark serving a Jewish population of 70,000, which was once the sixth largest Jewish community in the United States. Together, the Jewish Museum of New Jersey and Congregation Ahavas Sholom keep the light of Judaism alive in the city of Newark.

Newark is also home to numerous art galleries including City Without Walls, Gallery Aferro and Aljira. Aljira is a gallery showing "emerging or under-represented artists" located near Military Park. cWOW is another contemporary art gallery in Newark that has been in operation since 1975. cWOW is located in The Coast district of Newark, which will be home to the new Museum of African-American Music (MOAAM).[citation needed]

Professional sports

Club Sport Founded League Venue
New Jersey Devils Ice Hockey 1974 (moved to Newark in 2007) NHL Prudential Center
New Jersey Nets Basketball 1967 (will move to Newark in 2010) NBA Prudential Center
New York Red Bulls Soccer 1995 (moved to Harrison, a suburb adjacent to Newark, in 2010) MLS Red Bull Arena (located in adjacent Harrison, NJ)
Newark Bears Baseball 1998 Atlantic League Riverfront Stadium

There have been many sports teams in Newark, but the city has spent much of its history without a NBA, NHL, MLB, or NFL team. Newark has a rich history in baseball as it was one of the first cities with professional baseball teams. Newark had eight National Association of Baseball Players (NABBP) teams, including the Newark Eurekas and the Newark Adriatics. Newark was then home to the Newark Indians of the International League and then to the Newark Peppers of the Federal League, sometimes nicknamed the Newfeds. Newark was also home to the Negro League team the Newark Dodgers and the Newark Eagles for which the Bears and Eagles Riverfront Stadium is partially named. Although Newark has had a rich history in baseball and currently has a minor league team, it has never had an MLB team. The current Newark minor league team, the revived Newark Bears, play at Bears and Eagles Riverfront Stadium, a stop on the Newark Light Rail. The Bears are part of the independent Atlantic League, which also has teams in Bridgewater Township and Camden. Newark had a short-lived NFL franchise named the Newark Tornadoes, which folded in 1930. Newark was without a National Hockey League team until Fall of 2007, when the New Jersey Devils took to the ice for the first time in the Prudential Center. The indoor soccer team New Jersey Ironmen plays in the Prudential Center. Newark will gain an NBA tenant for the first time when the New Jersey Nets will move to Newark in 2010, though the move is expected to be temporary until the team completes construction of its own arena (Barclays Center) in Brooklyn, NY. A professional basketball team in the American Basketball Association, the Newark Express was introduced to the city in 2005. The team currently plays their home games at Essex County College and hope to move to a larger venue in the future. In Harrison, across from the Ironbound neighborhood, Red Bull Arena is being built for Red Bull New York soccer team. In the next couple of months, Newark will begin planning a pedestrian bridge that will link the two cities at Minish Park.

Local media

Newark does not have any major television network affiliates due to its proximity to New York City. However, WNET, a flagship station of the Public Broadcasting Service, and Spanish-language WFUT-TV, a TeleFutura owned-and-operated station, are licensed to Newark. The state's leading newspaper, The Star-Ledger, owned by Advance Publications, is based out of Newark. Radio Station WJZ (now WABC (AM)) made its first broadcast in 1921 from the Westinghouse plant near Lackawanna Station. It moved to New York City in the 1920s. Pioneer radio station WOR AM was originally licensed to and broadcast from the Bamberger's Department Store in Newark. Radio Station WNEW-AM (now WBBR) was founded in Newark in 1934. It later moved to New York City. In addition, WBGO, a National Public Radio affiliate that reaches New York City with a format of standard and contemporary jazz, is located in downtown Newark. WNSW AM-1430 (formerly WNJR) and WCAA (formerly WHBI) 105.9 FM are also licensed to Newark.

Infrastructure

Newark's Penn Station, a busy commuter and Amtrak hub designed by McKim, Mead, and White
The Pulaski Skyway connects Newark to Jersey City and New York City
Newark light rail system

Transportation

Newark is a hub of air, road, rail, and ship traffic, making it a significant gateway into the New York metropolitan area and the northeastern United States. Newark Liberty International Airport, the second-busiest airport in the New York region and the fourteenth-busiest in the United States (in terms of passenger traffic), saw nearly 32 million travelers in 2004 and processed nearly 1,000,000 metric tons of freight and mail. Just east of the airport lies Port Newark, the fifteenth-busiest port in the world and the largest container port on the eastern seaboard. In 2003, the port moved over $100 billion in goods.

Newark is served by numerous highways including the New Jersey Turnpike (Interstate 95), Interstate 280, Interstate 78, the Garden State Parkway, U.S. Route 1/9, U.S. Route 22, and Route 21. Newark is connected to the Holland Tunnel and Lower Manhattan by the Pulaski Skyway, spanning both the Passaic and Hackensack Rivers.

Local streets in Newark conform to a quasi-grid form, with major streets radiating outward (like spokes on a wheel) from the downtown area. Some major roads in the city are named after the towns to which they lead, including South Orange Avenue, Springfield Avenue, and Bloomfield Avenue. These are some of the oldest roads in the city.

Newark is second in the U.S. to New York City in the proportion of households without an automobile, and is extensively served by mass transit. Newark Penn Station, situated just east of downtown, is a major train station, connecting the interurban PATH system (which links Newark to Manhattan) with three New Jersey Transit commuter rail lines and Amtrak service to Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. Only one mile north, the Newark Broad Street Station is served by two commuter rail lines. The two train stations are linked by the Newark Light Rail system, which also provides services from Newark Penn Station to Newarks's northern communities and into the neighboring towns of Belleville and Bloomfield. Built in the bed of the Morris Canal, the light rail cars runs underground in Newark's downtown area. The city's third train station, Newark Liberty International Airport, connects the Northeast Corridor and North Jersey Coast Line to the airport via AirTrain Newark. Bus service in Newark is provided by New Jersey Transit, CoachUSA contract operators, and DeCamp in North Newark.

Newark is served by New Jersey Transit bus routes 1, 5, 11, 13, 21, 25, 27, 28, 29, 34, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 59, 62, 65, 66, 67, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 78, 79, 90, 92, 93, 94, 96, 99, 107, and 108. Bus route 308 is an express bus route to Six Flags Great Adventure from Newark Penn Station while 319 is an express service to Atlantic City.[31]

Hospitals and health services

Newark is home to seven hospitals, a remarkable number for a city of its size. University Hospital is the principal teaching hospital of the UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School and is the busiest Level I trauma center in the state. Newark Beth Israel Medical Center is the largest hospital in the city and is a part of the Saint Barnabas Health Care System, the state's largest system of hospital and health care facilities. Beth Israel is also one of the oldest hospitals in the city, dating back to 1901. This 669-bed regional facility is also home to the Children's Hospital of New Jersey. Other hospitals in Newark include the St. James Hospital, St. Michael's Medical Center, Columbus Hospital, Mount Carmel Guild Hospital, and United Hospitals Medical Center (now closed).

International relations

Twin towns - Sister cities

Newark has six sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International:[32]

Documentary

In 2009, the Sundance Channel aired Brick City, a 5-part documentary about Newark, focusing on the community's attempt to become a better and safer place to live, against a history of nearly a half century of violence, poverty and official corruption.

See also

References

  1. ^ U.S. Census - Geographic comparison table - Essex County
  2. ^ a b c data for Newark city, United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 27, 2009.
  3. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  4. ^ A Cure for the Common Codes: New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Retrieved July 14, 2008.
  5. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. http://geonames.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  6. ^ "The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968", John P. Snyder, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 130.
  7. ^ The Official Website of the City of Newark, NJ. Retrieved January 14, 2006.
  8. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named weather1; see Help:Cite error.
  9. ^ New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930 - 1990, Workforce New Jersey Public Information Network. Retrieved March 1, 2007.
  10. ^ 2005 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, April 2005, p. 125.
  11. ^ League of Women Voters: 2006 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, p. 61. Retrieved August 30, 2006.
  12. ^ "New Jersey Division of Elections". State.nj.us. http://www.state.nj.us/state/elections/results_2009_doe.html. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  13. ^ Wally Edge (2007-07-12). "The Newark Tradition | Politicker NJ". Politicsnj.com. http://www.politicsnj.com/newark-tradition-10260. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  14. ^ Fried, Carla (1996-11-27). "AMERICA'S SAFEST CITY: AMHERST, N.Y.; THE MOST DANGEROUS: NEWARK, N.J.". MONEY Magazine. http://money.cnn.com/magazines/moneymag/moneymag_archive/1996/11/27/225088/index.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-08. 
  15. ^ Lueck, Thomas J. "As Newark Mayor Readies Crime Fight, Toll Rises", The New York Times, January 8, 2007. Accessed October 6, 2007. "For all of 2006, the police said, Newark had 104 homicides, far below its record of 161 in 1981, but more than in any other year since 1995."
  16. ^ Murr, Andrew; and Noonoo, Jemimah. "A Return To The Bad Old Days?", Newsweek, August 17, 2007. "Murders rose 27 percent in Newark (population 280,000) in the past two years, as killings rose from 83 in 2004 to 104 last year. So far, the pace this year is slower—61 deaths since January."
  17. ^ This link contains a reference to a June 11, 2007 article in Newsday stating that "Meanwhile, homicides in Newark have jumped from 65 in 2002 to 113 last year, with nonfatal shootings also on the rise."
  18. ^ Newark and New York Comparative Crime Ratios per 100,000 People, areaConnect. Retrieved October 7, 2007.
  19. ^ Schweber, Nate. "Newark Murder Rate Dropped 30 Percent in 2008", The New York Times, January 3, 2009. Retrieved January 4, 2009.
  20. ^ 13th Annual Safest (and Most Dangerous) Cities: Top and Bottom 25 Cities Overall. Retrieved October 30, 2006.
  21. ^ City Crime Rankings, 14th Edition - Safest City: Overall Top 25 and Bottom 25 (out of 378 cities), CQ Press. Retrieved November 10, 2008.
  22. ^ "Contacto." Consulate-General of Ecuador. Retrieved on January 26, 2009.
  23. ^ "Consulados." Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros. Retrieved on January 26, 2009.
  24. ^ "Official Website of the Vice Consulate of Italy in Newark." Vice Consulate of Italy in Newark. Retrieved on January 26, 2009.
  25. ^ "United Nations Member States." United Nations. Retrieved on January 26, 2009.
  26. ^ "The New York Times: Premium Archive". Colliers.com. 2004-11-22. http://www.colliers.com/Content/Attachments/Corporate/Services/NewYorkTimes112204.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  27. ^ Geographic & Urban Redevelopment Tax Credit Programs: Urban Enterprise Zone Employee Tax Credit, State of New Jersey. Retrieved July 28, 2008.
  28. ^ Abbott Districts, New Jersey Department of Education. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
  29. ^ US Census, accessed, March 23, 2007
  30. ^ "Lincoln Park Coast Cultural District/Museum of African American Music". Smithsonian Institution. http://affiliations.si.edu/AffiliateDetail.Asp?AffiliateID=143. Retrieved 2009-06-14. 
  31. ^ New Jersey Transit bus schedules. Retrieved November 7, 2007.
  32. ^ Online Directory: New Jersey, USA, Sister Cities International, backed up by Internet Archive as of January 1, 2008. Retrieved October 25, 2008.

Further reading

  • Stummer, Helen M. (1994). No Easy Walk: Newark, 1980–1993. Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-242-X. 

External links



Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Newark (New Jersey) article)

From Wikitravel

Newark [1] is New Jersey's largest city, located on the west side of the Hudson River close to New York.
Newark Skyline
Newark Skyline

Due to its proximity to New York, as well as its reputation for seediness (and that's putting it mildly), Newark is often overlooked in favor of Goliath-like Manhattan 5 miles east as well as commuter havens Jersey City and Hoboken. In truth, the city is a gem in the rough. The downtown area has retained much of its turn of the century architecture as seen in buildings like the recently renovated art deco Eleven80 apartments (at 1180 Raymond Boulevard). Another architectural gem is the gothic Cathedral Basilica of the Sacred Heart. The city is also a major transportation hub so there are plenty of ways to get around. While things are safer now than they were a few years ago, thanks in large part to a very committed mayor, none of this is to say Newark is Disneyland. Car thefts and muggings are still frequent occurrences in some neighborhoods more than others.

Despite being so close to New York or having almost the same letters, Newark is in New Jersey so you are subject to the laws of the state of New Jersey. There exists a Newark (New York) but it is a small rural town in central New York state so don't make the mistake of addressing someone in Newark, NY if what you are looking for is in the Newark close to New York City.

When taking the New Jersey train, realize that New York and Newark both have "Penn Stations". It is sometimes easy to mistake the conductor saying "New York" for "Newark" (and vice versa), so be aware so you don't accidentally get off at the wrong station.

Newark, New Jersey is pronounced Noo-wirk, as opposed to Newark, Delaware which is pronounced Noo-ark. Locals will often pronounce it "nork".

Understand

English is the main language, but the Ironbound area of Newark is home to a significant Brazilian and Portuguese population.

Get in

Newark is a transportation Mecca and is very easy to get into and out of.

  • Newark Liberty International Airport, (IATA: EWR) [2], is about 5 miles south of downtown. It is a major hub for Continental Airlines and serves several other domestic and international carriers as well. You can use this airport as an alternative to the busier JFK International Airport or La Guardia Airport if travelling to New York. If you do not have a car, take the bus or the AirTrain Newark monorail (running between terminals and to connections to NJ Transit and Amtrak) to your destination. Airport information can be obtained by calling 1-888-EWR-INFO (1-888-397-4636) OR +01-973-961-6000.

There are non-stop flights to New York Newark Liberty Airport from the following cities (some cities may be seasonal or only offer service certain days of the week): Acapulco, Aguadilla, Albany, Amsterdam, Antigua, Aruba, Asheville, Athens, Atlanta, Austin, Baltimore, Bangor, Barcelona, Beijing, Belfast, Belize City, Berlin, Bermuda, Birmingham, Birmingham, Bogota, Bonaire, Boston, Bristol, Brussels, Buffalo, Burlington, Calgary, Cancun, Caracas, Charleston, Charlotte, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbia, Columbus, Copenhagen, Cozumel, Curacao, Dallas Fort Worth, Dayton, Delhi, Denver, Detroit, Dublin, Dusseldorf, Edinburgh, Fayetteville, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Frankfurt, Geneva, Glasgow, Grand Cayman Island, Grand Rapids, Greensboro, Greenville, Guatemala City, Halifax, Hamburg, Harrisburg, Hartford, Hong Kong, Honolulu, Houston, Indianapolis, Ithaca, Jacksonville, Kansas City, Knoxville, Krakow, Las Vegas, Leeds, Lexington, Liberia, Lima, Lisbon, Little Rock, London, Los Angeles, Louisville, Madison, Madrid, Manchester, Manchester, Memphis, Mexico City, Miami, Milan, Milwaukee, Minneapolis St Paul, Moncton, Mont Tremblant, Montego Bay, Montreal, Montrose, Mumbai, Munich, Myrtle Beach, Nantucket, Nashville, Nassau, New Orleans, Norfolk, Oklahoma City, Omaha, Orlando, Oslo, Ottawa, Panama City, Paris, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Port of Spain, Portland, Portland, Porto, Providence, Puerto Plata, Puerto Vallarta, Punta Cana, Quebec, Raleigh Durham, Richmond, Roatan, Rochester, Rome, Rzeszow, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, San Jose Cabo, San Juan, San Pedro Sula, San Salvador, Santa Ana, Santo Domingo, Sao Paulo, Savannah Hilton Head, Seattle, Shanghai, Shannon, Singapore, St Johns, St Louis, St Maarten, St Thomas Island, Steamboat Springs, Stockholm, Syracuse, Taipei, Tampa, Tel Aviv, Tokyo, Toronto, Tulsa, Vail, Vancouver, Warsaw, Washington, West Palm Beach, Wilkes-Barre and Zurich [3].

There is a shuttle service called Super Shuttle located in the airport that will take you to your hotel for around $48. You do have to make reservations ahead of time though. Their phone number is 973-961-2255

By train

Newark Penn Station (not to be confused with New York Penn Station) is located just a few blocks from the heart of downtown Newark. It's a beautiful old McKim Mead & White building and worth visiting just on its own. It is served by Amtrak [4] and New Jersey Transit's Northeast Corridor, North Jersey Coast Line, and Raritan Valley Line, [5], with easy connections to New York, Philadelphia, Trenton, and points south and west. A PATH [6] train (the Red Line) connects Penn Station with Jersey City and the World Trade Center in New York City. Connections to other PATH lines can be made to Hoboken and 33rd Street in Manhattan. The Newark City Light Rail runs two lines in Newark, both terminating at Penn Station. The Newark City Subway Line (formerly called the #7 City Subway and shown on maps as the blue line) has service to Branch Brook Park and Grove Street, Bloomfield, NJ. The Newark Light Rail Line (the orange line on maps), completed in the summer of 2006 operates between Penn Station and Broad Street Station. New Jersey Transit's Montclair-Boonton line, Morristown line and Gladstone Branch serve Broad st. station .

By car

Route 21 (McCarter Highway) runs North-South along the railroad tracks a few blocks east of downtown. I-78 skirts the south edge of town and I-280 cuts across the North. Route 1/9 comes across the Pulaski Skyway from Jersey City and Manhattan (via the Holland Tunnel). Take the Raymond Blvd. exit and drive along the Passaic River into downtown.

By bus

Newark Penn Station is also the city's bus terminal and is served by NJ Transit buses, as well as Greyhound and others.

Get around

There is a network of municipal buses. Taxis are also available.

The bus fares are relatively cheap, under $2 for adults and under $1 for children. There are a few different bus lines that come through Newark and most stop a Newark Penn Station.

  • Newark Museum, 53 Washington Street, Phone: (973) 596-6550, [7]. Year round: W–F: 12PM–5PM; October 1 – June 30: Sa,Su 10AM–5PM; July 1 – September 30: Sa,Su 12PM-5PM. The Museum complex incorporates 80 galleries of art and science, a mini zoo, planetarium, cafe, auditorium, sculpture garden, schoolhouse and the Ballantine House, the restored 1885 mansion that is a National Historic Landmark. Adults $7, Children, Seniors and Students; Planetarium add: Adults $3, Children, Seniors and Students $2.
  • Military Park, Broad Street between Rector Street and Raymond Blvd, Phone: 973-733-9333. A park downtown that was originally a militia training green in the 1600s. Wars of America monument is an imposing work of Mount Rushmore artist Gutzon Borglum. In the summer on Thursdays, the park hosts Common Greens, a farmers market.
  • New Jersey Performing Arts Center, 1 Center Street, (888) 466-5722, [8].
  • Symphony Hall, 1020 Broad Street, Phone: 973-643-8468, [9]
  • Prudential Center, Mulberry Street (Across From Triangle Park and 1 Block west from Penn Station), [10]. It hosts New Jersey Devils hockey games, Seton Hall University basketball games, New Jersey Ironmen MISL (indoor soccer) games and concerts.
  • New Jersey Historical Society, 52 Park Pl. Tue-Sat 12-5. Phone: (973)-596-8500, [11].
  • Aljira: A Center for Contemporary Art, 591 Broad St. Wed-Fri 12-6, Sat 11-4. Described by the New York Times as "a feisty alternative art space in Newark, often shows artwork that has a razor-sharp social and political edge." Phone: 973-622-1600, [12].
  • City Without Walls, a contemporary art gallery at 6 Crawford St. Wed-Fri 12-6, Sat 1-6. Phone: 973-622-1188. [13].
  • Gallery Aferro, a contemporary art gallery at 73 Market St. Thu-Sat 12-6. Phone: 646-220-3772, [14].
  • Gallery Twenty-One, a contemporary art gallery and Cuban cultural center at 611 McCarter Highway. Phone: 973.424.1700. [15]
  • Red Saw Gallery, a contemporary art gallery at 585 Broad St. [16]

Learn

The Newark Public Library: A great facility to explore, pick up a book, and learn a little something in the city. [17]

Colleges and Universities

Drake College of Business

Essex County College

Rutgers University Fdu

Rutgers College of Nursing

Seton Hall Law School One Newark Center

  • New Jersey Institute of Technology [18]
  • New Jersey Medical School (UMDNJ) [19]
  • There are no real malls in Newark but there are malls near by that the buses in the city will take you to for a relatively cheap fare.

Eat

Newark is known for its Portuguese and Brazilian food. There are quite a number of such restaurants, most of which are inexpensive to moderate in price.

  • Mi Gente Cafe, 7 Central Ave, Phone: 973-621-9090
  • Ferry Street Barbeque, 89 Ferry St., Phone: 973-344-7337
  • Brasilia Grille, 99 Monroe St, Phone: 973-589-8682, [20]. M-Th 11:30AM-11PM; F-Sa 11:30AM-11:30PM; Su Noon-10PM.
  • Brazilian Bakery, 44 Ferry St, Phone: 973-465-4455
  • Boi Na Brasa, 70 Adams St, Phone: 973-589-6069
  • Seabra's Rodizio, 1034 McCarter Hwy, Phone: 973-622-6221
  • Iberia 80-84 Ferry St.Newark, N.J. 07105
  • Iberia Peninsula 63-69 Ferry St. Newark, N.J. 07105
  • Don Pepe 844 McCarter Highway Newark, NJ 07102

Sleep

Airport hotels serving Newark Airport are inexpensive ($50+ booked online; $69 walk in). Multiple transfers (airport shuttle to airport; #62 to Penn Station; PATH train to the city) are required to get to New York city, and services are of low frequency. Expect 1.5 to 2 hours each way from your Newark airport hotel to Manhattan.

  • Courtyard Newark Liberty International Airport, Route 1&9 South, +1 973 643-8500, Fax: +1 973 648-0662, [21].
  • Best Western Newark Airport West, 101 International Way, +1 973 621-6200, Fax: +1 973 621-6266, [22].
  • Fairfield Inn & Suites Newark Liberty International Airport, 618 Routes 1 & 9 South, +1 973 242-2600, Fax: +1 973 242-6560, [23].
  • Holiday Inn, 160 Frontage Road, +1 973 589-1000, [24].
  • Newark Liberty International Airport Marriott, Newark International Airport, +1 973 623-0006, Toll-free: +1 800 882-1037, Fax: +1 973 623-7618, [25].
  • Robert Treat Hotel, 50 Park Place, +1 973 622-1000, Fax: +1 973 622-6410. Recently renovated, runs free guest shuttles both to Newark Penn Station as well as to Newark Airport. Rooms facing the back of the hotel have views of Manhattan and rooms facing the front have views of Military Park and Broad Street. On a relatively safe downtown street with NJPAC across the street. [26].
  • SpringHill Suites Newark Liberty International Airport, 652 Route 1 & 9 South, +1 973 624-5300, Toll-free: +1 888 887-8123, Fax: +1 973 624-3355, [27].
  • Newark Liberty International Airport Marriott, Newark Liberty International Airport, 973-623-0006, [28]. checkin: 4pm; checkout: 12pm. Offers space for meetings and wedding receptions.   edit

Contact

Newspaper

The main newspaper of Newark (and New Jersey) is the Star Ledger [29]. New York City area newspapers are also widely available (New York Times, New York Daily News, New York Post).

Stay safe

Newark is not unsafe as long as you are careful. It was the car-theft capital of the US in the 1990s after Miami when the craze hit, but the trend has gone down since then. Downtown Newark is crowded and very safe during the day. It empties out at night and may seem creepy but as long as you stay in well lit open areas you will be fine. The Ironbound district is pretty bumpin' on nights and weekends and is probably the safest part of the city, behind Downtown and Forest Hill. The South and Central Wards have heavier crime rates and it pays to be more guarded in those areas.

Remember, the best advice to be given about doing business in 'stickier' neighborhoods is just keep your wits about you. If caught in a confrontation, act confident, no matter how scared you might actually be. Afterwards, make yourself scarce, fast. If all else fails, remember that money and material things can be replaced, while lives cannot.

Get out

The obvious place to get out to is New York City. The cheapest way ($1.75 one-way) to get there is via the Port Authority Trans Hudson (PATH) line [30], which will transport you from Newark Penn Station to World Trade Center station or another line which goes along Manhattan's West Side (mostly 6th Av.), starting at Christopher St. and ending at 33 St.

Hitchhike

Believe it or not, it is possible to hitchhike out of the New York Metro area. If you are trying to go long distances, your best bet is to take NJ Transit or Metro North far enough to put you well into the suburbs, preferably to a stop that puts you near (i.e. within walking distance of) a major highway such as an Interstate. From there, get to an on-ramp and put out your thumb. Be advised, however, that New Jersey state laws on hitchhiking are notoriously ambiguous, and you may be hassled by local police, so use common sense and discretion.

If you're trying to go west into Pennsylvania, your best bet is to take NJ transit to Mt. Olive, which is only a 5 minute walk from I-80, which generally carries a good amount of long-distance traffic going west.

Routes through Newark
New HavenNew York City  N noframe S  ElizabethPhiladelphia
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

NEWARK, the largest city of New Jersey, U.S.A., a port of entry, and the county-seat of Essex county, on the Passaic river and Newark Bay, about 8 m. W. of New York City. Pop.

b (1890) 181,830; (1900) 246,070, of whom 71,363 were foreignorn, and 6694 were negroes; (1910 census), 347,469. Of the total foreign-born population in 1900 (48,329 of whom had been in the United States at least ten years), 25,139 were from Germany, 12,792 from Ireland, 8537 from Italy, 5874 from England, 5511 from Russia and 4074 from Austria. Of the total population, 143,306 were of foreign parentage on both sides, 56,404 German, 30,261 Irish, 13,068 Italian, 8951 English and 8J31 Russian. Newark is served by the Pennsylvania, the Lehigh Valley, the Erie, the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western and the Central of New Jersey railways, and by steamboats engaged in coastwise and river commerce. By electric lines it is connected with most of the cities and towns within a radius of 20 m., including Jersey City, Paterson and the residential suburbs, among which are the Oranges, Montclair, Bloomfield, Glen Ridge, Belleville and Nutley. It has a frontage on the river and bay 1 of 102 m., and a total area of 23.4 sq. m. The site is generally level, but the ground rises toward the western part. Broad Street, 120 ft., and Market Street, go ft. wide, the principal thoroughfares, intersect. The most prominent public buildings are the City Hall, completed in 1906; County Court-House, designed by Cass Gilbert (b. 1859), with sculpture by Andrew O'Connor and decorations by Howard Pyle, Will H. Low, Kenyon Cox, H. O. Walker, C. Y. Turner, F. D. Millet, George W. Maynard and Edwin H. Blashfield; United States Government Building; Public Library, finished in 1901, and City Hospital. There is a Roman Catholic Cathedral, and the city is the see of a Roman Catholic and of a Protestant Episcopal bishop. The Prudential Life Insurance Company and the Mutual Benefit Life Insurance Company have fine office buildings. Many of the older buildings are of a brown sandstone, quarried in or near the city. In Military Park is a monument to MajorGeneral Philip Kearny (1815-1862), and in Washington Park is a monument to Seth Boyden (1785-1870), a Newark inventor of malleable iron, of machinery for making nails, and of improvements in the steam-locomotive. Newark has also a monument to !Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen (1817-1885), secretary of state in the cabinet of President Chester A. Arthur, and to Abraham Coles (1813-1891), a poet and physician, both of whom lived here. On the banks of the Passaic is a house having as a part of its walls the old walls of Cockloft Hall, in which Washington Irving frequently sojourned, and of which he gave a charming description in Salmagundi. In the vicinity are the remains of Peterborough, the home of Colonel Peter Schuyler (1710-1762), who served against the French in 1746-48 and in the French and Indian War. At the corner of Broad and William streets stood until 1835 the parsonage in which Aaron Burr was born.

In 1910 Newark had 658 acres in public parks, of which 637 acres were under the administration of the Essex County Park Commission. To Washington, Military and Lincoln parks, the older ones near the heart of the city, there have been added Branch Brook (277 acres), Weequahic (265.8 acres), West Side (23 acres), and East Side (12.5 acres) parks. The principal cemeteries are Mount Pleasant, overlooking the Passaic in the northern part of the city, and Fairmount in the western part; about 1894 the remains of the early settlers were removed from the Old 1 The river channel before improvement had a navigable depth of 7 ft. at mean low water; the depth was increased to about io ft. by the Federal government before 1902; in 1907 further improvement was authorized by Congress, the channel to be made 300 ft. wide and 16 ft. deep.

Burying Ground to Fairmount Cemetery and placed in a large vault marked by a monument.

As parts of its public school system the city maintains twelve summer or vacation schools, evening schools, a normal and training school for the education of teachers, a school of drawing, and a technical school, the last for evening classes. The Newark Academy, founded in 1792, is the leading private school; and there are various Roman Catholic academies. In the township .of Verona (pop. in 1905, 2576), about 7 m. N. by W. of Newark, is the City Home for boys, in which farming, printing and other trades are taught. The Public Library (opened in 1889) contained about 160,000 volumes in 1910, and the library of the New Jersey Historical Society about 26,000 books, about 27,000 pamphlets and many manuscripts; the Prudential Insurance Company has a law library of about 20,000 volumes; and the Essex County Lawyers' Club has one of 5000 volumes or more. Among the charitable institutions are the City Hospital, Saint Michael's Hospital, Saint Barnabas Hospital, Saint James Hospital, the German Hospital, a Babies' Hospital, an Eye and Ear Infirmary, a City Dispensary, the Newark Orphan Asylum, a Home for Crippled Children, a Home for Aged Women and three day nurseries. The municipality owns and operates the water-works, and the water is brought from reservoirs in the Pequanac Valley 20-30 m. N.W. of the city.

The city charter (1857) provides for government by a mayor, elected biennially, and a unicameral council, elected by popular vote. By popular vote, also, the board of street and water commissioners is chosen. The council chooses the city clerk, treasurer and tax receiver, and the mayor appoints the city attorney, police justices, the board of education, the trustees of the public library, and the excise and assessment commissioners, and, subject to the ratification of his choice by the council, the comptroller, auditor and the tax, police, health and fire commissioners.

Newark has long been one of the leading manufacturing cities of the country. The manufacture of shoes and other leather products, particularly patent leather, became an important industry.early in the 19th century; in 1770 there was one tannery here; in 1792 there were three; a large one, still in operation, was built in 1827; in 1837 there were 155 curriers and patent leather makers in the city, which then had an annual product of leather valued at $899,200; in 1905 the value of the leather, tanned, curried and finished was $13,577,719. The manufacture of felt hats (product, 1905, $4,586,040, Newark ranking third in this industry among the cities of the United States), carriages, chairs and jewelry (an industry established about 1830; product, 1905, $9,258,095), developed rapidly early in the 19th century, and there are extensive manufactories of malt liquors (product, 1905, $10,917,003), and of clothing (product, 1905, $3,937,138), foundries and machine shops (product, 1905, $6,254,153), and large establishments for smelting and refining lead and copper, the product of the lead smelters and refining establishments being in 1905 the most valuable in the city. Among the other important manufactures in 1905 were: chemicals, valued at $3,964,726; slaughtering and meat packing, $2,933,877; varnish, $2,893,305; stamped ware, $2,689,766; enamelled goods, $2,361,350; boots and shoes, $2,382,051; reduction of gold and silver, not from ore, $2,361,350; corsets, $2,081,761; paints, $1,812,463; silverware and silver-smithing, $1,780,906; tobacco, cigars and cigarettes, $1,742,862; hardware, $ 1 ,6 16 ,755; buttons, $1,281,528, and saddlery hardware, $1,151,789. In 1905 an art pottery was established for making "crystal patina" and "robin's egg blue" wares, in imitation, to a certain extent, of old oriental pottery, and Clifton India ware, in imitation of pottery made by the American Indians. The total value of Newark's factory products increased from $112,728,045 in 1900 to $150,055,227 in 1905, or 33-1%. In 1905 the value of the city's factory product was almost onefifth of that for the whole state, and Newark ranked tenth among the manufacturing cities of the entire country. In the same year Newark manufactured more than one-half (by value) of all the jewelry, leather and malt liquors produced in the state.

Insurance is another important business, for here are the headquarters of the Prudential, the Mutual Benefit Life and the American Fire, the Firemen's and the Newark Fire Insurance companies. The city's foreign trade is light (the value of its imports was $859,442 in 1907; of its exports $664,525), but its river traffic is heavy, amounting to about 3,000,000 tons annually, and being chiefly in general merchandise (including food-stuffs, machinery and manufactured products), ores and metals, chemicals and colours, stone and sand and brick.

Newark was settled in 1666 by about thirty Puritans from Milford, Connecticut, who were followed in the next year by about the same number of their sect from Branford and Guilford. Because of the union of the towns of the New Haven Jurisdiction with Connecticut, in 1664, and the consequent admission of others than church members to civil rights, these Puritans resolved to remove and found a new town, in which, as originally in the New Haven towns, only church members should have a voice in the government. They bought practically all of what is now Essex county from the Indians for "fifty double hands of powder, one hundred bars of lead, twenty axes, twenty coats, ten guns, twenty pistols, ten kettles, ten swords, four blankets, four barrels of beer, ten pairs of breeches, fifty knives, twenty horses, eighteen hundred and fifty fathoms of wampum, six ankers of liquor (or something equivalent), and three troopers' coats." Their first church was in Broad Street, nearly opposite the present First Presbyterian Church, with cupola and flankers from which "watchers" and "wards" might discover the approach of hostile Indians, and as an honour to their pastor, Rev. Abraham Pierson (1608-1678), who came from Newark-on-Trent, they gave the town its present name, having called it Milford upon their first settlement. The town was governed largely after the Mosaic law and continued essentially Puritan for fifty years or more; about 1730 Presbyterianism superseded Congregationalism, and in 1734 Colonel Josiah Ogden, having caused a schism in the preceding year, by saving his wheat one dry Sunday in a wet season, founded with several followers the first Episcopal or Church of England Society in Newark - Trinity Church. Partly because of its Puritanic genesis and partly because of its independent manufacturing interests, Newark has kept, in spite of its nearness to New York City, a distinct character of its own. The College of New Jersey, now Princeton University, was situated here from 1747 to 1756, for all but the first few months under the presidency of the Rev. Aaron Burr, who published in 1752 the well-known Newark Grammar, long used in Princeton and originally prepared for Burr's very successful boys' school in Newark. The city received large additions to its foreign-born population immediately after the revolution of 1848, when many Germans settled here - a German daily newspaper was established in 1857. Newark was incorporated as a township in 1693, was chartered as a city in 1836 and received another charter in 1857; from it the township of Orange was formed in 1806 and the township of Bloomfield in 1812.

See H. L. Thowless, Historical Sketch of the City of Newark, New Jersey (Newark, 1902); F. J. Urquhart, Newark, The Story of its Early Days (Newark, 1904); and J. Atkinson, The History of Newark, New Jersey (Newark, 1878).


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Simple English

City of Newark
Newark
—  City  —
Skyline of downtown Newark
Nickname(s): The Brick City
Newark highlighted in a map of Essex County.
Country United States
State New Jersey
County Essex County
Settled 1666/1836
Government
 - Mayor Cory Booker (D)
Area
 - City 26.0 sq mi (67.3 km2)
 - Land 23.8 sq mi (61.6 km2)
 - Water 2.2 sq mi (5.7 km2)
Elevation 30 ft (9 m)
Population (2008)
 - City 278,154
 Density 13,301/sq mi (5,034.8/km2)
 Metro 18,818,536
 - Demonym Newarker
Time zone UTC - 5 (EST)
ZIP 07100-07199
Area code(s) 862, 973
Website http://www.ci.newark.nj.us/

Newark is the largest city in in U.S. State of New Jersey, 65th largest city in the United States, and serves as the seat of Essex County.

Newark was originally formed as a township on October 31, 1693. During its time as a township, portions were taken to form Springfield Township, New Jersey, Caldwell Township, New Jersey, Orange Township, New Jersey, Bloomfield Township, New Jersey, (March 23, 1812) and Clinton Township, New Jersey. Newark was reincorporated as a city on April 11, 1836. The previously independent Vailsburg borough was annexed by Newark on January 1, 1905. Newark is divided into five wards; North Ward, South Ward, West Ward, East Ward, and Central Ward.


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