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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Newfoundland may refer to:


  • Newfoundland and Labrador, a Canadian province (known simply as Newfoundland from 1949 to 2001) in the eastern part of Canada
    • Dominion of Newfoundland, a dominion of the British Empire (1907–1949), fully self-governing from its establishment in 1907 until its total economic collapse in 1935, after which direct rule from London was instituted until the people of the Dominion of Newfounded voted, in 1949, to join confederation in the neighbouring Dominion of Canada as that country's tenth province
    • Colony of Newfoundland, a colony of England (1583–1707) then of the Great Britain (1707–1801), then of the United Kingdom (1801-1907)
  • Newfoundland (island) (from Terra Nova, "New Land"), an island that forms part of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador
  • Ukasiksalik Island, on Davis Inlet, Labrador, is also known as Newfoundland Island.
United States



Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Newfoundland and Labrador article)

From Wikitravel

North America : Canada : Atlantic Provinces : Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador [1] is one of the Atlantic Provinces of Canada. Newfoundland is an island that was a separate British colony until 1949 when it joined confederation with Canada. Labrador is an adjoining mainland coastal region which abuts Quebec.


from northwest to southeast

  • Labrador - the territory sharing a border with Quebec on the mainland of Canada. From the days of the Labrador fishery, trapping and whaling to Military bases of the Cold War era, Labrador has rich history and breathtaking landscapes. Modern Labrador has vast stores of natural resources including copper, nickel and iron ore; developed and undeveloped hydro-electric sites and undeveloped off-shore natural gas and oil.
  • Western Newfoundland - the nearly 700 km stretch from Port aux Basques in the south to St. Anthony in the north. Includes the Port au Port Peninsula, the Bay of Islands (with regional centre, Corner Brook), Gros Morne National Park, the Long Range Mountains, and the Northern Peninsula. Vikings to Acadians, the history and culture of Western Newfoundland is varied and diverse.
  • Central Newfoundland - includes the Baie Verte Peninsula & Green Bay area, the numerous islands of the North Coast (including New World Island, Twillingate Island, Fogo and Change Islands), Grand Falls-Windsor, and the famous international airport at Gander.
  • Southern Newfoundland - includes the South Coast (mostly accessible only by ferry), as well as the Burin Peninsula.
  • Eastern Newfoundland - the New Founde Land, from John Cabot's landing grounds in the Bonavista Peninsula to Cape Spear, North America's most easterly point near historic capital St. John's.
  • Argentia (pop. 478) - the site of the finest ice-free port north of Boston, this was the site of one of the largest overseas U.S. Navy bases on the Atlantic Ocean. It was the site of the first Summit Meeting between Churchill and Roosevelt in 1941 which produced the Atlantic Charter. During the Cold War the base was home to massive radar planes of the U.S. Navy which patrolled the North Atlantic Barrier (BARLANT) protecting North America from the manned bomber aircraft of the U.S.S.R.
  • Bay Roberts (pop. 5,414) - ettled in the 1500's, this town has a long history with European fisherman from pre-France areas.
  • Bonavista (pop. 3,764) - Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot), a freelance Venetian explorer, was contracted by England’s Henry VII to find new lands, and a sea route to the Orient. Cabot set sail from Bristol, England in his ship the Matthew in 1497. When Cabot first saw land he’s reputed to have said "O Buon Vista" (“Oh, Happy Sight!”)[1], giving rise to the name of the town.
  • Carbonear (pop. 4,723) - the commercial centre of Conception Bay North.
  • Channel-Port-Aux-Basques (pop. 4,319) - the main gateway to the island portion of Newfoundland, this is where the Marine Atlantic ferries provide year-round service to the mainland (North Sydney, Nova Scotia).
  • Clarenville (pop. 5,274) - major centre servicing the Bonavista and Trinity bay areas. Was once a major port.
  • Conception Bay South (pop. 21,966) - C.B.S., the largest town in Newfoundland, on the shore of beautiful Conception Bay.
  • Corner Brook (pop. 20,083) - the pulp and paper center of Newfoundland and a major transportation hub for the region.
  • Deer Lake (pop. 4,827) - a community on the west coast.
  • Dildo (pop. 3,007) - named as one of the ten prettiest towns in Canada in a 2001 issue of Harrowsmith Magazine.
  • Gander (pop. 9,951) - this town grew up around Gander International Airport which developed into one of the most import airfields in the world during the Second World War.
  • Glovertown (pop. 2,062) - a small town just east of Gander.
  • Goose Bay (pop. 7,572) - the only military base in the province, it had a little-known population of 10,000 U.S. citizens at the height of the Cold War. The base was home to large numbers of aerial refueling tankers of the United States Air Force.
  • Grand Falls-Windsor (pop. 13,558) - home of the Salmon Festival, Grand Falls-Windsor is Central Newfoundland's largest town.
  • Harbour Grace (pop. 3,074) - was once the capital of Newfoundland before that title was moved to St. John's. Now a small town in the Conception Bay North region.
  • Labrador City (pop. 7,240) - home to the largest open pit iron ore mine in Canada. Vast wilderness surround this modern, booming town. Together with its twin town Wabush, makes up the Labrador West region of the province.
  • Mount Pearl (pop. 24,671) - the second largest city in Newfoundland which has grown up on the western edge of St John;s.
  • Paradise (pop. 12,584)- a town bordering St John's and Mount Pearl which is a bedroom community for its larger neighbors.
  • Portugal Cove-St Philips [2] (pop. 6,575) - just a few miles north of St John's Airport, the twin towns of Portugal Cove and St Philips have a stunning view of Bell Island and Conception Bay as well as Baccalieu Island and the North Atlantic.
  • St. Anthony [3] (pop. 3,142) - Located on the northern tip of Newfoundland, St. Anthony is a spectacular ocean coast playground.. Icebergs, whales, puffins & the world's highest Moose concentration.. A strong fishery plays a strong economic role in the area.. Sir Wilfred Grenfell (1865-1940) was a legendary doctor who lived in the town for many years.. There is a museum dedicated to Sir Grenfell's legacy - and the historic Grenfell house is still well-maintained and open to visitors during tourism season..
  • St. John's (pop. 100,646) - the provincial capital and largest city in Newfoundland. The City is known as the one of the oldest in North America and has one of the most lively City Councils in the world. The city is notable for the natural harbour which has provided shelter from the North Atlantic for more than five hundred years.
  • Stephenville [4] (pop. 6,588) - The second largest center on the west coast is Stephenville. The town is the former site of the Harmon AFB, an american AFB during the 40s, 50s, and 60s. Currently, the town boasts and International Airport and neighbours the Port-au-Port peninsula and its vibrant/scenic Acadian history.
  • St.George's [5] (pop. 1,242) - See historic St Joesphs Church, Sandy Point, and real small town hospitality.
  • Twillingate (pop. 2,448) - two islands that make up a scenic fishing town in Notre Dame Bay north of Lewisporte and Gander.
  • Wabush (pop. 1,739) - twin town to Labrador City (sitting only 5km apart), it too is home to a massive open pit iron ore mine, as well as the local airport that serves the Labrador West region.
  • Woody Point [6] (pop. 400) - located in the heart of Gros Morne National Park at the base of the Tablelands (a UNESCO World Heritage site).

>> NOTE: Populations are from the 2006 Census


There are many extraordinary things about Newfoundland: the rugged natural beauty of the place, the extraordinary friendliness and humour of the local people, the traditional culture, and the unique dialect.

The beauty of Newfoundland can be found on the rocky coasts of the island and the relatively new, and stunningly beautiful East Coast Trail, but this is a truly coast-to-coast kind of place. There's much to see in the Tundra of Labrador (often called "the Big Land"), the "mini-Rockies" of the West Coast's Long Range Mountains and Lewis Hills, the historic Avalon Peninsula, home to the capital of St. John's. Also don't underestimate the power of the largely uninhabited Newfoundland interior. There is a raw, untouched quality to the entire place, especially where water meets rocks. Adventure racer Mats Andersson has described it as a mix of "Patagonia, Sweden, New Zealand and other countries from all around the world."

As for the people, everyone talks to everyone; indeed, everyone helps everyone, and everyone knows everyone (people often can tell what part of the island someone is from by their last name). The uptight paranoia found in many American cities cannot be found in Newfoundland. It has a totally different approach to life. One Newfoundlander has suggested that people 'exist' in New York, but they 'live' in Newfoundland.

Newfoundlanders are known for their distinctive manner of speech. Believe it or not, they speak a dialect (that's right, not an accent). Its roots (while still North American English) are mainly Irish, English and French, and the language has evolved and developed in semi-isolation for about 500 years. The Dictionary of Newfoundland English is about the size of a standard English dictionary. It is immediately noticeable to most visitors, or "Come-From-Aways" as they are occasionally called, that the syntax and grammar varies slightly. As for the accent, it varies from district to district in the province. As Canadian author Douglas Coupland puts it in Souvenir of Canada, Newfoundlanders "speak in a dialect that can rival Navajo for indecipherability-that is, when they really ham it up..." (74).

Newfoundlanders pronounce Newfoundland to rhyme with 'understand,' placing emphasis on -LAND, not New or found-. It sounds something like "newfin-LAND." Canadians outside of the Atlantic provinces (therefore, discluding Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia as well as Newfoundland) and tourists are noted for their pronunciation of Newfoundland as "new-FOUND-lind", "NEW-fin-lind" or "NEW-found-lind."

Two "traditions" persist with a visit to Newfoundland—kissing the cod and the "screech-in." (Both were actually enacted by Ben Mulroney in the Canadian Idol television show while he visited Newfoundland, demonstrating how widespread these activities are thought to be). These "traditions" are little more than tourist activities originally invented by locals for a laugh. The tourists found them enjoyable, and now they are becoming extremely common. Commercial tours will often include these activities, concluding them with a certificate proclaiming the participant an honorary Newfoundlander.

  • the "Screech-in"- The most famous of newcomer traditions, mainlanders and visitors to the isle must drink a shot or glass of Screech (a brand of Jamaican Rum famous to Newfoundland). Take this all in good humour, but don't be surprised if you don't like the taste; the name has good meaning.
  • Kissing the Cod- As well as being "Screeched in", occasionally visitors will be coaxed into "Kissing the Cod". The visitor must kiss a codfish, emblem of the historic fishing industry, after arrival. While this does happen occasionally, it is usually a humorous part of a guided tour or similar event. The use of an actual fish is rare, though, especially since the introduction of the cod moritorum. Kissing a real codfish is discouraged by many, not to mention possibly unhygienic, so an imitation cod, made of wood, plastic, or rubber is used.

Genuine traditions practiced in Newfoundland include celebrations of: "Bonfire Night", with roots in the English "Guy Fawkes Night"; and "Old Christmas Day" which is the twelfth night of the Christmas season. The latter of these is also associated with the tradition of "Mummering" or "Janneying" which is still practiced in several other parts of the world as well.

And finally, the "Newfie" (also "Newf") stereotype: in Canada, this figure is similar to the Hillbilly stereotype or the rural Hick stereotype. As with both of those cases, it is rooted in discrimination. While some Newfoundlanders may call themselves "Newfies", it may be wise to refrain from calling the province's residents as such yourself, as many see this as a slur or putdown when it comes from a non-native. Not unlike "Canuck", originally a slur against Canadians, the word "Newfie" is acceptable to some, but err on the side of caution and use Newfoundlander instead.

Get in

By plane

Flights from major centers in Newark, Ontario, Quebec and the other Atlantic Provinces arrive at St. John's airport [7] several times per day.

Flights to Stephenville [8] from Toronto are available during the summer months and allow easy travel to the nearby city of Corner Brook [9]. Stephenville also has daily service within the province.

Flights to Deer Lake [10] from mainland Canada allow easy access to Corner Brook [11]. From Deer Lake, you will need to rent a car, or catch the bus or taxi to reach Corner Brook.

Daily flights to Wabush, Goose Bay Labrador and to Gander are also available.

In the summer season, there are reputed to be daily flights between St. John's and London Heathrow on Air Canada, probably the shortest Trans-Atlantic regular flight available.

By car

The only roads that get you to Newfoundland without using a ferry are from Quebec into Labrador. If the island is your destination, you must take the ferry.

From Port aux Basques to Corner Brook, it's just over 200 km of driving, while the drive to St. John's is a trek of over 900 km. In the summer, a drive from Argentia to St. John's will take you through about 130 km of the province.

For a more adventurous route to the island portion of the province, you can travel through Quebec into Labrador as far as Happy Valley-Goose Bay. Be advised that the route from Labrador City to Goose-Bay is approximately 10 hours of gravel highway with the only town in between being Churchill Falls. From Goose Bay, there is a 42-hour ferry to Lewisporte in central Newfoundland. In December 2009 the final section of the Trans Labrador Highway was opened between Goose Bay and Cartwright, allowing one to drive all the way to Blanc Sablon, Quebec and take the 2 hour ferry crossing to the island.

Caution: As the province is home to a moose population of over 100,000, do drive slowly and cautiously, especially when driving at night. Moose are attracted to the roads due to the fresh young tree growth along the sides and the open stretches allow them to take a "fog bath". During calf season, moose can be especially aggressive, standing their ground and even challenging people and vehicles, but the most common risk is collision. Remember that hitting a moose is not like hitting a deer-most of its bulk is above the height of the average car's front hood. Your car will hit its legs, knocking the brunt of its 1100 lb+ weight into the windshield and you. This is the last thing you want to have happen to you, and it may well be the last thing that will happen to you! It is for this reason that moose are considered one of the most dangerous animals in North America. [12]

Moose of any size are often aggressive on the roads and frequently attack the headlights of passing cars. Drivers who survive collisions have been killed by the legs of an injured moose wedged in the windshield opening of the wreckage. Animals who have moved out of a vehicle's path may suddenly reappear on the road and exhibit suicidal behaviour.

By bus

Once you've made it to the island, DRL Coachlines Ltd. offers daily scheduled passenger coach services between St. John's & Port Aux Basques on the island. DRL's head office is in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, but they can be reached toll-free at 1-888-738-8091. If you wish to reach their office in St. John's, call .

For Group Transportation (Bus Charters) you may call Viking Express in Corner Brook at tel.709-688-2112. [13]

Another bus service from Port Aux Basques to St. John's is Newhook's Transportation. Call them at 1-709-726-4876.

By train

If Labrador is your destination, train is one option. Quebec, North Shore and Labrador Railways offer services between these areas.

Within the island itself, train is no longer an option. The "Newfie Bullet", named for its incredibly slow speed, ended its long career in 1988, with the rails all pulled up and the railbed converted into the T'Railway Provincial Park, part of the TransCanada Trail.

By boat

Marine Atlantic ferry service [14] runs from North Sydney to Port aux Basques (on the west coast of the island) throughout the year, and to Argentia (about 90km from St. John's) during the summer. The duration of the ride depends on the weather and water conditions, so patience is of the essence. It is advisable to call Marine Atlantic ahead of time to make a reservation (call 1-800-341-7981). If you are bringing a U-haul or something other than a passenger vehicle, you will likely be considered a Commercial Vehicle. Commercial Vehicles can only make reservations by doubling the usual fare. It is cheaper to simply take your number, wait in line and hope for the best.

In general, Marine Atlantic Ferries cater to your every whim, carrying food, alcohol, gift shops, cinemas and sleeping accommodations. There will be lots for you to do. [15]

There is also a seasonal ferry available between St. Barbe in Newfoundland's Northern Peninsula and Blanc Sablon, Quebec, right on the edge of the Labrador border (call 1-866-535-2567).

The following is a list of all other ferry services available in Newfoundland and Labrador:

  • Bell Island - Portugal Cove (Bell Island 709-488-2842/Portugal Cove 709-895-3541)
  • St. Brendan's - Burnside (709-895-3541/709-677-2204)
  • Change Islands - Farewell
  • Fogo Island - Farewell
  • Goose Bay - Cartwright - Lewisporte (1-866-535-2567)
  • Long Island - Pilley's Island(709-292-4300/709-673-4352)
  • Little Bay Islands - Shoal Arm (709-292-4300/709-673-4352)
  • Harbour Deep - Jackson's Arm (709-292-4327)
  • Nain (all ports & return) - St Anthony (1-800-563-6353)
  • LaPoile - Grand Bruit - Rose Blanche(709-292-4302)
  • Ramea - Grey River - Burgeo (709-292-4327/709-292-4300)
  • Francois - Grey River - Burgeo (709-842-3339)
  • Gaultois- McCallum - Hermitage (709-551-1446/709-846-3161)
  • Rencontre East - Bay L'Argent - Pool's Cove (709-895-3541)
  • South East Bight- Little Paradise (709-895-3541/709-891-1050)
  • Fortune, Newfoundland & Labrador - Saint Pierre and Miquelon (France) (709-832-0429)
  • DRL Group [16] - coach services in Newfoundland

For Travel from Corner Brook and Deer Lake along the Great Northern Peninsula to St. Anthony, there is a regular scheduled Bus Service with Viking Express Bus. [17]

By car

If you have access to a car, rental or otherwise, this is often the best way to travel the province. Public transportation options are usually limited, especially away from the larger centres, and having a personal vehicle will allow you to reach the nooks and crannies that really make the Newfoundland & Labrador experience an amazing one. Except for the Trans Canada Highway (Port Aux Basques–St. John's), roads in Newfoundland & Labrador are among the worst in Canada, so watch out for potholes and heaved pavement.

If Labrador is your destination, you will want to ensure that you bring gas cans (filled with gas), survival kits and food, as well as any other necessary supplies in case you find yourself in a bad situation. The Trans-Labrador Highway is the most challenging stretch of road in the province, and you will need to rely on your own ingenuity in order to have a good experience. Ensure that your vehicle is in tip-top shape and keep in mind that cellphones will often be completely useless as they often do not work in big sections of Labrador.

Also, keep in mind that, with the exception of the northern territories, gas is the most expensive in Canada.

By bus

As previously mentioned, DRL Coachlines Ltd. offers daily scheduled passenger coach services between St. John's & Port Aux Basques on the island. DRL's head office is in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, but they can be reached toll-free at 1-888-738-8091. If you wish to reach their office in St. John's, call 1-709-738-8088.

Another bus service from Port Aux Basques to St. John's is Newhook's Transportation. Call them at 1-709-227-2552.

If you want to head north from Deer Lake's airport, you can reach the Northern Peninsula via Viking Express (709-688-2112) or Shears Bus Service (709-458-2315). Both offer regular service to and from the Northern Peninsula.

By plane

If you wish to move about the province by plane, you can usually do so with a few different companies. Try Air Canada [18], Provincial Airlines [19] and Air Labrador [20].

If you wish to visit a part of France, you may consider Air St-Pierre [21] which connects St John's to the nearby islands of St-Pierre and Miquelon. Canadian citizens may enter with photo ID and proof of citizenship. US and EU citizens will require passports. Americans require their passports to enter France and Europeans require theirs to pass through Canada.

  • Visit Gander and its International Airport, once the re-fueling stop for nearly all international flights from Europe to North America
  • Historic Signal Hill fort and walking trail (watch the sun come up over the ocean) in St. John's
  • Whale-watching boat tours
  • Iceberg boat tours at Twillingate, northwest of Gander. Much better viewing than from Avalon Peninsula
  • The Battery - the oldest part of St. John's
  • Cape Spear (the most easterly point of North America and very windy too!)
  • The East Coast Trail (stunningly beautiful rugged hiking trail - hike and camp for days along cliffs and through forests)
  • Bell Island
  • the downtown rowhouses and natural harbour of St. John's
  • Puffins, whales, caribou, moose, eagles, otter, and other wildlife all over the province
  • the many small communities along the Labrador coast
  • Fishing stages, wharves, and the remnants of the province's long history of fishing
  • Visit St. Lawrence and see the site of the shipwrecked USS Truxtun and USS Pollux
  • Go 'Around the Bay', a term Newfoundlanders use to talk about travelling around the numerous outport communities. Often this is limited to those on the Avalon Peninsula in the area between Conception Bay and St.John's. Points of interest, historical and aesthetic, along the way: Bay Bulls, Roaches Line, Brigus, Cupids, Bay Roberts, Harbour Grace (the original capitol of the island), Carbonear, Victoria - Note: the new highway now runs around the townships, making access to Bay Roberts and even as far as Carbonear faster and easier, but you will miss out on some interesting scenery and historical places by taking the highway.
  • After you go 'Around the Bay', and end up in Carbonear or Victoria, spend the night at a local inn. Get up the next day go "Around the Belt", a term Newfoundlanders use to describe travelling down the shore, up north around the tip of the penisula, down the other side, and across the Heart's Content Barrens. Points of interest along the way: Spout Cove, Bradley's Cove, Western Bay, Northern Bay, Flambro Head, Lower Island Cove, Caplin Cove, Bay de Verde, Grate's Cove, Daniel's Cove, Winterton, Heart's Content
  • Visit L'anse aux Meadows[22] National Historic Site of Canada on the tip of the Great Northern Peninsula on the island, site of the only confirmed Viking settlement in North America and believed to be the landfall site of Leif Eriksson as related in the Vinland sagas. It is a UNESCO World Heritage site.
  • Visit the Basque Whaling Site [23] in Red Bay, Labrador.
  • Visit Battle Harbour [24] National Historic Site, Labrador, the historical hub of the Labrador salt fish industry.
  • Hike in Gros Morne National Park
  • Enjoy Terra Nova National Park
  • Visit Western Brook Pond, a land locked fjord
  • Hike the TransCanada Trail [25] in Newfoundland & Labrador, following the old CN Rail line through the province
  • Downhill ski at Marble Mountain [26]
  • Crosscountry ski at Blow-Me-Down
  • Get a photo underneath the sign marking entry to the outport town of Dildo.
  • Take a driving tour of the other colorfully named outports like Joe Batt's Arm, Leading Tickles, Little Burnt Bay, and others.
  • Take a ferry to visit the Southern Communities of the province not accessible by road
  • Snowmobile in Stephenville, Newfoundland's main hub for this activity
  • Eat a meal of Fish n' Chips at any Ches's location in the greater St. John's area.
  • Have dinner at the Irving Station diner at Clarenville. It's actually some of the best family dining in the province and the view of the ocean from the windows in the dining area is spectacular.
  • Go to Sunday brunch at the Battery Hotel in St. John's, then walk off the calories with a walking hike around the Signal Hill trail, a rugged, terraced path that leads through the old Battery village and around Signal Hill, up to Cabot tower and back to the Battery Hotel, giving a panoramic view of both the Atlantic Ocean, St. John's harbour, and the city itself.
  • If visiting in August, go to the Royal St. John's Regatta at Quidi Vidi Lake in the city, the oldest sporting event in North America (160 years and counting). It is traditionally held on the first Wednesday in August or the first good weather day after. On this day, most of St. John's shuts down, and an average crowd of 50,000 people go to see the races and partake of the many concession stands.
  • If visiting in mid-July, don't forget to party in Grand Falls - Windsor at the Exploits Valley Salmon Festival, an annual festival including a salmon dinner, a Newfie Night dance, and the Splash Concert.
  • Bike the Viking Trail: [27] A place of austere, unspoiled beauty in the far east of the western world.
  • Travel newfoundland and tour with CapeRace Cultural Adventures, Newfoundland & Labrador, +1 647-284-3696, [28]. A boutique tour operator specializing in experiential travel offering an outdoorsy soft adventure meaningful travel packages that bring Newfoundland’s rich history, performing arts and the pristine wilderness together to create an "Eco-Culture Experience"  edit


Rural Newfoundland is known for its seafood and its working-class roots. Rural restaurants offer an over-abundance of "golden foods" (deep fried) and classically simple fare. Vegetarians will be hard pressed to find anything without meat in it, and vegans might want to pack a lunch. But if you're a fish and chips lover, you'll "fill your boots". Mainly you will see battered cod, "chips dressing and gravy", dressing being a savory-laced stuffing mixture, fish-and-brewis (pronounced "fish and brews", salt cod mashed up with a boiled rock-hard sailor's bread, pork scrunchions, and traditionally drizzled with blackstrap molassas), jigg's dinner (also known as corned beef and cabbage, a traditional one pot meal consisting of salt beef,root vegetables such as carrot, turnip, parsnip and potato,and cabbage. Also thrown in the pot is a muslin bag of yellow split peas, known as pease pudding), burgers and fries, and seafood chowder.

But if you're nice, and lucky, someone might invite you in to their home for a homemade moose stew, rabbit pie, seal flipper, caribou sausage, partridgeberry pie or a cuppa tea with home-baked bread and homemade bakeapple jam. All of these are very interesting and delicious. A big traditional meal is often referred to as "a scoff", and as Newfoundlanders also love to dance and party, an expression for a dance and a feed is a "scoff and scuff", which might be accompanied by accordion, guitar, fiddle, a singalong, and a kitchen party. Kitchen socials are so much a part of Newfoundland culture that even today, many houses are better equipped to receive visitors through the back door (leading to the kitchen) than through the front.

Fish has always been at the heart of Newfoundland culture and even with the collapse of the commercial fisheries, you will find seafood dishes almost everywhere. Cod, halibut, flounder, crab, lobster, squid, mussels, and capelin (a small fish not unlike smelt or grunion) are all well represented. So too are other animals supported by the ocean system - seal, turr (murre) and the like.

A lot of Newfoundlanders habitually drink tea with Evaporated or "canned" milk (a popular brand being Nestle Carnation milk). If you prefer "regular" milk, you usually ask for "tea with fresh milk" and this is, in fact, a good way to spot a Newfie (or at least an Atlantic Province native) in other parts of the country. An easy excuse to have a friendly chat is to invite someone in for a "cuppa tea".

In "town" i.e. St. John's (and the other city centres of Newfoundland) there are many good restaurants for the picking, and several vegetarian and vegan friendly spots.

While in Newfoundland, particularly St. John's, do try to sample some of the candy and sweets from Purity Factories, an island fixture for many years and makers of several traditional-style confections. For many Newfoundlanders, Christmas would not be the same without a bottle of Purity Syrup, and breakfast without some of their partridgeberry and apple jam wouldn't be right. (Note: Partridgeberries in Newfoundland are referred to in many other places as "lingonberries".)


You will be in for a "time" (a social gathering) with lots of cheer. This is a province that consumes per capita more alcohol than any other in Canada. The legal drinking age in the province is 19. You will find nearly all the alcohol you desire in a Newfoundland bar. George Street in St. John's, Newfoundland has a reputation for having the most bars per capita in North America. Its largest celebration, George Street Festival, starts in early August and finishes on the Tuesday before Regatta Day.

Newfoundland & Labrador has a wonderful set of regional beers that you cannot find outside of the province. While a number of these are now brewed by the large Macrobreweries (Labatt and Molson), some of them are not. Depending on where you are, you will be able to locate brews with names like Kyle, Killick, Rasberry Wheat Ale, Hemp Ale, India, Black Horse, Jockey Club, Dominion Ale, Quidi Vidi 1892, and Blue Star. Something you may notice while drinking beer in the province is the tendency for the breweries to advertise that their beers are union-made "right here" in Newfoundland. Beer is commonly found in convenience stores with a liquor license and from the Newfoundland Liquor Corporation (NLC). The NLC is a government-owned monopoly and, much like most of Canada, there is a better selection of local and foreign beers than there are provincial beers. Inter-province trade in beer tends to be limited to the major brands, with no attention paid to the many excellent craft breweries in other regions.

While in Newfoundland, you will also encounter Screech. Screech is a Jamaican-style dark rum. This is the historic result of the trade between Newfoundland and Jamaica. Jamaica got the salt cod, Newfoundland got the rum. In all honesty, the Rum has been tamed to conform with contemporary liquor laws, especially when compared to descriptions of its much more potent ancestor. Hard liquor is usually found only at the Newfoundland Liquor Corporation in urban areas, and in licensed convenience stores in rural areas.

Newfoundland has a quiet but strong tradition of berry wines. Blueberry wine, for those in the know, is as closely associated with Newfoundland tastes as Screech, and for many, may be a far more palatable first experience. Also be sure to look for partridgeberry, blackberry, cloudberry, and rhubarb wines. All of these can often be found in NLC outlets. The NLC retains the distinction of being the only liquor control boards in Canada which still directly manufactures and bottles several of its hard liquor products (Screech, notably, but also gin, brandy and two vodkas), to retain the strong provincial association.

  • No discussion of Newfoundland and Labrador that ends with the heading "Get out" would be complete without a reference to Fort McMurray, Alberta due to its high concentration of Newfoundlanders.
This is a usable article. It gives a good overview of the region, its sights, and how to get in, as well as links to the main destinations, whose articles are similarly well developed. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

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Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary



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Provincial evolution


  • (UK) IPA: /ˈnjuːˌfaʊnd.lənd/, /ˈnjuː.fn̩d.ln̩d/, SAMPA: /"nju:%faUnd.l@nd/, /"nju:.fn=d.ln=d/

Proper noun




  1. A large island off the coast of eastern Canada, which, along with Labrador, has composed the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador since 1949.
  2. (historical) Former name of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, 1949–2001.

Derived terms

Related terms





Newfoundland (plural Newfoundlands)

  1. A Newfoundland dog, a very large breed of working dog from Newfoundland, with a shaggy, usually black coat, known for its water rescue ability, strength, and gentle disposition.


Simple English

File:Cooks Karte von
James Cook's map of Newfoundland of 1775

Newfoundland is an island off the East Coast of Canada, and is part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The capital city of Newfoundland is St. John's, on the north-east part of the island. Over 500,000 people live in Newfoundland (these people are called Newfoundlanders).

In Newfoundland, most people speak English, but there are also French speakers on the island, mostly in the south-west. In some areas of Newfoundland, people speak with an accent and use words that are not in standard English. There is even a dictionary of Newfoundland English. [1]

People first came to Newfoundland from countries like Norway, England, Portugal, France, and Ireland in the 16th century. The first explorers were the Vikings from Norway and they settled in L'Anse aux Meadows. They came because of the good fishing off the coast, especially off the south-east coast. Today, there is still fishing, but not very much because people fished too much, and now there are not many fish left.

Cutting down trees and mining have also been attractions of the island. There are some paper mills (paper factories) in a few cities in Newfoundland.

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