Newfoundland and Labrador: Wikis


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Newfoundland and Labrador
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: Quaerite primum regnum Dei
English: Seek ye first the kingdom of God (Matthew 6:33)
Capital St. John's
Largest city St. John's
Largest metro St. John's CMA
Official languages English (de facto)
Demonym Newfoundlander, Labradorian
Lieutenant-Governor John Crosbie (Conservative)
Premier Danny Williams (PC)
Federal representation in Canadian Parliament
House seats 7
Senate seats 6
Confederation 31 March 1949 (10th)
Area  Ranked 10th
Total 405,212 km2 (156,453 sq mi)
Land 373,872 km2 (144,353 sq mi)
Water (%) 31,340 km2 (12,100 sq mi) (7.7%)
Population  Ranked 9th
Total (2009) 510,272 (est.)[1]
Density 1.36 /km2 (3.5 /sq mi)
GDP  Ranked 8th
Total (2008) C$31,277 billion[2]
Per capita C$61,670[3] (4th)
Postal NL (formerly NF)
ISO 3166-2 CA-NL
Time zone UTC-3.5 for Newfoundland
UTC -4 for Labrador (Black Tickle and North)
Postal code prefix A
Flower Pitcher plant
Tree Black Spruce
Bird Atlantic Puffin
Rankings include all provinces and territories

Newfoundland and Labrador Pronunciation: /ˈnjuːfəndlænd ənd læbrəˈdɔr/ (French: Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador, Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar, Latin: Terra Nova) is a province of Canada on the country's Atlantic coast in northeastern North America. This easternmost Canadian province comprises two main parts: the island of Newfoundland off the country's eastern coast, and Labrador on the mainland to the northwest of the island.

A former colony and dominion of the United Kingdom, it became the tenth province to enter the Canadian Confederation on 31 March 1949, named simply as Newfoundland. Since 1964, the province's government has referred to itself as the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, and on 6 December 2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the province's official name to Newfoundland and Labrador.[4] In day-to-day conversation, however, Canadians generally still refer to the province itself as Newfoundland and to the region on the Canadian mainland as Labrador.

As of October 2009, the province's population is estimated to be 510,272.[1] Approximately 94% of the province's population resides on the Island of Newfoundland (including its associated smaller islands). The Island of Newfoundland has its own dialects of the English, French, and Irish languages. The English dialect in Labrador shares much with that of Newfoundland. Labrador also has its own dialects of Innu-aimun and Inuktitut.



While the name Newfoundland is derived from English as "New Found Land" (a translation from the Latin Terra Nova), Labrador comes from Portuguese lavrador, a title meaning "landholder/ploughman" held by Portuguese explorer of the region João Fernandes Lavrador.


Newfoundland and Labrador is the easternmost province of Canada. The Strait of Belle Isle separates the province into two geographical divisions, Labrador and island of Newfoundland.[5] The province also includes over 7,000 tiny islands.[6]

Newfoundland is roughly triangular, with each side being approximately 400 km (250 mi), and has an area of 108,860 km2 (42,030 sq mi).[6] Newfoundland and its associated small islands have a total area of 111,390 km2 (43,010 sq mi).[7] Newfoundland extends between latitudes 46°36'N and 51°38'N.[8][9]

Labrador is an irregular shape: the western part of its border with Quebec is the drainage divide of the Labrador Peninsula. Lands drained by rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, the rest belong to Quebec. Labrador’s extreme northern tip, at 60°22'N, shares a short border with Nunavut. Labrador’s area (including associated small islands) is 294,330 km2 (113,640 sq mi).[7] Together, Newfoundland and Labrador make up 4.06% of Canada’s area.[10]

Labrador is the easternmost part of the Canadian Shield, a vast area of ancient metamorphic rock comprising much of northeastern North America. Colliding tectonic plates have shaped much of the geology of Newfoundland. Gros Morne National Park has a reputation as an outstanding example of tectonics at work,[11] and as such has been designated a World Heritage Site. The Long Range Mountains on Newfoundland's west coast are the northeasternmost extension of the Appalachian Mountains.[5]

The north-south extent of the province (46°36'N to 60°22'N), prevalent westerly winds, cold ocean currents and local factors such as mountains and coastline combine to create the various climates of the province.[12] Northern Labrador is classified as a polar tundra climate, southern Labrador is considered to be a subarctic climate while most of Newfoundland would be considered to have a humid continental climate, Dfb: Cool summer subtype.


The province has been divided into six climate types,[13] but in broader terms Newfoundland is considered to be a cool summer subtype of a humid continental climate, which is greatly influenced by the sea since no part of the island is more than 100 kilometres (62 miles) from the ocean. Northern Labrador is classified as a polar tundra climate, southern Labrador is considered to have a subarctic climate.

Newfoundland and Labrador average monthly temperatures
Newfoundland and Labrador average monthly rainfall
Newfoundland and Labrador average monthly snowfall

Monthly average temperatures, rainfall and snowfall for four communities are shown in the attached graphs. St. John's represents the east coast, Gander the interior of the island, Corner Brook the west coast of the island and Wabush the interior of Labrador. The detailed information and information for 73 communities in the province is available from a government website.[14] The data used in making the graphs is the average taken over thirty years. Error bars on the temperature graph indicate the range of daytime highs and night time lows. Snowfall is the total amount which fell during the month, not the amount accumulated on the ground. This distinction is particularly important for St. John's where a heavy snowfall can be followed by rain so that no snow remains on the ground.

Surface water temperatures on the Atlantic side reaches a summer average of 12 °C (54 °F) inshore and 9 °C (48 °F) offshore to winter lows of −1 °C (30.2 °F) inshore and 2 °C (36 °F) offshore. Sea temperatures on the west coast are warmer than Atlantic side by 1 to 3 °C (34 to 37 °F). The sea keeps winter temperatures slightly higher and summer temperatures a little lower on the coast than at places inland. The maritime climate produces more variable weather, ample precipitation in a variety of forms, greater humidity, lower visibility, more clouds, less sunshine, and higher winds than a continental climate.[15] Some of these effects can be seen in the graphs. Labrador's climate differs from that of the island not only because it is further north, but also because the interior does not see the moderating effects of the ocean.

Average temperatures in towns & cities

City July January
St. John’s 20/11 °C (68/52 °F) -1/-9 °C (30/16 °F)
Corner Brook 22/13 °C (71/55 °F) -3/-10 °C (28/15 °F)
Grand Falls-Windsor 23/12 °C (73/53 °F) -3/-13 °C (27/9 °F)
Gander 21/11 °C (71/51 °F) -3/-12 °C (26/11 °F)
Happy Valley-Goose Bay 20/10 °C (68/49 °F) -13/-23 °C (8.6/-9.4 °F)
Nain 15/5 °C (59/41 °F) -14/-23 °C (7/-10 °F)
Stephenville 23/15 °C (75/59 °F) -1/-8 °C (30/17 °F)


Ten largest municipalities
by population
City 2001 2006
St. John's 99,182 100,646
Mount Pearl 24,964 24,671
Conception Bay South 19,772 21,966
Corner Brook 20,103 20,083
Grand Falls-Windsor 13,340 13,556
Paradise 9,598 12,584
Gander 9,651 9,951
Happy Valley-Goose Bay 7,969 7,572
Labrador City 7,744 7,240
Stephenville 7,109 6,588


Human inhabitation in Newfoundland and Labrador can be traced back over 9,000 years to the people of the Maritime Archaic Tradition.[16] They were gradually displaced by the Palaeoeskimo people of the Dorset Culture,[17] the L'nu, or Mi'kmaq and finally by the Innu and Inuit in Labrador and the Beothuks on the island. The oldest known European contact was made over a thousand years ago when the Vikings briefly settled in L'Anse aux Meadows. Five hundred years later, European explorers (John Cabot, Gaspar Corte-Real, Jacques Cartier, and others), fishermen from England, Ireland, Portugal, France and Spain and Basque whalers (the remains of several whaling stations have been found at Red Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador) began exploration and exploitation of the area.

The overseas expansion of British Empire began when Sir Humphrey Gilbert took possession of Newfoundland in the name of England in 1583. Apart from St. John's, which was already established, early settlements were started at Cupids, Ferryland and other places.[18]

Basque fishermen, who had been fishing cod shoals off Newfoundland's coasts since the beginning of the XVth century, founded Plaisance (today Placentia), a haven which started to be also used by French fishermen. In 1655, France appointed a governor in Plaisance, thus starting a formal French colonization period of Newfoundland[19]. It lasted until the Treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, which ended the War of the Spanish Succession. According to the terms of the treaty, France ceded its claims to Newfoundland to the British (as well as its claims to the shores of Hudson's Bay). In addition, the French possessions in Acadia were yielded to England. Afterwards, under the supervision of the last French governor, the French population of Plaisance moved to Île Royale (now Cape Breton Island), part of Acadia which remained then under French control.

The Newfoundland Red Ensign was an unofficial commercial ensign from 1904 to 1931.

During its history Newfoundland and Labrador have had many forms of government,[20] including a time as the Dominion of Newfoundland (1907–1949), equivalent in status to Canada and Australia. Newfoundland and Labrador became the tenth province of Canada on 31 March 1949.

Newfoundland has been a battleground in numerous early wars among Great Britain, France, Spain and even the United States.[21] Royal Newfoundland Regiment fought with distinction in World War I. Numerous bases were built in Newfoundland and Labrador by Canada and the United States during World War II,[22] particularly to safeguard the Atlantic convoys to Europe.

Politics of the province were dominated by the Liberal Party, led by Joseph R. Smallwood, from confederation until 1972. In 1972, the Smallwood government was replaced by the Progressive Conservative administration of Frank Moores. In 1979, Brian Peckford, another Progressive Conservative, became Premier. During this time, Newfoundland was involved in a dispute with the federal government for control of offshore oil resources. In the end, the dispute was decided by compromise. In 1989, Clyde Wells and the Liberal Party returned to power ending 17 years of Conservative government.

Newfoundland and Canadian Government delegation signing the agreement admitting Newfoundland to confederation in December 1948. Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent and Albert Walsh shake hands following signing of agreement.

In the late 1980s, the federal government, along with its Crown corporation Petro-Canada and other private sector petroleum exploration companies, committed to developing the oil and gas resources of the Hibernia oil field on the northeast portion of the Grand Banks. Throughout the mid-1990s, thousands of Newfoundlanders were employed in the oil industry.

The pressure of the oil and gas industry to explore offshore in Atlantic Canada saw Newfoundland and Nova Scotia submit to a federal arbitration to decide on a disputed offshore boundary between the two provinces in the Laurentian Basin. The 2003 settlement rewrote an existing boundary in Newfoundland's favour, opening this area up to energy exploration.

In 1992 and again in 2003, the federal government declared moratoriums on the Atlantic cod fishery due to declining catches, which deeply affected the economy of Newfoundland.

From late October 2003 to early January 2006, Premier Williams argued that then Prime Minister Paul Martin had not held up his promises for a new deal on the "Atlantic Accord". The issue is the royalties from oil. Toward the end of 2004, Williams ordered the Canadian flag to be removed from all provincial buildings as a protest against federal policies, and asked for municipal councils to consider doing the same. The flags went back up in January 2005 after much controversy nationwide. At the end of January, the federal government signed a deal to allow 100% of oil revenues to go to the province.


According to the 2001 Canadian census, [2] the largest ethnic group in Newfoundland and Labrador is English (39.4%), followed by Irish (19.7%), Scottish (6.0%), French (5.5%), and First Nations (3.2%). While half of all respondents also identified their ethnicity as "Canadian," 38% report their ethnicity as "Newfoundlander" in a 2003 Statistics Canada Ethnic Diversity Survey.[23]

1897 Newfoundland postage stamp, the first in the world to feature mining.

Population since 1951

Year Population Five Year
 % change
Ten Year
 % change
Rank Among
1951 361,416 n/a n/a 9
1956 415,074 14.8 n/a 9
1961 457,853 10.3 26.7 9
1966 493,396 7.8 18.9 9
1971 522,100 5.8 14.0 9
1976 557,720 6.8 13.0 9
1981 567,681 1.8 8.7 9
1986 568,350 0.1 1.9 9
1991 568,475 0.02 0.1 9
1996 551,790 -2.9 -2.9 9
2001 512,930 -7.0 -9.8 9
2006* 505,469 -1.5 -8.4 9

*Preliminary 2006 census estimate.

Source: Statistics Canada[24][25]


The 2006 census returns showed a population of 505,469.
Of the 499,830 singular responses to the census question concerning 'mother tongue' the languages most commonly reported were:

Rank Language Respondents Percentage
1. English 488,405 97.7%
2. French 1,885 0.4%
3. Innu-aimun 1,585 0.3%
4. Chinese 1,080 0.2%
5. Spanish 670 0.1%
6. German 655 0.1%
7. Inuktitut 595 0.1%
8. Urdu 550 0.1%
9. Arabic 540 0.1%
10. Dutch 300 0.1%
11. Russian 225 < 0.1%
12. Italian 195 < 0.1%

Figures shown above are for the number of single language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses. There were also 435 responses of both English and a 'non-official language'; 30 of both French and a 'non-official language'; 295 of both English and French; 10 of English, French and a 'non-official language'; and about 14,305 people who either did not respond to the question, or reported multiple non-official languages, or else gave some other unenumerated response.[26]


The largest denominations by number of adherents according to the 2001 census were the Roman Catholic Church with 187,405 (37%); the Anglican Church of Canada with 132,680 (26%); and the United Church of Canada with 86,420 (17%).[27]


All currency is in Canadian dollars.

In 2005 the gross domestic product (GDP) of Newfoundland and Labrador was approximately fourteen billion dollars.[28] Service industries accounted for over $8 billion with financial services, health care and public administration being the top three contributors. Other significant industries are mining, oil production and manufacturing. The total workforce in 2005 was 215,000 people.[28] Per capita GDP in 2006 was 47,520, higher than the national average and second only to Alberta out of Canadian provinces. The GDP in Newfoundland and Labrador surged 9.1 per cent in 2007, nearly three times the rate of its growth in 2006.

Traditional industries include mining, logging, fishery and forest-based industries (sawmills and paper mills).

Mining and oil production

Mines in Labrador, the iron ore mine at Wabush/Labrador City, and the new nickel mine in Voisey's Bay produced a total of $2.5 billion worth of ore in 2006. A new mine at Duck Pond (30 kilometres (18 mi) south of the now-closed mine at Buchans), started producing copper, zinc, silver and gold in 2007 and prospecting for new ore bodies continues.[29] Mining accounted for 3.5% of the provincial GDP in 2006.[28] The province produces 55% of Canada’s total iron ore.[30] Quarries producing dimension stone such as slate and granite, account for less than $10 million worth of material per year.[31]

Oil production from offshore oil platforms on the Hibernia, White Rose and Terra Nova oil fields on the Grand Banks was of 110 million barrels, which contributed to more than 15% of the province's GDP in 2006. Total production from the Hibernia field from 1997 to 2006 was 733 million barrels with an estimated value of $36 billion. This will increase with the inclusion of the latest project, Hebron. Remaining reserves are estimated at almost 2 billion barrels as of December 31, 2006. Exploration for new reserves is ongoing.[28]

On April 8, 2009 another oil discovery was announced. Statoil announced that they were making plans to make an application for a Significant Discovery License over the coming months, it revealed that during deepwater drilling in an area about 500 kilometres east-northeast of St. John's "hydrocarbons were encountered".[32] Just months later on June 16, 2009 Danny Williams announced a tentative agreement to expand the Hibernia Oil Field. The government negotiated a 10-per-cent equity stake in the Hibernia South expansion which will add an estimated $10 billion to Newfoundland and Labrador's treasury.[33]

Fishing and aquaculture

The fishing industry remains an important part of the provincial economy, employing 26,000 and contributing over $440 million to the GDP. The combined harvest of fish such as cod, haddock, halibut, herring and mackerel was 150,000 tonnes (165,000 tons) valued at about $130 million in 2006. Shellfish, such as crab, shrimp and clams, accounted for 195,000 tonnes (215,000 tons) with a value of $316 million in the same year. The value of products from the seal hunt was $55 million.[28]

Aquaculture is a new industry for the province, which in 2006 produced over 10,000 tonnes of Atlantic salmon, mussels and steelhead trout worth over $50 million.[28]


Newsprint is produced by one paper mill, Kruger operates a mill in Corner Brook with a capacity of 420,000 tonnes (462,000 tons) per year. A second mill existed in Grand Falls which had a capacity of 210,000 tonnes (230,000 tons) per year but after a century of operation the mill closed in March 2009. The value of newsprint exports varies greatly from year to year, depending on the global market price. Lumber is produced by numerous mills in Newfoundland.

Apart from seafood processing, paper manufacture and oil refining,[34] manufacturing in the province consists of smaller industries producing food,[35] brewing and other beverage production, and footwear.[36]


Agriculture in Newfoundland is limited to areas south of St. John's, near Deer Lake and in the Codroy Valley. Potatoes, rutabagas, turnips, carrots and cabbage are grown for local consumption. Poultry, eggs are also produced. Wild blueberries, partridgeberries (lingonberries) and bakeapples (cloudberries) are harvested commercially and used in jams and wine making.[37] Dairy production is also another huge part of the Newfoundland Agriculture Industry.


Tourism is a significant part of the economy. In 2006 nearly 500,000 non-resident tourists visited Newfoundland and Labrador, spending an estimated $366 million.[28]



Within the province, the Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Transportation and Works operates or sponsors several passenger and auto ferry services which connect various communities along the province's significant coastline.

A regular passenger and car ferry service, lasting about 90 minutes, crosses the Strait of Belle Isle, connecting the province's island of Newfoundland with the region of Labrador on the mainland. The ferry MV Apollo travels from St. Barbe, Newfoundland on the Great Northern Peninsula to the port town of Blanc-Sablon, Quebec, located on the provincial border and beside the town of L'Anse-au-Clair, Labrador. The MV Sir Robert Bond also provides seasonal ferry service between Lewisporte on the island and the towns of Cartwright and Happy Valley-Goose Bay in Labrador. Several smaller ferries connect numerous other coastal towns and offshore island communities around the island of Newfoundland and up the Labrador coast as far north as Nain. [3]

Inter-provincial ferry services are provided by Marine Atlantic, a federal Crown corporation which operates auto-passenger ferries from Sydney, Nova Scotia to the towns of Port aux Basques and Argentia on the southern coast of Newfoundland island. [4]

Provincial symbols

Provincial Symbols
Official Flower Purple Pitcher Plant
Official Tree Black Spruce
Official Bird Atlantic Puffin
Official Horse Newfoundland pony
Official Animal Caribou
Official Game Bird Ptarmigan
Official Mineral Labradorite
Official Dogs Newfoundland Dog &
Labrador Retriever
Provincial Anthem Ode to Newfoundland
Provincial Holiday June 24, Discovery Day
Patron Saint St. John the Baptist
Official tartan
Great Seal
Coat of arms
Newfoundland arms.jpg
Coat of arms of Newfoundland and Labrador.svg
Provincial Wordmark

Notable people


See also


  • Atlas of Newfoundland and Labrador by Department of Geography Memorial University of Newfoundland, Breakwater Books Ltd; ISBN 1-55081-000-6; (1991)
  • Cadigan, Sean T. Newfoundland and Labrador: A History U. of Toronto Press, 2009. Standard scholarly history
  • G.J. Casey and Elizabeth Miller, eds., Tempered Days: A Century of Newfoundland Fiction St. John's: Killick Press, 1996.
  • Karl Mcneil Earle; "Cousins of a Kind: The Newfoundland and Labrador Relationship with the United States" American Review of Canadian Studies Vol: 28. Issue: 4. 1998. pp: 387-411.
  • C. R. Fay; Life and Labour in Newfoundland University of Toronto Press, 1956
  • Lawrence Jackson, Newfoundland & Labrador Fitzhenry & Whiteside Ltd; ISBN 1-55041-261-2; (1999)
  • Gene Long, Suspended State: Newfoundland Before Canada Breakwater Books Ltd; ISBN 1-55081-144-4; (April 1, 1999)
  • R. A. MacKay; Newfoundland; Economic, Diplomatic, and Strategic Studies Oxford University Press, 1946
  • Patrick O'Flaherty, The Rock Observed: Studies in the Literature of Newfoundland University of Toronto Press, 1979
  • Joseph Smallwood ed. The Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador St. John's: Newfoundland Book Publishers, 1981-, 2 vol.
  • This Marvelous Terrible Place: Images of Newfoundland and Labrador by Momatiuk et al., Firefly Books; ISBN 1-55209-225-9; (September 1998)
  • True Newfoundlanders: Early Homes and Families of Newfoundland and Labrador by Margaret McBurney et al., Boston Mills Pr; ISBN 1-55046-199-0; (June 1997)
  • Biogeography and Ecology of the Island of Newfoundland: Monographiae Biologicae by G. Robin South (Editor) Dr W Junk Pub Co; ISBN 90-6193-101-0; (April 1983)


  1. ^ a b [1] Stats Canada
  2. ^ Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory
  3. ^ The Daily, Thursday, May 15, 2008. Study: Resource boom in Saskatchewan and Newfoundland and Labrador
  4. ^ Proclamation: Constitutional Amendment 2001 (Newfoundland and Labrador)
  5. ^ a b Bell, Trevor; Liverman, David. "Landscape (of Newfoundland and Labrador)". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  6. ^ a b "Atlas of Canada: Sea islands". Natural Resources Canada (Government of Canada). Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  7. ^ a b "About Newfoundland and Labrador: Land Area". Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  8. ^ Bélanger, Claude. "Newfoundland Geography". Marianopolis College. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  9. ^ "Location and Climate". Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  10. ^ "Atlas of Canada: Land and Freshwater Areas". Natural Resources Canada (Government of Canada). Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  11. ^ "Report on the State of Conservation of Gros Morne National Park". Parks Canada. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  12. ^ "Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Web Site: Climate". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  13. ^ "Climate Characteristics". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  14. ^ "Environment Canada Climate data for Newfoundland and Labrador". Environment Canada. Retrieved 2007-07-30. 
  15. ^ "The Climate of Newfoundland". Environment Canada. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  16. ^ Tuck, James A.. "Museum Notes - The Maritime Archaic Tradition". "The Rooms" Provincial museum. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  17. ^ Renouf, M.A.P.. "Museum Notes - Palaeoeskimo in Newfoundland & Labrador". "The Rooms" Provincial museum. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  18. ^ Hiller, J.K.. "Sponsored Settlement: The Colonization of Newfoundland". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  19. ^ "History of Placentia". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved 2010-02-26. 
  20. ^ "Government and Politics". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  21. ^ Janzen, Olaf. "The Military Aspects of the Wars". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  22. ^ Cadigan, Sean. "The Second World War 1939-1945". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  23. ^ The Daily, Monday, September 29, 2003. Ethnic Diversity Survey
  24. ^ StatCan 2001 Census - population
  25. ^ Canada's population. Statistics Canada. Last accessed September 28, 2006.
  26. ^ Statistics Canada catalogue no. 97-555-XCB2006015. 2007. Retrieved 2009-04-17. 
  27. ^ Religions in Canada
  28. ^ a b c d e f g "Economic Research and Analysis 2007". Economics and Statistics Branch, Department of Finance, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Office of the Queens Printer. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  29. ^ "Buchans mine". Filing Services Canada Inc. Retrieved 2006-06-17. 
  30. ^ Bell, Trevor; Liverman, David. "Mineral Resources". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  31. ^ "Geological survey: Dimension stone in Newfoundland and Labrador". Natural Resources, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  32. ^
  33. ^
  34. ^ "Project Review". Newfoundland and Labrador Refining Corporation. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  35. ^ "Purity Factories (Newfoundland food)". Retrieved 2007-10-26. 
  36. ^ "Footware manufacture in Newfoundland". Retrieved 2007-10-26. 
  37. ^ "Rodriques Winery". Retrieved 2007-10-26. 

External links

Coordinates: 52°37′28″N 59°41′06″W / 52.62444°N 59.685°W / 52.62444; -59.685

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

North America : Canada : Atlantic Provinces : Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador [1] is one of the Atlantic Provinces of Canada. Newfoundland is an island that was a separate British colony until 1949 when it joined confederation with Canada. Labrador is an adjoining mainland coastal region which abuts Quebec.


from northwest to southeast

  • Labrador - the territory sharing a border with Quebec on the mainland of Canada. From the days of the Labrador fishery, trapping and whaling to Military bases of the Cold War era, Labrador has rich history and breathtaking landscapes. Modern Labrador has vast stores of natural resources including copper, nickel and iron ore; developed and undeveloped hydro-electric sites and undeveloped off-shore natural gas and oil.
  • Western Newfoundland - the nearly 700 km stretch from Port aux Basques in the south to St. Anthony in the north. Includes the Port au Port Peninsula, the Bay of Islands (with regional centre, Corner Brook), Gros Morne National Park, the Long Range Mountains, and the Northern Peninsula. Vikings to Acadians, the history and culture of Western Newfoundland is varied and diverse.
  • Central Newfoundland - includes the Baie Verte Peninsula & Green Bay area, the numerous islands of the North Coast (including New World Island, Twillingate Island, Fogo and Change Islands), Grand Falls-Windsor, and the famous international airport at Gander.
  • Southern Newfoundland - includes the South Coast (mostly accessible only by ferry), as well as the Burin Peninsula.
  • Eastern Newfoundland - the New Founde Land, from John Cabot's landing grounds in the Bonavista Peninsula to Cape Spear, North America's most easterly point near historic capital St. John's.
  • Argentia (pop. 478) - the site of the finest ice-free port north of Boston, this was the site of one of the largest overseas U.S. Navy bases on the Atlantic Ocean. It was the site of the first Summit Meeting between Churchill and Roosevelt in 1941 which produced the Atlantic Charter. During the Cold War the base was home to massive radar planes of the U.S. Navy which patrolled the North Atlantic Barrier (BARLANT) protecting North America from the manned bomber aircraft of the U.S.S.R.
  • Bay Roberts (pop. 5,414) - ettled in the 1500's, this town has a long history with European fisherman from pre-France areas.
  • Bonavista (pop. 3,764) - Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot), a freelance Venetian explorer, was contracted by England’s Henry VII to find new lands, and a sea route to the Orient. Cabot set sail from Bristol, England in his ship the Matthew in 1497. When Cabot first saw land he’s reputed to have said "O Buon Vista" (“Oh, Happy Sight!”)[1], giving rise to the name of the town.
  • Carbonear (pop. 4,723) - the commercial centre of Conception Bay North.
  • Channel-Port-Aux-Basques (pop. 4,319) - the main gateway to the island portion of Newfoundland, this is where the Marine Atlantic ferries provide year-round service to the mainland (North Sydney, Nova Scotia).
  • Clarenville (pop. 5,274) - major centre servicing the Bonavista and Trinity bay areas. Was once a major port.
  • Conception Bay South (pop. 21,966) - C.B.S., the largest town in Newfoundland, on the shore of beautiful Conception Bay.
  • Corner Brook (pop. 20,083) - the pulp and paper center of Newfoundland and a major transportation hub for the region.
  • Deer Lake (pop. 4,827) - a community on the west coast.
  • Dildo (pop. 3,007) - named as one of the ten prettiest towns in Canada in a 2001 issue of Harrowsmith Magazine.
  • Gander (pop. 9,951) - this town grew up around Gander International Airport which developed into one of the most import airfields in the world during the Second World War.
  • Glovertown (pop. 2,062) - a small town just east of Gander.
  • Goose Bay (pop. 7,572) - the only military base in the province, it had a little-known population of 10,000 U.S. citizens at the height of the Cold War. The base was home to large numbers of aerial refueling tankers of the United States Air Force.
  • Grand Falls-Windsor (pop. 13,558) - home of the Salmon Festival, Grand Falls-Windsor is Central Newfoundland's largest town.
  • Harbour Grace (pop. 3,074) - was once the capital of Newfoundland before that title was moved to St. John's. Now a small town in the Conception Bay North region.
  • Labrador City (pop. 7,240) - home to the largest open pit iron ore mine in Canada. Vast wilderness surround this modern, booming town. Together with its twin town Wabush, makes up the Labrador West region of the province.
  • Mount Pearl (pop. 24,671) - the second largest city in Newfoundland which has grown up on the western edge of St John;s.
  • Paradise (pop. 12,584)- a town bordering St John's and Mount Pearl which is a bedroom community for its larger neighbors.
  • Portugal Cove-St Philips [2] (pop. 6,575) - just a few miles north of St John's Airport, the twin towns of Portugal Cove and St Philips have a stunning view of Bell Island and Conception Bay as well as Baccalieu Island and the North Atlantic.
  • St. Anthony [3] (pop. 3,142) - Located on the northern tip of Newfoundland, St. Anthony is a spectacular ocean coast playground.. Icebergs, whales, puffins & the world's highest Moose concentration.. A strong fishery plays a strong economic role in the area.. Sir Wilfred Grenfell (1865-1940) was a legendary doctor who lived in the town for many years.. There is a museum dedicated to Sir Grenfell's legacy - and the historic Grenfell house is still well-maintained and open to visitors during tourism season..
  • St. John's (pop. 100,646) - the provincial capital and largest city in Newfoundland. The City is known as the one of the oldest in North America and has one of the most lively City Councils in the world. The city is notable for the natural harbour which has provided shelter from the North Atlantic for more than five hundred years.
  • Stephenville [4] (pop. 6,588) - The second largest center on the west coast is Stephenville. The town is the former site of the Harmon AFB, an american AFB during the 40s, 50s, and 60s. Currently, the town boasts and International Airport and neighbours the Port-au-Port peninsula and its vibrant/scenic Acadian history.
  • St.George's [5] (pop. 1,242) - See historic St Joesphs Church, Sandy Point, and real small town hospitality.
  • Twillingate (pop. 2,448) - two islands that make up a scenic fishing town in Notre Dame Bay north of Lewisporte and Gander.
  • Wabush (pop. 1,739) - twin town to Labrador City (sitting only 5km apart), it too is home to a massive open pit iron ore mine, as well as the local airport that serves the Labrador West region.
  • Woody Point [6] (pop. 400) - located in the heart of Gros Morne National Park at the base of the Tablelands (a UNESCO World Heritage site).

>> NOTE: Populations are from the 2006 Census


There are many extraordinary things about Newfoundland: the rugged natural beauty of the place, the extraordinary friendliness and humour of the local people, the traditional culture, and the unique dialect.

The beauty of Newfoundland can be found on the rocky coasts of the island and the relatively new, and stunningly beautiful East Coast Trail, but this is a truly coast-to-coast kind of place. There's much to see in the Tundra of Labrador (often called "the Big Land"), the "mini-Rockies" of the West Coast's Long Range Mountains and Lewis Hills, the historic Avalon Peninsula, home to the capital of St. John's. Also don't underestimate the power of the largely uninhabited Newfoundland interior. There is a raw, untouched quality to the entire place, especially where water meets rocks. Adventure racer Mats Andersson has described it as a mix of "Patagonia, Sweden, New Zealand and other countries from all around the world."

As for the people, everyone talks to everyone; indeed, everyone helps everyone, and everyone knows everyone (people often can tell what part of the island someone is from by their last name). The uptight paranoia found in many American cities cannot be found in Newfoundland. It has a totally different approach to life. One Newfoundlander has suggested that people 'exist' in New York, but they 'live' in Newfoundland.

Newfoundlanders are known for their distinctive manner of speech. Believe it or not, they speak a dialect (that's right, not an accent). Its roots (while still North American English) are mainly Irish, English and French, and the language has evolved and developed in semi-isolation for about 500 years. The Dictionary of Newfoundland English is about the size of a standard English dictionary. It is immediately noticeable to most visitors, or "Come-From-Aways" as they are occasionally called, that the syntax and grammar varies slightly. As for the accent, it varies from district to district in the province. As Canadian author Douglas Coupland puts it in Souvenir of Canada, Newfoundlanders "speak in a dialect that can rival Navajo for indecipherability-that is, when they really ham it up..." (74).

Newfoundlanders pronounce Newfoundland to rhyme with 'understand,' placing emphasis on -LAND, not New or found-. It sounds something like "newfin-LAND." Canadians outside of the Atlantic provinces (therefore, discluding Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia as well as Newfoundland) and tourists are noted for their pronunciation of Newfoundland as "new-FOUND-lind", "NEW-fin-lind" or "NEW-found-lind."

Two "traditions" persist with a visit to Newfoundland—kissing the cod and the "screech-in." (Both were actually enacted by Ben Mulroney in the Canadian Idol television show while he visited Newfoundland, demonstrating how widespread these activities are thought to be). These "traditions" are little more than tourist activities originally invented by locals for a laugh. The tourists found them enjoyable, and now they are becoming extremely common. Commercial tours will often include these activities, concluding them with a certificate proclaiming the participant an honorary Newfoundlander.

  • the "Screech-in"- The most famous of newcomer traditions, mainlanders and visitors to the isle must drink a shot or glass of Screech (a brand of Jamaican Rum famous to Newfoundland). Take this all in good humour, but don't be surprised if you don't like the taste; the name has good meaning.
  • Kissing the Cod- As well as being "Screeched in", occasionally visitors will be coaxed into "Kissing the Cod". The visitor must kiss a codfish, emblem of the historic fishing industry, after arrival. While this does happen occasionally, it is usually a humorous part of a guided tour or similar event. The use of an actual fish is rare, though, especially since the introduction of the cod moritorum. Kissing a real codfish is discouraged by many, not to mention possibly unhygienic, so an imitation cod, made of wood, plastic, or rubber is used.

Genuine traditions practiced in Newfoundland include celebrations of: "Bonfire Night", with roots in the English "Guy Fawkes Night"; and "Old Christmas Day" which is the twelfth night of the Christmas season. The latter of these is also associated with the tradition of "Mummering" or "Janneying" which is still practiced in several other parts of the world as well.

And finally, the "Newfie" (also "Newf") stereotype: in Canada, this figure is similar to the Hillbilly stereotype or the rural Hick stereotype. As with both of those cases, it is rooted in discrimination. While some Newfoundlanders may call themselves "Newfies", it may be wise to refrain from calling the province's residents as such yourself, as many see this as a slur or putdown when it comes from a non-native. Not unlike "Canuck", originally a slur against Canadians, the word "Newfie" is acceptable to some, but err on the side of caution and use Newfoundlander instead.

Get in

By plane

Flights from major centers in Newark, Ontario, Quebec and the other Atlantic Provinces arrive at St. John's airport [7] several times per day.

Flights to Stephenville [8] from Toronto are available during the summer months and allow easy travel to the nearby city of Corner Brook [9]. Stephenville also has daily service within the province.

Flights to Deer Lake [10] from mainland Canada allow easy access to Corner Brook [11]. From Deer Lake, you will need to rent a car, or catch the bus or taxi to reach Corner Brook.

Daily flights to Wabush, Goose Bay Labrador and to Gander are also available.

In the summer season, there are reputed to be daily flights between St. John's and London Heathrow on Air Canada, probably the shortest Trans-Atlantic regular flight available.

By car

The only roads that get you to Newfoundland without using a ferry are from Quebec into Labrador. If the island is your destination, you must take the ferry.

From Port aux Basques to Corner Brook, it's just over 200 km of driving, while the drive to St. John's is a trek of over 900 km. In the summer, a drive from Argentia to St. John's will take you through about 130 km of the province.

For a more adventurous route to the island portion of the province, you can travel through Quebec into Labrador as far as Happy Valley-Goose Bay. Be advised that the route from Labrador City to Goose-Bay is approximately 10 hours of gravel highway with the only town in between being Churchill Falls. From Goose Bay, there is a 42-hour ferry to Lewisporte in central Newfoundland. In December 2009 the final section of the Trans Labrador Highway was opened between Goose Bay and Cartwright, allowing one to drive all the way to Blanc Sablon, Quebec and take the 2 hour ferry crossing to the island.

Caution: As the province is home to a moose population of over 100,000, do drive slowly and cautiously, especially when driving at night. Moose are attracted to the roads due to the fresh young tree growth along the sides and the open stretches allow them to take a "fog bath". During calf season, moose can be especially aggressive, standing their ground and even challenging people and vehicles, but the most common risk is collision. Remember that hitting a moose is not like hitting a deer-most of its bulk is above the height of the average car's front hood. Your car will hit its legs, knocking the brunt of its 1100 lb+ weight into the windshield and you. This is the last thing you want to have happen to you, and it may well be the last thing that will happen to you! It is for this reason that moose are considered one of the most dangerous animals in North America. [12]

Moose of any size are often aggressive on the roads and frequently attack the headlights of passing cars. Drivers who survive collisions have been killed by the legs of an injured moose wedged in the windshield opening of the wreckage. Animals who have moved out of a vehicle's path may suddenly reappear on the road and exhibit suicidal behaviour.

By bus

Once you've made it to the island, DRL Coachlines Ltd. offers daily scheduled passenger coach services between St. John's & Port Aux Basques on the island. DRL's head office is in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, but they can be reached toll-free at 1-888-738-8091. If you wish to reach their office in St. John's, call .

For Group Transportation (Bus Charters) you may call Viking Express in Corner Brook at tel.709-688-2112. [13]

Another bus service from Port Aux Basques to St. John's is Newhook's Transportation. Call them at 1-709-726-4876.

By train

If Labrador is your destination, train is one option. Quebec, North Shore and Labrador Railways offer services between these areas.

Within the island itself, train is no longer an option. The "Newfie Bullet", named for its incredibly slow speed, ended its long career in 1988, with the rails all pulled up and the railbed converted into the T'Railway Provincial Park, part of the TransCanada Trail.

By boat

Marine Atlantic ferry service [14] runs from North Sydney to Port aux Basques (on the west coast of the island) throughout the year, and to Argentia (about 90km from St. John's) during the summer. The duration of the ride depends on the weather and water conditions, so patience is of the essence. It is advisable to call Marine Atlantic ahead of time to make a reservation (call 1-800-341-7981). If you are bringing a U-haul or something other than a passenger vehicle, you will likely be considered a Commercial Vehicle. Commercial Vehicles can only make reservations by doubling the usual fare. It is cheaper to simply take your number, wait in line and hope for the best.

In general, Marine Atlantic Ferries cater to your every whim, carrying food, alcohol, gift shops, cinemas and sleeping accommodations. There will be lots for you to do. [15]

There is also a seasonal ferry available between St. Barbe in Newfoundland's Northern Peninsula and Blanc Sablon, Quebec, right on the edge of the Labrador border (call 1-866-535-2567).

The following is a list of all other ferry services available in Newfoundland and Labrador:

  • Bell Island - Portugal Cove (Bell Island 709-488-2842/Portugal Cove 709-895-3541)
  • St. Brendan's - Burnside (709-895-3541/709-677-2204)
  • Change Islands - Farewell
  • Fogo Island - Farewell
  • Goose Bay - Cartwright - Lewisporte (1-866-535-2567)
  • Long Island - Pilley's Island(709-292-4300/709-673-4352)
  • Little Bay Islands - Shoal Arm (709-292-4300/709-673-4352)
  • Harbour Deep - Jackson's Arm (709-292-4327)
  • Nain (all ports & return) - St Anthony (1-800-563-6353)
  • LaPoile - Grand Bruit - Rose Blanche(709-292-4302)
  • Ramea - Grey River - Burgeo (709-292-4327/709-292-4300)
  • Francois - Grey River - Burgeo (709-842-3339)
  • Gaultois- McCallum - Hermitage (709-551-1446/709-846-3161)
  • Rencontre East - Bay L'Argent - Pool's Cove (709-895-3541)
  • South East Bight- Little Paradise (709-895-3541/709-891-1050)
  • Fortune, Newfoundland & Labrador - Saint Pierre and Miquelon (France) (709-832-0429)
  • DRL Group [16] - coach services in Newfoundland

For Travel from Corner Brook and Deer Lake along the Great Northern Peninsula to St. Anthony, there is a regular scheduled Bus Service with Viking Express Bus. [17]

By car

If you have access to a car, rental or otherwise, this is often the best way to travel the province. Public transportation options are usually limited, especially away from the larger centres, and having a personal vehicle will allow you to reach the nooks and crannies that really make the Newfoundland & Labrador experience an amazing one. Except for the Trans Canada Highway (Port Aux Basques–St. John's), roads in Newfoundland & Labrador are among the worst in Canada, so watch out for potholes and heaved pavement.

If Labrador is your destination, you will want to ensure that you bring gas cans (filled with gas), survival kits and food, as well as any other necessary supplies in case you find yourself in a bad situation. The Trans-Labrador Highway is the most challenging stretch of road in the province, and you will need to rely on your own ingenuity in order to have a good experience. Ensure that your vehicle is in tip-top shape and keep in mind that cellphones will often be completely useless as they often do not work in big sections of Labrador.

Also, keep in mind that, with the exception of the northern territories, gas is the most expensive in Canada.

By bus

As previously mentioned, DRL Coachlines Ltd. offers daily scheduled passenger coach services between St. John's & Port Aux Basques on the island. DRL's head office is in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, but they can be reached toll-free at 1-888-738-8091. If you wish to reach their office in St. John's, call 1-709-738-8088.

Another bus service from Port Aux Basques to St. John's is Newhook's Transportation. Call them at 1-709-227-2552.

If you want to head north from Deer Lake's airport, you can reach the Northern Peninsula via Viking Express (709-688-2112) or Shears Bus Service (709-458-2315). Both offer regular service to and from the Northern Peninsula.

By plane

If you wish to move about the province by plane, you can usually do so with a few different companies. Try Air Canada [18], Provincial Airlines [19] and Air Labrador [20].

If you wish to visit a part of France, you may consider Air St-Pierre [21] which connects St John's to the nearby islands of St-Pierre and Miquelon. Canadian citizens may enter with photo ID and proof of citizenship. US and EU citizens will require passports. Americans require their passports to enter France and Europeans require theirs to pass through Canada.

  • Visit Gander and its International Airport, once the re-fueling stop for nearly all international flights from Europe to North America
  • Historic Signal Hill fort and walking trail (watch the sun come up over the ocean) in St. John's
  • Whale-watching boat tours
  • Iceberg boat tours at Twillingate, northwest of Gander. Much better viewing than from Avalon Peninsula
  • The Battery - the oldest part of St. John's
  • Cape Spear (the most easterly point of North America and very windy too!)
  • The East Coast Trail (stunningly beautiful rugged hiking trail - hike and camp for days along cliffs and through forests)
  • Bell Island
  • the downtown rowhouses and natural harbour of St. John's
  • Puffins, whales, caribou, moose, eagles, otter, and other wildlife all over the province
  • the many small communities along the Labrador coast
  • Fishing stages, wharves, and the remnants of the province's long history of fishing
  • Visit St. Lawrence and see the site of the shipwrecked USS Truxtun and USS Pollux
  • Go 'Around the Bay', a term Newfoundlanders use to talk about travelling around the numerous outport communities. Often this is limited to those on the Avalon Peninsula in the area between Conception Bay and St.John's. Points of interest, historical and aesthetic, along the way: Bay Bulls, Roaches Line, Brigus, Cupids, Bay Roberts, Harbour Grace (the original capitol of the island), Carbonear, Victoria - Note: the new highway now runs around the townships, making access to Bay Roberts and even as far as Carbonear faster and easier, but you will miss out on some interesting scenery and historical places by taking the highway.
  • After you go 'Around the Bay', and end up in Carbonear or Victoria, spend the night at a local inn. Get up the next day go "Around the Belt", a term Newfoundlanders use to describe travelling down the shore, up north around the tip of the penisula, down the other side, and across the Heart's Content Barrens. Points of interest along the way: Spout Cove, Bradley's Cove, Western Bay, Northern Bay, Flambro Head, Lower Island Cove, Caplin Cove, Bay de Verde, Grate's Cove, Daniel's Cove, Winterton, Heart's Content
  • Visit L'anse aux Meadows[22] National Historic Site of Canada on the tip of the Great Northern Peninsula on the island, site of the only confirmed Viking settlement in North America and believed to be the landfall site of Leif Eriksson as related in the Vinland sagas. It is a UNESCO World Heritage site.
  • Visit the Basque Whaling Site [23] in Red Bay, Labrador.
  • Visit Battle Harbour [24] National Historic Site, Labrador, the historical hub of the Labrador salt fish industry.
  • Hike in Gros Morne National Park
  • Enjoy Terra Nova National Park
  • Visit Western Brook Pond, a land locked fjord
  • Hike the TransCanada Trail [25] in Newfoundland & Labrador, following the old CN Rail line through the province
  • Downhill ski at Marble Mountain [26]
  • Crosscountry ski at Blow-Me-Down
  • Get a photo underneath the sign marking entry to the outport town of Dildo.
  • Take a driving tour of the other colorfully named outports like Joe Batt's Arm, Leading Tickles, Little Burnt Bay, and others.
  • Take a ferry to visit the Southern Communities of the province not accessible by road
  • Snowmobile in Stephenville, Newfoundland's main hub for this activity
  • Eat a meal of Fish n' Chips at any Ches's location in the greater St. John's area.
  • Have dinner at the Irving Station diner at Clarenville. It's actually some of the best family dining in the province and the view of the ocean from the windows in the dining area is spectacular.
  • Go to Sunday brunch at the Battery Hotel in St. John's, then walk off the calories with a walking hike around the Signal Hill trail, a rugged, terraced path that leads through the old Battery village and around Signal Hill, up to Cabot tower and back to the Battery Hotel, giving a panoramic view of both the Atlantic Ocean, St. John's harbour, and the city itself.
  • If visiting in August, go to the Royal St. John's Regatta at Quidi Vidi Lake in the city, the oldest sporting event in North America (160 years and counting). It is traditionally held on the first Wednesday in August or the first good weather day after. On this day, most of St. John's shuts down, and an average crowd of 50,000 people go to see the races and partake of the many concession stands.
  • If visiting in mid-July, don't forget to party in Grand Falls - Windsor at the Exploits Valley Salmon Festival, an annual festival including a salmon dinner, a Newfie Night dance, and the Splash Concert.
  • Bike the Viking Trail: [27] A place of austere, unspoiled beauty in the far east of the western world.
  • Travel newfoundland and tour with CapeRace Cultural Adventures, Newfoundland & Labrador, +1 647-284-3696, [28]. A boutique tour operator specializing in experiential travel offering an outdoorsy soft adventure meaningful travel packages that bring Newfoundland’s rich history, performing arts and the pristine wilderness together to create an "Eco-Culture Experience"  edit


Rural Newfoundland is known for its seafood and its working-class roots. Rural restaurants offer an over-abundance of "golden foods" (deep fried) and classically simple fare. Vegetarians will be hard pressed to find anything without meat in it, and vegans might want to pack a lunch. But if you're a fish and chips lover, you'll "fill your boots". Mainly you will see battered cod, "chips dressing and gravy", dressing being a savory-laced stuffing mixture, fish-and-brewis (pronounced "fish and brews", salt cod mashed up with a boiled rock-hard sailor's bread, pork scrunchions, and traditionally drizzled with blackstrap molassas), jigg's dinner (also known as corned beef and cabbage, a traditional one pot meal consisting of salt beef,root vegetables such as carrot, turnip, parsnip and potato,and cabbage. Also thrown in the pot is a muslin bag of yellow split peas, known as pease pudding), burgers and fries, and seafood chowder.

But if you're nice, and lucky, someone might invite you in to their home for a homemade moose stew, rabbit pie, seal flipper, caribou sausage, partridgeberry pie or a cuppa tea with home-baked bread and homemade bakeapple jam. All of these are very interesting and delicious. A big traditional meal is often referred to as "a scoff", and as Newfoundlanders also love to dance and party, an expression for a dance and a feed is a "scoff and scuff", which might be accompanied by accordion, guitar, fiddle, a singalong, and a kitchen party. Kitchen socials are so much a part of Newfoundland culture that even today, many houses are better equipped to receive visitors through the back door (leading to the kitchen) than through the front.

Fish has always been at the heart of Newfoundland culture and even with the collapse of the commercial fisheries, you will find seafood dishes almost everywhere. Cod, halibut, flounder, crab, lobster, squid, mussels, and capelin (a small fish not unlike smelt or grunion) are all well represented. So too are other animals supported by the ocean system - seal, turr (murre) and the like.

A lot of Newfoundlanders habitually drink tea with Evaporated or "canned" milk (a popular brand being Nestle Carnation milk). If you prefer "regular" milk, you usually ask for "tea with fresh milk" and this is, in fact, a good way to spot a Newfie (or at least an Atlantic Province native) in other parts of the country. An easy excuse to have a friendly chat is to invite someone in for a "cuppa tea".

In "town" i.e. St. John's (and the other city centres of Newfoundland) there are many good restaurants for the picking, and several vegetarian and vegan friendly spots.

While in Newfoundland, particularly St. John's, do try to sample some of the candy and sweets from Purity Factories, an island fixture for many years and makers of several traditional-style confections. For many Newfoundlanders, Christmas would not be the same without a bottle of Purity Syrup, and breakfast without some of their partridgeberry and apple jam wouldn't be right. (Note: Partridgeberries in Newfoundland are referred to in many other places as "lingonberries".)


You will be in for a "time" (a social gathering) with lots of cheer. This is a province that consumes per capita more alcohol than any other in Canada. The legal drinking age in the province is 19. You will find nearly all the alcohol you desire in a Newfoundland bar. George Street in St. John's, Newfoundland has a reputation for having the most bars per capita in North America. Its largest celebration, George Street Festival, starts in early August and finishes on the Tuesday before Regatta Day.

Newfoundland & Labrador has a wonderful set of regional beers that you cannot find outside of the province. While a number of these are now brewed by the large Macrobreweries (Labatt and Molson), some of them are not. Depending on where you are, you will be able to locate brews with names like Kyle, Killick, Rasberry Wheat Ale, Hemp Ale, India, Black Horse, Jockey Club, Dominion Ale, Quidi Vidi 1892, and Blue Star. Something you may notice while drinking beer in the province is the tendency for the breweries to advertise that their beers are union-made "right here" in Newfoundland. Beer is commonly found in convenience stores with a liquor license and from the Newfoundland Liquor Corporation (NLC). The NLC is a government-owned monopoly and, much like most of Canada, there is a better selection of local and foreign beers than there are provincial beers. Inter-province trade in beer tends to be limited to the major brands, with no attention paid to the many excellent craft breweries in other regions.

While in Newfoundland, you will also encounter Screech. Screech is a Jamaican-style dark rum. This is the historic result of the trade between Newfoundland and Jamaica. Jamaica got the salt cod, Newfoundland got the rum. In all honesty, the Rum has been tamed to conform with contemporary liquor laws, especially when compared to descriptions of its much more potent ancestor. Hard liquor is usually found only at the Newfoundland Liquor Corporation in urban areas, and in licensed convenience stores in rural areas.

Newfoundland has a quiet but strong tradition of berry wines. Blueberry wine, for those in the know, is as closely associated with Newfoundland tastes as Screech, and for many, may be a far more palatable first experience. Also be sure to look for partridgeberry, blackberry, cloudberry, and rhubarb wines. All of these can often be found in NLC outlets. The NLC retains the distinction of being the only liquor control boards in Canada which still directly manufactures and bottles several of its hard liquor products (Screech, notably, but also gin, brandy and two vodkas), to retain the strong provincial association.

  • No discussion of Newfoundland and Labrador that ends with the heading "Get out" would be complete without a reference to Fort McMurray, Alberta due to its high concentration of Newfoundlanders.
This is a usable article. It gives a good overview of the region, its sights, and how to get in, as well as links to the main destinations, whose articles are similarly well developed. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary





From Newfoundland and Labrador which make up this province.

Proper noun

Newfoundland and Labrador


Newfoundland and Labrador

  1. A province in eastern Canada with capital St. John's.


  • Newfoundland (historical, 1949–2001)
  • Nfld. , Nfld (abbreviation)
  • NL , N.L. , N. L. (abbreviation)
  • NF (abbreviation)


See also

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