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Newt Gingrich

Gingrich at CPAC in February 2010

In office
January 4, 1995 – January 3, 1999
President Bill Clinton
Majority Leader Dick Armey
Preceded by Tom Foley
Succeeded by Dennis Hastert

In office
1989–1995
Leader Robert Michel
Preceded by Dick Cheney
Succeeded by David Bonior

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 6th district
In office
January 3, 1979 – January 3, 1999
Preceded by Jack Flynt
Succeeded by Johnny Isakson

Born June 17, 1943 (1943-06-17) (age 66)
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
Birth name Newton Leroy McPherson
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Jackie Battley (1962-1981)
Marianne Ginther (1981-2000)
Callista Gingrich (2000-current)
Residence Carrollton, Georgia (1979-1993, while in office)
Marietta, Georgia (1993-1999, while in office)
McLean, Virginia (current)
Alma mater Emory University
Tulane University
Occupation College professor, author, politician
Religion Roman Catholic
Signature

Newton Leroy "Newt" Gingrich (born Newton Leroy McPherson; June 17, 1943) is an American politician who served as the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999. In 1995, Time magazine selected him as the Person of the Year for his role in leading the Republican Revolution in the House, ending 40 years of the Democratic Party being in the majority. During his tenure as Speaker, he represented the public face of the Republican opposition to Bill Clinton.

A college history professor, political leader, and author, Gingrich twice ran unsuccessfully for the House before winning a seat in the election of November 1978. He was re-elected ten times, and his activism as a member of the House's Republican minority eventually enabled him to succeed Dick Cheney as House Minority Whip in 1989. As a co-author of the 1994 Contract with America, Gingrich was in the forefront of the Republican Party's dramatic success in that year's Congressional elections and subsequently was elected Speaker of the House. Gingrich's leadership in Congress was marked by opposition to many of the policies of the Clinton Administration. Shortly after the 1998 elections, when Republicans lost five seats in the House, Gingrich announced his resignation from his House seat and as Speaker.

Since resigning his seat, Gingrich has maintained a career as a political analyst and consultant. He continues to write works related to government and other subjects, such as historical fiction. Recently, he founded the conservative 527 group American Solutions for Winning the Future.[1]

Contents

Early life

Newt Gingrich was born Newton Leroy McPherson, on June 17, 1943, in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, to nineteen-year-old Newton Searles McPherson and sixteen-year-old Kathleen Daugherty, who were married in September 1942.[2][3] His mother raised him by herself until she married Robert Gingrich, who then adopted Newt. Gingrich has a younger half-sister, Candace Gingrich.

Gingrich was the child of a career military family, moving a number of times while growing up and attending school at various military installations. He ultimately graduated from Baker High School in Columbus, Georgia, in 1961. He received a B.A. degree from Emory University in Atlanta in 1965. He received an M.A. in 1968, and then a Ph.D. in Modern European History from Tulane University in New Orleans in 1971.[4] His dissertation topic was Belgian Education policy in Africa. While at Tulane, Gingrich, who at the time belonged to no religious group, began attending the St. Charles Avenue Baptist Church to pursue an interest in the effect of religion on political theory; he was soon baptized by the Rev. Mr G. Avery Lee.[5]

Gingrich taught history at the University of West Georgia in Carrollton, Georgia, from 1970 to 1978. He also taught a class, Renewing American Civilization, at Kennesaw State University in 1993.[6]

Early political career

Campaign for Congress

In 1974 and 1976, Gingrich made two unsuccessful runs for Congress in Georgia's sixth congressional district, which stretched from the southern Atlanta suburbs to the Alabama state line. Gingrich lost both times to incumbent Democrat Jack Flynt. Flynt, a Democrat, had served in Congress since 1955 and never faced a serious challenge prior to Gingrich's two runs against him. Gingrich nearly defeated Flynt in 1974, a year that was otherwise very bad for Republicans due to Watergate. A 1976 rematch was similarly close, despite the presence of Jimmy Carter on the presidential ballot.

Flynt chose not to run for re-election in 1978. Gingrich ran for the seat a third time, and defeated Democratic State Senator Virginia Shapard by almost 9 points.[7][8]

Gingrich was reelected six times from this district, facing only one close race. In the House elections of 1990, he defeated Democrat David Worley by 978 votes.

Pre-speakership congressional activities

Congressman Gingrich meets with President Ronald Reagan, 1985

In 1981, Gingrich co-founded the Congressional Military Reform Caucus (MRC) as well as the Congressional Aviation and Space Caucus. In 1983 he founded the Conservative Opportunity Society, a group that included young conservative House Republicans. In 1983, Gingrich demanded the expulsion of fellow representatives Dan Crane and Gerry Studds for their roles in the Congressional Page sex scandal.

In May 1988, Gingrich (along with 77 other House members and Common Cause) brought ethics charges against Democratic Speaker Jim Wright, who was alleged to have used a book deal to circumvent campaign-finance laws and House ethics rules. Wright eventually resigned as a result of the inquiry. Gingrich's success in forcing the resignation was in part responsible for his rising influence in the Republican caucus.[citation needed] In 1989, after House Minority Whip Dick Cheney was appointed Secretary of Defense, Gingrich was elected to succeed him. Gingrich and others in the house, including the newly minted Gang of Seven, railed against what they saw as ethical lapses in the House, an institution that had been under Democratic control for almost 40 years. The House banking scandal and Congressional Post Office scandal were emblems of the exposed corruption.

Election of 1992

As a result of the 1990 United States Census, Georgia picked up an additional seat for the 1992 elections. However, the Democratic-controlled Georgia General Assembly eliminated Gingrich's old district, which stretched from the southern suburbs of Atlanta to the Alabama border. Gingrich's home in Carrollton was drawn into the Columbus-based 3rd District, represented by five-term Democrat Richard Ray.

At the same time, the Assembly created a new 6th District in Fulton and Cobb counties in the wealthy northern suburbs of Atlanta — an area Gingrich had never represented. However, Gingrich sold his home in Carrollton, moved to Marietta in the new 6th and won a very close Republican primary. The primary victory was tantamount to election in the new, heavily Republican district. Meanwhile, Ray narrowly lost to Republican state senator Mac Collins.

Speaker of the House

The Contract with America and rise to Speaker

Vice President Al Gore, President Bill Clinton and Newt Gingrich at the 1997 State of the Union Address

In the 1994 campaign season, in an effort to offer a concrete alternative to shifting Democratic policies and to unite distant wings of the Republican Party, Newt Gingrich (with the help of other Republicans) came up with a Contract with America, which had ten items in it.[9] The contract was signed by Gingrich and other Republican candidates for the House of Representatives. The contract ranged from issues with broad popular support, including welfare reform, term limits, tougher crime laws, and a balanced budget law, to more specialized legislation such as restrictions on American military participation in U.N. missions. In the November 1994 elections, Republicans gained 54 seats and took control of the House for the first time since 1954.

Long-time House Minority Leader Bob Michel of Illinois had not run for re-election in 1994, giving Gingrich, the highest-ranking Republican returning to Congress, the inside track to becoming Speaker. Legislation proposed by the 104th United States Congress included term limits for Congressional Representatives, tax cuts, welfare reform, and a balanced budget amendment, as well as independent auditing of the finances of the House of Representatives and elimination of non-essential services such as the House barbershop and shoe-shine concessions.

Congress fulfilled Gingrich's Contract promise to bring all ten of the Contract's issues to a vote within the first 100 days of the session, even though most legislation was held up in the Senate, vetoed by President Bill Clinton, or substantially altered in negotiations with Clinton. The Contract was criticized by the environmental lobbyist group Sierra Club, and by the liberal/progressive publication Mother Jones, which described the contract as a "Trojan horse tactic" that, while deploying the notion of reform, could have the effect of allowing corporate polluters to profit at the expense of the environment;[10] it was referred to by opponents, including President Clinton, as the "Contract on America".[11] However, future legislation and implementation of the contract put many aspects of it into law in some fashion.

Government shutdown and the snub

The momentum of the Republican Revolution stalled in late 1995 and early 1996 during a budget standoff between Congressional Republicans and Democratic President Bill Clinton. Speaker Gingrich and the new Republican majority wanted to slow the rate of government spending. Gingrich allowed previously approved appropriations to expire on schedule, thus allowing parts of the Federal government to shut down for lack of funds. However, Gingrich inflicted a blow to his public image by seeming to suggest that the Republican hard-line stance over the budget was in part due to his feeling "snubbed" by the President during a flight to and from Yitzhak Rabin's funeral in Israel. The subsequent event caused Gingrich to get lampooned by some in the media, with one editorial cartoon depicted him as having thrown a temper tantrum.[12] Democratic leaders took the opportunity to attack Gingrich's motives for the budget standoff, which may have contributed to Clinton's re-election in November 1996.[13][14]

Tom DeLay recounts the event in his book, No Retreat, No Surrender, saying that Gingrich "made the mistake of his life." He goes on to say the following of Gingrich's handling of the shutdown:[15]

"He told a room full of reporters that he forced the shutdown because Clinton had rudely made him and Bob Dole sit at the back of Air Force One...Newt had been careless to say such a thing, and now the whole moral tone of the shutdown had been lost. What had been a noble battle for fiscal sanity began to look like the tirade of a spoiled child..The revolution, I can tell you, was never the same."

In her autobiography Living History, former First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton shows a picture of Bill Clinton, Dole, and Gingrich laughing on the plane. Gingrich commented on this event in his book Lessons Learned the Hard Way, explaining how the picture was taken on the plane going to Yitzhak Rabin's funeral in Israel rather than on the return trip from Israel, contradicting Clinton's claim.

Ethics sanctions

On January 21, 1997, the House voted overwhelmingly (395 to 28) to reprimand House Speaker Newt Gingrich for ethics violations dating back to September 1994. The house ordered Gingrich to pay an unprecedented $300,000 penalty, the first time in the House's 208-year history it had disciplined a speaker for ethical wrongdoing.[16]
Eighty-four ethics charges, most of which were leveled by House Democratic Whip David Bonior, were filed against Speaker Gingrich during his term, including claiming tax-exempt status for a college course run for political purposes. Eighty-three of the 84 allegations were dropped.[17] Gingrich denied the charges over misuse of tax-exempt funds; however, he admitted to providing inaccurate statements during the probe over the college course and agreed to pay US$300,000 for the cost of the investigation.[18][19] The House Ethics Committee concluded that inaccurate information supplied to investigators represented "intentional or ... reckless" disregard of House rules.[20] The full committee panel did not reach a conclusion about whether Gingrich had violated federal tax law, instead they opted to leave it up to the IRS.[21]
In 1999, the IRS cleared the organizations connected with the "Renewing American Civilization" courses under investigation for possible tax violations.[22]

Leadership challenge

In the summer of 1997, a few House Republicans had come to see Gingrich's public image as a liability and attempted to replace him as Speaker. According to Time, the replacement was engineered by several Republican backbenchers, including Steve Largent of Oklahoma, Lindsey Graham of South Carolina and Mark Souder of Indiana. They soon gained the support of the four Republicans who ranked directly below Gingrich in the House leadership—Dick Armey, House Majority Whip Tom DeLay, Republican conference chairman John Boehner of Ohio, and Republican leadership chairman Bill Paxon of New York.

On July 9, DeLay, Boehner and Paxon had the first of several secret meetings to discuss the rebellion. The next night, DeLay met with 20 of the plotters in Largent's office, and appeared to assure them that the leadership was with them.

Under the plan, Armey, DeLay, Boehner and Paxon were to present Gingrich with an ultimatum; resign, or be voted out. Combined with the votes of the Democrats, there appeared to be enough votes to vacate the chair. However, the rebels decided that they wanted Paxon to be the new Speaker. At that point, Armey backed out, and told his chief of staff to warn Gingrich about the coup.

In response, Gingrich forced Paxon to resign his post, but backed off initial plans to force a vote of confidence in the rest of the Republican leadership.[23]

Resignation of the speakership and seat in the House

Gingrich's official portrait as Speaker

By 1998, Gingrich had become a highly visible and polarizing figure in the public's eye, making him a target for Democratic congressional candidates across the nation. His approval rating was 45% in April 1998.[24]

Republicans lost 5 seats in the House in the 1998 midterm elections — the worst performance in 64 years for a party that didn't hold the presidency. Polls showed that Gingrich and the Republican Party's attempt to remove President Clinton from office was widely unpopular among Americans.[25]

Gingrich suffered much of the blame for the election loss. Facing another rebellion in the Republican caucus, he announced on November 6 that he would not only stand down as Speaker, but would leave the House as well. He had been handily reelected to an 11th term in that election, but declined to take his seat. Commenting on his departure, Gingrich said, "I'm willing to lead but I'm not willing to preside over people who are cannibals. My only fear would be that if I tried to stay, it would just overshadow whoever my successor is."[26]

Post-congressional life

Gingrich has since remained involved in national politics and public policy debate. He is a senior fellow at the conservative think tank American Enterprise Institute, focusing upon health care (he has founded the Center for Health Transformation), information technology, the military, and politics. Gingrich is also a Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the conservative Hoover Institution, focusing on U.S. politics, world history, national security policy, and environmental policy issues. He sometimes serves as a commentator, guest or panel member on cable news shows, such as the Fox News Channel. He is listed as a contributor by Fox News Channel, and frequently appears as a guest on various segments; he has also hosted occasional specials for the Fox News Channel. Gingrich is also a guiding coalition member of the Project on National Security Reform.

Newt and his wife, Callista Gingrich, host and produce historical and public policy documentaries. Recent films include, Rediscovering God in America, We Have the Power, and Ronald Reagan: Rendezvous with Destiny and Rediscovering God in America II: Our Heritage. Nine Days That Changed The World will be released in April 2010.

In June 2006, Gingrich publicly called for Congressman Jack Murtha to be censured by the United States Congress for Murtha's statement that America was a greater threat to world stability than Iran or North Korea. Following Gingrich's comment, the paper that originally printed the statement backed away and admitted that Murtha had been misquoted.[citation needed] The paper insisted that it was merely citing a poll that showed the world believed the United States was a greater threat than either of those nations. Gingrich made no further comment on the issue, nor did he apologize or retract his call for Murtha to be censured.

In late September 2007, Gingrich founded American Solutions for Winning the Future. The stated mission of the group is to become the "leading grassroots movement to recruit, educate, and empower citizen activists and elected officials to develop solutions to transform all levels of government." Gingrich spoke of the group and its objectives at the CPAC conference of 2008 and currently serves as its General Chairman.[27]

Besides politics, Gingrich has authored a book, Rediscovering God in America, attempting to demonstrate that the Founding Fathers actively intended the new republic to not only allow, but encourage, Christian religious expression in the public square. Since Gingrich has, "dedicated much of his time to calling America back to our Christian heritage," Jerry Falwell invited him to be the speaker, for the second time, at Liberty University's graduation, on May 19, 2007.[28] Speaker Gingrich has also collaborated with David Bossie and Citizens United Productions to produce and co-host with his wife, Callista Gingrich, a DVD which shares its name with the book.

On May 19, 2009, Newt Gingrich was a guest on Comedy Central's The Daily Show with Jon Stewart. Gingrich made an appearance on the television program to talk about his book, 5 Principles for a Successful Life, and he also discussed current political issues that have affected the Republican Party. [29]

Declined 2008 presidential run

Between 2005 and 2007, Gingrich expressed interest in being a candidate for the 2008 Republican nomination for the Presidency.[30] On October 13, 2005, Gingrich suggested he was considering a run for president, saying, "There are circumstances where I will run", elaborating that those circumstances would be if no other candidate champions some of the platform ideas he advocates. On September 28, 2007, Gingrich announced that if his supporters pledged $30 million to his campaign (until October 21), he would seek the nomination.

However, insisting that he had “pretty strongly” considered running,[31] on September 29 spokesman Rick Tyler said that Gingrich would not seek the presidency in 2008 because he could not continue to serve as chairman of American Solutions if he did so.[32] Citing campaign finance law restrictions (the McCain-Feingold campaign law would have forced him to leave his American Solutions political organization if he declared his candidacy), Gingrich said, "I wasn't prepared to abandon American Solutions, even to explore whether a campaign was realistic."[33]

2009 Election Involvement

During the 2009 special election in New York's 23rd congressional district Gingrich weighed in and endorsed Republican Dede Scozzafava.[34] The conservative base to which Gingrich has traditionally appealed reacted with a backlash questioning his candidacy for President in 2012,[35][36] and even comparing him to Benedict Arnold.[37]

2012 presidential speculation

Gingrich speaking at the April 15, 2009, New York City Tea Party protests.

Several political commentators, including Marc Ambinder in The Atlantic[38] and Robert Novak in the Washington Post,[39] have identified Gingrich as a top contender for a presidential run in the 2012 election, with Ambinder stating that he "is already planting some seeds in Iowa, New Hampshire".

Gingrich warned, "If the Republicans can’t break out of being the right wing party of big government, then I think you would see a third party movement in 2012." Gingrich thrashed Republicans for allowing increased spending during the Bush administration and for not doing enough to block President Barack Obama's early initiatives.[40] In an interview from On the Record with Greta Van Susteren, Gingrich said, "I am very sad that a number of Republicans do not understand that this country is sick of earmarks. They are sick of politicians taking care of themselves. They are sick of their money being spent in a way that is absolutely indefensible ... I think you're going to see a steady increase in the number of incumbents who have opponents because the American taxpayers are increasingly fed up."[41] Gingrich noted how, at American Solutions, the organization is "working to help people with the April 15 taxpayers parties," because it was good for those Americans who are fed up to communicate how ready they are to fire some of their incumbents next year. When asked if he is thinking of running in 2012, Gingrich replied, "I want to spend all of 2009 trying to develop good policies at American Solutions ... trying to defeat bad policies, like the effort to take away your right to a secret ballot before being forced to join a union. We need to focus everybody on 2009 and finding solutions this year because we are on the edge of being in big trouble."

Public Image

Favorable Ratings

Date Favorable Unfavorable Reference
Nov. 1994 6% 11% [42]
Jan. 1995 10% 23% [43]
Feb. 1995 22% 33% [44]
Dec. 1995 24% 56% [45]
June 1996 25% 57% [46]
April 1997 23% 59% [47]
Jan. 1998 32%  ? [48]
July 1998 31% 47% [49]
April 2009 36% 44% [50]
May 2009 30% 47% [51]
June 2009 35% 46% [52]

Personal life

Gingrich has been married three times. He married Jackie Battley, his former high school geometry teacher, when he was 19 years old. She was seven years his senior at 26 years old.[53][54] They had two daughters. The couple decided to divorce after Gingrich told his wife of the affair while she was recovering from cancer surgery.[55] Numerous allegations that Gingrich was callous in the way he handled the divorce were made in a 1984 Mother Jones magazine article.[56] In 1981, six months after his divorce was final, Gingrich wed Marianne Ginther.[57] He remained married to Ginther until 2000, when they divorced. Shortly thereafter, Gingrich then married Callista Bisek, with whom he was conducting an extra-marital affair during the Congressional investigation of Bill Clinton's perjury relating to his affair with 23-year-old intern, Monica Lewinsky.[58]

Newt and Callista Gingrich currently live in McLean, Virginia.[59]

A Baptist since graduate school, Gingrich converted to Catholicism, his wife's faith, on March 29, 2009.[60]

Political positions

Some specific viewpoints he has expressed in recent years include:

Illegal immigration

From Gingrich's five challenges: "No serious nation in the age of terror can afford to have wide-open borders with millions of illegal aliens crossing at will."

Although a source of friction in the conservative wing of the GOP (and some pro-union Blue Dog Democrats), Gingrich supports a "guest worker program" for foreign workers, meaning that an undetermined number of foreign workers would be allowed to come to the United States and work for a period of time, then return to their home country. Gingrich also supports the idea of allowing some of these guest workers to become citizens. In his book, Winning the Future, he says:

"Along with total border control, we must make it easier for people who enter the United States legally, to work for a set period of time, obey the law, and return home. The requirements for participation in a worker visa program should be tough and uncompromising. The first is essential: Everyone currently working in the United States illegally must return to their home country to apply for the worker visa program. Anything less than requiring those who are here illegally to return home to apply for legal status is amnesty, plain and simple."

Climate change

Even though he has expressed skepticism that man is significantly affecting the climate, Gingrich does support steps to lower carbon emissions as an act of prudence.[61] He favors tax breaks to mitigate carbon emissions instead of cap-and-trade[62] and has expressed commitment to a conservative take on conservation efforts.[63] Gingrich's environmental ideas were revealed in his book, A Contract with the Earth.

Wall Street bailouts

In late 2008, Gingrich voiced his strong opposition to the U.S. government bailout of Wall Street. He described the $700 billion bailout plan as "just wrong," that "it's likely to fail, and it's likely to make the situation worse over time."[64] Gingrich further reiterated that the bailout was "essentially wrong" in other appearances on Fox News on September 23 and 24, 2008. Some commentators have speculated that he undercut John McCain by rallying the conservative elements in the House to vote no on the bailout.[65] By September 29 he decided that he would "reluctantly and sadly" support it.[66]

Terrorism

In an interview with The Economist, Gingrich stated, "As a British court noted, waterboarding is not torture." Gingrich also believes George W. Bush's policy of "aggressive national security" kept the US safe and "blocked a number of planned attacks," but he admitted that "In the larger and longer war with the irreconcilable wing of Islam, it is clear we are not yet winning".

In terms of national security, Gingrich commented, "...we are watching the Obama administration return to the criminal-justice attitudes that failed to keep [the U.S.] safe in the Clinton years... The Obama team is even more pro-terrorist rights and anti-national security than the Clinton team was."[67]

Education

Gingrich favors rigorous math and science instruction in public schools, introducing competition between schools and between teachers, and permitting prayer in public schools.[68]

In 2009 Gingrich teamed with two unlikely allies to promote their shared view of education reform: civil rights activist Al Sharpton, and the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Education, Arne Duncan. After the three had visited a number of U.S. schools that were implementing education reforms, on November 15, 2009 they appeared together on NBC’s Sunday morning news and interview program Meet the Press. During their interview Gingrich said that “education is the number one factor in our future prosperity, it's the number one factor in national security and it's the number one factor in [our] young people having a decent future. I agree with Al Sharpton, this is the number one civil right of the 21st century.”[69]

Books authored

Nonfiction

  • The Government's Role in Solving Societal Problems. Associated Faculty Press, Incorporated. January 1982 ISBN 0-86733-026-0
  • Window of Opportunity. Tom Doherty Associates, December 1985. ISBN 0-312-93923-X
  • Contract with America (co-editor). Times Books, December 1994. ISBN 0-8129-2586-6
  • Restoring the Dream. Times Books, May 1995. ISBN 0-8129-2666-8
  • Quotations from Speaker Newt. Workman Publishing Company, Inc., July 1995. ISBN 0-7611-0092-X
  • To Renew America. Farrar Straus & Giroux, July 1996. ISBN 0-06-109539-7
  • Lessons Learned The Hard Way. HarperCollins Publishers, May 1998 ISBN 0-06-019106-6
  • Presidential Determination Regarding Certification of the Thirty-Two Major Illicit Narcotics Producing and Transit Countries. DIANE Publishing Company, September 1999. ISBN 0-7881-3186-9
  • Saving Lives and Saving Money. Alexis de Tocqueville Institution, April 2003. ISBN 0-9705485-4-0
  • Winning the Future. Regnery Publishing, January 2005. ISBN 0-89526-042-5
  • Rediscovering God in America: Reflections on the Role of Faith in Our Nation's History and Future. Integrity Publishers, October 2006. ISBN 1-59145-482-4
  • A Contract with the Earth, Johns Hopkins University Press, October 1, 2007. ISBN 0-8018-8780-2
  • Real Change: From the World That Fails to the World That Works. Regnery Publishing, January 2008. ISBN 978-1596980532
  • Drill Here, Drill Now, Pay Less: A Handbook for Slashing Gas Prices and Solving Our Energy Crisis. With Vince Haley. Regnery Publishing, September 2008 ISBN 1596985763
  • To Save America: Abolishing Obama's Socialist State and Restoring Our Unique American Way -- expected May 2010

Alternative history

Gingrich co-wrote the following alternate history novels and series of novels with William R. Forstchen.

Civil War Series

  • Gettysburg: A Novel of the Civil War Thomas Dunne Books, June 2003 ISBN 978-0312309350
  • Grant Comes East Thomas Dunne Books, June 2004 ISBN 0-312-30937-6
  • Never Call Retreat: Lee and Grant: The Final Victory Thomas Dunne Books, June 2005 ISBN 0-312-34298-5

Pacific War Series

  • Pearl Harbor: A Novel of December 8th Thomas Dunne Books, May 2007 ISBN 0-312-36350-8
  • Days of Infamy Thomas Dunne Books, April 2008 ISBN 0-312-36351-6

References

  1. ^ American Solutions FAQ list
  2. ^ "The Long March of Newt Gingrich". PBS Frontline. 1996-01-16. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/newt/newtchron.html. Retrieved 2007-03-14. 
  3. ^ "Biography of Newton Gingrich". U.S. Congressional Library. 2007. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=G000225. Retrieved 2007-01-18. 
  4. ^ Biosketch of Gingrich on Answers.com.
  5. ^ Lee later wrote, "It has been suggested by some that in baptizing him [Gingrich], I didn't hold him under long enough." "The Rev. Avery Lee, Pioneering Pastor" in Times-Picayune, 2009 January 13, Saint Tammany Edition, p. B4 (accessed 2009 January 13).
  6. ^ Scott, Thomas (2007-02-21). "Kennesaw State University". New Georgia Encyclopedia. http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-852. Retrieved 2007-05-21. 
  7. ^ "Shepard, Virginia". Our Campaigns. 2007-06-23. http://www.ourcampaigns.com/CandidateDetail.html?CandidateID=16630. Retrieved 2008-10-10. 
  8. ^ http://www.library.gsu.edu/spcoll/pages/pages.asp?ldID=105&guideID=551&ID=4133
  9. ^ Limbaugh, Rush (2009-03-11). "An EIB History Lesson on 1994". Rush Limbaugh. http://www.rushlimbaugh.com/home/daily/site_031109/content/01125114.guest.html. Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
  10. ^ "Contract on America's Environment". The Planet Newsletter (Sierra Club). http://www.sierraclub.org/planet/199412/yir-contract.asp. Retrieved 2006-08-15. 
  11. ^ ASNE - Luncheon address by President Bill Clinton
  12. ^ http://z.about.com/d/politicalhumor/1/0/_/7/newt_baby.jpg
  13. ^ Hollman, Kwame (1996-11-20). PBS.org "The State of Newt". PBS. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/congress/november96/newtb_11-20.html PBS.org. Retrieved 2006-08-14. 
  14. ^ Murdock, Deroy (2000-08-28). NationalReview.com "Newt Gingrich's Implosion". National Review. http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/commentprint082800d.html NationalReview.com. Retrieved 2006-08-15. 
  15. ^ DeLay, Tom; Stephen Mansfield. No Retreat, No Surrender: One American's Fight. pp. 112. 
  16. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/govt/leadership/stories/012297.htm
  17. ^ WashingtonPost.com: Ethics Committee Drops Last of 84 Charges Against Gingrich
  18. ^ [ibid]
  19. ^ Washingtonpost.com: House Reprimands, Penalizes Speaker
  20. ^ Yang, John E. and Dewar, Helen (1997-01-18). washingtonpost.com "Ethics Panel Supports Reprimand of Gingrich". Washington Post. p. A01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/govt/leadership/stories/011897.htm washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2006-08-15. 
  21. ^ Washingtonpost.com: Ethics Panel Supports Reprimand of Gingrich
  22. ^ I.R.S. Clears Foundation Linked to Gingrich's Ethics Dispute - New York Times
  23. ^ AllPolitics - Attempted Republican Coup: Ready, Aim, Misfire - July 28, 1997
  24. ^ Gallup Poll
  25. ^ http://www.jstor.org/pss/3792068
  26. ^ The Speaker Steps Down, The New York Times, 11/8/98.
  27. ^ About American Solutions for Winning the Future
  28. ^ Why I Asked Newt Gingrich to Speak at Liberty's Graduation. NewsMax.com, March 9, 2007.
  29. ^ O'Donnell, Sean (2009-05-19). "The Daily Show welcomes Newt Gingrich as guest". examiner.com, The Daily Show. http://www.examiner.com/x-3108-Baltimore-Republican-Examiner~y2009m5d20-The-Daily-Show-welcomes-Newt-Gingrich-as-guest. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  30. ^ Eilperin, Juliet (2006-06-10). "Gingrich May Run in 2008 if No Frontrunner Emerges". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/06/09/AR2006060901444.html. Retrieved 2006-08-25. 
  31. ^ Libit, Daniel (2008-12-21). "The rise of Newt-world". politico. http://www.politico.com/news/stories/1208/16717.html. Retrieved 2008-12-21. 
  32. ^ Shear, Michael D. (2007-09-30). "Gingrich says he won't run for president". The Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2003913741_nonewt30.html. Retrieved 2007-09-30. 
  33. ^ "Gingrich rules out presidential run". reuters. 2007-09-30. http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/idUSN2923578620070930. Retrieved 2007-09-30. 
  34. ^ http://www.syracuse.com/news/index.ssf/2009/10/newt_gingrich_endorses_dede_sc.html
  35. ^ http://michellemalkin.com/2009/10/26/newt-for-2012-no-thanks/
  36. ^ http://www.riehlworldview.com/carnivorous_conservative/2009/10/newt-in-2012-yeah-but-which-party-dude.html
  37. ^ http://912candidates.org/blog/2009/11/08/6-weeks-notice/
  38. ^ "So Why's Huck An Early '12 Frontrunner?" by Marc Ambinder, The Atlantic.com, Oct. 2, 2008, accessed Nov. 8, 2008.
  39. ^ "Newt in 2012?" by Robert Novak, Washington Post, November 7, 2008, accessed Nov. 8, 2008.
  40. ^ Barr, Andy (2009-04-03). "Gingrich: GOP-ers may form third party". politico. http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0409/20809.html. Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
  41. ^ Van Susteren, Greta (2009-03-10). "Newt Gingrich for President in 2012?". FoxNews.com. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,508628,00.html. Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
  42. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/1995/04/02/weekinreview/markdown-the-selling-of-a-used-president-gets-easier.html?pagewanted=2
  43. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/1995/04/02/weekinreview/markdown-the-selling-of-a-used-president-gets-easier.html?pagewanted=2
  44. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/1995/02/28/us/poll-finds-public-doubts-key-parts-of-gop-s-agenda.html
  45. ^ http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1996/polls/cnn.time/120695.shtml
  46. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/polls/vault/stories/data071498.htm#favorable
  47. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/polls/vault/stories/data071498.htm#favorable
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  51. ^ http://www.publicpolicypolling.com/pdf/PPP_Release_National_521.pdf
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  53. ^ Russakoff, Dale (December 18, 1994), "He Knew What He Wanted; Gingrich Turned Disparate Lessons Into a Single-Minded Goal Series: MR. SPEAKER: THE RISE OF NEWT GINGRICH Series Number: 1/4;", Washington Post: A1 
  54. ^ Cox, Major W. (1995-01-04). "Gingrich May Be Perfect for the Task". Montgomery Advertiser. http://www.majorcox.com/columns/gingrich.htm/. Retrieved 2007-03-09. 
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  56. ^ Newt Gingrich: shining knight of the post-Reagan Right David Osborne, Mother Jones magazine November 1, 1984
  57. ^ "Good Newt, Bad Newt". Vanity Fair (via PBS). http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/newt/boyernewt1.html. 
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  60. ^ swims the Tiber, GetReligion.org, April 1, 2009
  61. ^ Newt Gingrich -Man vs. Nature on Global Warming
  62. ^ Quaid, Libby. Kerry, Gingrich Debate Global Warming, The Associated Press, April 10, 2007
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  64. ^ http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=94900671
  65. ^ http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,426221,00.html
  66. ^ ABC News' Teddy Davis Reports: Former House Speaker Newt Gingrich reversed course on Monday, issuing a statement saying that if he were still in office he would "reluctantly and sadly" support the $700 billion Wall Street bailout bill
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  69. ^ Newt Gingrich, Al Sharpton, Arne Duncan, David Gregory. (November 15, 2009). Meet the Press. [Television weekly news and interview program]. NBC. 
Books
  • Fenno Jr., Richard F. (2000). Congress at the Grassroots: Representational Change in the South, 1970–1998. UNC Press. ISBN 0-8078-4855-7. 
  • Strahan, Randall (2007). Leading Representatives: The Agency of Leaders in the Politics of the U.S. House. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8108-8691-0. 
Journals
  • Little, Thomas H. (1998). "On the Coattails of a Contract: RNC Activities and Republicans Gains in the 1994 State Legislative Elections". Political Research Quarterly 51 (1): 173–190. 
Web

External links

Grassroots campaigns
Political offices
Preceded by
Dick Cheney
House Minority Whip
1989 – 1995
Succeeded by
David E. Bonior
Preceded by
Tom Foley
Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives
January 4, 1995 – January 3, 1999
Succeeded by
Dennis Hastert
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Jack Flynt
Member from Georgia's 6th congressional district
1979 – 1999
Succeeded by
Johnny Isakson
Party political offices
Preceded by
Dick Cheney
House Republican Whip
1989 – 1995
Succeeded by
Tom DeLay

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Newton Leroy Gingrich (born 17 June 1943) is an American politician who was Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999; born Newton McPherson.

Sourced

  • If this just degenerates after a historic election, back into the usual bologna of politics in Washington and pettiness in Washington, then the American people I believe will move towards a third party in a massive way.
  • If combat means living in a ditch, females have biological problems staying in a ditch for thirty days because they get infections and they don't have upper body strength. I mean, some do, but they're relatively rare. On the other hand, men are basically little piglets, you drop them in the ditch, they roll around in it, doesn't matter, you know. These things are very real. On the other hand, if combat means being on an Aegis-class cruiser managing the computer controls for twelve ships and their rockets, a female may be again dramatically better than a male who gets very, very frustrated sitting in a chair all the time because males are biologically driven to go out and hunt giraffes.
    • Address, "Renewing American Civilization," Reinhardt College, (January 7, 1995)
  • I'm not studying this, I'm not looking at it in great detail, but the last guy to announce on your show came in fourth.
    • Response to Jon Stewart's request that he announce his candidacy for President of the United States in the 2008 election on The Daily Show (June 6, 2005)

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Simple English

[[File:|Newt Gingrich|right|thumb|150px]] Newton Leroy "Newt" Gingrich (born June 17, 1943) is a politician in the United States. Gingrich was a Congressman from Georgia from 1978 to 1999. He was speaker of the House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999. He is known for bringing in the "Republican Revolution" in the House because his political party, the Republican Party, or GOP, after 40 years of the Democratic Party dominating Congress. He is also an author, professor, and a historian. Since quitting the House, Gingrich has become a political analyst, or someone who talks about current issues on television, radio, or in a newspaper.








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