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The newton (symbol: N) is the SI derived unit of force, named after Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on classical mechanics.



The newton is the unit of force derived in the SI system; it is equal to the amount of force required to accelerate a mass of one kilogram at a rate of one metre per second per second. In dimensional analysis, F=ma, multiplying m (kg) by a (m/s2), the dimension for 1 newton unit is therefore:[1]

{\rm 1~N = 1~\frac{kg\cdot m}{s^2}}


  • 1 N is the force of Earth's gravity on an object with a mass of about 102 g (19.8 kg) (such as a small apple).
  • On Earth's surface, a mass of 1 kg exerts a force of approximately 9.80665 N [down] (or 1 kgf). The approximation of 1 kg corresponding to 10 N is sometimes used as a rule of thumb in everyday life and in engineering.
  • The force of Earth's gravity on a human being with a mass of 70 kg is approximately 686 N.
  • The dot product of force and distance is mechanical work. Thus, in SI units, a force of 1 N exerted over a distance of 1 m is 1 N·m of work. The Work-Energy Theorem states that the work done on a body is equal to the change in energy of the body. 1 N·m = 1 J (joule), the SI unit of energy.
  • It is common to see forces expressed in kilonewtons or kN, where 1 kN = 1 000 N.

Common use of kilonewtons in construction

Kilonewtons are often used for stating safety holding values of fasteners, anchors and more in the building industry.[2] They are also often used in the specifications for rock climbing equipment. The safe working loads in both tension and shear measurements can be stated in kN (kilonewtons).

1 kN equals 101.97162 kilograms of load, but multiplying the kN value by 100 (i.e. using a slightly pessimistic and easier to calculate value) is a good rule of thumb.[3]

Conversion factors

Units of force
(SI unit)
dyne kilogram-force,
pound-force poundal
1 N ≡ 1 kg·m/s² = 105 dyn ≈ 0.10197 kp ≈ 0.22481 lbf ≈ 7.2330 pdl
1 dyn = 10−5 N ≡ 1 g·cm/s² ≈ 1.0197×10−6 kp ≈ 2.2481×10−6 lbf ≈ 7.2330×10−5 pdl
1 kp = 9.80665 N = 980665 dyn gn·(1 kg) ≈ 2.2046 lbf ≈ 70.932 pdl
1 lbf ≈ 4.448222 N ≈ 444822 dyn ≈ 0.45359 kp gn·(1 lb) ≈ 32.174 pdl
1 pdl ≈ 0.138255 N ≈ 13825 dyn ≈ 0.014098 kp ≈ 0.031081 lbf ≡ 1 lb·ft/s²
The value of gn as used in the official definition of the kilogram-force is used here for all gravitational units.
Three approaches to mass and force units
System Gravitational Engineering Absolute
Force (F) F = m·a F = m·a/gc = w·a/g F = m·a
Weight (w) w = m·g w = m·g/gc ≈ m w = m·g
Units English Metric English Metric English Metric
Acceleration (a) ft/s2 m/s2 ft/s2 m/s2 ft/s2 m/s2
Mass (m) slug hyl pound-mass kilogram pound kilogram
Force (F) pound kilopond pound-force kilopond poundal newton

See also


Simple English

This article is about the SI unit of force.
For the 17th-century mathematician and physicist, see Isaac Newton.
For other uses, see Newton (disambiguation).

The newton (symbol: N) is the SI unit of force. It is named after Sir Isaac Newton because of his work on classical mechanics. A newton is how much force is required to make a mass of one kilogram go faster at a rate of one metre per second.

1\, \mathrm{N}=1\, \mathrm{kg} \cdot \mathrm{m} / \mathrm{s}^{2}
  • 1 N is the force of Earth's gravity on an apple with a mass of about 102 g.
  • On Earth's surface, a mass of 1 kg pushes with an average force of 9.8 N on its support.krc:Ньютон (ёлчем бирим)

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