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Nicholas II
Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias
Reign 1 November [O.S. 20 October] 1894 – 15 March 1917
Coronation 26 May [O.S. 14 May] 1894
Predecessor Alexander III
Successor Office abolished
De facto :
Georgy Lvov (chairman of the provisional government)
Spouse Alix of Hesse
Issue
Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna
Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna
Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna
Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna
Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich
House House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Father Alexander III of Russia
Mother Maria Feodorovna
(Dagmar of Denmark)
Born 18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868
Tsarskoye Selo (now called Pushkin), Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
Died 17 July 1918 (aged 50)
Yekaterinburg, Russian SFSR
Burial Peter and Paul Cathedral, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation
Signature
.Nicholas II (Russian: Николай II, Николай Александрович Романов, tr. Nikolay II, Nikolay Alexandrovich Romanov, IPA [nʲɪkɐˈlaj ftɐˈroj, nʲɪkɐˈlaj əlʲɪkˈsandrəvʲɪʨ rɐˈmanəf]) (18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July 1918) was the last Czar of Russia, Grand Duke of Finland, and titular King of Poland.^ What was the name of Czar Nicholas II wife?
  • WikiAnswers - What was the name of Czar Nicholas II wife 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ May 1868 St. Petersburg, Russia .
  • Biography of Nicholas II, Tsar of Russia - RoyaList Online 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.royalist.info [Source type: General]

^ Olga was the last Grand Duchess of Russia .

[1] .His official title was Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias[2] and he is currently regarded as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer by the Moscow Patriarchate of the Russian Orthodox Church.^ Nicholas, wife and five children are canonized as passion bearers by the synod of the Russian Orthodox Church.
  • the romanov portal 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC web.telia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Emperor of all the Russias .
  • MySpace - Tsar Nicholas - 103 - Male - - myspace.com/48558701 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fourth period of the Russian Church is that of the Patriarchate of Moscow (1589-1700).
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Religion of Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Nicholas II ruled from 1894 until his abdication on 15 March 1917. His reign saw Imperial Russia go from being one of the foremost great powers of the world to an economic and military disaster.^ Russia - History - Nicholas II, 1894-1917.
  • Search Results 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.awm.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

^ Russia, imperial, Nicholas II (1894-1917) T O P You are bidding on a Russian medal, 1905.

^ March 1917 saw major changes in Russia .

.Critics nicknamed him Nicholas the Bloody because of the Khodynka Tragedy, Bloody Sunday, and the anti-Semitic pogroms that occurred during his reign.^ [The "Bloody Sunday" massacre has just occurred.
  • Nicholas and Alexandra - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nicknamed Nicholas the Bloody, after ordering the Bloody Sunday massacre in 1905.
  • Glossary of People: Ni 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At that time, many probably would have cheered that "Bloody Nicholas" was dead at last, that the man whose reign was marked by war and revolution was finally gone.
  • CNN Interactive - Views: y 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.Under his rule, Russia was defeated in the Russo-Japanese War.^ (This eventually led to the Russo-Japanese War .
  • Nicholas II@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Russo-Japanese war was disastrous for Russia.
  • The Life of the Holy Tsar-Martyr and Passion Bearer Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Russo-Japanese war had begun.
  • EefyWiki - 20c: War and Revolution 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC eefy.editme.com [Source type: Original source]

.As head of state, he approved the Russian mobilization of August 1914 which marked the first fatal step into World War I and thus into the demise of the Romanov dynasty less than four years later.^ The Russian monarchy before the First World War was out-of-date.
  • How Strong was the Tsar's government in 1913? 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.johndclare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Then in 1914 came the First World War.

^ He led his country into World War I and thus into the demise of the Romanov dynasty.
  • Nicholas II of Russia - Harry Turtledove Wiki - Historical fiction, Days of Infamy, Homeward Bound 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC turtledove.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nicholas II abdicated following the February Revolution of 1917 during which he and his family were imprisoned first in the Alexander Palace at Tsarskoye Selo, then later in the Governor's Mansion in Tobolsk, and finally at the Ipatiev House in Yekaterinburg.^ The execution and shooting of Czar Nicholas II Romanov Family 1917 .
  • H.M. Margrethe II Valdemarsdatter - Czar Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC noblessenu.webs.com [Source type: Original source]
  • valdemarsdatter@wiki - Crown Princess Royal Margrethe Romanov of Scotland/Queen Margrethe II of Frankland & Denmark 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC valdemarsdatter.atwiki.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Following his abdication, Nicholas intended to live in England with his family.
  • Tsar Nicholas II - Biography 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: General]

^ This image was in the Ipatiev house at the time of imprisonment of Nicholas II's family there in 1918.
  • PDS Russia Religion News July 2003 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.stetson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nicholas II, his wife, his son, his four daughters, the family's medical doctor, the Tsar's valet, the Empress' lady-in-waiting and the family's cook were all killed in the same room by the Bolsheviks on the night of 16/17 July 1918. This led to the canonization of Nicholas II, his wife the Empress and their children as martyrs by various groups tied to the Russian Orthodox Church within Russia and, prominently, outside Russia.^ Empress Maria Fyodorovna fled Russia after her son, Tsar Nicholas II, was murdered by Bolsheviks.

^ Tsar Nicholas II born .
  • Chronology of Russian Revolution 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the night of July 16-17, 1918, a squad of Bolshevik secret police murdered Russia's last emperor, Tsar Nicholas II, along with his wife, Tsaritsa Alexandra, their 14-year-old son, Tsarevich Alexis, and their four daughters.
  • The Jewish Role In The Bolshevik Revolution And Russia's Early Soviet Regime Assessing the Grim Legacy of Soviet Communism 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC rense.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Family background

.Nicholas was the son of Emperor Alexander III and Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia, the latter was born "Princess Dagmar of Denmark". His paternal grandparents were Emperor Alexander II and Empress Maria Alexandrovna of Russia, the latter was born "Princess Marie of Hesse". His maternal grandparents were King Christian IX of Denmark and Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel.^ Empress Maria Fyodorovna fled Russia after her son, Tsar Nicholas II, was murdered by Bolsheviks.

^ His son Alexander II of Youngia suceeded him as king.
  • Nicholas I of Youngia - ImagineWiki 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC imagine.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Empress Marie of Russia-Obituary- Empress Marie Feodorovna, widow of Alexander III and mother of Nicholas II -Russia-10-101-112 .
  • RoyaltyDigest 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.picrare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nicholas often referred to his father nostalgically in letters after Alexander's death in 1894, though as a child, he was jealous of his father's physical strength, demonstrated when his father had lifted a 60 pound stone with one hand.^ Nicholas succeeded to the throne on 20th October 1894, following the death of his father.
  • LANKALIBRARY FORUM • View topic - Massacre of Tsar Nicholas II and family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.lankalibrary.com [Source type: General]

^ When Alexander III died in 1894, his son and successor Nicholas II inherited a Russia that was rapidly changing.

^ On 3 November 1894, upon the death of his father, Tsar Alexander III , Nicholas took the oath of allegiance at the age of 26 and was crowned as Emperor of Russia.
  • :: WARCHRON :: The Great War - Eastern Front 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC warchron.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was also very close to his mother, revealed in their published letters to and from one another.^ Very much devoted to one another, Nicholas and Alexandra were the parents of five children - four daughters, Maria, Anastasia, Tatiana and Olga, and a son, Alexis.

^ At night they glued pictures into scrapbooks, read and sewed, wrote diaries and, when separated from one another, doting letters.
  • University of Michigan - Michigan Today 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: General]

^ Among the last of his letters quoted was one written on March 17, 1862, from Fredericksburg, Virginia, to his mother.
  • Nicholas / Perkins 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.August 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Nicholas had three younger brothers (Alexander [1869-1870], George [1871-1899], and Michael [1878-1918]) and two younger sisters (Xenia [1875-1960] and Olga [1882-1960]).^ George Michael Alexander Wernher (Edinburgh 22 Aug 1918-k.a.Beja, North Africa 4 Dec 1942) .
  • Empire of Russia - House of Romanov 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC almanachdegotha.org [Source type: General]

^ The relatively liberal tsar was replaced by his younger brother, Nicholas I (1825-1855), who at the beginning of his reign was confronted with an uprising.
  • RUSSIA: Travel to Russia, Russian culture | Information about geography, history and culture of Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.guidetorussia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mitochondrial DNA tests also linked the body of an adult male (Nicholas) to the exhumed body of Nicholas' brother George.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.etoile.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since his father's cousin, Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich, shared the same first name, the Grand Duke was often known within the Imperial Family as "Nicholasha" to distinguish him from the future Czar.^ He was known as "Greek Nicky" in the family to distinguish him from his cousin Nicholas II of Russia (1868 - 1918).
  • Prince Nicholas of Greece 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The Duke of Windsor and Czar Nicholas II are first degree causin.
  • valdemarsdatter@wiki - ASCENDANTS OF PRINCESS ANASTACIA ROMANOV DAUGHTER OF CZAR NICHOLAS II & EMPRESS CZARINA OF DANOUWORTH 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC valdemarsdatter.atwiki.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wilhelm was a second cousin to Nicholas' father.
  • boys clothing: European royalty--Russia Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Maternally, Nicholas was the nephew of several monarchs, including King George I of Greece, King Frederick VIII of Denmark, Alexandra, Queen consort of the United Kingdom, and The Crown Princess of Hanover.^ Theres another two from Russia, The Last Emperor of China and King Frederick IX of Denmark was Captain Romanov of Scotland before He become King Frederick IX of Denmark.
  • H.M. Margrethe II Valdemarsdatter - Czar Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC noblessenu.webs.com [Source type: Original source]
  • valdemarsdatter@wiki - ASCENDANTS OF PRINCESS ANASTACIA ROMANOV DAUGHTER OF CZAR NICHOLAS II & EMPRESS CZARINA OF DANOUWORTH 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC valdemarsdatter.atwiki.com [Source type: Original source]
  • valdemarsdatter@wiki - Crown Princess Royal Margrethe Romanov of Scotland/Queen Margrethe II of Frankland & Denmark 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC valdemarsdatter.atwiki.com [Source type: Original source]

^ George XIII, the next king of Georgia, renounced his crown in favour of the tsar and in 1801 Georgia became a Russian province.
  • The Royal Lineage of Princess Le 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC cilialacorte.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Box/Folder 8 : 40 Ol'ga Konstantinovna, Queen, consort of George I, King of Greece, 1917-1922 (10) .
  • Register of the Kseniia Aleksandrovna, Grand Duchess of Russia Papers 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: Academic]

.Nicholas, Nicholas's wife Alexandra, and Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany were all first cousins of George V, king of Great Britain.^ England's King George was, through his mother, a first cousin of Tsar Nicholas, and, through his father, a first cousin of Empress Alexandra.
  • The Jewish Role in the Bolshevik Revolution and Russia's Early Soviet Regime 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.ihr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Murder of Russia's Imperial Family, Part II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC library.flawlesslogic.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jewish Role In The Bolshevik Revolution And Russia's Early Soviet Regime Assessing the Grim Legacy of Soviet Communism 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC rense.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nicholas and Alexandra is a great movie.
  • VideoDetective.com - Nicholas And Alexandra Preview 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC videodetective.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ King George is my cousin!
  • Nicholas and Alexandra - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.Nicholas' mother, the Empress Marie, born Princess Dagmar of Denmark, was the sister of Queen Alexandra, the consort of Edward VII, and the mother of George V. The Empress Alexandra was the daughter of Princess Alice, herself a daughter of Queen Victoria, thus making Edward VII her Uncle,and cousin to the Emperor Wilhelm, on her mother's side; and equally a direct descendant of Queen Victoria.^ It was Queen Victoria’s daughter Alice who passed on the defective gene to her daughter, Alexandra.

^ England's King George was, through his mother, a first cousin of Tsar Nicholas, and, through his father, a first cousin of Empress Alexandra.
  • The Jewish Role in the Bolshevik Revolution and Russia's Early Soviet Regime 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.ihr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Murder of Russia's Imperial Family, Part II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC library.flawlesslogic.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Jewish Role In The Bolshevik Revolution And Russia's Early Soviet Regime Assessing the Grim Legacy of Soviet Communism 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC rense.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Wilhelm's mother was the aunt of Tsarina Alexandra.
  • boys clothing: European royalty--Russia Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Emperor Wilhelm was a son of Queen Victoria's eldest daughter, also named Victoria, who married Crown Prince Frederick of Germany.^ His son, Crown Prince Harald, has married a commoner Sonja Haraldsen.
  • Royal Genealogies Part 4 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC thedon.cac.psu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alexandra's grandmother, Queen Victoria, gave it to her daughter Alice who gave it to Alexandra who gave it to her son.
  • VideoDetective.com - Nicholas And Alexandra Preview 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC videodetective.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alexandra was married relatively late for her rank in her era, having refused a proposal from Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence (the eldest son of the Prince of Wales ) despite strong familial pressure.
  • Alexandra Fyodorovna of Hesse at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nicholas and Wilhelm were not each other's first cousin, but they were third cousins, once removed, as each descended from Frederick William III, King of Prussia.^ Wilhelm was a second cousin to Nicholas' father.
  • boys clothing: European royalty--Russia Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nikolai Nikolaevich Romanov, the Tsar's first cousin once removed.
  • Nicholas II, "October Manifesto"; Sergei Witte, excerpt from "TheMemoirs Of Count Witte." 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC euphrates.wpunj.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When the allies enter Paris with pomp and ceremony on 31 March 1814, tsar Alexander I rides in the cavalcade with the king of Prussia, Frederick William III. In the Champs Elysées they dismount to take the salute.

Tsarevich

.On 13 March 1881, following the assassination of his grandfather, Alexander II, Nicholas became Tsarevich and his father became Tsar Alexander III.^ Tsar Alexander II is assassinated .
  • Chronology of Russian Revolution 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander II was a reforming Tsar.

^ Alexander III 1881-1894 .
  • RUSSIAN COINS 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC coins.ua-ru.com [Source type: General]

.Nicholas and other family members witnessed this event while staying at the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg,[3] but for security reasons, the new Tsar and his family relocated their primary residence to the Gatchina Palace outside the city.^ Tsar Nicholas II and the Romanov family .
  • Tsar Nicholas II and the Romanov family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ Are Nicholas II and his family saints?
  • Frequently Asked Questions 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.etoile.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More saints were glorified in Tsar Nicholas' reign than in that of any other Tsar.
  • The Life of the Holy Tsar-Martyr and Passion Bearer Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

.A long trip for educational purposes became an important part of training for the state activity of the members of the Russian Imperial house.^ For 10 years, they kept the secret of the Romanov's burial ground a secret, in part due to finances and largely due to the state of the Russian government.
  • Cybamuse Independent Book Reviews: Rasputin and the Last Tsar of Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.cybamuse.com [Source type: General]

^ We couldn't bear the fact that the Saint members of the last Russian Royal family were considered criminals, now their good name has been restored from a legal point of view,” says Alexander Zakatov, head of Russian Imperial House's chancellery.
  • Last tsar’s family rehabilitated - RT Top Stories 12 September 2009 10:14 UTC www.russiatoday.com [Source type: News]

^ However, the Golden Horde regime had an important role in the development of Muscovy as a state and later into the Russian Empire.

.In 1890 Emperor Alexander III of Russia decided to establish the Trans-Siberian Railway and his heir Tsarevich Nicholas took part in the opening ceremony, and from there he was obliged to make a journey around the world, which became known as the Eastern Journey where he survived an assassination attempt at Otsu in Japan.^ Meanwhile Russia took parts of Poland.

^ The Assassination of Alexander II There were numerous assassination attempts on Alexander II's life.
  • Reincarnation Stories - The Assassination of JFK 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC anitasilvani.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Russia's last emperor Nicholas II .
  • Last tsar’s family rehabilitated - RT Top Stories 12 September 2009 10:14 UTC www.russiatoday.com [Source type: News]

.Although Nicholas attended meetings of the Imperial Council, his obligations were limited until he acceded to the throne, which was not expected for many years, since his father was only forty-five.^ After a secret meeting, a death sentence was passed on the imperial family, and Nicholas, his wife, his children, and several of their servants were gunned down on the night of July 16.
  • This Day in History 1917: Czar Nicholas II abdicates 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

^ Although they were not to meet until twelve years later, the future Tsar and Tsarina would develop then a strong bond to each other, which would be linked forever to the history of St. Petersburg and Russia.
  • Nicholas and Alexandra: Their lives, their family, and St. Petersburg 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC it.stlawu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ His father Nicholas Alexandrovich was forced to carry his thirteen-year-old son and heir to the Romanov Dynasty to meet his final destiny in the cellar of the Ipatiev mansion in Yekaterinburg in July 1918.

[4]
.While he was Tsarevich, Nicholas had an affair with the ballet dancer Mathilde Kschessinska.^ While he was Prince, Nicholas had an affair with an ballet dancer.
  • Nicholas II of Youngia - ImagineWiki 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC imagine.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was during this time he met a young dancer from the Imperial Ballet named Mathilde Kschessinka, who became his first, real girl friend.
  • Nicholas II - Alexander Palace Time Machine 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.alexanderpalace.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Czar Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Biography of a great ballet dancer who was the mistress of future Russian tsar Nicholas II. She later became the mistress of two Grand Dukes and married one.
  • Royalty.nu - Russian Royal History - The Romanovs 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.royalty.nu [Source type: General]

.Against the initial wishes of his parents, Nicholas was determined to marry Princess Alix of Hesse-Darmstadt, the fourth daughter of Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, second eldest daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.^ Nicholas was married in 1894 to Alix of Hesse-Darmstadt, also called Alexandra.
  • Tsar Nicholas II and His Friend 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.ucumberlands.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Later that month he married the German princess, Alexandra of Hesse-Darmstadt .

^ Princess Alices son Prince Frederick was a hemophiliac and her daughters Princess Irene and Princess Alix were carriers.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.etoile.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His parents intended a more politically beneficial arrangement with Princess Hélène, daughter of Philippe, comte de Paris, pretender to the French throne, hoping to cement Russia's new alliance with France, but eventually yielded to their son's insistence.^ Nicholas parents encouraged Nicholas to marry Princess Hélène of France to improve Russia bond with France.
  • Nicholas II of Russia | Quazen 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC quazen.com [Source type: General]

^ Russia joins a new alliance against France.

^ Nicholas fell in love with Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria, but his father did not approve the match, hoping instead for a marriage with a princess of the House of Orleans, to consummate Russia's newfound alliance with the French Republic.
  • Czar Nicholas II - Factbites 12 September 2009 10:14 UTC www.factbites.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Engagement, accession, and marriage

Official Engagement Photo of Nicholas II and Alexandra, by Sergei Lvovich Levitsky, April 1894
.Nicholas became engaged to Alix of Hesse in April 1894. Alix was hesitant to accept the engagement due to the requirement that she convert from Lutheranism to Russian Orthodoxy and renounce her former faith.^ Nicholas was married in 1894 to Alix of Hesse-Darmstadt, also called Alexandra.
  • Tsar Nicholas II and His Friend 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.ucumberlands.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Nicholas I's motto became Russian Orthodoxy, autocracy and nationalism.
  • Romanov Dynasty 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.mnsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ She and Nicholas became engaged in April 1894.
  • Alexandra Fyodorovna of Hesse at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An exception was made for Alix where she could convert without renouncing her Lutheran faith and convert with a clear conscience.^ Alexandra was troubled by the requirement she renounce her Lutheran faith, as a Russian Tsarina had to be Orthodox; but she was persuaded and eventually became a fervent, even fanatic convert.
  • Alexandra Fyodorovna of Hesse at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the most important parts of Alix's early life was her Lutheran faith.
  • Nicholas and Alexandra: Their lives, their family, and St. Petersburg 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC it.stlawu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Princess had been born and raised as a Lutheran and was very devoted to her faith, but she needed to convert to Orthodoxy in order to become Empress of the Russian nation.
  • Tsar-martyr 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.fatheralexander.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Hermitage - Holy Royal Martyrs of Russia, The Life of Tsar Martyr Nicholas II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 of 5 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

.Nicholas and Alix became formally engaged on 8 April 1894. Alix converted to Orthodoxy in November 1894, and took the name Alexandra Fedorovna, also in attempt to be more accepted by the People of Russia.^ Nicholas was married in 1894 to Alix of Hesse-Darmstadt, also called Alexandra.
  • Tsar Nicholas II and His Friend 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.ucumberlands.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexandra cared little for Russia and its people.
  • VideoDetective.com - Nicholas And Alexandra Preview 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC videodetective.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She and Nicholas became engaged in April 1894.
  • Alexandra Fyodorovna of Hesse at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nicholas and Alexandra were related to each other along multiple ancestral lines.^ The love Nicholas and Alexandra have for each other; 2.
  • VideoDetective.com - Nicholas And Alexandra Preview 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC videodetective.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Related videos: Nicholas and Alexandra .

^ The Tsar Nicholas II, his German-born wife Alexandra, their four daughters and hemophiliac son Alexei were murdered along with their doctor and three servants in 1918.
  • Discovery News: Archaeorama News: The Romanovs: The Final Chapter 20 September 2009 1:01 UTC blogs.discovery.com [Source type: General]

[5]
.Nicholas took the throne in 1894 at the age of 26 following Alexander III's unexpected death.^ Nicholas succeeded to the throne on 20th October 1894, following the death of his father.
  • LANKALIBRARY FORUM • View topic - Massacre of Tsar Nicholas II and family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.lankalibrary.com [Source type: General]

^ Alexander III 1881-1894 .
  • RUSSIAN COINS 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC coins.ua-ru.com [Source type: General]

^ Nicholas II, eldest son of Alexander III, succeeded his father to the throne in 1894.
  • Country Information on Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.sos-usa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Throughout 1894, Alexander's health rapidly declined and at 49, he died of kidney disease.^ Alexander's health rapidly declined in 1894, with him suddenly dying from liver disease.
  • Nicholas II of Youngia - ImagineWiki 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC imagine.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander III died in 1894 at age 49.
  • VideoDetective.com - Nicholas And Alexandra Preview 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC videodetective.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Her husband became czar in 1881 after the moderately reform-minded Alexander II was assassinated; Alexander III died in 1894.

.Because Alexander had expected to live and rule for another 20 or 30 years, Nicholas did not have as much political training or imperial experience as perhaps necessary.^ Alexander III (1881-1894) who feared assassination so much that he lived away from the St. Petersburg in a medieval fortress surrounded by moats and watchtowers.

^ Efforts to seek political asylum in Britain proved futile, because King George V feared that the presence of Nicholas would endanger his own throne.
  • LANKALIBRARY FORUM • View topic - Massacre of Tsar Nicholas II and family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.lankalibrary.com [Source type: General]

^ The stunning splendour of the Imperial procession unfolded gradually, new groups of participants, one after another, joining this magnificent train.
  • Royal Russia - The Coronation of Tsar Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is said that Nicholas felt unprepared for the duties of the crown asking his cousin, "What is going to happen to me and all of Russia?"^ Nicholas II: Emperor of all the Russias .
  • Russian Chronology, 1904-1914 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC cnparm.home.texas.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nicholas II : Emperor of all the Russias .

^ Nicholas II of all the Russias .

[6] .Finance Minister Sergei Witte, however, recognized the need to train Nicholas early, suggesting to Alexander that Nicholas act as chairman of the Siberian Railway Committee.^ In 1893, when he was 25, Nicholas was appointed head of a construction committee for the Trans-Siberian Railway.
  • Nicholas II of Russia | Quazen 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC quazen.com [Source type: General]

^ ALEXANDER KERENSKY Kerensky, a socialist , became involved in the Provisional Government of Russia after the March 1917 abdication of Nicholas II. In July of 1917, he became the government's Prime Minister.

^ With conflicting opinions from the Russian people, (his cousin) German Kaiser Wilhelm II, his many advisors and Counte Witte (his Finance Minister), Nicholas was seriously considering the Japanese problem.
  • Tsar Nicholas and the Great War 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC it.stlawu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[7] .Alexander argued that Nicholas was not mature enough to take on serious responsibilities, to which Witte replied that if he was not introduced to state affairs Nicholas would never be ready to understand them.^ Nicholas II had also created a State Council, an upper chamber, of which he would nominate half its members.

^ A few hours later, Nicholas II agreed to the formation of a new government, while retaining for the emperor responsibility for the ministers of war, the navy, and foreign affairs.
  • The Escape of Alexei. Son of Tsar Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC partners.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then he stated that the Marine of the Guard was at the complete disposal of the State Duma....In reply, M. V. Rodzianko expressed confidence that the Marine of the Guard would help them deal with their enemy (but he didn't explain which one).
  • The Escape of Alexei. Son of Tsar Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC partners.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

[7] .Nicholas also acted as chairman of the Special Committee on Famine Relief, established after the devastating famines and droughts of 1891-1892, and he served on the Finance Committee and State Military Council before his coronation.^ Professor Nicholas A. Robinson has developed environmental law since 1969, when he was named to the Legal Advisory Committee of the President’s Council on Environmental Quality.
  • Pace Law School | Pace Law School - Robinson, Nicholas A. 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.pace.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These concessions were negotiated down through a committee appointed by Nicholas I. The proposal was next submitted to a more distinguished council, composed of some members of Nicholas' state council, the ministers of war, finance, and the interior, and the minister of the imperial court and appanages, along with Nicholas himself as the chairman.
  • Imperial Government of Russia Nicolas Railroad - 1869 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.scripophily.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From NBC's Ken Strickland Senate Finance Committee Chairman Max Baucus has finally unveiled his version of the health-care reform bill.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

[8] .Perhaps under prepared and unskilled, Nicholas was not altogether untrained for his duties as Tsar.^ By 1894 the health of Nicholas' father, Tsar Alexander, began to fail, and on October 20 he reposed under the loving hand of his confessor, St. John of Kronstadt.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Hermitage - Holy Royal Martyrs of Russia, The Life of Tsar Martyr Nicholas II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 of 5 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Tsar Nicholas considered it his sacred duty to restore Russia to her ancient traditional culture, which had been abandoned by many, who considered themselves to be of the "educated" class.
  • The Life of the Holy Tsar-Martyr and Passion Bearer Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

^ B y 1894 the health of Nicholas father, Tsar Alexander, began to fail; and on October 20 he reposed under the loving hand of his confessor, St. John of Kronstadt.

.Throughout his reign, Nicholas chose to maintain the conservative policies favored by his father.^ Nicholas' reign was a very conservative one.
  • Romanov Dynasty 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.mnsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Gradually, the king became expereniced and throughout his reign iniated combined liberal-conservative policies.
  • Nicholas II of Youngia - ImagineWiki 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC imagine.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Nicholas became czar on the death of Alexander III, he vowed to follow his fathers policies.

.While Alexander had concentrated on the formulation of general policy, Nicholas devoted much more attention to the details of administration.^ The talent of sovereignty that was given to you, Nicholas, you had not hidden in the ground, as a wicked servant of your Ruler: you brought to Him His own and much more.
  • Canon : "The Cry Of The Tsar-Martyr Nicholas II" 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC fr-d-serfes.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When Nicholas became czar on the death of Alexander III, he vowed to follow his fathers policies.

^ I frequently make use of their generously liberal 'fair use', 'copyleft' and 'anti-copyright' policies, with much gratitude.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | May 18 |Kallynteria Greece Bertrand Russell Aimee Semple McPherson Ralph MetznerBath Michigan School Kehoe 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

.Nicholas and Alix's wedding was originally scheduled for the following spring, however it was moved forward at Nicholas' insistence.^ Upon the Tsar's insistence the wedding, which was originally scheduled for the next spring was pressed forward to after the reposed Tsar's funeral.
  • The Life of the Holy Tsar-Martyr and Passion Bearer Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In the spring of 1895 Nicholas and Alexandra moved to Peterhof for the summer and later to the Alexander Palace at Tsarskoe Selo where Alexandra discovered she was pregnant.
  • Nicholas and Alexandra: Their lives, their family, and St. Petersburg 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC it.stlawu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (Massie 44) The wedding was moved forward at Nicholas' request and one week after the funeral of Alexander, Nicholas and Alexandra were married in the chapel of the Winter Palace .
  • Nicholas and Alexandra: Their lives, their family, and St. Petersburg 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC it.stlawu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Staggering under the weight of his new office, he had no intention of allowing the one person who gave him confidence to leave his side.^ No one will let him in.
  • The following scenes or sections of the film 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It contained the interrogations of Rasputin's inner circle of admirers and those who kept him under police surveillance--documents never seen by any other historian.
  • BOOKS ABOUT RUSSIA from RAY BOAS, BOOKSELLER in Walpople, New Hampshire 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.rayboasbookseller.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No one was allowed inside without special permission and it was there they stayed until they were executed, without trial, for being enemies of the people.
  • Last tsar’s family rehabilitated - RT Top Stories 12 September 2009 10:14 UTC www.russiatoday.com [Source type: News]

[9] .The wedding took place on 26 November 1894. Alexandra wore the traditional dress of Romanov brides, and Nicholas a Hussar's uniform.^ The wedding took place on November 26, 1894, a week after the funeral, and the birth date of Tsaritsa Mary.
  • The Life of the Holy Tsar-Martyr and Passion Bearer Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

^ To his wife, Alexandra , whom he had married on November 26, 1894, Nicholas was passionately devoted.
  • Nicholas II (tsar of Russia) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wedding of Nicholas II and Alexandra Fyodorovna, 1894.
  • Ideas for art history impressionist papers and French. 12 September 2009 10:14 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each holding a lighted candle Nicholas and Alexandra faced the Palace priest; a few minutes before one in the afternoon, they were married.^ A few minutes before one in the afternoon, they were married and kissed each other.
  • Nicholas II of Youngia - ImagineWiki 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC imagine.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nicholas was married in 1894 to Alix of Hesse-Darmstadt, also called Alexandra.
  • Tsar Nicholas II and His Friend 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.ucumberlands.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The story of Britain's George V, Germany's Wilhelm II, and Russia's Nicholas II. They were tied to one another by history, and history would ultimately tear them apart.
  • Royalty.nu - Russian Royal History - The Romanovs 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.royalty.nu [Source type: General]

[10]

Reign

Official photo-portrait of the Tsar (1898)
.Despite a visit to the United Kingdom before his accession, where he observed the House of Commons in debate and seemed impressed by the machinery of democracy, Nicholas turned his back on any notion of giving away any power to elected representatives in Russia.^ The king visited the United Kingdom, intrested in foward democracy and witnessing the House of Commons.
  • Nicholas II of Youngia - ImagineWiki 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC imagine.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Democracy government by the people or their elected representatives .
  • Russia - Glossary of Names 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.ourheritage.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Prince Nicholas Romanov was elected President of The Romanoff Family Association on 31 December 1992 (and possibly by inference considered as the Senior Male Representative of the House of Romanov) .

.Shortly after he came to the Throne, a deputation of peasants and workers from various towns' local assemblies (zemstvos) came to the Winter Palace proposing court reforms, such as the adoption of a constitutional monarchy,[11] and reform that would improve the political and social life of the peasantry.^ The situation came to a tragic head in January 1905 when police fired on a crowd of workers who were marching to the Winter Palace to petition the czar for better working conditions.

^ In 1905 a crowd of demonstrators marched on the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg to present a petition to Nicholas asking for liberalization and reform.
  • Tsar Nicholas II - Biography 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: General]

^ On January 22, 1905 the workers, lead by Gapon, made their way to the Winter Palace singing "God Save the Tsar" and carrying icons of Nicholas (Barnsdale,5).
  • Tsar Nicholas and the Great War 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC it.stlawu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[12] .Although the addresses they had sent in beforehand were couched in mild and loyal terms, Nicholas was angry and ignored advice from an Imperial Family Council by saying to them: "...^ He cited the controversy over the bones identified as Nicholas and the rest of the family, saying tiny statistical margins of error in the identifications had sparked "huge doubts and many disputes".
  • Remains of tsar's heir may have been found | World news | guardian.co.uk 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ He appeared to improve but then his health deteriorated rapidly and Nicholas sent for Alix, who came quickly and they were formally betrothed.
  • Nicholas and Alexandra: Their lives, their family, and St. Petersburg 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC it.stlawu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But somehow, and I can't remember the details, the train never reached Moscow--and the Imperial Family was sent to Ipatiev House.

it has come to my knowledge that during the last months there have been heard in some assemblies of the zemstvos the voices of those who have indulged in a senseless dream that the zemstvos be called upon to participate in the government of the country. I want everyone to know that I will devote all my strength to maintain, for the good of the whole nation, the principle of absolute autocracy, as firmly and as strongly as did my late lamented father."[13]
.On 14 May 1896, Nicholas' formal coronation as Tsar was held in Uspensky Cathedral located within the Kremlin.^ Tsar Nicholas and His Family May 17, 2006, 14:56 .
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Coronation held in the Uspensky Cathedral inside the walls of Moscow's ancient fortress, the Kremlin, on May 26, 1896.
  • Royal Genealogies Part 2 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC thedon.cac.psu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nicholas ascended the throne after the untimely death of his father on October 20, 1894, and was crowned on May 14, 1896.
  • boys clothing: European royalty--Russia Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]
  • boys clothing : European royalty -- Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

[14] .In celebration on 18 May 1896, a large festival with food, free beer and souvenirs was held in Khodynka Field outside Moscow.^ Succeeding his father on November 1, 1894, he was crowned tsar in Moscow on May 26, 1896.
  • Nicholas II (tsar of Russia) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In what can be seen as yet another bad omen, during his coronation a stampede occurred on a field near the scene when free food was being given out to the large crowds, and more than 1000 people died.
  • Tsar Nicholas II - Biography 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1896, after 12 months of mourning for Tsar Alexander III, Tsar Nicholas was to be coronated in Moscow, the date was set for May.
  • The Life of the Holy Tsar-Martyr and Passion Bearer Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

.Khodynka was chosen as the location as it was believed to be the sacred centre of the Russian Empire and would therefore demonstrate Nicholas' legitimacy as Tsar and ties to the old autocracy.^ Tsarist Russian Empire that won the support of Tsar Nicholas II..
  • Ideas for art history impressionist papers and French. 12 September 2009 10:14 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The story of Britain's George V, Germany's Wilhelm II, and Russia's Nicholas II. They were tied to one another by history, and history would ultimately tear them apart.
  • Royalty.nu - Russian Royal History - The Romanovs 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.royalty.nu [Source type: General]

^ Video of Tsar Nicholas II Coronation The Last Coronation of a Russian Tsar The coronation celebrations was marred by the deaths of several thousand peasants in the Khodynka Tragedy , who had come to receive gifts.
  • Alexandra Fyodorovna of Hesse at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] Khodynka was also used as a military training ground and the field was uneven with trenches. .When food and drink were handed out, the crowd rushed to get their share and individuals were tripped and trampled.^ It was interesting for me to note that there was an abundance of delicious food, and four beautifully decorated stations that handed out lavish bouquets and intricate garlands.
  • Plan Your Trip : Weekly Travel Feature 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.thaiair.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soon, food and wine was handed out outside, with 500,000 people eating and trampling each other.
  • Nicholas II of Youngia - ImagineWiki 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC imagine.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

[16] .Of the approximate 100,000 in attendance, it is estimated that 7,000 individuals died[14] and another 9,000 to 20,000 were injured.^ He then evacuated all of Cambodia’s cities by gunpoint, and about 20,000 people died form the trip.

^ During his time as president he was estimated to have killed between 100,000 to 500,000 people.

^ In 1900 more than 20,000 were living in the capital of St. Petersburg, and another 9,000 in Moscow.
  • The Jewish Role in the Bolshevik Revolution and Russia's Early Soviet Regime 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.ihr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Jewish Role In The Bolshevik Revolution And Russia's Early Soviet Regime Assessing the Grim Legacy of Soviet Communism 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC rense.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .The Khodynka Tragedy was seen as a bad omen and in addition to his conservative policies, Nicholas found gaining popular trust difficult from the beginning of his reign.^ Nicholas' reign was a very conservative one.
  • Romanov Dynasty 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.mnsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, some would say their union and Nicholas' reign were riddled with bad omen's, right up until their tragic and mysterious death.
  • Cybamuse Independent Book Reviews: Rasputin and the Last Tsar of Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.cybamuse.com [Source type: General]

^ Gradually, the king became expereniced and throughout his reign iniated combined liberal-conservative policies.
  • Nicholas II of Youngia - ImagineWiki 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC imagine.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The first years of his reign saw little more than continuation and development of the policy pursued by Alexander III.^ Alexander III's 13-year reign was characterized by police repression, industrial expansion, and a shift in foreign policy away from alliance with Germany to entente with France.
  • Royal Genealogies Part 2 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC thedon.cac.psu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More saints were glorified in Tsar Nicholas' reign than in that of any other Tsar.
  • The Life of the Holy Tsar-Martyr and Passion Bearer Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME) says a medical examiner should perform no more than 250 autopsies per year.

.Nicholas allotted money for the All-Russia exhibition of 1896.^ Nicholas II of all the Russias .

^ Czar , I have written that I consider myself to be Czar Nicholas III, by Grace of God symbolic Emperor of All the Russias .
  • Czar Nicholas II - Factbites 12 September 2009 10:14 UTC www.factbites.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In late 1905, Witte pressured Nicholas to issue the so-called October Manifesto, which gave Russia a constitution and proclaimed basic civil liberties for all citizens.
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Russia - The Last Years of the Autocracy 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC countrystudies.us [Source type: Original source]

.In 1897 restoration of gold standard by Sergei Witte, Minister of Finance, completed the series of financial reforms, initiated fifteen years earlier.^ Certainly the financial costs of his reforms contributed to Witte's dismissal as minister of finance in 1903.
  • Russia - Transformation of Russia in the Nineteenth Century 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC countrystudies.us [Source type: Original source]
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ With conflicting opinions from the Russian people, (his cousin) German Kaiser Wilhelm II, his many advisors and Counte Witte (his Finance Minister), Nicholas was seriously considering the Japanese problem.
  • Tsar Nicholas and the Great War 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC it.stlawu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Remember that this is Count Witte's own account, written some years after he had served as the Minister of Trade and Finance under Nicholas II and then (in 1905-1906) as Russia's "Prime Minister."

.By 1902, the Great Siberian railway was nearly completed; this helped the Russian trade in the Far East but the railway still required huge amounts of work (England and France railways completed in 1930s).^ "There were eggs to commemorate the coronation of Czar Nicholas II, the completion of the Trans Siberian Railway, and anniversaries.
  • Dark Roasted Blend: Russian Imperial Faberge Eggs 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.darkroastedblend.com [Source type: General]

^ At Chelyabinsk in the Urals, and at Vladivostok on the Pacific coast, construction gangs lay the first sleepers of what will eventually be completed, in 1905, as the trans-Siberian railway.

^ By 1902, the Trans-Siberian Railway was almost completed, connecting the Youngian Border Wall to the eastern Youngian coasts.
  • Nicholas II of Youngia - ImagineWiki 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC imagine.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

Russian delegation at the Hague Peace Conference 1899.
.In foreign relations, Nicholas followed policies of his father, strengthening the Franco-Russian Alliance and pursuing a policy of general European pacification, which culminated in the famous Hague peace conference.^ Nicholas succeeded to the throne on 20th October 1894, following the death of his father.
  • LANKALIBRARY FORUM • View topic - Massacre of Tsar Nicholas II and family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.lankalibrary.com [Source type: General]

^ This information follows family stories my Grand Father Ralph Nicholas told me that our family knew Daniel Boone and was with him in Kentucky.
  • Descendants of James Nicholas (Patrilineage for Participant #N9713,Robert Nicholas, is shown in bold font; to contact Robert, 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.brian-hamman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though Nicholas is devoted to Alexandra, the Russian populace is less politely inclined to having a foreigner as their Czarina.
  • VideoDetective.com - Nicholas And Alexandra Preview 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC videodetective.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This conference, suggested and promoted by Nicholas II, was convened with the view of terminating the arms race, and setting up machinery for the peaceful settlement of international disputes.^ On the way to Rome, Gerard convened a council at Sutri that declared Benedict deposed; Benedict fled Rome, and Gerard assumed the papal throne as Nicholas II on January 24, 1059.
  • Nicholas II (pope) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As he was desirous of peace, early in his reign he made a suggestion to the world - that all nations come together and meet in order to cut down on their military forces and submit to general arbitration on international disputes.
  • The Life of the Holy Tsar-Martyr and Passion Bearer Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As desirous of peace, he made an unprecedented suggestion to the world early in his reign—that all nations come together and meet in order to cut down on their military forces and submit to general arbitration on international disputes.
  • The Hermitage - Holy Royal Martyrs of Russia, The Life of Tsar Martyr Nicholas II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

.The results of the conference were less than expected, because of the mutual distrust existing between great powers.^ However, these failed because of the mutual distrust between the great powers.
  • Nicholas II of Youngia - ImagineWiki 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC imagine.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "This is even better than anyone expected," the group's general secretary, Rao Da, said at a news conference in Shanghai.
  • Eurasia energy security and economic development news 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.militaryphotos.net [Source type: News]

^ Four dumas were held but each one had less power than the last.

.Still, the Hague conventions were among the first formal statements of the laws of war.^ In the first half of the fourth century, Roman law still forbade that people were buried inside cities.

Russia-Japan War

.A clash between Russia and Japan was almost inevitable by the turn of the 20th century.^ In spite of a severe economic depression at the end of the century, Russia's coal, iron, steel, and oil production tripled between 1890 and 1900.
  • Russia - Transformation of Russia in the Nineteenth Century 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC countrystudies.us [Source type: Original source]
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ By the turn of the 20th century, war between Youngia and Japanesa seemed possible.
  • Nicholas II of Youngia - ImagineWiki 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC imagine.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1905, the Russo-Japanese war broke out between Russia and Japan vying for Manchuria, Korea, and the region's surrounding waters.
  • www.geografiya.net - History of Russia   28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.geografiya.net [Source type: Original source]

.Russia had expanded in the East, and the growth of her settlement and territorial ambitions, as her southward path to the Balkans was frustrated, conflicted with Japan's own territorial ambitions on the Chinese and Asian mainland.^ Catherine's territorial ambitions were to continue expanding Russia, grabbing parts of Poland and the Ottoman Empire, and continuing the push eastwards.
  • Maps of Russia - Geography pages for Dr. Rollinson's Courses and Resources 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.drshirley.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She greatly expanded Russia's territory to the east and south, and her foreign policies won her and Russia great respect in the rest of Europe.
  • History in Russia at Frommer's 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: News]

^ In the west, Catherine also expanded Russian territory: as a result of the partitioning of Poland Russia gained substantial portions of that country by 1795.
  • The Rise of Russia 862 - 1917 AD 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.white-history.com [Source type: Original source]

.War began in 1904 with a surprise Japanese attack on the Russian fleet in Port Arthur, without formal declaration of war.^ Finally on 9 February 1904 the Japanese attacked the Russian base at Port Arthur.

^ This aroused the Japanese, who on Febuary 5, 1904,suddenly attacked the Russian warships at Port Arthur.
  • H.M. Margrethe II Valdemarsdatter - Czar Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC noblessenu.webs.com [Source type: Original source]
  • valdemarsdatter@wiki - Crown Princess Royal Margrethe Romanov of Scotland/Queen Margrethe II of Frankland & Denmark 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC valdemarsdatter.atwiki.com [Source type: Original source]

^ February 8 Russo-Japanese War begins with the Japanese attack on the Russian fleet at Port Arthur .
  • Russia - A Chronology of Events   28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.ourheritage.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Russian Baltic fleet traversed the world to balance power in the East, but after many misadventures on the way, was almost annihilated by the Japanese in the Battle of the Tsushima Strait.^ The annihilation of the Baltic and Far East fleets is conspicuous.
  • RUSSIA 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Russian warships head for Vladivostok through the Tsushima Strait, where a Japanese contingent of more modern and swifter ships is lying in wait.

^ At the beginning of the 19th century, Russia was the largest country in the world, extending from the Arctic Ocean to the north to the Black Sea on the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean on the east.
  • Empire of Russia - House of Romanov 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC almanachdegotha.org [Source type: General]

On land the Russian army experienced logistical problems. While commands and supplies came from St. Petersburg, combat took place in east Asian ports with only the Trans-Siberian Railway for transport of supplies as well as troops both ways. The 6,000-mile track between St. Petersburg and Port Arthur was one-way, with no track around Lake Baikal, allowing only gradual build-up of the forces on the front. .Besieged Port Arthur fell to the Japanese, after nine months of resistance.^ In a foretaste of Pearl Harbor nearly forty years later, a Japanese fleet launches a devastating surprise attack on Port Arthur in February 1904.

^ Finally on 9 February 1904 the Japanese attacked the Russian base at Port Arthur.

^ In January 1905, after an eight-month siege, Russia surrendered Port Arthur, and in March the Japanese forced the Russians to withdraw north of Mukden.
  • Russia - Transformation of Russia in the Nineteenth Century 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC countrystudies.us [Source type: Original source]
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In mid-1905, Nicholas II accepted American mediation, appointing Sergei Witte chief plenipotentiary for the peace talks.^ Tsar Nicholas II : Won't accept?
  • Nicholas and Alexandra - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Witte, Count Sergei 1849-1915; Russian representative at the signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth 1906; first constitutional Prime Minister 1905; dismissed by Nicholas II .
  • Russia - Glossary of Names 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.ourheritage.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Both sides now accept an offer by the American president, Theodore Roosevelt , to mediate a peace treaty.

.War was ended by the Treaty of Portsmouth.^ War with Sweden is ended by the treaty of Nystad.
  • W4343: Imperial Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Treaty of Portsmouth marks the end of the Russo-Japanese War.
  • Russia - A Chronology of Events   28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.ourheritage.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This war proved catastrophic for them and ended with the Treaty of Jassy , which legitimized the Russian claim to Crimea.
  • Catherine II of Russia - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Nicholas's stance on the war was something that baffled many. .Nicholas approached the war with confidence and saw it as an opportunity to raise Russian morale and patriotism, paying little attention to the finances of a long-distance war.^ Russian patriotism vanishes: " The war is dead.
  • Maurice Paléologue. An Ambassador's Memoirs. 1925. Contents. 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC net.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Nicholas II further destroyed that hope through extensive war and political entanglements with religious leaders of the Russian Orthodox Church.
  • Cause and Consequences of Communist Revolutions in China and Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.hyperhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Today the Russian Orthodox Christians pay respect to Tsar Nicholas II, his family and his friends as martyrs.
  • LANKALIBRARY FORUM • View topic - Massacre of Tsar Nicholas II and family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.lankalibrary.com [Source type: General]

[17] .Shortly before the Japanese attack on Port Arthur, Nicholas held strong to the belief that there would be no war.^ February 8 Russo-Japanese War begins with the Japanese attack on the Russian fleet at Port Arthur .
  • Russia - A Chronology of Events   28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.ourheritage.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a foretaste of Pearl Harbor nearly forty years later, a Japanese fleet launches a devastating surprise attack on Port Arthur in February 1904.

^ If there is ever an argument that Nicholas II would have been a wonderful Constitutional Monarch this book is all the evidence needed.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: The Court of the Last Tsar: Pomp, Power and Pageantry in the Reign of Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.Despite the onset of the war and the many defeats Russia suffered, Nicholas still believed in, and expected, a final victory.^ Influenced by Russias defeat in the war and...interference.
  • Nicholas II Czar of Russia: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For his credit Nicholas did in the end assumed the supreme command of the Russian army, but not until after it suffered several disastrous defeats.
  • Amazon.com: Nicholas II: Twilight of the Empire (9780312143794): Dominic Lieven: Books 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Perhaps it's the ghostly images that remain of Nicholas II, his wife, Alexandra, and their five children, all of whom suffered imprisonment and exile, and finally murder in Siberia.
  • Amazon.com: Learn more about the Romanovs, Russia's last Imperial Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.Many people took the Tsar's confidence and stubbornness for indifference; believing him to be completely impervious[citation needed].^ The people had long believed that the tsar was the protector of his people and so the group was peacefully marching to the tsar carrying icons and portraits of the tsar when Nicholas II refused to meet with them and ordered to have them fired upon.
  • Romanov Dynasty 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.mnsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Tsar Nicholas loved his people a great deal, this is evident by the many things he did to better their lives eternally, not just for the time they were on the earth.
  • The Life of the Holy Tsar-Martyr and Passion Bearer Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After this healing I know once and for all that the Tsar truly prays for those who love him and the Lord helps people through his prayers.

.As Russia continued to face defeat by the Japanese, the call for peace grew.^ The initial conscription was well organized and peaceful, and the early phase of Russia's military buildup showed that the empire had learned lessons from the Russo-Japanese War.
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of their political principles and continued armed uprisings, Russia's leftist parties were undecided whether to participate in the Duma elections, which had been called for early 1906.
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In your person, Russia gained a new Nicholas Mirlikiiskiy (The name means "Peaceful face" -Trans.
  • Canon : "The Cry Of The Tsar-Martyr Nicholas II" 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC fr-d-serfes.org [Source type: Original source]

.Nicholas's own mother, as well as his cousin, Kaiser William, urged Nicholas to open peace negotiations.^ He was the son and successor of Nicholas I. He ascended the throne during the Crimean War and immediately set about negotiating a peace.
  • Picture History : Alexander II, Czar of Russia (1818-1881) 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.picturehistory.com [Source type: General]

^ England's King George was, through his mother, a first cousin of Tsar Nicholas, and, through his father, a first cousin of Empress Alexandra.
  • The Jewish Role in the Bolshevik Revolution and Russia's Early Soviet Regime 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.ihr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Jewish Role In The Bolshevik Revolution And Russia's Early Soviet Regime Assessing the Grim Legacy of Soviet Communism 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC rense.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Germany invites the United States to open negotiations for peace; the motive which inspires this step.---Pokrovski, the Comptroller-General of the Empire, is appointed Minister for Foreign Affairs.
  • Maurice Paléologue. An Ambassador's Memoirs. 1925. Contents. 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC net.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Despite the efforts for peace, Nicholas remained evasive. .It was not until 27 March-28 and the annihilation of the Russian fleet by the Japanese, that Nicholas finally decided to pursue peace.^ For his credit Nicholas did in the end assumed the supreme command of the Russian army, but not until after it suffered several disastrous defeats.
  • Amazon.com: Nicholas II: Twilight of the Empire (9780312143794): Dominic Lieven: Books 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Finally on 9 February 1904 the Japanese attacked the Russian base at Port Arthur.

^ On February 28 the Soviet ordered the arrest of Nicholas's ministers and began publishing an official organ, Izvestia (Russian for "news").
  • Russian Revolution of 1917, series of events in imperial Russia that culminated in 1917 with the establishment of the Soviet state that became known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.emayzine.com [Source type: Original source]

Anti-Semitic programs of 1903-1906

.The administration of Nicholas II published anti-Semitic propaganda that encouraged people to riot in various parts of the Pale of Settlement, resulting in the pogroms of 1903-1906. The Kishinev newspaper "Bessarabets", which published anti-Semitic materials, received funds from Viacheslav Plehve, Minister of the Interior.^ Nicholas II Pope - 423 results .
  • Nicholas II Pope: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nicholas II Pope - 113 results .
  • Nicholas II Pope: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nicholas II Pope - 84 results .
  • Nicholas II Pope: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

[18] These publications served to fuel the Kishinev pogrom.

1905 Revolution

.With the defeat of Russia by a non-Western power, the prestige of the government and the authority of the autocratic empire was brought down significantly.^ His view of his role as autocrat was childishly simple: he derived his authority from God, to whom alone he was responsible, and it was his sacred duty to preserve his absolute power intact.
  • Nicholas II (tsar of Russia) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This decree laid out basic civil liberties and restricted the government's autocratic powers.
  • Nicholas II of Youngia - ImagineWiki 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC imagine.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Failure to defeat the Japanese in 1904 reduced the prestige of the Tsar and his government.
  • LANKALIBRARY FORUM • View topic - Massacre of Tsar Nicholas II and family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.lankalibrary.com [Source type: General]

[19] .Defeat was a severe blow and the Imperial government collapsed, with the ensuing revolutionary outbreaks of 1905-1906. In hope to frighten any further contradiction many demonstrators were shot in front of the Winter Palace in St.Petersburg; the Emperor's Uncle, Grand Duke Sergei, was killed by a revolutionary's bomb in Moscow as he left the Kremlin.^ Your great-grandfather was killed by a bomb; so was Uncle Sergei .
  • Nicholas and Alexandra - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They marched through St Petersburg to the Winter Palace.

^ His troops slaughtered demonstrators at the winter palace.
  • VideoDetective.com - Nicholas And Alexandra Preview 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC videodetective.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Black Sea Fleet mutinied, and a railway strike developed into a general strike which paralyzed the country.^ At the beginning of the 19th century, Russia was the largest country in the world, extending from the Arctic Ocean to the north to the Black Sea on the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean on the east.
  • Empire of Russia - House of Romanov 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC almanachdegotha.org [Source type: General]

^ Industrial workers all over Russia went on strike and in October, 1905, the railwaymen went on strike which paralyzed the whole Russian railway network.

^ This leads to the Revolution of 1905 in which government officials were attacked, peasants seized private estates, and workers strikes paralyze the country.

.Tsar Nicholas II, who was taken by surprise by the events, mixed his anger with bewilderment.^ Alyssa Tsar Nicholas II, aristocrats,.
  • Ideas for art history impressionist papers and French. 12 September 2009 10:14 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Russia exonerates Tsar Nicholas II .
  • Tsar Nicholas II and Royal Family Rehabliitated 20 September 2009 1:01 UTC forum.alexanderpalace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was the Tsar Martyr Nicholas who interceded for me.

He wrote to his mother after months of disorder:
"It makes me sick to read the news! .Nothing but strikes in schools and factories, murdered policemen, Cossacks and soldiers, riots, disorder, mutinies.^ The vast demand for factory production of war supplies and workers caused many more labor riots and strikes.
  • WikiSlice 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At this time also, sensing public disappointment with the defeat, the nihilistic enemies of Christ seized the moment and instigated mutinies, strikes, riots and assassinations.
  • Tsar-martyr 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.fatheralexander.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 2 of 5 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Hermitage - Holy Royal Martyrs of Russia, The Life of Tsar Martyr Nicholas II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Sensing this disappointment the nihilistic enemies of Christ, seized the moment and instigated many mutinies, strikes, riot, and assassinations.
  • The Life of the Holy Tsar-Martyr and Passion Bearer Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

.But the ministers, instead of acting with quick decision, only assemble in council like a lot of frightened hens and cackle about providing united ministerial action...^ Iran's construction of a uranium enrichment plant violates decisions of the United Nations Security Council.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ Witte put it quite clearly to me that he would accept the Presidency of the Council of Ministers only on the condition that his programme was agreed to, and his actions not interfered with.

^ His problem is that he is rejected by all camps of the Orthodox public and he can act as the initiator of temporary actions only, like the thematic sessions of the World Russian National Assembly.
  • PDS Russia Religion News May 2000 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.stetson.edu [Source type: Original source]

ominous quiet days began, quiet indeed because there was complete order in the streets, but at the same time everybody knew that something was going to happen — the troops were waiting for the signal, but the other side would not begin. One had the same feeling, as before a thunderstorm in summer! .Everybody was on edge and extremely nervous and of course, that sort of strain could not go on for long....^ Democrats put him on the radio, of course, precisely because they expected him to be some sort of trump card whose need could not successfully be challenged.

We are in the midst of a revolution with an administrative apparatus entirely disorganized, and in this lies the main danger."[20]

Bloody Sunday

Members of the Imperial Guard outside the Winter Palace, St. Petersberg, January 1905
.A few days prior to the Bloody Sunday (9 (22) January 1905), the leader of the initiative himself, a priest named George Gapon, informed the government of the forthcoming procession to the Winter Palace to hand a petition to the Tsar.^ Gapon's Petition to Nicholas II, 22 January 1905 (pp.

^ The 1905 revolution began when Father George Gapon led a peaceful march on Sunday 22 January 1905.

^ August 12, 1904 was a very happy day in St. Petersburg, for the future Tsar was born just a few miles away at Peterhof.
  • Alexis' Hemophilia: The Triangle Affair of Nicholas II, Alexandra, and Rasputin 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC it.stlawu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.On the evening before, on Saturday, 8 (21), the ministers convened to consider the situation.^ In the October Manifesto of 1905, the Czar was compelled to pledge to call a Duma, but he moved to undermine its authority even before it convened.
  • Russia, 1904-1914 - Biographies and Glossary 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC cnparm.home.texas.net [Source type: Original source]

.There was never any thought that the Tsar, who had left the capital for Tsarskoye Selo on the advice of the ministers would actually be asked to meet Gapon; the suggestion that some other member of the Imperial family receive the petition was rejected.^ Fate of others connected with the Imperial Family .

^ In other words, the Tsar and his family were hostages.

^ That tsars grandson, who would ascend .
  • Ideas for art history impressionist papers and French. 12 September 2009 10:14 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Finally informed by the Prefect of Police that he lacked the men to pluck Gapon from among his followers and place him under arrest, the newly appointed Minister of the Interior, Prince Sviatopolk-Mirsky, and his colleagues decided to bring additional troops into the city for control.^ That same year V. I. Lenin's party splits into two parts with the Bolsheviks following him and the Mensheviks arguing for a less stringent view of Marx.

^ Nicholas II (Russia: 1894-1917) After priest named George Gapon informed the tsar that there would be a procession to hand him a petition, Nicholas sent additional troops to the city to block the marchers way.

^ Convinced that Kerensky could not cope with the situation, some Kadet elements and the general staff, led by Kornilov, the newly appointed commander in chief, decided to bring loyal troops to Petrograd and establish a military dictatorship.
  • Russian Revolution of 1917, series of events in imperial Russia that culminated in 1917 with the establishment of the Soviet state that became known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.emayzine.com [Source type: Original source]

.That evening Nicholas wrote in his diary, "Troops have been brought from the outskirts to reinforce the garrison.^ Troops have been brought in from the surroundings to strengthen the garrison.

^ As Nicholas himself sadly wrote in his diary at that time, "All around me I see treason, cowardice and deceit."

^ As Nicholas himself sadly wrote in his diary at that time: "All around me I see treason, cowardice and deceit."
  • The Hermitage - Holy Royal Martyrs of Russia, The Life of Tsar Martyr Nicholas II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

Up to now the workers have been calm. .Their number is estimated at 120,000. At the head of their union is a kind of socialist priest named Gapon.^ Their number is estimated at 120,000.

^ At the head of the workers' union some priest - socialist Gapon.

^ Their number is estimated at 15,000,000.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Religion of Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Mirsky came this evening to present his report on the measures taken."^ Mirsky came in the evening with a report of the measures taken.

[21] .At Tsarskoye Selo, Nicholas was stunned when he heard what had happened.^ Detained at Tsarskoye Selo by the provisional government which planned initially to send them to England, Nicholas and his family were removed to Tobolsk in Siberia and then, in April 1918, to Yekaterinburg in the Urals.
  • PDS Russia Religion News August 2000 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.stetson.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Nicholas (Tsarskoie-Selo 26 Apr 1859-executed at Fortress of SS. Peter and Paul 30 Jan 1919) .
  • Empire of Russia - House of Romanov 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC almanachdegotha.org [Source type: General]

^ Nicholas, Tsarevich (Tsarskoie Selo 20 Sep 1843-Nice 24 Apr 1865) .
  • Empire of Russia - House of Romanov 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC almanachdegotha.org [Source type: General]

He wrote in his diary:
"A painful day. .Serious disorders took place in Petersburg when the workers tried to come to the Winter Palace.^ There have been serious disorders in St. Petersburg because workmen wanted to come up to the Winter Palace.

^ In Jan., 1905, a crowd of workers who had come peaceably to petition the czar were fired upon in front of the Winter Palace; the government's action on that "Bloody Sunday" proved fateful.
  • Nicholas II Czar of Russia: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When the procession of workers reached the Winter Palace it was attacked by the police and the Cossacks.

.The troops have been forced to fire in several parts of the city and there are many killed and wounded.^ The following day troops fired on demonstrators in different parts of the city.

^ There are so many moving parts.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ Troops had to open fire in several places in the city; there were many killed and wounded.

Lord, how painful and sad this is."[22]
.On Sunday, 9 (22) January 1905, Gapon began his march.^ The 1905 revolution began when Father George Gapon led a peaceful march on Sunday 22 January 1905.

^ In January 1905, Father Georgiy Gapon, a Russian Orthodox priest who headed a police-sponsored workers' association, led a huge, peaceful march in St. Petersburg to present a petition to the tsar.
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In January 1905, after an eight-month siege, Russia surrendered Port Arthur, and in March the Japanese forced the Russians to withdraw north of Mukden.
  • Russia - Transformation of Russia in the Nineteenth Century 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC countrystudies.us [Source type: Original source]
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Locking arms, the workers marched peacefully through the streets.^ On 11th February, 1917, a large crowd marched through the streets of Petrograd breaking shop windows and shouting anti-war slogans.

^ The mobs marched through the streets, belting out slogans such as "Bread!"
  • WikiSlice 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the morning of the 27th, workers in the streets, many of them now armed, were joined by soldiers, sent in by the government to quell the riots.
  • WikiSlice 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some carried religious icons and banners, as well as national flags and portraits of the Czar.^ The people had long believed that the tsar was the protector of his people and so the group was peacefully marching to the tsar carrying icons and portraits of the tsar when Nicholas II refused to meet with them and ordered to have them fired upon.
  • Romanov Dynasty 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.mnsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.As they walked they sang religious hymns and the Imperial anthem, 'God Save The Tsar'. At 2PM all of the converging processions were scheduled to arrive at the Winter Palace.^ What if they were saved after all?
  • The Escape of Alexei. Son of Tsar Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC partners.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the procession of workers reached the Winter Palace, the police and the Cossacks attacked it.
  • LANKALIBRARY FORUM • View topic - Massacre of Tsar Nicholas II and family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.lankalibrary.com [Source type: General]

^ Speaking at a conference of nobility clubs that opened with the singing of the old Russian imperial anthem "God Save the Czar," Andrei Golitsyn, head of the Russian Noble Assembly, announced that its members, too, would stay away.
  • PDS Russian Religion News June 1998 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.stetson.edu [Source type: Original source]

.There was no single confrontation with the troops.^ There are no restrictions on the collection, and single copies of the Bostick Family Papers may be made for scholarly research purposes.
  • Nicholas / Perkins 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Throughout the city, at bridges on strategic boulevards, the marchers found their way blocked by lines of infantry, backed by Cossacks and Hussars; and the soldiers opened fire on the crowd.^ Nicholas II (Russia: 1894-1917) After priest named George Gapon informed the tsar that there would be a procession to hand him a petition, Nicholas sent additional troops to the city to block the marchers way.

^ The soldiers than opened fire on the (helpless) crowd, the official number killed at 92 and hundreds wounded.

^ Two lines of troops bordered a four mile march rout, and held back crowds.
  • The Life of the Holy Tsar-Martyr and Passion Bearer Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

.The official number of victims was ninety-two dead and several hundred wounded.^ The soldiers than opened fire on the (helpless) crowd, the official number killed at 92 and hundreds wounded.

^ After the war Dr. Hampton with several others contributed several hundred dollars toward the expense of conveying and removing the Confederate dead from the battlefield to the McGavock Cemetery.
  • Nicholas / Perkins 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the process, terrorists murdered several thousand officials, and the government executed an equal number of terrorists.
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Gapon vanished and the other leaders of the march were seized. .Expelled from the capital, they circulated through the empire, increasing the casualties, possibly into thousands[citation needed].^ While there may be a reduction in the rate of increase in costs after several years, there will need to be an immense effort made to train an army of primary doctors and get them into the communities where they're needed.

.That day, which became known as "Bloody Sunday", was a turning point in Russian history.^ The Russo-Japanese War was a turning point in Russian history.
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The incident, known as Bloody Sunday , started what became known as the 1905 Revolution .

^ It later became known at “Bloody Sunday” and was a turning point in Russian history because it shattered the ideal that the Tsar and the people were one.

.It shattered the ancient, legendary belief that the Tsar and the people were one.^ It later became known at “Bloody Sunday” and was a turning point in Russian history because it shattered the ideal that the Tsar and the people were one.

^ The Saviour said to the Tsar: "You see in My hands two cups: one which is bitter for your people and the other sweet for you."
  • The Hermitage - Holy Royal Martyrs of Russia, The Life of Tsar Martyr Nicholas II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Savior said to the Tsar, You see in My hands two cups: one which is bitter for your people and the other sweet for you.

.As bullets riddled their icons, their banners and their portraits of Nicholas, the people shrieked, "The Tsar will not help us!"^ The people had long believed that the tsar was the protector of his people and so the group was peacefully marching to the tsar carrying icons and portraits of the tsar when Nicholas II refused to meet with them and ordered to have them fired upon.
  • Romanov Dynasty 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.mnsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ To help calm the unrest in the country Nicholas II agreed to the October Manifest which gave people civil liberties and created the Duma.
  • Romanov Dynasty 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.mnsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Chapter One The Abdication of Tsar Nicholas II This is a time of leaden bullets, Kulak fists at the worker's breast.
  • The Escape of Alexei. Son of Tsar Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC partners.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

[23] Outside Russia, the future British Labour Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald attacked the Tsar calling him a "blood-stained creature and a common murderer".[22] Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna wrote:
."Nicky had the police report a few days before.^ The Tsarevich Nicholas finished his education in May of 1890, a few days before his 21st birthday.
  • The Life of the Holy Tsar-Martyr and Passion Bearer Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

.That Saturday he telephoned my mother at the Anitchkov and said that she and I were to leave for Gatchina at once.^ Speaking of his parent's divorce, Mitchell adds, Ted Jr. He said he thought his father was "very gracious to my mother" about the reasons for their divorce.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ The Emperor once more drew himself up and said: "I choose my Ministers myself, and do not allow anyone to influence my choice."

He and Alicky went to Tsarskoye Selo. .Insofar as I remember, my Uncles Vladimir and Nicholas were the only members of the family left in St.Petersburg, but there may have been others.^ This information follows family stories my Grand Father Ralph Nicholas told me that our family knew Daniel Boone and was with him in Kentucky.
  • Descendants of James Nicholas (Patrilineage for Participant #N9713,Robert Nicholas, is shown in bold font; to contact Robert, 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.brian-hamman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the heavy study schedule also offered fun and relaxation and sometimes the Imperial family would leave the city of St. Petersburg and go to the Imperial Estate of Gatchina.
  • boys clothing: European royalty--Russia Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This policy had the State keep all heavy industry, banking, and transportation but gave private shops, restaurants, and small scale manufacturing to individuals with the provision that only family members could work there.

.I felt at the time that all those arrangements were hideously wrong.^ So for all those who oppose "globalisation" and "open borders", this is the time to stand up and say "No More".
  • Express.co.uk - Home of the Daily and Sunday Express | World News :: Russia wants to link Europe and US by rail 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.express.co.uk [Source type: News]

Nicky's ministers and the Chief of Police had it all their way. .My mother and I wanted him to stay in St.Petersburg and to face the crowd.^ Their most distinguished victim is the tsar himself, Alexander II, killed in 1881 when a bomb is thrown at him at close quarters in St Petersburg.

^ There have been serious disorders in St. Petersburg because workmen wanted to come up to the Winter Palace.

^ However, it was not true, almost all of Russia, outside of St. Petersburg, was behind him.
  • The Life of the Holy Tsar-Martyr and Passion Bearer Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

.I am positive that, for all the ugly mood of some of the workmen, Nicky's appearance would have calmed them.^ They were in a truculent mood, and although I was able to restore calm, it was all most unpleasant.
  • The Escape of Alexei. Son of Tsar Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC partners.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.They would have presented their petition and gone back to their homes.^ If the weather were cold they would all probably be staying at home.

^ They most likely would not have gone public if Iran had not discovered that the U.S. was onto them and had it not notified the U.N.'s international inspection agency on Monday.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

.But that wretched Epiphany incident had left all the senior officials in a state of panic.^ This senior Moscow criminologist from the Moscow Procurator’s Office stated that during the course of the Commission’s investigations, the Imperial remains were at all times held under his custody.

.They kept on telling Nicky that he had no right to run such a risk, that he owed it to the country to leave the capital, that even with the utmost precautions taken there might always be some loophole left.^ They told her that there were some in the basement.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Following our offensive at Galich, many units, thoroughly infected by the contemptible defeatist propaganda, not only refused to advance, but in some sectors even left their position though they were not pressed by the enemy.
  • 1917 Diary of Nicholas II - Alexander Palace Time Machine 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.alexanderpalace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are other contingents from all over Napoleon's world, including even some rather half-hearted regiments from Prussia and Austria.

.My mother and I did all we could to persuade him that the ministers' advice was wrong, but Nicky preferred to follow it and he was the first to repent when he heard of the tragic outcome."^ His appearance is so strange, freakish and bizarre that when Nicholas first notices him he “ could hardly bear to watch him ”.
  • David Perdue's Charles Dickens Page - Nicholas Nickleby - Giddings 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC charlesdickenspage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Again he, together with my mother, had a moleben served to Tsar-Martyr Nicholas and all the Royal Martyrs.

^ The rest of the family, accompanied by the boy’s tired mother and four youthful sisters followed, as did the family’s remaining staff.

[24]
From his hiding place, Father Gapon issued a letter. .He stated, "Nicholas Romanov, formerly Tsar and at present soul-murderer of the Russian empire.^ Tsarist Russian Empire that won the support of Tsar Nicholas II..
  • Ideas for art history impressionist papers and French. 12 September 2009 10:14 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fortunately, we need consider the activities of only two of these: Peter the Great, the founder and builder of St. Petersburg; and Nicholas II, the last of the Russian tsars.

^ Nicholas was born on the Alexander Palace, as the eldest son of Tsar Alexander III and Tsarina Maria Feodorovna, of the House of Romanov-Holstein-Gottorp, in the small town of Tsarskoe Selo ("The Tsar's Village" in Russian), near St. Petersburg.
  • boys clothing: European royalty--Russia Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

.The innocent blood of workers, their wives and children lies forever between you and the Russian people ...^ Don't you see the miracle of the wrath of God on Russia for their innocent blood?...
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Amongst Russian workers and peasants arises only one wish: to drive a well-sharpened wooden stake into that grave, damned by the people.
  • On the Rehabilitation of Tsar Nicholas II and His Family / �����������.Ru 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravoslavie.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Dont you see the miracle of Gods anger at Russia for their innocent blood?

.May all the blood which must be spilled fall upon you, you Hangman.^ Many but not all of these books are in our library.  You may have to order one or more books through Interlibrary Loan.  .
  • History 356 fall 2003 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC facstaff.bloomu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May they be lifted up from the depth of their fall and soar on spiritual wings to heaven, and glorify Thy most holy Name in all the inhabited earth.

^ Receive my blood and that of my family for the purification of all the voluntary and involuntary sins of my people, entrusted to me by Thee, and lead them up from the depth of their present fall.

.I call upon all the socialist parties of Russia to come to an immediate agreement among themselves and bring an armed uprising against Tsarism."^ In the years leading up to the 1917 revolution, Jews were disproportionately represented in all of Russia's subversive leftist parties.
  • The Jewish Role in the Bolshevik Revolution and Russia's Early Soviet Regime 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.ihr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new status given to Moscow accordingly filtered through to all the remaining Russian principalities: beginning with Ivan, the dukes of Moscow styled themselves princes "of all Russia."
  • The Rise of Russia 862 - 1917 AD 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.white-history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (Maryland, by the way, is what's called a two-party consent state when it comes to recording audio.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

[22]

Relationship with the Duma

.
Silver Coin of Tsar Nicholas II, dated 1898, with the Imperial coat-of-arms on the reverse.^ Alyssa Tsar Nicholas II, aristocrats,.
  • Ideas for art history impressionist papers and French. 12 September 2009 10:14 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nicholas ii, giving it an an imperial provenance..
  • Ideas for art history impressionist papers and French. 12 September 2009 10:14 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tsar Nicholas II came to the throne .
  • The Cambridge History of Russia - Cambridge University Press 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Russian inscription reads: B[ozheyu] M[ilostyu] Nikolay Imperator i Samoderzhets Vseross[iyskiy].; English: "By the grace of God, Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias".
.Under pressure from the attempted Russian Revolution of 1905, on 5 August 1905 Tsar Nicholas II issued a manifesto about the convocation of the State Duma, initially thought to be an advisory organ.^ Also that year Nicholas II dissolves the Duma.

^ October: Nicholas II issued the October manifesto .
  • The Cambridge History of Russia - Cambridge University Press 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tsar Nicholas II came to the throne .
  • The Cambridge History of Russia - Cambridge University Press 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna, younger sister of Nicholas II wrote, "There was such gloom at Tsarskoye Selo.^ Grand Duchess Yelizaveta Fyodorovna, sister .
  • Ideas for art history impressionist papers and French. 12 September 2009 10:14 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As soon as the war broke out, the Empress and the four Grand Duchesses (Olga, Tatiana, Maria and Anastasia) became nurses (Sisters of Mercy); and hospitals were opened at Tsarskoe Selo, near the family's residence, where wounded soldiers were brought.
  • The Hermitage - Holy Royal Martyrs of Russia, The Life of Tsar Martyr Nicholas II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This Student Fund-Raising resulted in impressionist portrait of nicholas ii missions, such as the oldest who is renoir's friend that .
  • Ideas for art history impressionist papers and French. 12 September 2009 10:14 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.I did not understand anything about politics.^ What she did think is that I might not do anything about it.

^ Not only did things used to be worse; very few people managed to do anything about it.

^ Russia was not like other countries of it's time, it revolved around Christ's church, and many of it's citizens did not care about anything else.
  • The Life of the Holy Tsar-Martyr and Passion Bearer Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

.I just felt everything was going wrong with the country and all of us.^ They searched everything and wanted us to empty all our bags.

^ I have no taste for revenge at all; past wrongs just don't interest me.

^ He crossed himself just as calmly as he had when the fiery ball had flown near us, and I felt that it was unseemly and not courageous to be frightened as I was.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

.The October Constitution did not seem to satisfy anyone.^ TheJBJ Says: October 24th, 2009 at 1:07 am Did anyone else notice that the first picture is actually in 3D?????
  • Captured Photo Collection » Color Photography from Russia in the Early 1900’s Photos 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC blogs.denverpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

I went with my mother to the first Duma. .I remember the large group of deputies from among peasants and factory people.^ Together with them also arrived a large group of servants and people from their circle of friends.
  • On the Rehabilitation of Tsar Nicholas II and His Family / �����������.Ru 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravoslavie.ru [Source type: Original source]

The peasants looked sullen. .But the workmen were worse: they looked as though they hated us.^ Why do they hate us?

^ Turkmenistan, with a gross domestic product of US$18.3 billion, defied the sole superpower (GDP of $14.2 trillion) - and, worse still, made it look routine.
  • Eurasia energy security and economic development news 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.militaryphotos.net [Source type: News]

I remember the distress in Alicky's eyes."[24] .Minister of the Court Count Fredericks commented, "The Deputies, they give one the impression of a gang of criminals who are only waiting for the signal to throw themselves upon the ministers and cut their throats.^ Every one was waiting for the signal to depart.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were not the only ones.

^ It's only anecdotal, but the one journalist I've known who went on an Israel junket that included both Israel and the Palestinian territories did not return with an improved opinion of Israel.

.I will never again set foot among those people."^ Succeeding popes reviled his memory and would never set foot inside the apartments which had been the scene of so much scandal and blasphemy.
  • St Peter's - Saint Peter's by James Lees-Milne 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC saintpetersbasilica.org [Source type: Original source]

[25] The Dowager Empress noticed "incomprehensible hatred."[25]
.In the October Manifesto, the Tsar pledged to introduce basic civil liberties, provide for broad participation in the State Duma, and endow the Duma with legislative and oversight powers.^ Boiars received their titles from the tsars, headed important offices, and participated in the Boiar duma, an advisory council.
  • W4343: Imperial Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The response to the massacre crippled the nation with strikes forcing Nicholas to offer his October Manifesto, which promised a democratic parliament (the State Duma).
  • WikiSlice 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ October 30 Czar proclaims October Manifesto including the establishment of a Duma .
  • Russia - A Chronology of Events   28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.ourheritage.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, determined to preserve "autocracy" even in the context of reform, he restricted the Duma's authority in many ways—not least of which was an absence of parliamentary control over the appointment or dismissal of cabinet ministers.^ The second Duma was also dismissed because it demanded so many reforms, such as improvement of government, extension of education, and the cessation of village control over peasants, but Russia remained an autocratic government under of the Czar until the Revolution of 1917.
  • H.M. Margrethe II Valdemarsdatter - Czar Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC noblessenu.webs.com [Source type: Original source]
  • valdemarsdatter@wiki - Crown Princess Royal Margrethe Romanov of Scotland/Queen Margrethe II of Frankland & Denmark 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC valdemarsdatter.atwiki.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even these restrictive laws however, were not observed.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Religion of Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Certainly the financial costs of his reforms contributed to Witte's dismissal as minister of finance in 1903.
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Nicholas's relations with the Duma were not good. .The First Duma, with a majority of Kadets, almost immediately came into conflict with him.^ Gibbes came into his own, and we find reason to respect and like him, with the Russian Revolution of March 1917.
  • Russia books 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.gedpage.com [Source type: General]

^ Immediately after this, the superior of a nearby monastery came to see my father at home and told him that he had an acquaintance who wanted to give him seeds for planting.

.Scarcely had the 524 members sat down at the Tauride Palace when they formulated an 'Address to the Throne'. It demanded universal suffrage, radical land reform, the release of all political prisoners and the dismissal of ministers appointed by the Tsar in favour of ministers acceptable to the Duma.^ They reply in confidence that only the tsar can appoint ministers.
  • The following scenes or sections of the film 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They were cut down in a hail of gunfire in a half-cellar room of the house in Ekaterinburg, a city in the Ural mountain region, where they were being held prisoner.
  • The Jewish Role in the Bolshevik Revolution and Russia's Early Soviet Regime 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.ihr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Jewish Role In The Bolshevik Revolution And Russia's Early Soviet Regime Assessing the Grim Legacy of Soviet Communism 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC rense.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the Tsar undermined his promises of democracy with Article 87 of the 1906 Fundamental State Laws, and then subsequently dismissed the first two Dumas when they proved uncooperative.
  • WikiSlice 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

[26] .Although Nicholas initially had a good relationship with his relatively liberal prime minister, Sergei Witte, Alexandra distrusted him (because he instigated an investigation of Rasputin), and as the political situation deteriorated, Nicholas dissolved the Duma.^ Also that year Nicholas II dissolves the Duma.

^ Rasputin was a debauched faith healer who initially impressed Alexandra because he was able to stop the bleeding of the royal couple's hemophiliac son and heir presumptive.
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Nicholas II in foreign policy issues took steps to stabilize the international situation, initiating two peace congresses at The Hague.
  • boys clothing: European royalty--Russia Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Duma was populated with radicals, many of whom wished to push through legislation that would abolish private property ownership, among other things.^ From the 1860s through the 1880s, Russian radicals, collectively known as Populists (Narodniki), focused chiefly on the peasantry, whom they identified as "the people" ( narod ).
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ None other than Ronald Reagan, a hero to Republicans, warned in 1961 that creation of Medicare would push the country toward socialism.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ Heading his army, called the Khmer Rouge, he abolished currency, religion and private property and evacuated cities in in order to end Western influence.

.Witte, unable to grasp the seemingly insurmountable problems of reforming Russia and the monarchy, wrote to Nicholas on 14 April 1906 resigning his office (however, other accounts have said that Witte was forced to resign by the Emperor).^ The gentlemen of the other side have refused to adopt any rules and blocked the wheels of 19 April 2007 Family of Col. Nicholas PERKINS * Page 93 .
  • Nicholas / Perkins 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ History of Peter the Great, Emperor of Russia : to which is prefixed, a short general history of the country from the rise of the monarchy, and an account of the author's life : in two volumes / by Alexander Gordon ...

^ The verdict of the Presidium of the Supreme Court of Russia to deny the requested judicial rehabilitation of Emperor Nicholas II and his family is significant.
  • On the Rehabilitation of Tsar Nicholas II and His Family / �����������.Ru 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravoslavie.ru [Source type: Original source]

Nicholas was not ungracious to Witte and an Imperial Rescript was published on 22 April creating Witte a Knight of the Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky, with diamonds (the last two words were written in the Emperor's own hand, followed by "I remain unalterably well-disposed to you and sincerely grateful, for ever more Nicholas.").
.A second Duma met for the first time in February 1907. The leftist parties including the Social Democrats and the Social Revolutionaries which had boycotted the First Duma, had won two hundred seats in the Second, more than a third of the membership.^ The impasse continued, however, when the Second Duma met in 1907.
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This, at a time when unity was more than ever needed.
  • Tsar-martyr 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.fatheralexander.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Hermitage - Holy Royal Martyrs of Russia, The Life of Tsar Martyr Nicholas II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It was the first time any country bought more cars than Americans.
  • Eurasia energy security and economic development news 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.militaryphotos.net [Source type: News]

Again Nicholas waited impatiently to rid himself of the Duma. .In two letters to his mother he let his bitterness flow, "A grotesque deputation is coming from England to see liberal members of the Duma.^ The first two Dumas (1906 and 1907) were predominantly liberal and highly uncooperative with the regime.
  • Russia, 1904-1914 - Biographies and Glossary 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC cnparm.home.texas.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Letter expressing the King's personal friendship for the Tsar, but doubting the advisability of the Imperial Family coming to England (FO file 63).

^ In private tsarist quarters, Vyrubova appeals to Tsarina Alexandra to allow Rasputin to come see her, but Nicholas refuses to let this happen.
  • The following scenes or sections of the film 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Uncle Bertie informed us that they were very sorry but were unable to take action to stop their coming.^ Uncle Pavel often comes to vi- sit us.
  • Letters of Nicholas II - Alexander Palace Time Machine 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.alexanderpalace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Already some representatives from some funds in the United States have come to me about my ambition to run trains from Russia to the US. "They said they were very interested in that project and I’m absolutely fascinated by it.
  • Eurasia energy security and economic development news 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.militaryphotos.net [Source type: News]

^ They were going to take all the Germanic art (which was very generously defined) out of the Louvre and take it to Germany.
  • Conversation 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.neh.gov [Source type: Original source]

Their famous "liberty", of course. .How angry they would be if a deputation went from us to the Irish to wish them success in their struggle against their government."^ Once their training had been completed, they would be parachuted behind enemy lines to carry out a secret war against Nazi Germany.

^ Indeed, GM’s success or failure could impact how Americans view government.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ Leon Trotsky released Bolshevik leaders hoping they would join the provisional government but instead they became the red guard (later the red army).
  • WikiSlice 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

[27] .A little while later Nicholas wrote, "All would be well if everything said in the Duma remained within its walls.^ Perhaps it's the ghostly images that remain of Nicholas II, his wife, Alexandra, and their five children, all of whom suffered imprisonment and exile, and finally murder in Siberia.
  • Amazon.com: Learn more about the Romanovs, Russia's last Imperial Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ If there is ever an argument that Nicholas II would have been a wonderful Constitutional Monarch this book is all the evidence needed.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: The Court of the Last Tsar: Pomp, Power and Pageantry in the Reign of Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ As Nicholas himself sadly wrote in his diary at that time, "All around me I see treason, cowardice and deceit."

.Every word spoken, however, comes out in the next day's papers which are avidly read by everyone.^ And the political parties are crawling with all sorts of moonbats; have you read some of the stuff that comes out of the environmental movement?

^ If $5 million is the goal, she must raise an average of $58,000 every day for the next 86 days.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ It is coming again next year, and I expect to go out with it."
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | May 18 |Kallynteria Greece Bertrand Russell Aimee Semple McPherson Ralph MetznerBath Michigan School Kehoe 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

In many places the populace is getting restive again. .They begin to talk about land once more and are waiting to see what the Duma is going to say on the question.^ The Duma must be neutralized, they say.
  • The following scenes or sections of the film 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On The Iran Talks: Per NBC’s Andrea Mitchell, Swiss officials say they are moving tomorrow's talks on Iran to another location than originally announced.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ It is a difficult situation for the museums, but, theoretically, they have agreed to be more open about the issue and to make efforts to return things that are proven loot.
  • Conversation 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.neh.gov [Source type: Original source]

I am getting telgrams from everywhere, petitioning me to order a dissolution, but it is too early for that. .One has to let them do something manifestly stupid or mean and then — slap!^ One can find in everything something good and useful - whatever sufferings we go through - let it be.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

And they are gone!"[28]
.After the Second Duma resulted in similar problems, the new prime minister Pyotr Stolypin (whom Witte described as 'reactionary') unilaterally dissolved it, and changed the electoral laws to allow for future Dumas to have a more conservative content, and to be dominated by the liberal-conservative Octobrist Party of Alexander Guchkov.^ Who should be the new Prime Minister?
  • The following scenes or sections of the film 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Octobrists - Moderate conservative political party .
  • Russia, 1904-1914 - Biographies and Glossary 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC cnparm.home.texas.net [Source type: Original source]

^ New elections in the fall returned a more conservative Third Duma, which Octobrists dominated.
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Stolypin, a skillful politician, had ambitious plans for reform.^ Historians have speculated about whether Witte's and Stolypin's bold reform plans could have "saved" the Russian Empire.
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.These included making loans available to the lower classes to enable them to buy land, with the intent of forming a farming class loyal to the crown.^ Thank you for making these available!
  • Captured Photo Collection » Color Photography from Russia in the Early 1900’s Photos 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC blogs.denverpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Nevertheless, when the Duma remained hostile, Stolypin had no qualms about invoking Article 87 of the Fundamental Laws, which empowered the Tsar to issue 'urgent and extraordinary' emergency decrees 'during the recess of the State Duma'. Stolypin's most famous legislative act, the change in peasant land tenure, was promulgated under Article 87.[28]
The third Duma remained an independent body. This time the members proceeded cautiously. .Instead of hurling themselves at the government, opposing parties within the Duma worked to develop the body as a whole.^ Senate - Administrative body composed of officials chosen by virtue of service rather than birth (at least in theory), as opposed to the old boiar duma.
  • W4343: Imperial Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead of taking the advice of the Duma to organized a responsible government, the Czar dismissed all liberals from office and ordered the mobs dispersed.
  • H.M. Margrethe II Valdemarsdatter - Czar Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC noblessenu.webs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "These parties," commented Wilton, "in appearance opposed to the Bolsheviks, play the Bolsheviks' game on the sly, more or less, by preventing the Russians from pulling themselves together.
  • The Jewish Role In The Bolshevik Revolution And Russia's Early Soviet Regime Assessing the Grim Legacy of Soviet Communism 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC rense.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the classic manner of the British Parliament, the Duma reached for power grasping for the national purse strings.^ The response to the massacre crippled the nation with strikes forcing Nicholas to offer his October Manifesto, which promised a democratic parliament (the State Duma).
  • WikiSlice 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Duma had the right to question ministers behind closed doors as to their proposed expenditures.^ Comrades and Strangers: Behind the Closed Doors of North Korea .
  • History in Russia at Frommer's 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: News]

.These sessions, endorsed by Stolypin, were educational for both sides, and, in time, mutual antagonism was replaced by mutual respect.^ More: "While I support educating our children to respect both the office of the American President and the value of community service, I do not support using our children as tools to spread liberal propaganda.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

.Even the sensitive area of military expenditure, where the October Manifesto clearly had reserved decisions to the throne, a Duma commission began to operate.^ He began the harsh crackdown on unrest after the October Manifesto and alienated liberals from supporting the Witte government.
  • Russia, 1904-1914 - Biographies and Glossary 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC cnparm.home.texas.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Conspiracies began to shape among court officials, the Duma, the generals and the nobility, even including the Royal Family's relatives.
  • The Life of the Holy Tsar-Martyr and Passion Bearer Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Conspiracies began to take shape among court officials, the Duma (Parliament), the generals and the nobility, even including relatives of the Tsar.
  • Tsar-martyr 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.fatheralexander.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Hermitage - Holy Royal Martyrs of Russia, The Life of Tsar Martyr Nicholas II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

.Composed of aggressive patriots no less anxious than Nicholas to restore the fallen honour of Russian arms, the Duma commission frequently recommended expenditures even larger than those proposed.^ After six years of research, including a DNA analysis done by the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology in Washington and forensic work done in Russia and Britain, a Russian Government commission concluded in January that the skeletal remains were those of Nicholas, Alexandra, three of their five children and four family attendants.
  • PDS Russian Religion News June 1998 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.stetson.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ No less important was an elementary theory of property, common to many peasants, that land should belong to those who work it.
  • WikiSlice 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Four dumas were held but each one had less power than the last.

.With the passage of time, Nicholas also began to have confidence in the Duma.^ From the narrow passage, Nicholas peaks at Goremykin in the briefing room one more time, then slinks down the long hall to his darkroom.
  • The following scenes or sections of the film 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus monastic priest Germogen has described how at the time of a robbery he was mortally wounded, and when he realized he had been stabbed he began crying out "Tsar martyr Nicholas!
  • PDS Russia Religion News August 2000 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.stetson.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Finally Nicholas II agrees to the demand of adopting a constitution and allowing a parliament called the Duma which meets for the first time in 1906.

."This Duma cannot be reproached with an attempt to seize power and there is no need at all to quarrel with it" he said to Stolypin in 1909.[29] Unfortunately Stolypin's plans were undercut by conservatives at court.^ "The ideas are all there on the table," he said.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ There is no other explanation than that, once you strip away all the obfuscatory language.

^ All of the hints are there that this Roberts Court might just overturn many of the campaign finance reforms out there that involve corporate spending.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

.Reactionaries such as Prince Vladimir Orlov never tired of telling the Tsar that the very existence of the Duma was a blot on the autocracy.^ Tsar Nicholas wanted to use the Cap of Monomakh, used by St. Vladimir, the 12th century Grand Prince of Kiev.
  • The Life of the Holy Tsar-Martyr and Passion Bearer Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

.Stolypin, they whispered, was a traitor and secret revolutionary who was conniving with the Duma to steal the prerogatives assigned the Tsar by God.^ Alexander was a firm and uncomplicated man who feared God and became one of Russias great Tsars, though his reign was short (1881-1894).

^ All of this weighed heavily on the God anointed Tsar, who desired more to become a monk, than to rule an empire.
  • The Life of the Holy Tsar-Martyr and Passion Bearer Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

^ God will remove from it the pious Tsar and send a whip in the person of impure, cruel, self-called rulers, who will drench the whole land in blood and tears."
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

Witte also engaged in constant intrigue against Stolypin. Although Stolypin had had nothing to do with Witte's fall, Witte blamed him. Stolypin had unwittingly angered the Empress. He had ordered an investigation into Rasputin and presented it to the Czar. .Stolypin, on his own authority, ordered Rasputin to leave St.Petersburg.^ But the heavy study schedule also offered fun and relaxation and sometimes the Imperial family would leave the city of St. Petersburg and go to the Imperial Estate of Gatchina.
  • boys clothing: European royalty--Russia Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also that year a Russian monk named Rasputin comes to St. Petersburg claiming to have seen the Virgin Mary who gave him his powers.

^ At St. Petersburg and Moscow there live some Dominicans of different nationalities, and it is by priests of that order that the French parishes of those two cities are served.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Religion of Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Alexandra protested vehemently but Nicholas refused to overrule his Prime Minister.^ In private tsarist quarters, Vyrubova appeals to Tsarina Alexandra to allow Rasputin to come see her, but Nicholas refuses to let this happen.
  • The following scenes or sections of the film 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

[30] who had more influence with the Emperor.
.By the time of Stolypin's assassination by Dmitry Bogrov, a student (and police informant) in a theatre in Kiev on 18 September 1911, Stolypin had grown weary of the burdens of office.^ Became Prime Minister after Stolypin’s assassination in Sep.1911; opposed by Rasputin, who once tried to hypnotize him (!
  • Russia, 1904-1914 - Biographies and Glossary 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC cnparm.home.texas.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Piotr Stolypin, probably imperial Russia's greatest statesman, was murdered in 1911 by a Jewish assassin.
  • The Jewish Role in the Bolshevik Revolution and Russia's Early Soviet Regime 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.ihr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Jewish Role In The Bolshevik Revolution And Russia's Early Soviet Regime Assessing the Grim Legacy of Soviet Communism 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC rense.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stolypin was assassinated in Sep.1911 under suspicious circumstances, possibly with police involvement.
  • Russia, 1904-1914 - Biographies and Glossary 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC cnparm.home.texas.net [Source type: Original source]

.For a man who preferred clear decisive action, working with a sovereign who believed in fatalism and mysticism was frustrating.^ There are two active young men working on the Nicholas Runkle family and I believe the Steve Runkle of Mechanicsburg, who is lecturing on the Susquehanna River, is also a descendant.
  • Descendants of Nicholas Runckel 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC berks.pa-roots.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The governors of the world believe, and have always believed, that virtue can only be taught by teaching falsehood, and that any man who knew the truth would be wicked.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | May 18 |Kallynteria Greece Bertrand Russell Aimee Semple McPherson Ralph MetznerBath Michigan School Kehoe 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ But the very men who believed in him then and who worked for him, both before and after his nomination, now see themselves as abandoned by him at the first test.

.As an example, Nicholas once returned a document unsigned with the note: "Despite most convincing arguments in favour of adopting a positive decision in this matter, an inner voice keeps on insisting more and more that I do not accept responsibility for it.^ To conclude our discussion on a more positive note, it is rather poignant that Tihon Kulikovsky did in fact help authenticate the Ekaterinburg remains in the very end, despite his earlier misgivings in doing so.

^ NICHOLAS SESSOMS Note: At present I do not have access to the complete original document from which this portion, starting with Part Two, was scanned into the computer.
  • NICHOLAS SESSOMS 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.lamartin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most poor people have already made a lot of bad decisions about things like schooling and childbearing; they'll probably make more.

So far my conscience has not deceived me. Therefore I intend in this case to follow its dictates. .I know that you, too, believe that "a Tsar's heart is in God's hands". Let it be so.^ The Saviour said to the Tsar: "'You see in My hands two cups: one which is bitter for your people and the other sweet for you.'
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "It is very nice to listen to your program there is much that we dont know, but with Gods help the Lord reveals the truth to us through you.

^ Let me caveat it with you said immediately, I don't know that I think it is necessarily immediately, that means next week so I don't know what McCain meant by immediately, maybe that was your phrase not his."
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

.For all laws established by me I bear a great responsibility before God, and I am ready to answer for my decision at any time."^ All I can say is it was a complete waste of my time and money.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: The Court of the Last Tsar: Pomp, Power and Pageantry in the Reign of Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Bless me and my family, that all the members of my family might be pleasing to God, and that peace and Christian love might reign among us.

^ To son-in-law William Black, all my leather.
  • NICHOLAS SESSOMS 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.lamartin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30] .Alexandra, believing that Stolypin had severed the bonds that her son depended on for life, hated the Prime Minister.^ Became Prime Minister after Stolypin’s assassination in Sep.1911; opposed by Rasputin, who once tried to hypnotize him (!
  • Russia, 1904-1914 - Biographies and Glossary 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC cnparm.home.texas.net [Source type: Original source]

^ On one occasion, the emperor was talking about the sufferings that lay ahead of him with his prime minister at the time, Peter Arkadyevich Stolypin.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Assassination of Prime Minister Petr Stolypin.
  • The Cambridge History of Russia - Cambridge University Press 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30] .In March 1911, in a fit of anger stating that he no longer commanded the imperial confidence, Stolypin asked to be relieved of his office.^ North Korea Review March 1, 2004 There is no coalescence around a strategy for North Korea, in the United States or among its partners in Northeast Asia.
  • AEI - Scholars - Nicholas Eberstadt 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.aei.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Piotr Stolypin, probably imperial Russia's greatest statesman, was murdered in 1911 by a Jewish assassin.
  • The Jewish Role in the Bolshevik Revolution and Russia's Early Soviet Regime 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.ihr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Jewish Role In The Bolshevik Revolution And Russia's Early Soviet Regime Assessing the Grim Legacy of Soviet Communism 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC rense.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Two years earlier when Stolypin had casually mentioned resigning to Nicholas he was informed:
"This is not a question of confidence or lack of it. It is my will. .Remember that we live in Russia, not abroad...^ At home a famine claimed a half-million lives in 1891, and activities by Japan and China near Russia's borders were perceived as threats from abroad.
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

and therefore I shall not consider the possibility of any resignation."[31]
.In 1912, a fourth Duma was elected with almost the same membership as the third.^ He joined the Bolsheviks in 1912, and was quickly installed by Lenin on the Central Committee; the same year, he was elected to the Duma, where he became the leader of the Bolshevik deputies.
  • Russia, 1904-1914 - Biographies and Glossary 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC cnparm.home.texas.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Fourth Duma, elected in 1912, was similar in composition to the third, but a progressive faction of Octobrists split from the right and joined the political center.
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The government responded by restricting the franchise law, and the Third and Fourth Dumas (1907-1912 and 1912-1917) were far more conservative, but still troublesome to the Czar.
  • Russia, 1904-1914 - Biographies and Glossary 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC cnparm.home.texas.net [Source type: Original source]

"The Duma started too fast. Now it is slower, but better, and more lasting." stated Nicholas to Sir Bernard Pares.[29]
.The First World War was a complete and utter disaster for Russia.^ Then in 1914 came the First World War.

^ August: Germany declared war on Russia; outbreak of First World War .
  • The Cambridge History of Russia - Cambridge University Press 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PETER GATRELL is Professor of History at the University of Manchester and the author of The Tsarist Economy, 1850–1917 (1986) and A Whole Empire Walking: Refugees in Russia during the First World War (1999).
  • The Cambridge History of Russia - Cambridge University Press 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By late 1916, among the Romanov family desperation reached the point of which Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich, younger brother of Alexander III and the Czar's only surviving uncle was deputed to beg Nicholas to grant a constitution and a government responsible to the Duma.^ Nicholas was born on the Alexander Palace, as the eldest son of Tsar Alexander III and Tsarina Maria Feodorovna, of the House of Romanov-Holstein-Gottorp, in the small town of Tsarskoe Selo ("The Tsar's Village" in Russian), near St. Petersburg.
  • boys clothing: European royalty--Russia Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nicholas II abdicated for himself and the Tsarevich, Alexis  15 Mar 1917, in favor of his brother Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich Romanov (b.

^ As the reign of Nicholas II, last Emperor of Russia drew to its tragic close, the order of succession by primogeniture ran, firstly, from his only son, the Tsarevich Grand Duke Alexei, secondly, to his only living brother Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich and, thirdly, to his senior first cousin, Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich.
  • The Royal Lineage of Princess Le 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC cilialacorte.com [Source type: Academic]

.Nicholas sternly refused, reproaching his uncle for asking him to break his coronation oath to maintain autocratic power intact for his successors.^ She told him that she was a lady-in-waiting of the Tsaritsa, and handed him an icon of St. Nicholas with the words: "The Tsaritsa has asked me to give this to you.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the Duma on 2 December 1916, Purishkevich, a fervent patriot, monarchist and war worker denounced the dark forces which surrounded the throne in a thunderous two hour speech which was tumultuously applauded.^ "In December of 1916, Her Majesty [Empress Alexandra] traveled for an emotional rest to Novgorod for a day, with two Grand Duchesses and a small suite.

^ December 16, 1916: The Russian "monk" Rasputin who has become close to the Czar's family due to his ability to heal the heir to the throne is murdered by Russian nobles.

"Revolution" he warned "and an obscure peasant shall govern Russia no longer".[32]

Tsarevich Alexei's illness & Rasputin

.
Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich, c.
^ Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich was sitting at another small table reading books.

1914
Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin
Further complicating domestic matters was the matter of the succession. .Alexandra bore Nicholas four daughters, the Grand Duchess Olga in 1895, the Grand Duchess Tatiana in 1897, Grand Duchess Maria in 1899, and Grand Duchess Anastasia in 1901, before their son Alexei was born on 12 August 1904. The young heir was afflicted with hemophilia, a hereditary disease that prevents blood clotting properly, which at that time was untreatable and usually led to an untimely death.^ Their first child, Olga, was born in 1895, followed by Tatiana in 1897, Marie in 1899, Anastasia in 1901, and a son, Alexei, in 1904.
  • The Escape of Alexei. Son of Tsar Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC partners.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He had four sons and one daughter.
  • Nicholas / Perkins 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hemophilia is a congenital hereditary blood disorder that affects the clotting time of blood following trauma.

.As a granddaughter of Queen Victoria, Alexandra carried the same gene mutation that afflicted several of the major European royal houses such as Spain and Prussia.^ Alexander was a granddaughter of Queen Victoria.
  • boys clothing: European royalty--Russia Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ German granddaughter of Queen Victoria.
  • Russia, 1904-1914 - Biographies and Glossary 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC cnparm.home.texas.net [Source type: Original source]

^ On November 14, 1894, he married Alexandra Fyodorovna (nee Princess Alix of Hesse-Darmstadt), a granddaughter of Queen Victoria.
  • The Escape of Alexei. Son of Tsar Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC partners.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hemophilia therefore became known as "the royal disease". Alexandra had passed it on to her son.^ Rasputin was a debauched faith healer who initially impressed Alexandra because he was able to stop the bleeding of the royal couple's hemophiliac son and heir presumptive.
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hemophilia, a serious disorder that affects the clotting of blood, became known as the Royal Disease in the 19 th century after a number of male members belonging to the European Royal Houses suddenly presented with this incurable and devastating condition.

^ Hemophilia is occasionally referred to as The Royal Disease [14] in popular literature.

.As all of Nicholas and Alexandra's daughters perished with their parents and brother in Yekaterinburg in 1918, it is not known whether any of them inherited the gene as carriers.^ His father Nicholas Alexandrovich was forced to carry his thirteen-year-old son and heir to the Romanov Dynasty to meet his final destiny in the cellar of the Ipatiev mansion in Yekaterinburg in July 1918.

^ Perhaps it's the ghostly images that remain of Nicholas II, his wife, Alexandra, and their five children, all of whom suffered imprisonment and exile, and finally murder in Siberia.
  • Amazon.com: Learn more about the Romanovs, Russia's last Imperial Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Nicholas fell in love with the daughter of Grand Duke Ludwig of Hessen, Alice Victoria Eleanor Louisa Beatrice (Alexandra Feodorovna).
  • boys clothing: European royalty--Russia Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Because of the fragility of the autocracy at this time, Nicholas and Alexandra chose not to divulge Alexei's condition to anyone outside the royal household.^ Despite this façade, few outside the immediate family circle were aware of the true nature of Alexei’s condition.

^ [Is the spoiled brat also taking advantage of Nicholas' famous weakness, unwittingly in league with Rasputin to enthrall and dominate the royal household?
  • The following scenes or sections of the film 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ O holy Royal Martyrs Nicholas, Alexandra, Alexis, Olga, Tabana, Maria and Anastasia, pray to God for us!
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]

.In fact, there were many in the Imperial household who were unaware of the exact nature of the Tsarevich's illness.^ As defiant as some on the right are about the fact that this has nothing to do with race, there’s an equal group of folks who believe it's ONLY grounded in race.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ Of course, there were many people there who were not under compulsion to stay; yet the tiers were as full at the close as they had been at the beginning.

^ There follows a review of all the clairvoyants and charlatans who where granted access to, and influence over, the Russian imperial throne .
  • The following scenes or sections of the film 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

.They knew that he suffered from some serious malady; however, the exact nature of his suffering was not revealed to all.^ I wont describe all of Olgas visions to you, since they are quite similar in many points to all visions of a like nature.

.At first Alexandra turned to Russian doctors and medics to treat Alexei; however, their treatments generally failed, and Alexandra increasingly turned to mystics and holy men or starets as they were called in Russian.^ The Jesuits were relegated to Polotsk; later, however, by the ukase of 25 March, 1820, they were exiled from Russian territory.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Religion of Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Anna Vyrubova, Alexandra’s personal companion provided a significant entry in her unpublished memoirs in which she noted that; in his first year , Alexei had caught his leg in a folding chair and .

^ Sokolov's difficult inquiry was generally a good one; however, we now know that his conclusions concerning the final disposition of the corpses of Nicholas, Alexandra, and their children was incorrect.
  • Russia books 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.gedpage.com [Source type: General]

.One of these, an illiterate Siberian, Grigori Rasputin, appeared to have some success.^ Some time later, but a thematic part of this one long scene, Anna Vyrubova gathers more political advice from Rasputin.
  • The following scenes or sections of the film 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Rasputin's influence over Empress Alexandra, and consequently the Czar, had grown stronger ever since 1912, when the Tsarevich nearly died from an injury whilst the family was on vacation at the hunting lodges at Bialowieza and Spala (now part of Poland).^ Empress Alexandra says, "I hate this country [an echo of Rasputin's earlier expression of generalized hatred ].
  • The following scenes or sections of the film 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Although their true influence has been debated, Alexandra and Rasputin undoubtedly decreased the regime's prestige and credibility.
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Whilst vacationing in Bialovieza , [99] Poland, Alexei sprained his ankle jumping into a rowing boat that caused profuse bleeding.

.The bleeding went unstopped and grew steadily worse until it was assumed that the Tsarevich would not survive, and the Last Sacrament was administered on 10 October 1912. Desperate, Alexandra called Rasputin as a last resort, and the reply came, "God has seen your tears and heard your prayers.^ Rasputin was a debauched faith healer who initially impressed Alexandra because he was able to stop the bleeding of the royal couple's hemophiliac son and heir presumptive.
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It was twice as bad without her, and until she came I was delirious and asked to be given a balloon with the words Jesus Christ and Mother of God written on it.

^ God will remove from it the pious Tsar and send a whip in the person of impure, cruel, self-called rulers, who will drench the whole land in blood and tears."
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

Do not grieve. The Little One will not die. .Do not allow the doctors to bother him too much."^ The Tsar insisted on allowing someone to accompany him, and the Tsaritsa suffered much, not knowing whether to follow her husband or to remain with her sick son.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

[33] .Miraculously it seemed to Alexandra, the hemorrhage stopped the next day and the boy began to recover.^ The next day a general strike began, and unrest infiltrated the heart of the city.
  • The Escape of Alexei. Son of Tsar Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC partners.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Boy, that was fast: Speaking of 60… Democrats now seem to be well on their way toward getting their 60th Senate vote back, by maybe next week.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

.Alexandra took this as a sign that Rasputin was a starets and that God was with him; for the rest of her life she would defend him and turn her wrath against anyone who dared to question his moral character.^ Rasputin was a debauched faith healer who initially impressed Alexandra because he was able to stop the bleeding of the royal couple's hemophiliac son and heir presumptive.
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexandra turned to religion, and ultimately, to Gregory Rasputin, a filthy, degenerate, sexually perverse and personally dissolute monk of peasant extraction.
  • Russia books 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.gedpage.com [Source type: General]

^ Became Prime Minister after Stolypin’s assassination in Sep.1911; opposed by Rasputin, who once tried to hypnotize him (!
  • Russia, 1904-1914 - Biographies and Glossary 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC cnparm.home.texas.net [Source type: Original source]

World War I

.Following the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne by Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Serb nationalist association known as the Black Hand, in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914, Nicholas vacillated as to Russia's course of action.^ In June 1914, a Serbian terrorist assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, which then held the Serbian government responsible.
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ My choice was always Gavrilo Princip, the young Bosnian assassin who killed Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary, igniting World War I, which caused the Russian Revolution, Communism, and the Treaty of Versailles, which led to Naziism, World War II, atomic bombs, and the Cold War.
  • Russia books 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.gedpage.com [Source type: General]

^ Following her marriage to Paul, Olga was granted the title of Countess Hohenfelsen in 1904 by Prince Regent Leopold of Bavaria and created Princess Paley on 28 August 1915 by Emperor Nicholas of Russia.

The outbreak of war was not inevitable, but leaders, diplomats and nineteenth-century alliances created a climate for large-scale conflict. .The concept of Pan-Slavism and ethnicity allied Russia and Serbia in a treaty of protection, and Germany and Austria were similarly allied.^ In 1873 Germany formed the loosely knit League of the Three Emperors with Russia and Austria-Hungary to prevent them from forming an alliance with France.
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ With Russia declaring war on Austria, and Germany declaring war on Russia, World War I had begun, an epic cataclysm for Russia, Austria, and Germany all.
  • RUSSIA 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Russia also protected its strategic and financial position by entering the informal Triple Entente with Britain and France, without antagonizing Germany.
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Territorial conflict created rivalries between Germany and France and between Austria and Serbia, and as a consequence alliance networks developed across Europe.^ In 1873 Germany formed the loosely knit League of the Three Emperors with Russia and Austria-Hungary to prevent them from forming an alliance with France.
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Three years later, Russia allied itself with France by entering into a joint military convention, which matched the dual alliance formed in 1879 by Germany and Austria-Hungary.
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When Germany invaded France through Belgium, the conflict escalated into a world war.
  • Late Imperial Period 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

The Triple Entente and Triple Alliance networks were set before the war. .The assassination of Ferdinand tripped these alliance networks bringing each country into conflict with one another as each independently declared war.^ All these chronicles are woven into one excellent timeline and account of the Russian Monarchy's decline, culminating in tragedy for nearly all involved.
  • Russia books 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.gedpage.com [Source type: General]

^ He is afraid of one-world government, which will turn once proud America into another France.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ To bring the Marshal and Chateauroux, into conjunction with one another is to add a small but significant piece to our knowledge of Anglo-French history.

.Nicholas wanted neither to abandon Serbia to the ultimatum of Austria-Hungary, nor to provoke a general war.^ Outbreak of World War I Russia sided immediately with Britain, France, and Serbia against Germany and Austria-Hungary when World War I began in 1914.
  • United States Relations with Russia: Establishment of Relations to World War Two 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a series of letters exchanged with Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany (the so-called "Willy and Nicky correspondence") the two proclaimed their desire for peace, and each attempted to get the other to back down.^ Now the honor passes to his daughter Maria, who ironically married a great-grandson of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany.
  • RUSSIA 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then, in 1914, Russia was forced to enter World War I. The peace-loving Tsar had no desire to go to war, but aggression against Orthodox Serbia by Germany left him no other honorable choice.
  • Tsar-martyr 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.fatheralexander.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Hermitage - Holy Royal Martyrs of Russia, The Life of Tsar Martyr Nicholas II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

.Nicholas took stern measures in this regard, demanding that Russia's mobilization be only against the Austrian border, in the hopes of preventing war with the German Empire.^ The Ottoman Empire again declares war against Russia.

^ Although Bulgaria was not officially at war with Russia she had helped the Germans.

^ Russia was as weary of war as a country could be, but the Provisional Government decided to stay in the war against Germany.
  • RUSSIA 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Nicholas II (right) with Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany (left) in 1905. Nicholas is wearing a German Army uniform, while Wilhelm wears a Russian Army tunic.
.The Russians had no contingency plans for a partial mobilization, and on 31 July 1914 Nicholas took the fateful step of confirming the order for a general mobilization.^ NEVADA: "Nevada Republican Party Chairwoman Sue Lowden announced Wednesday she would step down from her post in order to explore a challenge to Sen.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ The controversy surrounding the fate of the last Russian Emperor, Nicholas II, and his family has persisted, in part, because the bodies of 2 children, Prince Alexei and 1 of his sisters, have not been found.
  • Genomic identification in the historical case of the Nicholas II royal family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Although no U.S.-led peace mediation took place, all parties eventually agreed to basic principles of neutral rights at sea.
  • United States Relations with Russia: Establishment of Relations to World War Two 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nicholas was strongly counselled against mobilization of the Russian forces but chose to ignore such advice.^ Many Russians everywhere behaved as though in a trance, against their better FROM A LETTER OF GRAND DUCHESS OLGA (the eldest daughter of Nicholas II): .
  • The Hermitage - Holy Royal Martyrs of Russia, The Life of Tsar Martyr Nicholas II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Nicholas interprets this inspired word as advice about where to launch the next great military offensive against the Germans.
  • The following scenes or sections of the film 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Nicholas put the Russian army on "alert"[34] on July 25. Although this was not mobilization, it threatened the German and Austrian borders and looked like a military declaration of war.^ Looks like the Russians are on board .
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ The Tsar Nicholas, by a letter of 15 Nov., 1847, ratified the concordat of 3 Aug., which, like so many other Russian laws was destined to remain a dead Letter.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Religion of Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although Bulgaria was not officially at war with Russia she had helped the Germans.

[34]
.On 28 July, Austria formally declared war against Serbia, bringing Russia and Germany into conflict as protectorates, and France and Britain and Russian allies.^ That July Russia states that it would support and protect Serbia against Austria.

^ With Russia declaring war on Austria, and Germany declaring war on Russia, World War I had begun, an epic cataclysm for Russia, Austria, and Germany all.
  • RUSSIA 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Outbreak of World War I Russia sided immediately with Britain, France, and Serbia against Germany and Austria-Hungary when World War I began in 1914.
  • United States Relations with Russia: Establishment of Relations to World War Two 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Count Witte told the French Ambassador Paleologue that from Russia's point of view the war was madness, Slav solidarity was simply nonsense and Russia could hope for nothing from the war.^ Russia was as weary of war as a country could be, but the Provisional Government decided to stay in the war against Germany.
  • RUSSIA 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In any case, as the French ambassador pointed out, "her education, her intellectual formation and her morals were entirely English."
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ U.S. Assistance during the Russo-Turkish War Turkish action against Slavs in the Balkans led to armed conflict between Russia and the Ottoman Empire.
  • United States Relations with Russia: Establishment of Relations to World War Two 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35] .On 31 July Russia completed its mobilization, but still maintained that it would not attack if peace talks were to begin.^ While traveling in Russia, I still had a terrible urge to drink like a ice cube in the stomach that would never melt!

^ Over the death of Arthur, however, the Marshal's Histoire maintains a complete, and, as some would argue, a somewhat guilty silence.

^ That July Russia states that it would support and protect Serbia against Austria.

Germany then replied that Russia must demobilize within the next twelve hours.[36] .In Saint Petersburg, at 7PM, with the ultimatum to Russia expired, the German ambassador to Russia met with the Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Sazonov, asked three times if Russia would not reconsider and then with shaking hands delivered the note accepting Russia's war challenge and declaring war.^ Also that year Russia declared war on Turkey.

^ With the wise and dynamic assistance of his Prime Minister, Pyotr Stolypin, Nicholas led the nation through a time of such growth—agricultural, economic, educational and industrial—that had the first World War not occurred, Russia would have undoubtedly become the leading nation of the world.
  • The Hermitage - Holy Royal Martyrs of Russia, The Life of Tsar Martyr Nicholas II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

^ With the wise and dynamic assistance of his Prime Minister, Pyotr Stolypin, Nicholas led the nation through a time of such growth agricultural, economic, educational and industrial that had the first World War not occurred, Russia would have undoubtedly become the leading nation of the world.

.The outbreak of war on 1 August 1914 found Russia grossly unprepared.^ August: Germany declared war on Russia; outbreak of First World War .
  • The Cambridge History of Russia - Cambridge University Press 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prior to the outbreak of World War I in August 1914 Russia was one of the five major Great Powers of Europe.
  • Empire of Russia - House of Romanov 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC almanachdegotha.org [Source type: General]

^ Outbreak of World War I Russia sided immediately with Britain, France, and Serbia against Germany and Austria-Hungary when World War I began in 1914.
  • United States Relations with Russia: Establishment of Relations to World War Two 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Russia and her allies placed their faith in her army, the famous 'Russian steamroller'.[37] Its pre-war regular strength was 1,400,000; mobilisation added 3,100,000 reserves and millions more stood ready behind them.^ Traditionally, India and Russia have been allies, with around 70% of India 's military hardware being Russian-made.

^ Even if the target is a more modest $3 million, that’s $34,000 a day.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ Ekaterinburg was under attack by the White Russian army and the Czechs as the Russian Civil War was in full force.
  • Russia books 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.gedpage.com [Source type: General]

.In every other respect, however, Russia was unprepared for war.^ As World War I dawned, Russia was upside-down, its best men in internal exile, and woefully unprepared for war.
  • Russia books 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.gedpage.com [Source type: General]

^ Russo-Japanese War Russia continued to encroach upon Manchuria despite protest from other nations.
  • United States Relations with Russia: Establishment of Relations to World War Two 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Germany had ten times as much railway track per square mile and whereas Russian soldiers travelled an average of 800 miles (1,290 km) to reach the front, German soldiers travelled less than a quarter of that distance.^ It’s about people who kept going, who tried harder, who loved their country too much to do anything less than their best.” .
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ AZOV A town in the delta of the Don River, a short distance from the eastern end of the Sea of Azov, and about 15 miles (25 km.
  • Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The New York Times front-pages that the chances for passing health-care reform are MUCH better than some might think after a tough summer for Democrats.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

.Russian heavy industry was still too small to equip the massive armies the Tsar could raise and her reserves of munitions were pitifully small.^ This policy had the State keep all heavy industry, banking, and transportation but gave private shops, restaurants, and small scale manufacturing to individuals with the provision that only family members could work there.

^ However the pretender, known as False Dmitry raised an army of Poles and rebel Russians and advanced on Moscow in 1605.

^ How the Russian Navy, even with its strategic liabilities, could have done so poorly in 1904-1905 is still a good question.
  • RUSSIA 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.With the Baltic Sea barred by German U-boats and the Dardanelles by the guns of her former ally Turkey, Russia could receive help only via Archangel which was frozen solid in winter, or Vladivostock, which was over 4,000 miles (6,400 km) from the front line.^ At the beginning of the 19th century, Russia was the largest country in the world, extending from the Arctic Ocean to the north to the Black Sea on the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean on the east.
  • Empire of Russia - House of Romanov 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC almanachdegotha.org [Source type: General]

^ Although Bulgaria was not officially at war with Russia she had helped the Germans.

^ AZOV A town in the delta of the Don River, a short distance from the eastern end of the Sea of Azov, and about 15 miles (25 km.
  • Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Academic]

.The Russian High Command was moreover greatly weakened by the mutual contempt between Vladimir Sukhomlinov, the Minister of War, and the redoubtable warrior giant Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaievich who commanded the armies in the field.^ Vladimir Sukhomlinov (1848-1926) - Unpopular Czarist War Minister .
  • Russia, 1904-1914 - Biographies and Glossary 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC cnparm.home.texas.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This situation having been envisaged in the Russian Imperial Succession laws, the headship was inherited by the only eligible candidate, Grand Duke Vladimir's only child, Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna, now de facto Empress Maria I of Russia.
  • The Royal Lineage of Princess Le 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC cilialacorte.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nicholas II abdicated for himself and the Tsarevich, Alexis  15 Mar 1917, in favor of his brother Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich Romanov (b.

[37] .In spite of all of this, an immediate attack was ordered against the German province of East Prussia.^ The missions were abandoned because of operational difficulties (notably Soviet failure to defend the bases against a German air attack) and political differences.
  • United States Relations with Russia: Establishment of Relations to World War Two 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Germans mobilized there with great efficiency and completely defeated the two Russian armies which had invaded.^ Two, that there is "complete transparency" by insurance companies, particularly regarding prices.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ Although a loyal agent of the Mongols, even journeying to Mongolia to see the Great Khân , the canonized Alexander tends to be remembered as a Russian national hero for defeating the Swedes and Germans.
  • RUSSIA 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Russian, with the Cyrillic alphabet, two complete sets of vowels are used, one to go with the hard consonants, the other with the soft.
  • RUSSIA 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Battle of Tannenberg where an entire Russian army was annihilated cast an ominous shadow over the empire's future.^ In September 1914 the Russian army was severely defeated at Tannenberg.

The loyal officers lost were the very ones needed to protect the dynasty. .The Russian armies later had moderate success against both the Austro-Hungarian armies and against the forces of the Ottoman Empire.^ Outbreak of war with the Ottoman Empire and Russian defeat on the Prut.
  • W4343: Imperial Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ottoman Empire did not allow Russian warships through the Bosporus and Dardanelles, so the Black Sea ships were isolated and unavailable for combined operations.
  • RUSSIA 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ U.S. Assistance during the Russo-Turkish War Turkish action against Slavs in the Balkans led to armed conflict between Russia and the Ottoman Empire.
  • United States Relations with Russia: Establishment of Relations to World War Two 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They never succeeded against the might of the German army.^ Churchill and Roosevelt promised Stalin that they would open a second front against the Germans and execute a cross-channel invasion of enemy-occupied France.
  • United States Relations with Russia: Establishment of Relations to World War Two 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although an alien, his sympathies were with the patriots, and he rejoiced when they won.3 According to genealogist, L. POMPRELL, this may be incorrect folklore, as he is of the opinion, that Washington's army was never in that location.
  • Descendants of Nicholas Closser 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.dunelady.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gradually a war of attrition set in on the vast Eastern Front, where the Russians were facing the combined forces of the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires, and they suffered staggering losses.^ Nonetheless, the British, German and Russian grandsons of Queen Victoria went to war.In that war, millions died, empires fell, nations were born, ideological political systems triumphed, and the stage was set for a darker and yet bloodier future.
  • Russia books 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.gedpage.com [Source type: General]

^ Look at the resplendent light that emanates from the faces of the Royal sufferers this is a sign that they are under Gods special care, as righteous ones.

^ They thereby cleared the way for the revolutionary element—the enemies of God—to despoil the Holy Russian Empire and place in its stead a satanocracy whose aim was the annihilation of the remembrance of God from the face of the earth.
  • The Hermitage - Holy Royal Martyrs of Russia, The Life of Tsar Martyr Nicholas II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

General Denikin, retreating from Galicia wrote, "The German heavy artillery swept away whole lines of trenches, and their defenders with them. We hardly replied. .There was nothing with which we could reply.^ There was nothing unusual in his manner, and Mrs. Letcher replied that her husband would soon be at home.
  • Nicholas / Perkins 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course, there was nothing the telephone guy could do anyway; it's not like they give their outsourcing center the power to shut hotels out of the network.

^ I replied: "There is nothing there for me to do."
  • The Escape of Alexei. Son of Tsar Nicholas II 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC partners.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Our regiments, although completely exhausted, were beating off one attack after another by bayonet ....^ No one can guarantee that there will never be another attack; but what I can guarantee - what I can promise - is that we will do everything within our power to reduce the likelihood of an attack, and that I will not hesitate to do what it takes to defend America.” .
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ In our politics, almost everyone seems to be on one side or another, with very few (Snowe, Collins, Ben Nelson, Blanche Lincoln, etc.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ To bring the Marshal and Chateauroux, into conjunction with one another is to add a small but significant piece to our knowledge of Anglo-French history.

Blood flowed unendingly, the ranks became thinner and thinner and thinner. The number of graves multiplied.[38] .Total losses for the spring and summer of 1915 amounted to 1,400,000 killed or wounded, while 976,000 had been taken prisoner.^ The nominal capital to be raised by subscription amounts to £200,000,000 and the number of companies in between 300 and 400.
  • David Perdue's Charles Dickens Page - Nicholas Nickleby - Giddings 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC charlesdickenspage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The family were taken prisoner by the provisional government of Kerensky in the spring of 1917 following the signing of the treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany.
  • Russia books 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.gedpage.com [Source type: General]

^ He was made major just before the battle of Franklin, but was wounded and taken prisoner before receiving his commission.
  • Nicholas / Perkins 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.March 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] On 5 August with the army in retreat, Warsaw fell.^ January 2010 December 2009 November 2009 October 2009 September 2009 August 2009 July 2009 June 2009 May 2009 April 2009 March 2009 February 2009 January 2009 December 2008 November 2008 October 2008 September 2008 August 2008 July 2008 June 2008 May 2008 April 2008 March 2008 February 2008 January 2008 December 2007 November 2007 October 2007 September 2007 August 2007 .

Defeat at the front bred disorder at home. .At first the targets were German and for three days in June shops, bakeries, factories, private houses and country estates belonging to people with German names were looted and burned.^ This leads to the Revolution of 1905 in which government officials were attacked, peasants seized private estates, and workers strikes paralyze the country.

^ The condition passed down through Victoria's descendants affecting three of the European Royal Houses by reason of marriage into the Russian, Spanish and German Royal families.

^ Three days before their martyrdom, in the very house in which they were imprisoned, there took place the last church service of their suffering lives.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Hermitage - Holy Royal Martyrs of Russia, The Life of Tsar Martyr Nicholas II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

Then the inflamed mobs turned on the government declaring the Empress should be shut up in a convent, the Tsar deposed and Rasputin hanged. Nicholas was by no means deaf to these discontents. .An emergency session of the Duma was summoned and a Special Defence Council established, its members drawn from the Duma and the Tsar's ministers.^ The U.S. delegation flew overnight to Geneva and is holding strategy sessions today with other members of the Security Council, as well as its Swiss hosts.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

.In July 1915, King Christian X of Denmark, first cousin of the Tsar, sent Hans Niels Andersen to Tsarskoye Selo with an offer to act as a mediator.^ May 1868 Tsarskoye Selo son of Emperor Alexander III and Maria Feodorovna (Dagmar of Denmark) .
  • Empire of Russia - House of Romanov 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC almanachdegotha.org [Source type: General]

^ Mikhail I , Fyodorovich Romanov (In Russian Михаи́л Фёдорович Рома́нов) (12 July 1596 - 13 July 1645) was the first Russian Tsar of the house of Romanov.
  • Empire of Russia - House of Romanov 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC almanachdegotha.org [Source type: General]

^ November 1878 Tsarskoye Selo son of Emperor Alexander III and Maria Feodorovna (Dagmar of Denmark) .
  • Empire of Russia - House of Romanov 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC almanachdegotha.org [Source type: General]

.He made several trips between London, Berlin and Petrograd and in July saw the Dowager Empress Maria Fyodorovna.^ Buxhoeveden, Baroness Sophie, The Life and Tragedy of Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna, London and New York, Longmans, Green & Co., 1918.
  • The Hermitage - Holy Royal Martyrs of Russia, The Life of Tsar Martyr Nicholas II 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC users.sisqtel.net [Source type: Original source]

Andersen told her they should conclude peace. Nicholas chose to turn down King Christian's offer of mediation.[39]
.The energetic and efficient General Alexei Polivanov replaced Sukhomlinov as Minister of War, which failed to improve the strategic situation.^ Vladimir Sukhomlinov (1848-1926) - Unpopular Czarist War Minister .
  • Russia, 1904-1914 - Biographies and Glossary 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC cnparm.home.texas.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Army officer; Chief of the General Staff in 1908; War Minister from 1911.
  • Russia, 1904-1914 - Biographies and Glossary 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC cnparm.home.texas.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Minister of the Imperial Court, Baron Fredericks issued a formal public statement that outlined a general description of the Alexei’s condition.

[37] .In the aftermath of The Great Retreat and the loss of the Kingdom of Poland, Nicholas assumed the role of commander-in-chief after dismissing his cousin, Nikolay Nikolayevich, in September 1915. This was a fatal mistake, as he came to be personally associated with the continuing losses at the front.^ Nicholas II takes personal command at the front.

^ The Empress was a deeply serious person who came to have great interest in Orthodox theology and religious literature.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Not long before her death in August, 1915, Blessed Pasha was continually making prostrations to the ground in front of the portrait of the Tsar.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

.He was also away at the remote HQ at Mogilev, far from the direct governance of the empire, and when revolution broke out in Petrograd he was unable to prevent it.^ It was very active in the 1905 Revolution, when it was the leading advocate of political terror, although its most violent faction, the Maximalists, broke away in 1906.
  • Russia, 1904-1914 - Biographies and Glossary 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC cnparm.home.texas.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Participated in the Provisional Government; opposed the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution, but was squeezed out between them and the reactionary Whites in the Civil War and fled abroad.
  • Russia, 1904-1914 - Biographies and Glossary 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC cnparm.home.texas.net [Source type: Original source]

.In reality the move was largely symbolic, since all important military decisions were made by his chief-of-staff General Michael Alexeiev, and Nicholas did little more than review troops, inspect field hospitals, and preside over military luncheons.^ Plus, more than a few Americans are surely scratching their heads — with his inbox crowded with a troop request for Afghanistan, a new secret nuclear site in Iran, sky-high unemployment and a health care bill in Congress, does the president really have time for this?” .
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ Historians have always been uncertain how drastic Nicholas V's projects really were, considering what little they amounted to.
  • St Peter's - Saint Peter's by James Lees-Milne 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC saintpetersbasilica.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Anna, defensively, calls all those accusations nothing more than intrigue.
  • The following scenes or sections of the film 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

[40]
.The Duma was still calling for political reforms and political unrest continued throughout the war.^ A series of economic, social and political changes following the end of the Napoleonic wars seem to reach a peak in the campaign for and the passing of the First Reform Bill in 1832.
  • David Perdue's Charles Dickens Page - Nicholas Nickleby - Giddings 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC charlesdickenspage.com [Source type: Original source]

.Cut off from public opinion, Nicholas could not see that the dynasty was in decline.^ In the morning the Red partisans were unable to locate the tracks of those who had been cut off, to see where they led.

.With Nicholas at the front, domestic issues and control of the capital were left with his wife Alexandra, however Alexandra's relationship with Grigori Rasputin and her German background further discredited the dynasty's authority.^ Sokolov's difficult inquiry was generally a good one; however, we now know that his conclusions concerning the final disposition of the corpses of Nicholas, Alexandra, and their children was incorrect.
  • Russia books 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.gedpage.com [Source type: General]

^ The bone samples from the putative skeletal remains of Nicholas II (N4), his wife Alexandra (N7) and 3 of their daughters (N3, N5, N6) from the first grave were also available.
  • Genomic identification in the historical case of the Nicholas II royal family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ "Before my entrance into the Monastery, as I recall, I brought a portrait of Emperor Nicholas II and one of his wife, Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna, to my parents.

.Nicholas had been repeatedly warned about the destructive influence of Grigori Rasputin but had failed to remove him.^ As for Rasputin, Grand Duchess Olga writes: "Knowing Nicky as I did,I must insist that Rasputin had not a particle of influence over him.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ NINE = Even Nicholas II turns against him, but Rasputin wins the Emperor back .
  • The following scenes or sections of the film 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Wild rumours and accusations about Alexandra and Rasputin appeared almost daily.^ Rasputin replies that whether he told Empress Alexandra the truth about his dream, or not, the results are good.
  • The following scenes or sections of the film 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

Alexandra was even brought under allegations of treason and undermining the government due to her German roots. It was during the war that St. Petersburg was symbolically renamed Petrograd, the Slavic equivalent, in response to increasing war-time Germanophobia.[41] Anger at Nicholas's failure to act and the extreme damage that Rasputin's influence was doing to Russia's war effort and to the monarchy led to his (Rasputin's) murder by a group of nobles, led by Prince Felix Yusupov and Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich, a cousin of the Tsar, on 16 December 1916.

End of reign

As the government failed to produce supplies, there was mounting hardship creating massive riots and rebellions. .With Nicholas away at the front in 1915, authority appeared to collapse (Empress Alexandra ran the government from Saint Petersburg from 1915), and Saint Petersburg was left in the hands of strikers and mutineering conscript soldiers.^ "Before my entrance into the Monastery, as I recall, I brought a portrait of Emperor Nicholas II and one of his wife, Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna, to my parents.

^ Just as Nicholas and Alexandra had never used the word hemophilia … neither did the Empress Alexandra’s closest friends .” [59] .

^ Box/Folder 8 : 12 Alexandra Feodorovna, Empress, consort of Nicholas II, Emperor of Russia, 1917 (1) .
  • Register of the Kseniia Aleksandrovna, Grand Duchess of Russia Papers 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: Academic]

.Despite efforts by the British Ambassador Sir George Buchanan to warn the Tsar that he should grant constitutional reforms to fend off revolution, Nicholas continued to bury himself away at the Staff HQ (Stavka) 400 miles (600 km) away at Moghilev, leaving his capital and court open to intrigues and insurrection.^ They gathered in Senate Square in the capital but troops loyal to the Tsar opened fire and dispersed them.

^ BELOOZERO On the southern shore of Belo Ozero (White Lake), about 250 miles (400 km.
  • Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The intercessions of the Royal Martyrs Tsar Nicholas and Family, continue and we are spiritually uplifted to hear about these miracles.

.By early 1917, Russia was on the verge of total collapse.^ This is a definitive new history of Russia from early Rus’ to the successor states that emerged after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
  • The Cambridge History of Russia - Cambridge University Press 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The army had taken 15 million men from the farms and food prices had soared. An egg cost four times what it had in 1914, butter five times as much. The severe winter dealt the railways, overburdened by emergency shipments of coal and supplies, the final blow. .Russia began the war with 20,000 locomotives; by 1917 9,000 were in service, while the number of serviceable railway wagons had dwindled from half a million to 170,000. In February 1917, 1,200 locomotives burst their boilers and nearly 60,000 wagons were immobilised.^ The nominal capital to be raised by subscription amounts to £200,000,000 and the number of companies in between 300 and 400.
  • David Perdue's Charles Dickens Page - Nicholas Nickleby - Giddings 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC charlesdickenspage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ July 20, 1917: Alexander Kerensky becomes primer of Russia.

^ As a result, by the 1890s, large numbers of East Prussians from Russia began to emigrate to the United States, with many, like the author's parents, settling in Wisconsin.
  • Russia books 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.gedpage.com [Source type: General]

In Petrograd supplies of flour and fuel all but disappeared.[42] War-time prohibition of alcohol was enacted by Nicholas in order to boost patriotism and productivity, but instead damaged the treasury and funding of the war.[41]
One of the last photographs taken of Nicholas II, showing him at Tsarskoye Selo after his abdication in March 1917
.On 23 February 1917 in Petrograd (as the capital had been renamed) a combination of very severe cold weather allied with acute food shortages caused people to start to break shop windows to get bread and other necessaries.^ In March 1917 a shortage of bread in Petrograd (as St Petersburg had been renamed) led to riots.

^ And when I timidly objected that we have a severe climate and that Italian windows would let the cold in, he insisted that beauty was more important than warmth.

In the streets, red banners appeared and the crowds chanted "Down with the German woman! Down with Protopopov! Down with the war!"[42] Police started to shoot at the populace from rooftops which incited riots. .The troops in the capital were poorly-motivated and their officers had no reason to be loyal to the regime.^ They gathered in Senate Square in the capital but troops loyal to the Tsar opened fire and dispersed them.

They were angry and full of revolutionary fervor and sided with the populace. .The Tsar's Cabinet begged Nicholas to return to the capital and offered to resign completely.^ Soon however there was a return to the methods of Nicholas I, notwithstanding the fact that Pius IX wrote to the tsar, imploring liberty for Catholics of both rites in Russia .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Religion of Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Five hundred miles away the Tsar, misinformed by Protopopov that the situation was under control, ordered that firm steps be taken against the demonstrators.^ Regional control was assumed by neighbouring Pereyaslavl, 25 miles to the northwest, which assumed the titles and name of Riazan (see just above), under Mongol authority.
  • Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A commissar arrived from Moscow and informed the Tsar that the was being taken away that night.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There I was taken away by the atmosphere in this old church where the Tsar and Tsarina used to come and pray.

For this task the Petrograd garrison was quite unsuitable. The cream of the old regular army lay in their graves in Poland and Galicia. In Petrograd 170,000 recruits, country boys or older men from the working-class suburbs of the capital itself, remained to keep control under the command of wounded officers invalided from the front, and cadets from the military academies. .Many units, lacking both officers and rifles, had never undergone formal training.^ Even though I was had to read the book in many sittings, I never lost the train of thought of the author.
  • Russia books 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.gedpage.com [Source type: General]

.General Khabalov attempted to put the Tsar's instructions into effect on the morning of Sunday, 11 March 1917. Despite huge posters ordering people to keep off the streets, vast crowds gathered and were only dispersed after some 200 had been shot dead, though a company of the Volinsky Regiment fired into the air rather than into the mob, and a company of the Pavlovsky Life Guards shot the officer who gave the command to open fire.^ However the palace guard opened fire killing hundreds of people.

^ On the right kliros for quite a distance was a huge crowd of people dressed in white; I could not make out their faces.
  • Tsar-martyr 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.fatheralexander.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At some point, it is reasonable to expect people to liquidate assets in order to pay for expenses, rather than expecting society to pick up the tab.

.Nicholas, informed of the situation by Rodzianko, ordered reinforcements to the capital and suspended the Duma.^ President of the State Duma Mikhail Vladimirovich Rodzianko delivers a brave report to Nicholas [actually 1912fe26 ].
  • The following scenes or sections of the film 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

[43] It was all too late.
.On 12 March the Volinsky Regiment mutinied and was quickly followed by the Semonovsky, the Ismailovsky, the Litovsky and even the legendary Preobrajensky Guard, the oldest and staunchest regiment founded by Peter the Great.^ Peter the Great found that the patriarchate was useless, and in fact an obstacle in the way of the realization of his purposes; and accordingly, at the death of Adrian in 1700, he suppressed it.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Religion of Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexis was followed by his son Fyodor III (1676-1682) who in turn was followed by the great Tsar Peter.

^ Peter the Great founded the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1724.

.The arsenal was pillaged, the Ministry of the Interior, Military Government building, police headquarters, the Law Courts and a score of police buildings were put to the torch.^ Instead, he said a far stronger focus needs to be put on preparing Afghan military and civilian forces to take the lead in securing and building their nation.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ Heller, in which the Supreme Court narrowly ruled that the 2nd Amendment protects an individual's right to possess a firearm for lawful purposes, irrespective of military service.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

.By noon the fortress of Peter and Paul with its heavy artillery was in the hands of the insurgents.^ We see the Peter-Paul fortress in background.
  • The following scenes or sections of the film 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Winter Palace, during the salute of the guns of the Peter and Paul fortress, one of the guns was loaded with grape-shot, and the grape-shot struck the .
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Nicholas (Tsarskoie-Selo 26 Apr 1859-executed at Fortress of SS. Peter and Paul 30 Jan 1919) .
  • Empire of Russia - House of Romanov 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC almanachdegotha.org [Source type: General]

By nightfall 60,000 soldiers had joined the revolution.[43] .Order broke down and members of the Parliament (Duma) formed a Provisional Government to try to restore order but it was impossible to turn the tide of revolutionary change.^ Tsar Nicholas II abdicated on March 2, leaving Russia in the hands of a moderate Provisional Government that was frequently challenged by the newly formed Petrograd Soviet of Workers?
  • United States Relations with Russia: Establishment of Relations to World War Two 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A provisional government made up of deputies from the duma then ruled Russia.

^ Dec 1936                Checheno-Ingush A.S.S.R. 1940 - 1944                Chechen nationalist Khasan Israilov forms an anti-Soviet                               Caucasus Provisional Revolutionary People's Government                              in rebellion.

.Already the Duma and the Soviet had formed the nucleus of a Provisional Government and decided that Nicholas must abdicate.^ Tsar Nicholas II abdicated on March 2, leaving Russia in the hands of a moderate Provisional Government that was frequently challenged by the newly formed Petrograd Soviet of Workers?
  • United States Relations with Russia: Establishment of Relations to World War Two 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the murder of Tsar Nicholas, the Byzantine form of government, which places Christ at its head, ended, ushering in the present age of lawlessness, apostasy and confusion.

^ A provisional government made up of deputies from the duma then ruled Russia.

.Faced with this demand, which was echoed by his generals, deprived of loyal troops, with his family firmly in the hands of the Provisional Government and fearful of unleashing civil war and opening the way for German conquest, Nicholas had no choice but to submit.^ Russia was as weary of war as a country could be, but the Provisional Government decided to stay in the war against Germany.
  • RUSSIA 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They gathered in Senate Square in the capital but troops loyal to the Tsar opened fire and dispersed them.

^ The provisional government lost support because of its failure to end the war, which had cost so many lives and its failure to enact social reforms.

.At the end of the "February Revolution" of 1917 (February in the Old Russian Calendar), on 2 March (Julian Calendar)/ 15 March (Gregorian Calendar) 1917, Nicholas II chose to abdicate.^ March 16, 1917: Czar Nicholas II abdicates the throne.

^ March 8, 1917: Russia's "February Revolution"(based on the Old Style Calendar) begins with Russian troops refusing to fight.

^ Nicholas II abdicated for himself and the Tsarevich, Alexis  15 Mar 1917, in favor of his brother Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich Romanov (b.

.He firstly abdicated in favour of Tsarevich Alexei, but swiftly changed his mind after advice from doctors that the heir would not live long apart from his parents who would be forced into exile.^ The four little girls were beautiful, healthy and lively children who were greatly loved by their parents.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite the simplicity of these words, Alexei would mature into a handsome youth challenged every day with complex problems throughout his brief life.

^ Nicholas and Alexandra were the parents of five children: Olga, Tatiana, Marie, Anastasia and the tsarevich Alexis who was a hemophiliac.
  • Russia books 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.gedpage.com [Source type: General]

.Nicholas drew up a new manifesto naming his brother, Grand Duke Michael, as the next Emperor of all the Russias.^ MICHAEL, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias briefly after his brother's abdication 28 Mar 1917; on 29 Mar 1917 he signed a manifesto declaring that he would not assume the position of Emperor until and unless a representative body should decide on the continuation of the monarchy (St.Petersburg 22 Nov 1878-executed near Perm 13 Jul 1918); m.
  • Empire of Russia - House of Romanov 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC almanachdegotha.org [Source type: General]

^ The obverse of the silver medal bears the truncated bust of Tsar Nicholas I facing right encircled by an inscription meaning: " Nicholas I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russias ".
  • IMPERIAL RUSSIAN COLLECTION 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.imperialrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nicholas II abdicated for himself and the Tsarevich, Alexis  15 Mar 1917, in favor of his brother Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich Romanov (b.

He issued the following statement (which was suppressed by the Provisional Government):
."In the days of the great struggle against the foreign enemies, who for nearly three years have tried to enslave our fatherland, the Lord God has been pleased to send down on Russia a new heavy trial.^ "O Lord God of our fathers, and King of kings, Who created all things by Thy word, and by Thy wisdom has made man, that he should walk uprightly and rule righteously over Thy world; Thou has chosen me as Tsar and judge over Thy people.
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Orthodox formula adopted in 1923 was to omit, not three leap days in four hundred years, but seven leap days in nine hundred years (i.e.
  • RUSSIA 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Anyways, that’s how these pictures in Russia were made a 100 years age (with chemicals instead of computers) – three pictures with different filters than three overlain photos.
  • Captured Photo Collection » Color Photography from Russia in the Early 1900’s Photos 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC blogs.denverpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Internal popular disturbances threaten to have a disastrous effect on the future conduct of this persistent war. .The destiny of Russia, the honor of our heroic army, the welfare of the people and the whole future of our dear fatherland demand that the war should be brought to a victorious conclusion whatever the cost.^ Recently, he has redeemed his life, and if people do not turn to God, then not only Russia, but the whole of Europe will collapse..."
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He added later that the president should reconsider the decision and stand with our allies and do what is right and stand for the safety of the American people."
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ After the war, cotton was in great demand and brought from 70 to 90 cents per pound.
  • Nicholas / Perkins 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The cruel enemy is making his last efforts, and already the hour approaches when our glorious army together with our gallant allies will crush him. .In these decisive days in the life of Russia, We thought it Our duty of conscience to facilitate for Our people the closest union possible and a consolidation of all national forces for the speedy attainment of victory.^ After all, neither the Chinese people nor the Chinese government will accept any solution that does not allow energy consumption comparable to our own.

^ There is also a trucking union, known as the Teamsters, that covers 1.4 million people, though not all of them are truck drivers.

^ He added later that the president should reconsider the decision and stand with our allies and do what is right and stand for the safety of the American people."
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

.In agreement with the Imperial Duma We have thought it well to renounce the Throne of the Russian Empire and to lay down the supreme power.^ Massie's theory, that the hemophilia of Alexis, the young Tsarevich, had an inordinate influence of Russian and subsequent world history, is well thought-out, though perhaps an oversimplification.
  • Russia books 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.gedpage.com [Source type: General]

^ There follows a review of all the clairvoyants and charlatans who where granted access to, and influence over, the Russian imperial throne .
  • The following scenes or sections of the film 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

.As We do not wish to part from Our beloved son, We transmit the succession to Our brother, the Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich, and give Him Our blessing to mount the Throne of the Russian Empire.^ Nicholas II abdicated for himself and the Tsarevich, Alexis  15 Mar 1917, in favor of his brother Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich Romanov (b.

^ The Mongols even governed the succession of Vladimir, installing Alexander's brothers ahead of him, and then deposing his brother Andrew when Alexander denounced him for disloyalty.
  • RUSSIA 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nicholas as the eldest son was always heir to the Russian throne.

.We direct Our brother to conduct the affairs of state in full and inviolable union with the representatives of the people in the legislative bodies on those principles which will be established by them, and on which He will take an inviolable oath.^ The United States did not re‑establish diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union until 1933.
  • United States Relations with Russia: Establishment of Relations to World War Two 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a Declaration on Liberated Europe, the Allies pledged to assist the liberated peoples to establish order and create representative governments through free elections.
  • United States Relations with Russia: Establishment of Relations to World War Two 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I also know that probably most of those people did not survive the take over of the farms by the Communists and the terrible civil War that wracked Russia after WWI. .
  • Captured Photo Collection » Color Photography from Russia in the Early 1900’s Photos 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC blogs.denverpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the name of Our dearly beloved homeland, We call on Our faithful sons of the fatherland to fulfill their sacred duty to the fatherland, to obey the Czar in the heavy moment of national trials, and to help Him, together with the representatives of the people, to guide the Russian Empire on the road to victory, welfare, and glory.^ The 'Great Patriotic War' as it was called in Russia caused terrible suffering to the Russian people.

^ After this healing I know once and for all that the Tsar truly prays for those who love him and the Lord helps people through his prayers.

^ His hundred million subjects included hundreds of peoples speaking hundreds of languages, linked together by a shockingly small road and rail system.
  • Russia books 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.gedpage.com [Source type: General]

May the Lord God help Russia!"
.Grand Duke Mikhail declined to accept the throne until the people were allowed to vote through a Constituent Assembly for the continuance of the monarchy or a republic.^ Nicholas II abdicated for himself and the Tsarevich, Alexis  15 Mar 1917, in favor of his brother Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich Romanov (b.

^ Box/Folder 8 : 37 Mikhail Aleksandrovich, Grand Duke, 1916-1917 (10) .
  • Register of the Kseniia Aleksandrovna, Grand Duchess of Russia Papers 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Had Nicholas died before 1904, the throne would have gone to his kind-hearted but weak-willed younger brother, the Grand Duke Michael.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

.The abdication of Nicholas II and the subsequent Bolshevik revolution brought three centuries of the Romanov dynasty's rule to an end.^ March: Nicholas II abdicated .
  • The Cambridge History of Russia - Cambridge University Press 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nicholas II abdicated for himself and the Tsarevich, Alexis  15 Mar 1917, in favor of his brother Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich Romanov (b.

^ The principal theme is that of the marriage and family life of Tsar Nicholas [Romanov] II and his wife, the German Princess Alexandra, their privileged fairy tale existence with their five children, and their tragic and sudden fall, (and subsequent murders perpetrated by the Bolsheviks.
  • Russia books 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.gedpage.com [Source type: General]

.The fall of autocratic Tsardom brought joy to Liberals and Socialists in Britain and France and made it possible for the United States of America, the first foreign government to recognise the Provisional government, to enter the war early in April fighting in an alliance of democracies against an alliance of empires.^ In the hopes of keeping Russia in the war against Germany, the Governments of Great Britain, France, and Italy recognized the Russian Provisional Government shortly thereafter.
  • United States Relations with Russia: Establishment of Relations to World War Two 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ March 1917: U.S. Recognition of the Provisional Government U.S. Ambassador to Russia David R. Francis requested and received permission to recognize the new Russian Government in March 1917, thereby making the United States the first foreign government to formally recognize the Provisional Government.
  • United States Relations with Russia: Establishment of Relations to World War Two 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1924 Great Britain, Italy, and France recognize the country.

.In Russia, the announcement of the Tsar's abdication was greeted with many emotions.^ The Tsar considered it his sacred duty to restore to Russia her ancient traditional culture, which had been abandoned by many of the "educated" classes in favour of modern, Western styles.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ With great emotion he finished his unspoken thought, saying, "The destiny of the Tsar is the destiny of Russia.

^ Tsar Nicholas II abdicated on March 2, leaving Russia in the hands of a moderate Provisional Government that was frequently challenged by the newly formed Petrograd Soviet of Workers?
  • United States Relations with Russia: Establishment of Relations to World War Two 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These included delight, relief, fear, anger and confusion.[44]

Final months and death

The Governor's Mansion in Tobolsk, where the Romanov family was held in captivity between August 1917 and April 1918
.In August 1917, the Kerensky government evacuated the Romanovs to Tobolsk in the Urals, allegedly to protect them from the rising tide of revolution.^ November 7, 1917: The Government of Kerensky falls.

^ The family were taken prisoner by the provisional government of Kerensky in the spring of 1917 following the signing of the treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany.
  • Russia books 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.gedpage.com [Source type: General]

^ On 7 November 1917 they seized the winter palace and arrested most of the provisional government (Kerensky escaped and fled abroad).

.There they lived in the former Governor's Mansion in considerable comfort.^ Three days before their martyrdom, in the very house in which they were imprisoned, there took place the last church service of their suffering lives.
  • Tsar-martyr 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.fatheralexander.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ MASSACHUSETTS : There's buzz that Dukakis, the former governor and 1988 Democratic presidential nominee, could be the pick for interim senator.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ They should have written a law this way: If there's a Republican governor, there's no appointment.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

.In October 1917, however, the Bolsheviks seized power from Kerensky's Provisional Government; Nicholas followed the events in October with interest but as yet no alarm.^ November 7, 1917: The Government of Kerensky falls.

^ KDP Minister-chairmen of the Provisional Government 23 Mar 1917 - 21 Jul 1917  Prince Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov    (s.a.

^ However, the attention the event deserved was given to it neither by the provisional government, which was only to be expected, nor by the people, which was less expected, nor even by the Church herself...
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

.He continued to underestimate Lenin's importance but already began to feel that his abdication had done Russia more harm than good.^ The Church of Russia is the support and strength of Orthodoxy, which, counting Russians, Greeks, and Rumanians, has more than 110 millions of adherents.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Religion of Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Any day the president is focused more on the economy than any other issue is a good day as far as Rahm Emanuel and the White House is concerned.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ Meanwhile, conservatives think I'm nuts, and also maybe a closet liberal, because I think that the battle over S-Chip--whatever the merits of the case--is doing more harm than good to the righteous crusade against government-run health care.

In the meantime he and his family occupied themselves with keeping warm. .Conditions of imprisonment became more strict, and talk of putting Nicholas on trial grew more frequent.^ One thing I'm pleased about, though, is that when you talked to me earlier in this year, I was concerned that we might have to put more in to stabilize the financial system.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

The Tsar was forbidden to wear epaulettes and the sentries scrawled lewd drawings on the fence to offend his daughters. .On 1 March 1918, the family was placed on soldier's rations, which meant parting with ten devoted servants and giving up butter and coffee as luxuries.^ Finally, after midnight on July 4, 1918, the entire family, with their doctor and two faithful servants, was brought to the basement of the house of their confinement under the pretext of moving them once again.

^ After midnight on July 4/17, 1918, the entire family, with their doctor and two faithful servants, was brought to the basement of the house of their confinement under the pretext of moving them once again.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I n April of 1918, Tsar Nicholas and his family and faithful servants were transferred to Ekaterinburg by the now victorious Bolsheviks.

.What kept the family's spirits up was the belief that help was at hand.^ Mary Cecelia appears to have acted as the hub of this far-flung family, the one who kept cousins many times removed up to date on family news.
  • Nicholas / Perkins 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45] The Romanovs believed that various plots were underway to break them out of captivity and smuggle them to safety. .But on 30 April 1918 they were transferred to their final destination: the town of Yekaterinburg, where they were imprisoned in the two-story Ipatiev House, the home of the military engineer Nikolay Nikolayevich Ipatiev.^ His father Nicholas Alexandrovich was forced to carry his thirteen-year-old son and heir to the Romanov Dynasty to meet his final destiny in the cellar of the Ipatiev mansion in Yekaterinburg in July 1918.

^ Finally, after midnight on July 4, 1918, the entire family, with their doctor and two faithful servants, was brought to the basement of the house of their confinement under the pretext of moving them once again.

^ After midnight on July 4/17, 1918, the entire family, with their doctor and two faithful servants, was brought to the basement of the house of their confinement under the pretext of moving them once again.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

.On the night of 16/17 July 1918, the royal family was awakened around 2:00 am, told to dress, and led down into a half-basement room at the back of the Ipatiev house; the pretext for this move was the family's safety - that anti-Bolshevik forces were approaching Yekaterinburg, and the house might be fired upon.^ His father Nicholas Alexandrovich was forced to carry his thirteen-year-old son and heir to the Romanov Dynasty to meet his final destiny in the cellar of the Ipatiev mansion in Yekaterinburg in July 1918.

^ Finally, after midnight on July 4, 1918, the entire family, with their doctor and two faithful servants, was brought to the basement of the house of their confinement under the pretext of moving them once again.

^ After midnight on July 4/17, 1918, the entire family, with their doctor and two faithful servants, was brought to the basement of the house of their confinement under the pretext of moving them once again.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

.Present with Nicholas, Alexandra and their children were their doctor, and three of their servants, who had voluntarily chosen to remain with family - the Tsar's personal physician Eugene Botkin, his wife's maid Anna Demidova, and the family's chef, Ivan Kharitonov, and footman, Alexei Trupp.^ Nicholas' mother, formerly Princess Dagmar of Denmark, was a loving and supportive wife and mother who accepted her adopted faith, Holy Orthodoxy, into her soul and along with Alexander transmitted it to her children, building their house upon a rock.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Those killed were: the Tsar (born 1868), the Tsaritsa (1872), Olga (both 1895), Tatiana (1897), Maria (born 1899), Anastasia (born 1901), Alexis (born 1904), the Tsar's physician Eugene Botkin, the Tsaritsa's chamber-maid Anna Demidova, the cook Kharitonov and the servant Trupp.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tsar Nicholas, by a letter of 15 Nov., 1847, ratified the concordat of 3 Aug., which, like so many other Russian laws was destined to remain a dead Letter.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Religion of Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.A firing squad had been assembled and was waiting in an adjoining room, composed of seven Communist soldiers from Central Europe, and three local Bolsheviks, all under the command of Bolshevik officer Yakov Yurovsky (the soldiers are often described as Hungarians; in his account, Yurovsky described them as "Latvians").^ Yesterday, the top three House Dems -- Pelosi, Hoyer, and Clyburn -- all left themselves some wiggle room on the issue.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ All three Kennedy brothers' service in the Senate was described in the resolution.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ They occur in all three of the principal cultural and historical divisions of Europe, in Romania , Francia , and Russia .
  • RUSSIA 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Nicholas was carrying his son; when the family arrived in the basement, the former empress complained that there were no chairs for them to sit in.^ There are two active young men working on the Nicholas Runkle family and I believe the Steve Runkle of Mechanicsburg, who is lecturing on the Susquehanna River, is also a descendant.
  • Descendants of Nicholas Runckel 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC berks.pa-roots.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are no hemophiliacs in all the generation of that same Royal Family immediately following Alexei, nor in any subsequent generations .” [138] .

^ So there I was sitting in a taxi at the mouth of the Van Wyck Expressway with no housing.

.Yurovsky ordered chairs brought in, and when the empress and the heir were seated, the executioners filed into the room.^ "Before my entrance into the Monastery, as I recall, I brought a portrait of Emperor Nicholas II and one of his wife, Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna, to my parents.

Yurovsky announced to them that they had been condemned to death by the Ural Soviet of Workers' Deputies. A stunned Nicholas asked, "What? What?" and turned toward his family. Yurovsky repeated the order. .One witness among the several who later wrote accounts of Nicholas's last moments reported that the Tsar said, "You know not what you do," paraphrasing Jesus's words on the cross.^ For this moment, Tsar and Duma are one.
  • The following scenes or sections of the film 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This very week, Moscow affirmed (though the Orthodox church has not accepted) that the last of Nicholas’s family had been accounted for: .
  • ExecutedToday.com » 1918: Tsar Nicholas II and his family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.executedtoday.com [Source type: General]

^ Alexander was a firm and uncomplicated man who feared God and became one of Russias great Tsars, though his reign was short (1881-1894).

The executioners drew revolvers and the shooting began. .Nicholas was the first to die; Yurovsky shot him multiple times in the head and chest.^ Snow Hill, for example, site of the Saracen’s Head, where we meet Squeers for the first time: .
  • David Perdue's Charles Dickens Page - Nicholas Nickleby - Giddings 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC charlesdickenspage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His appearance is so strange, freakish and bizarre that when Nicholas first notices him he “ could hardly bear to watch him ”.
  • David Perdue's Charles Dickens Page - Nicholas Nickleby - Giddings 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC charlesdickenspage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first time was on July 4/17, on the anniversary of the murder of the Royal Family, and the second time was on May 9/22, the spring feast of St. Nicholas.

.Anastasia, Tatiana, Olga, and Maria survived the first hail of bullets; the sisters were wearing over 1.3 kilograms of diamonds and precious gems sewn into their clothing, which provided some initial protection from the bullets and bayonets.^ The first bullets did not bring death to the youngest ones, and they were savagely clubbed, bayoneted and shot at point-blank range.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ O holy Royal Martyrs Nicholas, Alexandra, Alexis, Olga, Tabana, Maria and Anastasia, pray to God for us!
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dominic Lieven writes: "Between 1895 and 1901 the Empress had given birth to four daughters: Olga, Tatiana, Marie and Anastasia.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

[46] .They were stabbed with bayonets and then shot at close range in the head.^ The first bullets did not bring death to the youngest ones and they were savagely killed with blows of bayonets and gun-butts and with shots at point-blank range.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first bullets did not bring death to the youngest ones, and they were savagely clubbed, bayoneted and shot at point-blank range.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

[47]
.An official announcement appeared in the national press two days later, announcing the killing of the Tsar, but not of his family, in Yekaterinburg.^ Two days later the vote fails.

^ In 1888, while Tsar Alexander III and his family were travelling towards Kharkov, the imperial train was rocked by two explosions and derailed.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Two days later they free Lodz, Krakow, and Tarnow.

.It declared that the monarch had been executed on the order of the Presidium of the Ural Regional Soviet, because the approach of the anti-Bolshevik Czechoslovak Legions in the area posed a danger that the Romanovs might be freed.^ During the time that the Imperial family was in Yekaterinburg, the family doctor Yevgeny Botkin wrote a letter to the Ural Regional Soviet Executive Committee.

[48]

Identification

Yekaterinburg's "Church on the Blood", built on the spot where the Ipatiev House once stood.
.In 1979, the bodies of Tsar Nicholas II, Tsarina Alexandra, three of their daughters, and those of four non-family members killed with them, were discovered near Yekaterinburg by amateur archaeologist Alexander Avdonin.^ Alexander II was a reforming Tsar.

^ Tsar Nicholas II came to the throne .
  • The Cambridge History of Russia - Cambridge University Press 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The death of Tsar Alexander III, the marriage of Nicholas and his coronation .

.In January 1998, the remains excavated from underneath the dirt road near Yekaterinburg were officially identified as those of Nicholas II and his family (excluding one of the sisters, and Alexei).^ Tsar Nicholas II and his family .
  • ExecutedToday.com » 1918: Tsar Nicholas II and his family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.executedtoday.com [Source type: General]

^ In the small hours after midnight on the night of July 16-17 90 years ago, the former Tsar Nicholas II, his wife, children, and four family retainers, were shot in a Yekaterinburg basement by their Bolshevik jailers.
  • ExecutedToday.com » 1918: Tsar Nicholas II and his family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.executedtoday.com [Source type: General]

^ This 1850 census, taken in Scipio Township also listed the families of Daniel McFarland Closser and Nicholas W. Closser who married Rebecca Parker (William's older sister).
  • Descendants of Nicholas Closser 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.dunelady.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The identifications by separate Russian, British and American scientists using DNA analysis concur and were found to be conclusive.^ DNA identification of Georgij Romanov, a direct brother of the Russian Tsar Nicolas II. Sequence of mitochondrial DNA. Igaku to Seibutsugaku (1999), 139(6), 247-251 .

^ Those Russian Jews who could fled to other countries; many came to the United States, assisted by philanthropic organizations founded by American Jews.
  • United States Relations with Russia: Establishment of Relations to World War Two 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gill, P. et al., (1994) Identification of the Remains of the Romanov Family by DNA Analysis.

[49] After the testing the remains were finally interred at St. Peter and Paul Cathedral in Saint Petersburg on 17 July 1998, eighty years after they were murdered.
.In July 2007, 46-year-old builder Sergei Pogorelov (part of a team from an amateur history group who spent free summer weekends looking for the lost Romanovs) said that after stumbling on a small burned area of ground covered with nettles near Yekaterinburg he had discovered bones that belonged to "a boy and a young woman roughly the ages of Nicholas’ 13-year-old hemophiliac son, Alexei, and a daughter whose remains also never have been found."^ Suddenly Alexei said, Look up!

^ His father Nicholas Alexandrovich was forced to carry his thirteen-year-old son and heir to the Romanov Dynasty to meet his final destiny in the cellar of the Ipatiev mansion in Yekaterinburg in July 1918.

^ When Alexei was born in July, 1904, the condition was not so rare as to remain elusive.

[50]
.On 23 August 2007, acting on standard procedures, prosecutors reopened the investigation surrounding the deaths of the Imperial Family.^ The purchase includes nine acres of ground surrounding 19 April 2007 Family of Col. Nicholas PERKINS * Page 92 .
  • Nicholas / Perkins 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Equally it is perfect for forensic investigations and is the standard procedure to identify victims of disasters such as World Trade Center victims, where skeletal fragments have been severely fragmented.

^ August 23, 1942: Germany surrounds Stalingrad and sets up a siege.

.On 30 April 2008, DNA tests performed by a U.S. laboratory proved that bone fragments exhumed in the Ural Mountains belonged to two members of the Imperial Family, Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich and Grand Duchess Maria, according to Russian news agencies.^ Transferred, along with the family members mentioned above as well as her son-in-law Felix Yusupov and her granddaughter, to Dulber, the fortress-like estate also in the Crimea belonging to Grand Duke Petr Nikolaevich.
  • Register of the Kseniia Aleksandrovna, Grand Duchess of Russia Papers 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.oac.cdlib.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During the course of their extensive studies on 29 September 1993 it was announced in Russkaya Meditsinskaya Gazeta (Russian Medical Newspaper) that the bone fragments which Professor Pavel Ivanov took to England belonged to the Russia ’s last Imperial family.

^ Kim Jong Il April 30, 2008 .
  • AEI - Scholars - Nicholas Eberstadt 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.aei.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51] .That same day it was announced by Russian authorities that the remains of the entire family had been identified.^ On this basis, the Russian government was able to issue death certificates for each of the identified remains.

^ Before the Russian Government Commission, Mrs. Kulikovskaya announced that Rogaev’s results did not correlate with the Ekaterinburg remains!

^ His entire immediate family lost their lives at the same time in Yekaterinburg in1918.

[51][52]
.On 1 October 2008, Russia's Supreme Court ruled that Nicholas II and his family were victims of political repression and should be rehabilitated.^ Tsar Nicholas II abdicated on March 2, leaving Russia in the hands of a moderate Provisional Government that was frequently challenged by the newly formed Petrograd Soviet of Workers?
  • United States Relations with Russia: Establishment of Relations to World War Two 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The gentlemen of the other side have refused to adopt any rules and blocked the wheels of 19 April 2007 Family of Col. Nicholas PERKINS * Page 93 .
  • Nicholas / Perkins 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ F ew figures in history have been so misunderstood and maligned as the Tsar-Martyr Nicholas II, the last emperor of Orthodox Holy Russia.

[53][54][55] .In March 2009, results of the DNA testing were published, confirming that the two bodies discovered in 2007 were those of Alexei and his sister Maria.^ That final chapter in Alexei’s tragic life and those of his sisters (some of whom may have been carriers of the defective gene) eliminated any possibility of the defective gene to be passed on.

^ Those results were submitted to the Commission in 1995, [68] and he published them in Genetika in 1996.

^ January 2010 December 2009 November 2009 October 2009 September 2009 August 2009 July 2009 June 2009 May 2009 April 2009 March 2009 February 2009 January 2009 December 2008 November 2008 October 2008 September 2008 August 2008 July 2008 June 2008 May 2008 April 2008 March 2008 February 2008 January 2008 December 2007 November 2007 October 2007 September 2007 August 2007 .

[56]
.Nicholas belonged to the paternal haplogroup R1b; based upon Y-STR DNA test results on his remains, which have also been validated with results from a living relative.^ Plainly speaking, Rogaev identified that Tihon was maternally related to the # 4 skeletal remains .Abramov and his anthropological team had previously identified that skeleton # 4 belonged to Nicholas II. .

^ We published [in Nature Genetics] that the remains were authentic, in that they correlated with the samples of DNA extracted from living relatives of the Imperial Family on the maternal side .” .

^ But the most important aspect of the identification process at this stage was to conduct DNA profiles and compare them with living relatives of the assassinated Imperial family.

[57] The Czar belonged to the maternal haplogroup T based upon mitochondrial DNA mutuations: 16126C, 16169Y, 16294T, 16296T, 73G, 263G, and 315.1C. [58]

Assessment

Nicholas is generally considered to have been incompetent to the colossal task of ruling the enormous Russian Empire.[59] Historian Barbara Tuchman gives a damning evaluation of his reign:
[The .Russian Empire] was ruled from the top by a sovereign who had but one idea of government—to preserve intact the absolute monarchy bequeathed to him by his father—and who, lacking the intellect, energy or training for his job, fell back on personal favorites, whim, simple mulishness, and other devices of the empty-headed autocrat.^ Immediately after this, the superior of a nearby monastery came to see my father at home and told him that he had an acquaintance who wanted to give him seeds for planting.

^ Yet the last thing White House needs is for the 10-15% of people who disapprove of his policies right now -- but at one time approved of his job -- to feel alienated away from ever supporting him.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ Furthermore, Prince Nicholas contended that no one knew of Nagai’s “ expertise ” - the very same person who used material wwith suspect preservation, with no guarantee that that it is genuine.

.His father, Alexander III, who deliberately intended to keep his son uneducated in statecraft until the age of thirty, unfortunately miscalculated his own life expectancy, and died when Nicholas was twenty-six.^ The death of Tsar Alexander III, the marriage of Nicholas and his coronation .

^ See 45.14 - Grand Duchess Alexandra who was dying of tuberculosis went into labour when she was six months' pregnant, her son Wilhelm lived only for a few hours with his mother dying a few hours later .

^ Nicholas and Kate are thrown penniless into life on their father’s death.
  • David Perdue's Charles Dickens Page - Nicholas Nickleby - Giddings 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC charlesdickenspage.com [Source type: Original source]

.The new Czar, now forty-six, had learned nothing in the interval, and the impression of imperturbability he conveyed was in reality apathy—the indifference of a mind so shallow as to be all surface.^ "We have sought -- in word and deed -- a new era of engagement with the world and now is the time for all of us to take our share of responsibility for a global response to global challenges."
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ This was not what most of the Slavic countries had in mind, but it actually meant in very real terms that Russia viewed herself as the protector of all Slavic peoples.
  • RUSSIA 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All that is lacking is now for the American Left to discover a friend and ally in the new brutal and aggressive Russia.
  • RUSSIA 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

When a telegram was brought to him announcing the annihilation of the Russian fleet at Tsushima, he read it, stuffed it in his pocket, and went on playing tennis. (Tuchman, Barbara W. The Guns of August. .New York: Presidio Press, 1962, pg.^ New York: Gordon Press, 1976.

^ Paterson says he’s still running: On “Meet the Press” yesterday, embattled New York Gov. David Paterson told NBC’s David Gregory that he’s running for election next year.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ New York: St. Martins Press, 1974.

71.)
Robert K. Massie provides a more sympathetic view of the Tsar:
... there still are those who for political or other reasons continue to insist that Nicholas was "Bloody Nicholas." .Most commonly, he is described as shallow, weak, stupid—a one-dimensional figure presiding feebly over the last days of a corrupt and crumbling system.^ By the end of my time there, there was no hot water to speak of for most of the day, and the heating was more in the nature of a fond hope than a working system.

This, certainly, is the prevailing public image of the last Tsar. .Historians admit that Nicholas was a "good man"—the historical evidence of personal charm, gentleness, love of family, deep religious faith and strong Russian patriotism is too overwhelming to be denied—but they argue that personal factors are irrelevant; what matters is that Nicholas was a bad tsar...^ The Tsar Nicholas, by a letter of 15 Nov., 1847, ratified the concordat of 3 Aug., which, like so many other Russian laws was destined to remain a dead Letter.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Religion of Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It has often been asserted that the Tsar was a weak-willed man who allowed himself to be ruled by his wife in matters of State, and, through .
  • Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Ii And His Family 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Stuart was known for her love of nature, her strict discipline and religious faith.
  • Nicholas / Perkins 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Essentially, the tragedy of Nicholas II was that he appeared in the wrong place in history.^ F ew figures in history have been so misunderstood and maligned as the Tsar-Martyr Nicholas II, the last emperor of Orthodox Holy Russia.

^ Unfortunately, Kendrick appears to have ignored that the first real evidence was published from Nicholas II diary featuring the historically and medically important entries for September 1904.

(Massie, Robert K. Nicholas and Alexandra. .New York: Kingsport Press, 1967, viii-x.^ New York: Gordon Press, 1976.

^ Paterson says he’s still running: On “Meet the Press” yesterday, embattled New York Gov. David Paterson told NBC’s David Gregory that he’s running for election next year.
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ New York: St. Martins Press, 1974.

)

Sainthood

.In 1981, Nicholas and his immediate family were recognised as martyred saints by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia.^ Thanks to this, Russian Orthodox churches are everywhere!

^ On the second day of Council of Bishops of Russian Orthodox Church in Moscow, Russia on 14 August 2000, the jubilee bishop's council made the decision to glorify for churchwide veneration a list of passion bearers, confessors, martyrs, and saints.

^ Despite this façade, few outside the immediate family circle were aware of the true nature of Alexei’s condition.

.On 14 August 2000, they were recognised by the synod of the Russian Orthodox Church.^ Thanks to this, Russian Orthodox churches are everywhere!

^ From 13-16 August 2000, the Synod of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church in Moscow, Russia, gave it's approval or blessings for the glorification, and canonization for Emperor Tsar Nicholas II, Empress Alexandra, Grand Duke Tsarevich Alexis, Grand Duchesses Olga, Tatiana, Marie, and Anastasia.

^ It began to be rumoured that Antichrist , personified by the pope , had in view the destruction of the Orthodox Russian Church, through the Latin Catholics of western Russia .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Religion of Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.This time they were not named as martyrs, since their death did not result immediately from their Christian faith; instead, they were canonized as passion bearers.^ They did not find C/T heteroplasmy at the position 16169, but did find it instead at 7 other positions: 16093, 16278, 16298, 16325, 16327, 16356, and 16362.

^ The first bullets did not bring death to the youngest ones and they were savagely killed with blows of bayonets and gun-butts and with shots at point-blank range.
  • Tsar Nicholas and His Family 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.pravmir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They said that people would be martyred for the Name of Christ and for not accepting the mark and that churches and monasteries would soon be destroyed and those living in monasteries would be driven out, and that not only clergy and monastics would be martyred, but all who did not want to receive the mark and who would stand for the Name of Christ, for the faith, and for the Church...

According to a statement by the Moscow synod, they were glorified as saints for the following reasons:
Tsar Nicholas II of Russia
Nicholas II of Russia
Tsar-Martyr Nicholas II of Russia
Royal Passion-Bearer Tsar Nicholas II of Russia
Born 18 May 1868(1868-05-18), Tsarskoye Selo, Russia
Died 17 July 1918 (aged 50), Yekaterinburg, Russian SFSR
Venerated in Eastern Orthodoxy
Canonized 1981 and 2000, Russia by Russian Orthodox Church Abroad and the Russian Orthodox Church
Major shrine Church on Blood, Ekaterinburg, Russia
Feast 17 July
."In the last Orthodox Russian monarch and members of his family we see people who sincerely strove to incarnate in their lives the commands of the Gospel.^ The official mourners included members of the Romanov House and world dignitaries who witnessed the Orthodox blessing and burial customary for their Imperial status.

^ The Orthodox Church of Copenhagen is the only one in Denmark, and was built for the Imperial Russian Family to use when they were in Denmark.

^ The object, as I see it, is to force the people who care about things like legality to get insurance rather than rolling the dice.

In the suffering borne by the Royal Family in prison with humility, patience, and meekness, and in their martyrs deaths in Yekaterinburg in the night of 4/17 July 1918 was revealed the light of the faith of Christ that conquers evil."
However, Nicholas' canonization was controversial. .The Russian Orthodox Church Abroad was split on the issue back in 1981. Some members suggesting that the emperor was a weak ruler and had failed to prevent the outbreak of Communism in Russia.^ Thanks to this, Russian Orthodox churches are everywhere!

^ From 13-16 August 2000, the Synod of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church in Moscow, Russia, gave it's approval or blessings for the glorification, and canonization for Emperor Tsar Nicholas II, Empress Alexandra, Grand Duke Tsarevich Alexis, Grand Duchesses Olga, Tatiana, Marie, and Anastasia.

^ It provided that the number of parishes should not be greater than nine; and it strictly prohibited Catholic priests , residing in Russia , from proselytizing among Orthodox Russians.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Religion of Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was pointed out by one priest that martyrdom in the Russian Orthodox Church has nothing to do with the martyr's personal actions but is instead related to why he or she was killed.^ Thanks to this, Russian Orthodox churches are everywhere!

^ I was never religious in my beliefs or actions, and was not brought up as a church going person.

^ The Orthodox Church of Copenhagen is the only one in Denmark, and was built for the Imperial Russian Family to use when they were in Denmark.

[60] .A further criticism was found in that the Orthodox Church outside of Russia seemed to be using Nicholas' murder as propaganda against the Jews.^ The Orthodox Church of Copenhagen is the only one in Denmark, and was built for the Imperial Russian Family to use when they were in Denmark.

^ F ew figures in history have been so misunderstood and maligned as the Tsar-Martyr Nicholas II, the last emperor of Orthodox Holy Russia.

^ Popov’s crusade to negate the Commission’s findings had found a willing partner outside of Russia financed by the accommodating RECA members, which included him.

[61]
.The Russian Orthodox Church inside Russia rejected the family's classification as martyrs because they were not killed because of their religious faith.^ Thanks to this, Russian Orthodox churches are everywhere!

^ The terrible Ipatiev House was probably destroyed by Satanists because the Russian people commemorated their Sovereign there, and because the Sovereign himself prays for (and will always pray for) his Holy Russia.

^ It provided that the number of parishes should not be greater than nine; and it strictly prohibited Catholic priests , residing in Russia , from proselytizing among Orthodox Russians.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Religion of Russia 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Religious leaders in both churches also had objections to canonizing the Tsar's family because they perceived him as a weak emperor whose incompetence led to the revolution, the suffering of his people and made him at least partially responsible for his own murder and those of his wife and children.^ Democrats put him on the radio, of course, precisely because they expected him to be some sort of trump card whose need could not successfully be challenged.

^ But its still okay to bar those who cannot afford to escape on their own means from using government means to do so, because the system will collapse.

^ Going back to Brooks’ point that Obama has abandoned the center, did he abandon the center -- or did the center abandon him because of their own weariness?
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

.For these opponents, the fact that the Tsar was, in private life, a kind man and a good husband and father did not override his poor governance of Russia.^ In view of the fact that Tsar Nicholas died as a martyr, he must be glorified by the Church in Russia as a saint.

^ I think that the argument that we need to carefully shepherd the poor through life is not only kind of creepy, it's also contributing to the fact that we need to shepherd the poor through life.

^ They just tell us that the domestic market for these goods has experienced some kind of negative supply shock.

[60]
.Despite the original opposition the Russian Orthodox Church inside Russia ultimately recognised the family as "passion bearers,"or people who met their deaths with Christian humility.^ Thanks to this, Russian Orthodox churches are everywhere!

^ People kept passing by to get inside the Church.

^ On the second day of Council of Bishops of Russian Orthodox Church in Moscow, Russia on 14 August 2000, the jubilee bishop's council made the decision to glorify for churchwide veneration a list of passion bearers, confessors, martyrs, and saints.

.The Church does not, however, recognize the remains interred at Peter and Paul Cathedral as being those of the Imperial Family, and considers the grave to be purely symbolic.^ The following discussion shall address why we, as professional scientists, contend that the remains buried in St Peter and Paul Cathedral are indeed those of the last Russian Imperial Family, and that the objections brought forth to argue to the contrary are not scientifically valid.

^ Suitably armed with Nagai and Popov’s unsubstantiated assertions – RECA now seek political intervention in Moscow to facilitate the removal of the remains from the St Peter and Paul Fortress Cathedral so they could be returned back to Ekaterinburg.

^ The Orthodox Church of Copenhagen is the only one in Denmark, and was built for the Imperial Russian Family to use when they were in Denmark.

[citation needed]

Ancestors

Patrilineal descent

Nicholas's patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son.
.Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations — which means that if Nicholas II were to have chosen an historically accurate house name it would have been Oldenburg, as all his male-line ancestors were of that house.^ Male: You mean Bob McDonnell and his plans to take us back to the dark ages?
  • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ Now that he had felt real help he who until then had disparaged all things holy he ran again, when he encountered ordinary difficulties, to him from whom he had seen this help to Tsar Nicholas II and all the Royal Martyrs, and thats the way it was.

^ After the abdication, Nicholas made his way back to his family in Petersburg, all of whom were under house arrest like common criminals, and found all of his children ill.

.See also Tsars of Russia family tree.^ After the briefing the Emperor said: If you see me in such a calm state, this is because I have an unshakable faith that the fate of Russia, my own fate and the fate of my family are in the Lords hands.

House of Oldenburg:
  1. Egilmar I of Lerigau, dates unknown
  2. Egilmar II of Lerigau, d. 1141
  3. Christian I of Oldenburg, d. 1167
  4. Moritz of Oldenburg, d. 1209
  5. Christian II of Oldenburg, d. 1233
  6. John I, Count of Oldenburg, d. 1275
  7. Christian III, Count of Oldenburg, d. 1285
  8. John II, Count of Oldenburg, d. 1314
  9. Conrad I, Count of Oldenburg, 1300 - 1347
  10. Christian V, Count of Oldenburg, 1340 - 1423
  11. Dietrich, Count of Oldenburg, 1398 - 1440
  12. Christian I of Denmark, 1426 - 1481
  13. Frederick I of Denmark, 1471 - 1533
  14. Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, 1526 - 1586
  15. John Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, 1575 - 1616
  16. Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, 1597 - 1659
  17. Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, 1641 - 1695
  18. Frederick IV, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, 1671 - 1702
  19. Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, 1700 - 1739
  20. Peter III of Russia, 1728 - 1762, putative father of
  21. Paul I of Russia, 1754 - 1801
  22. Nicholas I of Russia, 1796 - 1855
  23. Alexander II of Russia, 1818 - 1881
  24. Alexander III of Russia, 1845 - 1894
  25. Nicholas II of Russia, 1868 - 1918

Descent from Rurik

.Nicholas's family, the Romanovs were originally in-laws of the Rurikids with no Rurikid blood in them, until the Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna of Russia married Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, who descends from the Grand Dukes of Kiev and the legendary Viking ruler of Russia, Rurik.^ This 1850 census, taken in Scipio Township also listed the families of Daniel McFarland Closser and Nicholas W. Closser who married Rebecca Parker (William's older sister).
  • Descendants of Nicholas Closser 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.dunelady.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two active young men working on the Nicholas Runkle family and I believe the Steve Runkle of Mechanicsburg, who is lecturing on the Susquehanna River, is also a descendant.
  • Descendants of Nicholas Runckel 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC berks.pa-roots.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ann Eliza and Mary S. Overbey who married into the Newsom 19 April 2007 Family of Col. Nicholas PERKINS * Page 75 .
  • Nicholas / Perkins 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also Rurikid Dynasty.
Coat of arms of Imperial Russia
Pretenders to the
Russian throne since 1917
Emperor Nicholas II
1917–1918
vacant
1918–1924
1924–1938
1938–1992
since 1992
since 1992
See also House of Romanov
  1. Rurik
  2. Igor of Kiev
  3. Sviatoslav I of Kiev
  4. Vladimir the Great
  5. Yaroslav I the Wise
  6. Vladimir II Monomakh
  7. Mstislav I of Kiev
  8. Ingeborg of Kiev
  9. Valdemar I of Denmark
  10. Valdemar II of Denmark
  11. Erik IV of Denmark
  12. Sofia of Denmark
  13. Ingeborg Valdemarsdotter of Sweden
  14. Gerhard IV, Count of Holstein-Itzehoe-Plön
  15. Ingeborg of Holstein
  16. Christian V, Count of Oldenburg
  17. Dietrich, Count of Oldenburg
  18. Christian I of Denmark
  19. Frederic I of Denmark
  20. Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
  21. John Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
  22. Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
  23. Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
  24. Frederick IV, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
  25. Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
  26. Peter III of Russia
  27. Paul I of Russia
  28. Nicholas I of Russia
  29. Alexander II of Russia
  30. Alexander III of Russia
  31. Nicholas II of Russia

Issue

The children of Nicholas II and Empress Alexandra are as follows:
Image Name Birth Death Notes
Olga Russia.jpg Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna 15 November [O.S. 3 November] 1895 17 July 1918 shot at Yekaterinburg by the Bolsheviks
Tatiana Nikolaevna.jpg Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna 10 June [O.S. 29 May] 1897 17 July 1918 shot at Yekaterinburg by the Bolsheviks
Maria1916.jpg Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna 26 June [O.S. 14 June] 1899 17 July 1918 shot at Yekaterinburg by the Bolsheviks
Anastasia1916.jpg Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna 18 June [O.S. 5 June] 1901 17 July 1918 shot at Yekaterinburg by the Bolsheviks
Alexei Nikolaievich circa 1917 Army uniform.jpg Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich 12 August [O.S. 30 July] 1904 17 July 1918 shot at Yekaterinburg by the Bolsheviks

Titles and styles

  • His Imperial Highness Grand Duke Nikolay Alexandrovich of Russia (1868-1881)
  • His Imperial Highness The Tsarevitch of Russia (1881-1894)
  • His Imperial Majesty The Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias (1894-1917)

Depictions in literature and popular culture

References

  1. ^ In 1831, the Russian czars were deposed from the Polish throne, but they soon took control of the country as part of Russia and abolished the separate monarchy. However, they continued to use this title. See November Uprising.
  2. ^ Nicholas's full title was We, Nicholas the Second, by the grace of God, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, of Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod, Tsar of Kazan, Tsar of Astrakhan, King of Poland, Czar of Siberia, Czar of Tauric Chersonesos, Tsar of Georgia, Lord of Pskov, and Grand Duke of Smolensk, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia, and Finland, Prince of Estonia, Livonia, Courland and Semigalia, Samogitia, Belostok, Karelia, of Tver, Yugra, Perm, Vyatka, Bulgaria, and other territories; Lord and Grand Duke of Nizhny Novgorod, Chernigov; Sovereign of Ryazan, Polotsk, Rostov, Yaroslavl, Beloozero, Udoria, Obdoria, Kondia, Vitebsk, Mstislav , and all the northern territories; and Sovereign of Iveria, Kartalinia, and the Kabardinian lands and Armenian territories; Hereditary Lord and Ruler of the Cherkass and Mountain Princes and others; Lord of Turkestan, Heir of Norway, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, Stormarn, Dithmarschen, Oldenburg, and so forth, and so forth, and so forth.
  3. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.38
  4. ^ Massie, Robert, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.40
  5. ^ A Quantitative Approach to Royal Marriage Circles 1700–1918,Royal Kinship. Anglo-German Family Networks 1815-1918 Assistant editor Campbell Orr, Clarissa; Davis, John; Gestrich, Andreas; Petropolous, Jonathan; Riotte, Torsten; Röhl, John; Schönpflug, Daniel; Seligmann, Matthew; Wienfort, Monika; Urbach, Karina Berlin, New York (Walter de Gruyter – K. G. Saur) 2008 Pages 25–34
  6. ^ Feinstein, Elaine (2006). Excerpt from Anna of All the Russias. Vintage. ISBN 978-1-4000-3378-2.
  7. ^ a b Andre Pierre, trans., Journal Intime de Nicholas II, 45
  8. ^ Robert D. Warth, Nicholas II, The Life and Reign of Russia's Last Monarch, 14
  9. ^ Nicholas and Alexandra- Robert K. Massie, 42.
  10. ^ Nicholas and Alexandra- Robert K. Massie 44
  11. ^ Robert D. Warth, Nicholas II, The Life and Reign of Russia's Last Monarch, 20
  12. ^ Andre Pierre, trans., Journal Intime de Nicholas II, 127
  13. ^ Princess Catherine Radziwill — Nicholas II, The Last of the Tsars, 100.
  14. ^ a b Robert D. Warth, Nicholas II, The Life and Reign of Russia's Last Monarch, 26
  15. ^ a b John Merriman, A History of Modern Europe Volume Two, 1017
  16. ^ Robert D. Warth, Nicholas II, The Life and Reign of Russia's Last Monarch, 26-27
  17. ^ Robert D. Warth, Nicholas II, The Life and Reign of Russia's Last Monarch, 67
  18. ^ "Beyond the Pale: The Pogroms of 1903 - 1906". http://www.friends-partners.org/partners/beyond-the-pale/english/36.html. Retrieved 2008-07-17. 
  19. ^ Peter Kenez, A History of the Soviet Union From the Beginning to the End, This was hugely significant in regards to the illiterate peasantry or 'dark masses' who although followed their own (almost pagan rituals) had until this point held complete naive faith in Czar Nicholas II. 7
  20. ^ Lyons, M, Nicholas II, The Last Tsar,116
  21. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, 124
  22. ^ a b c Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.125
  23. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, 124-125
  24. ^ a b Vorres, I, The Last Grand Duchess, 121
  25. ^ a b Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, 242
  26. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.243
  27. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, 244
  28. ^ a b Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, 245
  29. ^ a b Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, p.246
  30. ^ a b c Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, 247
  31. ^ Massie, R, Nicholas and Alexandra, 248
  32. ^ Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, 49
  33. ^ R Massie Nicholas and Alexandra Page 185
  34. ^ a b John Merriman, A History of Modern Europe Volume Two, 967
  35. ^ Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, 43
  36. ^ Josef und Ulli. "World War One". http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Rhodes/6916/ww1.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  37. ^ a b c Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, 42
  38. ^ Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, 46
  39. ^ Hall, C, Little Mother of Russia, 264
  40. ^ The Fate of the Romanovs (2003) by Greg King and Penny Wilson
  41. ^ a b Robert D. Warth, Nicholas II, The Life and Reign of Russia's Last Monarch, 199
  42. ^ a b Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, 52
  43. ^ a b Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, p.53
  44. ^ Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, 55
  45. ^ Tames, R, Last of the Tsars, 62
  46. ^ Massie, R, The Romanovs The Final Chapter, 8
  47. ^ Massie, R, The Romanovs The Final Chapter, 6
  48. ^ Mark D. Steinberg, Vladimir M. Khrustalëv (1995). The Fall of the Romanovs. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300070675. http://books.google.com/books?id=h6nH7FyuysAC&pg=RA1-PA293&ots=dC3I8jXx_4&dq=Nicholas+II+decree+soviet+1918+execute+July&sig=jQhCag0pVC69HxSoBak8NPHqHk0#PRA1-PA294,M1link. 
  49. ^ (Russian) "Экспертиза подтвердила, что найденные останки принадлежат Николаю II". ITAR-TASS. http://www.itartass.ur.ru/news/?id=42200. Retrieved 2008-12-05. 
  50. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/aug/25/russia.lukeharding
  51. ^ a b "DNA Confirms Remains Of Czar's Children". Associated Press. 2008-04-30. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/04/30/tech/main4057567.shtml. Retrieved 2007-09-28. 
  52. ^ Details on further testing of the Imperial remains are contained in Rogaev, E.I., Grigorenko, A.P., Moliaka, I.K., Faskhutdinova, G., Goltsov,A., Lahti, A., Hildebrandt, C., Kittler, E.L.W. and Morozova, I., "Genomic identification in historical case of Nicholas II Royal family.", Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, (2009). The mitochondrial DNA of Alexandra, Alexei, and Maria are identical and of haplogroup H1. The mitochondrial DNA of Nicholas was haplogroup T2. Their sequences are published at GenBank as FJ656214, FJ656215, FJ656216, and FJ656217.
  53. ^ BBCNews. Russia's last czar rehabilitated. Retrieved on 2008-10-01
  54. ^ "Last czar’s family rehabilitated". Russiatoday.com. 2008-10-01. http://www.russiatoday.com/news/news/31214. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  55. ^ "Russia's Last Tsar Declared Victim of Repression". TIME. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1846339,00.html. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  56. ^ ""DNA proves Bolsheviks killed all of Russian Tsar's children", ''CNN'' ( 11 March 2009". CNN. 2009-03-11. http://www.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/europe/03/11/czar.children/index.html. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  57. ^ "Coble MD, Loreille OM, Wadhams MJ, Edson SM, Maynard K, et al. (2009) Mystery Solved: The Identification of the Two Missing Romanov Children Using DNA Analysis.". PLoS ONE. http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0004838#pone-0004838-g003. Retrieved 2010-1-12. 
  58. ^ http://www.isogg.org/famousdna.htm
  59. ^ Ferro, Marc. Nicholas II: Last of the Tsars. Oxford University Press, trans. Brian Pearce, 1995, pg. 2.
  60. ^ a b Massie, Robert K., The Fate of the Romanovs: The Final Chapter, Random House, ISBN 394-58048-6, 1995, 134-135
  61. ^ King, Greg, and Wilson, Penny, The Fate of the Romanovs, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., p. 495

Further reading

.
  • The Sokolov Report, in Victor Alexandrov, "The End of The Romanovs", London: 1966
  • Boris Antonov, Russian Czars, St.Petersburg, Ivan Fiodorov Art Publishers (ISBN 5-93893-109-6)
  • Michael M. Baden, Chapter III: Time of Death and Changes after Death.^ The following information comes from a book "Miracles Of Royal Martyrs," published in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    ^ At this time, Nicholas was made aware of the future apostasy and downfall of the Russian nation and Church through a prophetic letter written by St. Seraphim himself.

    ^ It was not true, however, since at that time almost all of Russia outside of St. Petersburg was still behind him.

    Part 4: Exhumation
    , In: Spitz, W.U. & Spitz, D.J. (eds): Spitz and Fisher’s Medicolegal Investigation of Death. .Guideline for the Application of Pathology to Crime Investigations (Fourth edition). Charles C. Thomas, pp.: 174-183, Springfield, Illinois: 2006
  • Paul Grabbe, "The Private World of the Last Czar" New York: 1985
  • Ferro, Marc, Nicholas II: Last of the Czars.^ Birth Date - Nicholas Knapp-The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633 (1995), by Robert Charles Anderson, F.A.S.G. II:1136.
    • Descendants of Nicholas Knapp 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.ctgenweb.org [Source type: General]

    ^ F ew figures in history have been so misunderstood and maligned as the Tsar-Martyr Nicholas II, the last emperor of Orthodox Holy Russia.

    ^ The New York Times thinks that our low taxes are making us uncompetitive with the rest of the world: .

    .New York: Oxford University Press (USA), 1993 (hardcover, ISBN 0-19-508192-7); 1995 (paperback, ISBN 0-19-509382-8)
  • Genrikh Ioffe, Revoliutsiia i sud'ba Romanovykh Moscow: Respublika, 1992 (Russian)
  • Coryne Hall & John Van der Kiste, Once A Grand Duchess : Xenia, Sister of Nicholas II, Phoenix Mill, Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2002 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7509-2749-6)
  • Greg King, The Court of the Last Czar: Pomp, Power and Pageantry in the Reign of Nicholas II 2006
  • Greg King and Penny Wilson, "The Fate of the Romanovs" 2003
  • Dominic Lieven, Nicholas II: Emperor of All the Russias.^ New York: Gordon Press, 1976.

    ^ From 13-16 August 2000, the Synod of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church in Moscow, Russia, gave it's approval or blessings for the glorification, and canonization for Emperor Tsar Nicholas II, Empress Alexandra, Grand Duke Tsarevich Alexis, Grand Duchesses Olga, Tatiana, Marie, and Anastasia.

    ^ John Hall II (Lydia Knapp, Nicholas)368 was born 03 January 1679/80 in Stratfield-Fairfield, CT, and died 17 April 1749 in Stratfield-Fairfield, CT. He married Abigail Summers369 Bef.
    • Descendants of Nicholas Knapp 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.ctgenweb.org [Source type: General]

    .1993.
  • Andrei Maylunas and Sergei Mironenko, A Lifelong Passion: Nicholas & Alexandra 1999
  • Marvin Lyons, Nicholas II The Last Czar, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974 (hardcover, ISBN 0710078021)
  • Shay McNeal, "The Secret Plot to Save the Czar" 2001
  • Robert K. Massie, Nicholas and Alexandra 1967
  • Robert K. Massie, The Romanovs.^ Birth Date - Nicholas Knapp-The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633 (1995), by Robert Charles Anderson, F.A.S.G. II:1136.
    • Descendants of Nicholas Knapp 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.ctgenweb.org [Source type: General]

    ^ F ew figures in history have been so misunderstood and maligned as the Tsar-Martyr Nicholas II, the last emperor of Orthodox Holy Russia.

    ^ "Before my entrance into the Monastery, as I recall, I brought a portrait of Emperor Nicholas II and one of his wife, Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna, to my parents.

    The Final Chapter
    1995, ISBN 0394580486
  • Bernard Pares, "The Fall of the Russian Monarchy" London: 1939, reprint London: 1988
  • John Perry  and Konstantin Pleshakov, The Flight of the Romanovs. .1999.
  • Edvard Radzinsky, The Last Tsar: The Life and Death of Nicholas II (1992) ISBN 0-385-42371-3
  • Mark D. Steinberg and Vladimir M. Khrustalev, The Fall of the Romanovs: Political Dreams and Personal Struggles in a Time of Revolution, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.
  • Anthony Summers and Tom Mangold, The File on the Czar.^ The Tsar spent much of his time at army headquarters, personally overseeing the war effort and visiting the troops to encourage them.

    ^ Birth Date - Nicholas Knapp-The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England 1620-1633 (1995), by Robert Charles Anderson, F.A.S.G. II:1136.
    • Descendants of Nicholas Knapp 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.ctgenweb.org [Source type: General]

    ^ F ew figures in history have been so misunderstood and maligned as the Tsar-Martyr Nicholas II, the last emperor of Orthodox Holy Russia.

    .1976.
  • Richard Tames, Last of the Czars, London, Pan Books Ltd, 1972
  • Andrew M. Verner, The Crisis of the Russian Autocracy: Nicholas II and the 1905 Revolution 1990
  • Ian Vorres, The Last Grand Duchess, London, Finedawn Publishers, 1985 (hardcover)
  • Richard Wortman, Scenarios of Power: Myth and Ceremony in Russian Monarchy, vol.^ From 13-16 August 2000, the Synod of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church in Moscow, Russia, gave it's approval or blessings for the glorification, and canonization for Emperor Tsar Nicholas II, Empress Alexandra, Grand Duke Tsarevich Alexis, Grand Duchesses Olga, Tatiana, Marie, and Anastasia.

    ^ The Last Grand Duchess .

    ^ F ew figures in history have been so misunderstood and maligned as the Tsar-Martyr Nicholas II, the last emperor of Orthodox Holy Russia.

    .2 2000
  • Prince Felix Yussupov, Lost Splendour
  • Elisabeth Heresch, "Nikolaus II. Feigheit, Lüge und Verrat". F.A.Herbig Verlagsbuchhandlung, München, 1992
  • The Complete Wartime Correspondence of Czar Nicholas II and the Empress Alexandra, April 1914 – March 1917.^ "Before my entrance into the Monastery, as I recall, I brought a portrait of Emperor Nicholas II and one of his wife, Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna, to my parents.

    ^ Grand Duchess Maria Romanov was the daughter of Tsar Nicholas II and Tsarina Alexandra, and was the sister of Grand Duke Tsarevich Alexis, Grand Duchesses Olga, Tatiana, and Anastasia.

    ^ From 13-16 August 2000, the Synod of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church in Moscow, Russia, gave it's approval or blessings for the glorification, and canonization for Emperor Tsar Nicholas II, Empress Alexandra, Grand Duke Tsarevich Alexis, Grand Duchesses Olga, Tatiana, Marie, and Anastasia.

    Edited by Joseph T. Furhmann Fuhrmann. Westport, Conn. and London: 1999
  • Letters of Czar Nicholas and Empress Marie Ed. Edward J. Bing. London: 1937
  • Letters of the Czar to the Czaritsa, 1914–1917 Trans. from Russian translations from the original English. E. L. Hynes. .London and New York: 1929.
  • Nicky-Sunny Letters: correspondence of the Czar and Czaritsa, 1914–1917.^ London and New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1918.

    .Hattiesburg, Miss: 1970.
  • The Secret Letters of the Last Czar: Being the Confidential Correspondence between Nicholas II and his Mother, Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna.^ I, Nicholas Perkins being in perfect mind and memory do make this my last will and testament.
    • Nicholas / Perkins 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ F ew figures in history have been so misunderstood and maligned as the Tsar-Martyr Nicholas II, the last emperor of Orthodox Holy Russia.

    ^ Nicholas II: Letters of the Tsar to the Tsaritsa .

    Ed. Edward J. Bing. .New York and Toronto: 1938
  • Willy-Nicky Correspondence: Being the Secret and Intimate Telegrams Exchanged Between the Kaiser and the Czar.^ The results of the study, a collaboration between scientists from the World Health Organization in Geneva and the Guttmacher Institute in New York, a reproductive rights group, are being published Friday in the journal Lancet.

    ^ "David's the first African-American governor in the state of New York and he's being asked to get out of the race.
    • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

    Ed. Herman Bernstein. .New York: 1917.
  • Paul Benckendorff, Last Days at Czarskoe Selo.^ From 1917, Sims worked in New York City as an independent civil engineer.
    • Nicholas / Perkins 1 February 2010 3:31 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The New York Times says that Paul Kirk -- not Mike Dukakis -- might have the inside track to getting this interim appointment.
    • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

    ^ The president’s day in the Big Apple : Obama has a busy day in New York with the events tied to the United Nations’ General Assembly.
    • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

    .London: 1927
  • Sophie Buxhoeveden, The Life and Tragedy of Alexandra Fedorovna, Empress of Russia: A Biography London: 1928
  • Pierre Gilliard, Thirteen Years at the Russian Court New York: 1921
  • A. A. Mossolov (Mosolov), At the Court of the Last Czar London: 1935
  • Anna Vyrubova, Memories of the Russian Court London: 1923
  • A.Yarmolinsky, editor, "The Memoirs of Count Witte" New York & Toronto: 1921
  • Sir George Buchanan (British Ambassador) My Mission to Russia & Other Diplomatic Memories (2 vols, Cassell, 1923)
  • Meriel Buchanan, Dissolution of an Empire, Cassell, 1932
  • Gleb Botkin, The Real Romanovs, Fleming H. Revell Co, 1931
  • Mark D. Steinberg and Vladimir M. Khrustalev, The Fall of the Romanovs: Political Dreams and Personal Struggles in a Time of Revolution.^ I don't think that this is an issue other than for the people of the state of New York to decide.
    • September 2009 - Posts - First Read - msnbc.com 28 January 2010 0:34 UTC firstread.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

    ^ In America new books about them have appeared with great regularity over the last several years.

    ^ "Before my entrance into the Monastery, as I recall, I brought a portrait of Emperor Nicholas II and one of his wife, Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna, to my parents.

    New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995
  • "The Personality Of The Czar: An Explanation, By A Russian Official Of High Authority". The World's Work: A History of Our Time VIII: 5414–5430. October 1904. 

External links

.
Nicholas II of Russia
Cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg
Born: 18 May 1868 Died: 17 July 1918
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Alexander III
Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias
1 November 1894 – 15 March 1917
Office abolished
Abolition of the monarchy
Grand Duke of Finland
1 November 1894 – 15 March 1917
Vacant
Title next held by
Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse
as king-elect
Russian royalty
Preceded by
Alexander III of Russia
Heir to the Russian Throne
1881–1894
Succeeded by
George of Russia

Simple English

Nicholas II redirects here, for other people named Nicholas II, see Nicholas.
Nicholas II
Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias
File:Nicholas II of Russia painted by Earnest
Reign 1 November, 189415 March, 1917
Born 18 May, 1868
Birthplace Saint Petersburg, Russia
Died 17 July, 1918, age 50
Place of death Yekaterinburg, Russia
Predecessor Alexander III of Russia
Successor Empire ended, next Russian Head of State and Government is Vladimir Ilyich Lenin.
Consort Alix of Hesse and by Rhine
Offspring Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna
Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna
Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna
Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna
Grand Duke Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich
Royal House House of Romanov
Father Alexander III of Russia
Mother Dagmar Maria Fyodrovna of Denmark

Nicholas II of Russia, (May 18, 1868July 17, 1918) was the last Tsar or Emperor of Russia. He became Tsar in 1894 after his father, Tsar Alexander III died. He married Princess Alix of Hesse, who was the granddaughter of Queen Victoria, and they had five children, Olga, Tatiana, Maria,Anastasia, and Alexi. Alexi suffered from a disease called haemophilia, which caused his parents great sadness. World War I created many problems for Russia and the Tsar. In 1917 there was a revolution and he abdicated (gave up being Tsar) in March of that year[1]. He and his family were held as prisoners under house arrest. On July 17, 1918, Nicholas, his wife, and their children were killed by a firing squad. In 1981, the Tsar and his family were made Saints by the Russian Orthodox Church. In 1990, the bones of the Tsar and his family were found in the woods and given a proper burial in 1998.

References

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Other websites


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