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Nickelodeon
Nickelodeon logo new.svg
The current logo for the channel
Launched December 1, 1977
(as Pinwheel)
April 1, 1979
(as Nickelodeon)
Owned by MTV Networks (Viacom)
Picture format 480i (SDTV)
1080i (HDTV)
Country United States
Broadcast area Nationwide (with international versions in Canada, the U.K., United Arab Emirates, Australia, Brazil, CIS, Europe, Germany, India, Ireland, Italy, Latin America, Netherlands, New Zealand, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, France, Scandinavia, South East Asia, Sweden and Denmark)
Headquarters New York City
Formerly called Pinwheel (1977-1979)
Sister channel(s) TV Land, Nicktoons, TeenNick, Nick Jr.
Website http://www.nick.com
Availability
Satellite
DirecTV Channel 299 (East)
Channel 300 (West)
Channel 1300 (VOD)
Dish Network Channel 170 (East)
Channel 171 (West)
AMC 11
N/Central America/Caribbean
4060 H / 29270 / 3/4
Channel 630
(Transponder 18)
AMC 10
N/Central America/Caribbean
3920 V / 29270 / 3/4
Channel 140
(Transponder 11)
Cable
Available on most cable systems Check local listings for details
IPTV
AT&T U-verse Channel 314 (East)
Channel 315 (West)
Verizon Fios Channel 252 (East)
Channel 253 (West)

Nickelodeon (often referred to by its shortened name, Nick, a practice that dates back to the early days of the channel, and previously named Pinwheel from 1977 to 1979) is an American cable television channel owned by MTV Networks. Since the early 1990s and early 2000s, Nickelodeon as a brand has expanded into other territories including Europe, the Middle-East, Russia and Asia.

Nickelodeon's broadcast day runs on Sunday through Thursdays from 7:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Fridays from 7:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m., and Saturdays from 7:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. (Eastern and Pacific Time). The Nick at Nite programming block, created in 1985, takes over the channel space during the interim hours.

Since 2006, Nickelodeon has been run by MTVN Kids & Family Group president Cyma Zarghami. The channel is aimed mostly at children ages 6–12, with the exception of their prime time block that is aimed at teenagers ages 13–17.

Contents

History

The Pinwheel logo.

As Pinwheel (1977–1979)

Nickelodeon was originally launched as Pinwheel on December 1, 1977 and was a channel on Warner Cable's QUBE system in Columbus, Ohio. Pinwheel went national on April 1, 1979, expanding to Buffalo, New York, thus Nickelodeon has declared that 1979 is the network's official launch year. Running for only six hours a day, shows airing during its broadcast day included Video Comic Book, Pop Clips and the long-running Pinwheel along with other shows such as America Goes Bananaz, Nickel Flicks and By the Way.

The original Nickelodeon logo from April 1, 1979 to 1984.

Relaunch as Nickelodeon (1979–1990)

Pinwheel was re-launched as Nickelodeon on April 1, 1979 and began airing on various Warner Cable systems, beginning in Buffalo, New York and quickly expanding its audience reach.[1] [2] In 1980, new shows were added to the lineup, including Dusty's Treehouse, First Row Features, Special Delivery, What Will They Think Of Next?, Livewire, and Hocus Focus. Also in the same year, Videocomic Book was renamed to Video Comics. On April 12, 1981, the station extended its hours from 8 a.m. (EST) to 9 p.m. (EST) by turning its channel over to the Alpha Repertory Television Service (ARTS) and, later for about a year, A&E Network after ARTS merged with NBC's struggling cable service The Entertainment Channel. When A&E became its own 24-hour channel in January 1985, Nickelodeon simply went to a test screen after sign-off until launching the Nick at Nite programming block that July.

The network's original logo was a silver pinball with the "Nickelodeon" title in multicolor. Nickelodeon's first popular series was You Can't Do That On Television, a Canadian sketch comedy that made its American debut on Nickelodeon in late 1981. After a while the network became known for its iconic green slime, originally featured in You Can't Do That on Television. The green slime was then adopted by the station as a primary feature of many of its shows. In the early years, other shows such as Livewire, Standby: Lights, Camera, Action, The Third Eye and Mr. Wizard's World were part of the regular Nickelodeon time slots.

The channel struggled at first, having lost $40 million by 1984, and finishing dead last among the cable channels. After firing the previous staff, MTV Networks president Bob Pittman turned to Fred Seibert and Alan Goodman, who created MTV's iconic IDs a few years earlier, to reverse Nickelodeon's fortunes. Seibert and Goodman's company, Fred/Alan, teamed up with Tom Corey and Scott Nash of the advertising firm Corey McPherson Nash to replace the "Pinball" logo with the "orange splat" logo with the name Nickelodeon written in Balloon font, that would be used in hundreds of different variations for the next quarter century. Fred/Alan also enlisted the help of animators, writers, producers and doo-wop group The Jive Five to create new idents for the channel. Within six months of the rebranding, Nickelodeon went from worst to first and has stayed there for 25 years despite increasing competition from other family-oriented cable channels such as Disney Channel and Cartoon Network.[3] In 1985, after ARTS dropped its partnership with Nickelodeon, Nick added a new nighttime block called Nick at Nite, becoming a 24-hour a day service. In 1988, Nick aired the first annual Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Awards (previously known as The Big Ballot) and introduced Nick Jr. (block), an educational block for younger children. Broadcast area Nationwide (with international versions in Canada, the U.K., United Arab Emirates, Australia, CIS, Europe, Germany, India, Ireland, Italy, Latin America, Netherlands, New Zealand, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, France, Scandinavia, South East Asia, Sweden and Denmark)

Success in the 1990s and the 2000s (1990–2009)

By October 1990, Nickelodeon was seen in 52 million homes across the United States. In 1990, Nickelodeon opened Nickelodeon Studios, a television studio/attraction, in Orlando, Florida at Universal Studios Florida which many of its sitcoms and game shows were filmed and entered into a multimillion-dollar joint marketing agreement with international restaurant chain Pizza Hut, which involved launching Nickelodeon Magazine, available for free at participating Pizza Hut restaurants.[4] In 1991, for the first time, Nickelodeon developed its first animated series, Doug, The Ren and Stimpy Show, and Rugrats. These series, known as Nicktoons, premiered on August 11, 1991.[5] The network had previously refused to produce weekly animated series due to high cost.[5] The three Nicktoons found success in 1993, while in mid-1993, Nickelodeon developed its 4th Nicktoon, Rocko's Modern Life, which was also a success along with the three other Nicktoons. Later, Nickelodeon partnered with Sony Wonder and released top selling video cassettes of the show's programming.[6] By 1994, Doug ended production, but Rocko's Modern Life, The Ren and Stimpy Show, and Rugrats were still in production and airing. In mid-1996, Nickelodeon developed two new Nicktoons, KaBlam! and Hey Arnold! which would take the place of Rocko's Modern Life and The Ren and Stimpy Show since they would both end production about that time, but still would air re-runs up until about 2001. Rugrats, on the other hand, was still airing. In 1998, The Rugrats Movie came out. The movie grossed more than $100 million in the United States and became the first non-Disney animated movie to ever sell that high.[7]

In June 1993, Nickelodeon resumed its magazine brand, Nickelodeon Magazine.[8] In 1994, Nickelodeon removed sketch comedy You Can't Do That on Television from its schedule after thirteen years on and by the same year the network had launched a new sketch comedy, All That. For many years, until its cancellation in 2005, All That would launch the careers of many actors and actresses including Kenan Thompson, Amanda Bynes, and Jamie Lynn Spears. In 1994, Nickelodeon also launched The Big Help, a public service initiative created to encourage kids to volunteer in local communities. It expanded in 2001 by encouraging kids to talk with their friends and loved ones. In October and December 1994, Nickelodeon sold Halloween and Christmas themed episodes of its Nicktoons through syndication to local markets across the United States, with then-new former corporate relative, Paramount Domestic Television (now CBS Television Distribution).[9]

One of the many variants of the logo used from 1984 to September 28, 2009.

In October 1995, Nickelodeon ventured in the world wide web and launched Nick.com.[10] Initially the website was available only using America Online's internet service, but was later available to all internet service providers and became a strong promotional tool for Nickelodeon. The website's popularity grew and in March 1999, Nick.com became the highest rated website for children aged six to fourteen years old. Nickelodeon used the website in conjunction with television programs which increased traffic.[11] In 2001, Nickelodeon partnered with Networks Inc. to provide broadband video games for rent from Nick.com. The move was a further step in the multimedia direction that the developers wanted to take the website. Skagerlind indicated that over 50% of Nick.com's audience are using a high speed connection which allows them to expand the gaming options on the website. To accompany the broadband content, TurboNick was created. Initially it was a popup panel which showcased broadband content on Nick.com.[12] Nickelodeon Studios closed down in 2005 and was converted into the Blue Man Group Sharp Aquos Theatre in 2007; Nickelodeon now tapes its live-action series at the Nickelodeon on Sunset studios (formerly the Aquarius Theater) in Hollywood, California, as well as other locations.

Rebranding and plans for the 2010s (2009–present)

Nickelodeon had announced in February 2009 that Noggin and The N were to be rebranded as Nick Jr. and TeenNick to bring both channels in line with the Nickelodeon brand identity. Nickelodeon later announced in May 2009 that Nick Magazine would be discontinued by the end of the year. In July 2009, Nickelodeon unveiled a new logo for the first time in 25 years on the packaging of Nickelodeon DVDs coming out beginning that month, the Australian service, and that year's Nickelodeon Animation Festival, intending to create a unified look that can better be conveyed across all of MTV Networks's children's channels.[13]

As of September 28, 2009, the new logo is used across Nickelodeon, and Nick at Nite, along with the rebranded TeenNick, Nick Jr. and Nicktoons (The N, Noggin and Nicktoons Network, respectively) channels in varying iterations customized for brand unification and refreshment purposes.[14] The Nickelodeon rebrand was created by New York based creative studio Trollbäck + Company. A revised instrumental version of the Nickelodeon audio ident originally performed by The Jive Five was the only part of the "splat logo" era that was retained in the rebrand. Reaction to the rebrand has been largely mixed, though many fans of 1980s and 1990s Nickelodeon have expressed dislike over the rebranded logo. The new logo was adopted in the UK on February 15, 2010, Spain on February 19, 2010, and by Nickelodeon Asia on March 15, 2010.[15]. Also Nick on TV5 block in the Philippines will be rebranded logo soon. The new logo will be expected by April or May 2010.

On October 21, 2009, it was announced that Nickelodeon secured the rights to the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles franchise from Mirage Studios. The network plans to develop a new CGI-animated TMNT television series and will partner with fellow Viacom company Paramount Pictures to bring a new TMNT movie to theaters. Both are expected for 2012.[16]

As of 2010 4kids entertainment announce that Sonic X and Chaotic will move to Nickelodeon right before TheCW4Kids ends.

Programming

Current programming on Nickelodeon includes SpongeBob SquarePants, iCarly, The Troop, The Fairly OddParents, Back at the Barnyard, Big Time Rush, Fanboy and Chum Chum, The Penguins of Madagascar, True Jackson, VP, The Mighty B!, and BrainSurge. Reruns of discontinued Nickelodeon shows also air including Drake & Josh, The Adventures of Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius and All Grown Up!. SpongeBob SquarePants and iCarly are the most aired programs on Nickelodeon, with SpongeBob in particular typically airing about seven times a day. iCarly currently ranks as of 2010 as the channel's highest-rated original series and the highest-rated cable program among children ages 2-11, according to Nielsen Media Research[17].

Nickelodeon also continues to air bi-monthly special editions of the long-running magazine series Nick News, hosted by Linda Ellerbee since its debut in 1992 (until the early 2000s, Nick News had aired on Nick on an almost weekly basis on Sunday nights).[18] On February 2, 2009, Nickelodeon discontinued the TEENick and Nick Jr. programming blocks but the programming within the blocks remained; the former TEENick Saturday evening and Sunday late afternoon blocks no longer carry a name [19].

Unlike most cable channels (save for sports-oriented channels), Nickelodeon is sometimes susceptible to programs overrunning their designated timeslot because of short-form segments airing during commercial breaks as part of special programming which add time to commercial breaks and the number of commercials aired when these segments air between program breaks are not limited, this often causes disruptions in the start times of programming, which is problematic for those recording Nick programming as part of the program may be cut off. In these circumstances, commercial breaks may be shortened during some programs on Nick at Nite's late evening and overnight schedules and regular "top-and-bottom of the hour" start times would not be restored until early the next morning.

Sonic X will move to Nickelodeon in April

Nicktoons

Programming blocks

Various types of programs are broadcast on Nickelodeon in named programming blocks.

Nick@Nite

The programming block, which started in 1985, broadcasts over Nickelodeon on Sundays through Thursdays from 8 PM - 7 AM, Fridays from 9 PM - 7 AM and Saturdays from 10 PM - 7 AM ET/PT. Originally featuring classic sitcoms such as The Donna Reed Show, Mr. Ed and The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet, programming changed to repeats of popular sitcoms from the 1980s and 1990s such as The Cosby Show, Full House, Home Improvement, The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, Roseanne, Family Matters. Programs currently airing on Nick at Nite include George Lopez, The Nanny and most recently Malcolm in the Middle, and Everybody Hates Chris. A.C. Nielsen rates Nick at Nite as being a separate cable channel from Nickelodeon. In 1996, the original older programming was spun off of Nick At Nite as a new channel entitled TV Land, which currently airs a variety of older shows, primarily sitcoms from the 1950s through today.[20]

Sister channels

Current channels

Nicktoons

This digital cable/satellite channel, that debuted in 2002, and was once known as Nicktoons TV and Nicktoons Network airs classic Nicktoons very late and very early but also new Nicktoons all day that originated on their own channel.

Nick Jr.

This United States-based television channel aimed at preschool-aged children, has only programming promotions in lieu of commercials and is usually carried on a digital cable tier and the basic tiers of satellite providers. Originally launching in 1999 and based on the former Noggin, the network was rebranded Nick Jr. as of September 28, 2009. The channel is named after the former Nick Jr. preschool program block on Nickelodeon, that ran weekday mornings from September 1988 to February 2009.

TeenNick

This television channel in the United States is aimed at teenagers and young adults. The channel once shared the evening and overnight portion of each day with Noggin as The N starting on April 1, 2002, but on December 31, 2007 it took over Nickelodeon GAS's position as a stand-alone channel. The network was rebranded as TeenNick (with actor Nick Cannon as its' "chairman") on September 28, 2009. The channel is named after the former TEENick weekend evening program block on Nickelodeon, that ran from July 2000 to February 2009.

TV Land

A cable channel that was created based on the Nick at Nite block, it aired classic programming from as far back as the early 1950s. Starting in 2004, TV Land moved to more modern programming such as reality shows and 1990s TV sitcoms. TV Land's website is TVLand.com. In 2007, TV Land created a programming block called, "TV Land PRIME." TV Land PRIME runs from 9 p.m. until 12 a.m. ET/PT. TV Land PRIME is a programming block aimed towards TV Land viewers that are in the 40- to 55-year-old range. In 2006, TV Land stopped operating under the control of Nick at Nite though it is still operated as part of Viacom's MTV Networks group.

Former channels

Nick GAS

Nickelodeon GAS, (or Nick GAS; full name Nickelodeon Games And Sports for Kids), was a U.S. satellite television channel that was launched on March 1, 1999 as part of MTV Networks' suite of digital cable channels. Nick GAS was essentially a children's version of (and Viacom's answer to) Game Show Network (now branded as GSN), which had launched in December 1994. The channel ceased operations on December 31, 2007 on digital cable providers. However, Dish Network kept an automated loop of the network on the air on channel 177 for fifteen months until April 23, 2009, when it was replaced with the west coast feed of Cartoon Network.

Other Nickelodeon channels

  • Nickelodeon HD is the on-air name for a feed provided by Nickelodeon to broadcast a limited schedule of programming in 1080i high definition, which is carried by most of the major American cable providers on a simulcast schedule that programs based on a Eastern/Central and a Pacific/Mountain schedule.
  • Nick 2 is the on-air name for a feed provided by Nickelodeon to digital cable and satellite providers that features either the Pacific/Mountain or Eastern/Central feed of the channel, depending on geographical location and giving viewers a second chance to watch programming three hours after or three hours before the original airing. As such, Nickelodeon is the only basic cable channel to offer East/West feeds simultaneously over digital cable systems, the usage of both East and West Coast feeds of the same cable channel is common practice by premium channels and satellite providers. A Nick TOO logo was used on the channel until 2004, and the respective Nickelodeon and Nick at Nite logos have been used on the channel since.

Media

Nick.com

Nick.com is Nickelodeon's main online portal.

Nickelodeon Movies

Nickelodeon Movies is the channel's motion picture production arm founded in 1995. It has produced films based on Nickelodeon programs, as well as other adaptations and original projects. Its films are released by Paramount Pictures. Nickelodeon Movies initially did not introduce a new logo when the Nickelodeon's new logo came into effect as part of its September 2009 rebrand; Nickelodeon Movies eventually instituted a new logo on January 1, 2010.

Nick Magazine

Nick Magazine was a magazine launched by Nickelodeon in 1993, following a short-lived effort from 1990. It contained informative non-fiction pieces, humor, interviews, pranks, recipes (such as green slime cake), and a comic book section in the center featuring original comics by leading underground cartoonists as well as strips about popular Nicktoons.

In July 2009, Nickelodeon, in response to a hard-hit magazine industry, announced it would shut Nick Magazine after 16 years.[21] The final issue was published in December 2009.

Experiences

Nickelodeon Universe

Nickelodeon Universe at the Mall of America is the largest in-door theme park in America. On August 18, 2009, Nickelodeon and Southern Star Amusement announced that the second Nickelodeon Universe will be located in New Orleans, Louisiana and have a tentative opening date by the end of 2010. It was set to be the first outdoor Nickelodeon Universe theme park, but on November 9, 2009, Nickelodeon announced that it had ended the licensing agreement with Southern Star Amusements.[22]

Nicktoons Animation Studios

Nicktoons Animation Studios (formerly Games Animation) is the home of Nicktoons located in Burbank, California; it houses production of many current Nicktoons.

Hotels

Cruise

Nickelodeon Cruise is a series of Nickelodeon-themed cruise packages in partnership with Royal Caribbean International. These cruises will feature special amenities and entertainment themed to various Nickelodeon properties.[24]

Theme park areas

Almost all theme park areas themed to Nickelodeon are now closed.

  • Nickelodeon Universe was also an area inside of Kings Island featuring Nickelodeon-themed rides and attractions. The area was one of the largest areas in the park, and has been voted "Best Kid's Area" by Amusement Today magazine from 2001 to the area's closure in 2009.
  • Nickland is an area inside of Movie Park Germany featuring Nickelodeon-themed rides, including a SpongeBob SquarePants-themed "Splash Battle" ride, and a Jimmy Neutron-themed roller coaster. This area is currently being expanded to fill space formerly occupied with rides based on Warner Bros. characters.
Nickelodeon Studios as viewed from the Hard Rock Cafe in March 2004 before they moved.
  • Nickelodeon Studios was an attraction at Universal Orlando Resort that opened on June 7, 1990, and housed production for many Nickelodeon programs. It closed on April 30, 2005, after Nickelodeon's facilities were moved to New York City and Burbank, California.
  • Nickelodeon Central was an area inside of California's Great America, Carowinds, Kings Dominion, Canada's Wonderland, and Dreamworld that featured shows, attractions, and themes featuring the Nickelodeon characters. The only remaining Nickelodeon Central is in Dreamworld, located in Australia.
  • Nickelodeon Blast Zone was an area in Universal Studios Hollywood that featured attractions centered around Nickelodeon characters and themes. The four attractions that were present in the area were "Nickelodeon Splash", a waterpark-style area, 'The Wild Thornberrys Adventure Temple', a jungle-themed foam ball play area, and "Nick Jr. Backyard", a medium-sized toddler playground. This area closed in winter 2007 and has been rethemed to Curious George. Another attraction, "Rugrats Magic Adventure", was present at the opening of the area in 2001, but closed in 2002 to make way for Shrek 4-D.
  • Nickelodeon Splat City was an area inside of California's Great America (1995-2002), Kings Island (1995-2000), and Kings Dominion (1995-1999), that featured attraction involving getting messy or wet. The slime refinery theme was carried out in the attractions such as the "Green Slime Zone Refinery", the "Crystal Slime Mining Maze", and the "Green Slime Transfer Truck". All of these areas were later transformed into either Nickelodeon Central or Nickelodeon Universe.

International

An attempt at the Guinness record for the world's largest picnic, sponsored by Nickelodeon in Petah Tikva, Israel.

It also operates language- or culture-specific Nickelodeon channels for various markets in different parts of the world, and has licensed some of its cartoons and other content, in English and local languages, to TV and cable stations such as KI.KA and Super RTL in Germany, RTÉ Two (English speaking) and TG4 (Irish speaking) in Ireland, YTV (English) and VRAK.TV (French) in Canada, Canal J in France, Alpha Kids in Greece and CNBC-e in Turkey.

As of early-March 2010, the channel also broadcasts in South East Asia, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, UK, Scandinavia, United States, Republic of Ireland, Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, Belgium, Germany, Cyprus, India, Italy, Israel, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Turkey, Hungary, France, Russia, Canada, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Africa, Brazil and Latin America.

On October 11, 2006, Viacom's subsidiary MTV Networks Asia Pacific set up a new unit to manage Nickelodeon South East Asia TV based in Singapore.[25] Nickelodeon was launched in Singapore and expanded its services in Southeast Asia, South Asia, and Polynesia. In the present, Nickelodeon Philippines and Nickelodeon India started working independently. They started their new website, Nicksplat.com in 2003.

In India, Nickelodeon is available on the One Alliance bouquet, through the Dish TV and Tata Sky DTH services. In the Philippines, it is available on SkyCable Gold, Silver and Platinum channel 45, Sun Cable channel 34 and Global Destiny Cable channel 42. In Hong Kong, it is available on now TV, while in Malaysia, it is available over Astro via Channel 612. In Singapore, it is available over StarHub TV and in Indonesia, Nickelodeon is available on Astro Nusantara channel 14, Global TV, a free-to-air television channel, and is also broadcast on Indovision channel 33.

A pan-Arabia version of Nickelodeon has been relaunched in 2008 (now relaunched), in countries such as Saudi Arabia, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates and Lebanon. From the late-1990s until the mid-2000s, It used to be on the Showtime Arabia and Orbit satellite services, until they were removed.[26]

The Polish version of Nickelodeon has launched on July 10, 2008 in Platform N.

In September 2009, Corus Entertainment, owners of YTV and Treehouse TV, announced that they would launch Nickelodeon Canada on November 2.[27] Before that and since then, YTV has served as a de fato outlet for Nickelodeon's programming in Canada, and also brands a Sunday morning block called Nickelodeon Sundays.

See also

References

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  2. ^ "Nickelodeon Breaks New Ground as TV Show". The Free Lance-Star. 1979-7-16. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=j-oQAAAAIBAJ&sjid=14sDAAAAIBAJ&pg=3775,2067494&dq=nickelodeon&hl=en. Retrieved 2010-2-2. 
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  6. ^ Cohen, Sydney (1994-10-23). "KIDSDAY ON THE GO Video Winners". Newsday. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/newsday/access/101886262.html?dids=101886262:101886262&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Oct+23%2C+1994&author=By+Sydney+Cohen%2C+Emily+Burger%2C+Ian+Lynch+and+Melissa&pub=Newsday+(Combined+editions)&desc=KIDSDAY+ON+THE+GO+Video+Winners&pqatl=google. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  7. ^ Lacher, Irene. "Birth of a Nickelodeon Nation". Newsday. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/51891061.html?dids=51891061:51891061&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Mar+26%2C+2000&author=Irene+Lacher&pub=Los+Angeles+Times&desc=EMPIRE+BUILDERS%3A+They+green-light+big-budget+features+and+produce+niche+films.+They+schmooze+with+Julia+Roberts+and+market+the+Rugrats.+And+they%27re+changing+the+course+of+Hollywood.%3B+Birth+of+a+Nickelodeon+Nation%3B+Twenty-One+Years+Ago%2C+the+Fledgling+Cable+TV+Network+Offered+%27Green+Vegetable+Programming.%27+Now+It%27s+Busting+Into+the+Family+Movie+Market+With+Live-Action+Comedy+and+Cartoons+That+Are+Goofier+and+Loonier+Than+Anything+the+Competition+Offers.&pqatl=google. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  8. ^ accessdate = 2009-10-18 "IN THE NICK OF TIME, A KIDS' MAGAZINE THAT'S REALLY GROSS". NewsLibrary. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=LB&p_theme=lb&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EAE8F32D88CB77D&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM accessdate = 2009-10-18. 
  9. ^ "Tooned Up Hipper characters and computer power are driving the comeback of cartoons". Boston Herald. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/bostonherald/access/68278160.html?dids=68278160:68278160&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Sep+18%2C+1994&author=Frances+Katz&pub=Boston+Herald&desc=JUST+FOR+KIDS+Tooned+Up+Hipper+characters+and+computer+power+are+driving+the+comeback+of+cartoons&pqatl=google. 
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  11. ^ "Nickelodeon TV & Online Are Perfect Together as Nick.com Takes Top Ratings Spot in March.". Entertainment Wire. 1999-05-19. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-54675660.html. Retrieved 2008-11-28. 
  12. ^ Brown, Karen (2001-11-12). "Nick Looks to Gaming As High-Speed Revenue Play". MultiChannel News. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-10219501_ITM. Retrieved 2008-11-28. 
  13. ^ The New Nickelodeon Logo: Fixing the Unbroken, Toon Zone, July 22, 2009
  14. ^ Nickelodeon Unveils New Logo, Variety.com, July 29, 2009
  15. ^ http://www.nick-asia.com/
  16. ^ The Mirage Group Sells Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles(TM) to Nickelodeon | Reuters
  17. ^ http://www.kidscreen.com/articles/news/20091223/ratingswatch.html
  18. ^ http://www.commonsensemedia.org/tv-reviews/Nick-News-with-Linda.html/details
  19. ^ http://www.multichannel.com/article/189298-_Nick_Of_Time_For_Rebrand.php
  20. ^ "TV LAND OPENS UP ON MONDAY". April 23, 1996. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_text_direct-0=0EAE90B826926DA2&p_field_direct-0=document_id. Retrieved 2008-02-03. 
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  22. ^ http://www.nola.com/business/index.ssf/2009/11/nickelodeon_ends_licensing_agr.html
  23. ^ Clabaugh, Jeff (May 31, 2007). "Marriott strikes resort deal with Nickelodeon". Washington Business Journal. http://www.bizjournals.com/washington/stories/2007/05/28/daily32.html. Retrieved 2007-08-03. 
  24. ^ Sail with SpongeBob on new Nickelodeon Family Cruise - Cruise Log - USA TODAY.com
  25. ^ "MTV Networks Asia Pacific Announces A New Structure To Advance Its Localization Strategy", Viacom, 11 October 2006
  26. ^ "Nickelodeon Arabia". 2007-10-16. http://www.digitalspy.co.uk/broadcasting/a77868/mtv-to-launch-nickelodeon-arabia.html. 
  27. ^ "Nickelodeon comes to Canada". CBC News. September 28, 2009. http://www.cbc.ca/arts/tv/story/2009/09/28/nickelodeon-corus.html. Retrieved 2009-09-29. 

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