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Tobacco
Flowering Nicotiana tabacum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae
Subfamily: Nicotianoideae
Tribe: Nicotianeae[1]
Genus: Nicotiana
L.
Species

Numerous, see text

Nicotiana (pronounced /ˌnɪkɵʃiˈeɪnə/)[2] is a genus of herbs and shrubs of the nightshade family (Solanaceae) indigenous to North and South America, Australia, south west Africa and the South Pacific. Various Nicotiana species, commonly referred to as tobacco plants, are cultivated and grown to produce tobacco. Of all Nicotiana species, Cultivated Tobacco (N. tabacum) is the most widely planted and is grown worldwide for production of tobacco leaf for cigarettes. The genus is named in honor of Jean Nicot, who in 1561 was the first to present tobacco to the French royal court. Nicotiana germination is usually 2–5 days in 80 °F (27 °C).

Contents

Etymology

The word nicotiana (as well as nicotine) was named in honor of Jean Nicot, French ambassador to Portugal, who in 1559 sent it as a medicine to the court of Catherine de' Medici.[3]

Cultivation

Tobacco plantation

It is most commonly smoked in the form of cigarettes or cigars. Tobacco has been growing on both American continents since about 6000 BC and was used by native cultures by around 3000 BC.[citation needed] Employed as an anthelmintic,[4] it has been smoked, in one form or another, since about 3000 BC.[citation needed] Tobacco has a long history of ceremonial use in Native American cultures. It has played an important role in the political, economic, and cultural history of the United States.

Tobacco plants have been grown and/or harvested by local peoples for a long time. The Takelma for example use N. bigelovii, and tobacco is very important to the Aztecs, who consider it one of the sacred herbs of Xochipilli, the "Flower Prince" (also known as Macuilxochitl, "Five Flowers"), a deity of agriculture and especially psychoactive plants. Indeed, the origins of Cultivated Tobacco (N. tabacum) are obscure; it is not known from the wild and appears to be a hybrid between Woodland Tobacco (N. sylvestris), N. tomentosiformis and another species (perhaps N. otophora), deliberately selected by humans a long time ago.[5]

In modern tobacco farming, Nicotiana seeds are scattered onto the surface of the soil, as their germination is activated by light, then covered in cold frames. In colonial Virginia, seedbeds were fertilized with wood ash or animal manure (frequently powdered horse manure). Coyote tobacco of the western U.S. requires burned wood to germinate.[6] Seedbeds were then covered with branches to protect the young plants from frost damage. These plants were left to grow until around April. Today, in the United States, unlike other countries, Nicotiana is often fertilized with the mineral apatite to partially starve the plant for nitrogen, which changes the taste of the tobacco.

After the plants have reached a certain height, they are transplanted into fields. This was originally done by making a relatively large hole in the tilled earth with a tobacco peg, then placing the small plant in the hole. Various mechanical tobacco planters were invented throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries to automate this process, making a hole, fertilizing it, and guiding a plant into the hole with one motion.

Many species of Nicotiana are also grown as ornamental plants. They are popular vespertines, their sweet-smelling flowers opening in the evening to be visited by hawkmoths and other pollinators. Several tobacco plants have been used as model organisms in genetics. Tobacco BY-2 cells, derived from N. tabacum cultivar 'Bright Yellow-2', are among the most important research tools in plant cytology. Tobacco has played a pioneering role in callus culture research and the elucidation of the mechanism by which kinetin works, laying the groundwork for modern agricultural biotechnology.

Pathogens

Despite containing enough nicotine and/or other compounds such as germacrene and anabasine and other piperidine alkaloids (varying between species) to deter most herbivores,[7] a number of such animals have evolved the ability to feed on Nicotiana species without being harmed. Nonetheless, tobacco is unpalatable to many species and therefore some tobacco plants (chiefly Tree Tobacco, N. glauca) have become established as invasive species in some places.

In the nineteenth century, young tobacco plantings came under increasing attack from flea beetles (Epitrix cucumeris and/or Epitrix pubescens), causing destruction of half the United States tobacco crop in 1876. In the years afterward, many experiments were attempted and discussed to control the flea beetle. By 1880 it was discovered that replacing the branches with a frame covered by thin fabric would effectively protect plants from the beetle. This practice spread until it became ubiquitous in the 1890s.

Lepidoptera whose caterpillars feed on Nicotiana include:

These are mainly Noctuidae and some Sphingidae.

Selected species

Nicotiana langsdorffii
Nicotiana × sanderae ornamental cultivar

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Genus Nicotiana". Taxonomy. UniProt. http://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/4085. Retrieved 2009-11-28. 
  2. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  3. ^ http://www.tc.columbia.edu/centers/cifas/drugsandsociety/background/chronologydruguse.html Heading: 1550-1575 Tobacco, Europe.
  4. ^ The Merck Index, 12th Ed., page 1119: entry 6611 Nicotine, Merck & Co. 1996
  5. ^ Ren & Timko (2001)
  6. ^ Baldwin, Ian T. (2001-12). "An Ecologically Motivated Analysis of Plant-Herbivore Interactions in Native Tobacco". Plant Physiol 127: 1449–1458. doi:10.1104/pp.010762. http://www.plantphysiol.org/cgi/doi/10.1104/pp.010762. Retrieved 2008-08-23. 
  7. ^ Panter et al. (1990)
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u ITIS (1999)
  9. ^ "IUCN Red List (version 2009.1) - Nicotiana africana". www.iucnredlist.org. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/34937/0/full. Retrieved 2009-10-05. 
  10. ^ "Subordinate Taxa of Nicotiana L.". TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/NameSubordinateTaxa.aspx?nameid=40028229. Retrieved 2009-11-28. 

Bibliography

  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) (1999): Nicotiana. Retrieved 2007-NOV-20.
  • Panter, K.E.; Keeler, R.F.; Bunch, T.D. & Callan, R.J. (1990): Congenital skeletal malformations and cleft palate induced in goats by ingestion of Lupinus, Conium and Nicotiana species. Toxicon 28(12): 1377-1385. PMID 2089736 (HTML abstract)
  • Ren, Nan & Timko, Michael P. (2001): AFLP analysis of genetic polymorphism and evolutionary relationships among cultivated and wild Nicotiana species. Genome 44(4): 559-571. doi:10.1139/gen-44-4-559 PDF fulltext

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

Translingual

Etymology

From Jean Nicot, French ambassador to Portugal, who sent seeds back to France in 1561

Proper noun

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Wikipedia

Nicotiana

  1. a taxonomic genus, within family Solanaceae - the tobacco plants
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Wikispecies

See also


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Nicotiana obtusifolia

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Euasterids I
Ordo: Solanales
Familia: Solanaceae
Subfamilia: Nicotianoideae
Genus: Nicotiana
Sectio: N. sect. Alatae - N. sect. Nicotiana - N. sect.  Noctiflorae - N. sect.  Paniculatae - N. sect.  Petunioides - N. sect.  Polydicliae - N. sect. Repandae - N. sect. Rusticae - N. sect.  Suaveolentes - N. sect. Sylvestres - N. sect. Tomentosae - N. sect.  Trigonophyllae - N. sect. Undulatae
Species: N. ×sanderae - N. acaulis - N. acuminata - N. africana - N. alata - N. ameghinoi - N. amplexicaulis - N. arentsii - N. attenuata - N. azambujae - N. benavidesii - N. benthamiana - N. bonariensis - N. burbidgeae - N. cavicola - N. clevelandii - N. cordifolia - N. cordifolia - N. corymbosa - N. corymbosa - N. cutleri - N. debneyi - N. excelsior - N. forgetiana - N. fragrans - N. glauca - N. glutinosa - N. goodspeedii - N. gossei - N. heterantha - N. kawakamii - N. knightiana - N. langsdorffii - N. linearis - N. longibracteata - N. longiflora - N. maritima - N. megalosiphon - N. miersii - N. monoschizocarpa - N. mutabilis - N. noctiflora - N. noctiflora - N. noctiflora - N. nudicaulis - N. obtusifolia - N. occidentalis - N. otophora - N. paa - N. pauciflora - N. petunioides - N. plumbaginifolia - N. quadrivalvis - N. raimondii - N. repanda  - N. rosulata - N. rotundifolia - N. rustica - N. setchellii - N. simulans - N. solanifolia - N. spegazzinii - N. stocktonii - N. suaveolens - N. sylvestris - N. tacacum - N. thyrsiflora - N. tomentosa - N. tomentosiformis - N. truncata - N. umbratica - N. undulata - N. velutina - N. wigandioides - N. wuttkei

Name

Nicotiana L.

Synonyms

  • Amphipleis Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3. 75. 1836.
  • Blenocoes Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3. 75. 1836.
  • Dittostigma Phil., Anales Univ. Chile 36: 194. 1870.
  • Eucapnia Raf., Fl. Tell. 3: 74. 1837.
  • Langsdorfia Raf., Fl. Tell. 3: 74. 1837, nom. illeg. non Langsdorffia Mart. (1818).
  • Lehmannia Spreng., Anleit. ed. 2. 2(1): 458. 20 Apr 1817.
  • Nicotidendron Griseb.
  • Perieteris Raf.
  • Polydiclis (G. Don) Miers
  • Sairanthus G. Don
  • Siphaulax Raf.
  • Tabacum Gilib.
  • Tabacus Moench
  • Waddingtonia Phil.

Vernacular names

日本語: タバコ属
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