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The house of Thomas Mann
Krikstas - pagan burial marker
Old cemetery
Small inn and cafe in Nida

Nida (German: Nidden) is a resort town in Lithuania, located on the Curonian Spit. It has 1,650 residents and is the administrative center of the Neringa municipality. Nida Airport is located in the town. Nida is the westernmost point of Lithuania and the Baltic States.

Contents

History

First mentioned by Teutonic Order in Prussian documents in 1429 and 1497, the settlement was originally 5 km south of today's position near the Hohe Düne (high dune) at Grabscher Haken (Old Prussian grabis = hill). The fishing village became part of the Duchy of Prussia in 1525 and the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701.

Continuously threatened by sand drifts, the village was moved away from the dune to today's position in 1784. In 1874 a lighthouse on Urbas hill was built, later destroyed in the war and rebuilt in 1945 and 1953.

In the beginning of 20th century, Nidden became famous as a colony of German expressionists (Künstlerkolonie Nidden). Artists such as Max Pechstein, Alfred Lichtwark, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, and Alfred Partikal visited Nidden.[1] Painters from Königsberg such as Julius Freymuth and Eduard Bischoff stayed in the area, as did poets like Ernst Wiechert and Carl Zuckmayer.[1] Other guests included Ernst Kirchner, Ernst Mollenhauer, Franz Domscheit, and Herrmann Wirth. The painters usually took accommodations at the Herman Blode hotel, and left some of their works with him.

Nobel Prize-winning writer Thomas Mann lived in Nidden during the summers of 1930–32. Part of Joseph and His Brothers (Joseph und seine Brüder) was written here. Mann's summer cottage survived and in Soviet era hosted a library open in summer only, with residential quarters of the visiting librarian posted from Klaipėda upstairs and public areas downstairs. It is presently a culture center dedicated to the writer, with a memorial exhibition.

The town is known for Nidden Kurenwimpel, ornate carved flags peculiar to local families resident on the Curonian Spit. The flags, replicas of which can be seen around Nida, feature animal and human figures as pictograms reminiscent of a pagan writing tradition. At the local cemetery, examples of krikštas (pl. krikštai), pagan burial markers in place of tombstones, can still be seen today.

In 1939 the town had 736 inhabitants.[1]

Nidden became nearly uninhabited, like all of the Curonian Spit, as a result of the evacuation of East Prussia during World War II. As Nida, the town was granted to the Lithuanian SFSR within the Soviet Union according to the 1945 Potsdam Agreement.

Nida was a little-visited fishing village in the post-war period. Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir went to Nida during their stay in Lithuania in summer 1965. In the 1970s, together with three other villages of Neringa municipality (Juodkrantė, Preila and Pervalka), it was reserved as an invitation-only holiday resort with controlled entry regime and accommodation reserved almost exclusively for the Communist party nomenklatura and senior government and industry elite. Thanks to the very strict planning regulations, a ban on any industrial development and more generous municipal subsidies, it remained an unspoilt and clean territory. Today, the number of visitors is kept small by a low number of available hotel rooms (as new developments are limitited, and are usually permitted only on already existing old buildings foundations), relatively high accommodation prices, ferry tolls and entry pass costs.

Tourism

Curonian flag from Nida

The town is an upmarket holiday resort, hosting about 50,000 tourists each summer, mostly Lithuanians, Latvians, Russians, and Germans. It is characterized by low-key entertainment and a distinct family focus.

Since 2000, a jazz festival has been organised every year. There are also interesting places to see nearby, including some of the highest sand dunes in Europe, a large sundial (now partially destroyed by storm), fisherman's ethnographic museum, gallery-museum of amber, neo-Gothic church (built in 1888). There is also a camping site.

Nida's beach participates in the Blue flag campaign.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Weise, p. 159

References

  • Weise, Erich (1981). Handbuch der historischen Stätten Deutschlands, Ost- und Westpreussen. Stuttgart: Alfred Kröner Verlag. pp. 284. ISBN 3-520-31701-X.   (German)

Coordinates: 55°18′N 21°00′E / 55.3°N 21°E / 55.3; 21

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