Nigeria: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Nigeria

Include this on your site/blog:

















Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Federal Republic of Nigeria
Republik Nijeriya
Njíkötá Óchíchìiwù Naíjíríà (Igbo)
Republik Federaal bu Niiseriya (Fula)
Àpapọ̀ Olómìnira ilẹ̀ Nàìjíríà (Yoruba)
جمهورية نيجيريا(Hausa)
Flag Coat of arms
Motto"Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress"
Anthem"Arise, O Compatriots"
Capital Abuja
9°4′N 7°29′E / 9.067°N 7.483°E / 9.067; 7.483
Largest city Lagos
Official language(s) English
Recognised regional languages Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba
Demonym Nigerian
Government Presidential Federal republic
 -  President Umaru Yar'Adua
 -  Acting President Goodluck Jonathan
Independence from the United Kingdom 
 -  Unification of Southern and Northern Nigeria by Frederick Lugard 1914 
 -  Declared and recognized October 1, 1960 
 -  Republic declared October 1, 1963 
Area
 -  Total 923,768 km2 (32nd)
356,667 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.4
Population
 -  2009 estimate 154,729,000[1] (8th)
 -  Density 167.5/km2 (71st)
433.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $319.572 billion[2] (37th)
 -  Per capita $2,162[2] (139th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $207.116 billion[2] (41st)
 -  Per capita $1,401[2] (127th)
Gini (2003) 43.7 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.511[3] (medium) (158th)
Currency Nigerian naira (₦) (NGN)
Time zone WAT (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+1)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .ng
Calling code +234
1 Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected. ² The GDP estimate is as of 2006; the total and per capita ranks, however, are based on 2005 numbers.
.Nigeria (pronounced /naɪˈdʒɪəriə/), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and its Federal Capital Territory, Abuja.^ "Federation" means the Federal Republic of Nigeria; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This Constitution may be cited as the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this section, the "former Constitution" refers to the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1979.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.The country is located in West Africa and shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.^ Henry Iwueke, Bank Of Africa Benin-Republic boa.atmdepart@bk.ru .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ KING STREET TINUBU, LAGOS ISLAND, NIGERIA. OTISALES COMMERCAIL CO LTD, Ukiwo Otisi, Benin,West Africa, ukiwo24@yahoo.com .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Torrobull & Associates, JA Chambers, Plot 348 High Court Road, Cotonou, Benin Repubic - West Africa, torrobullassociates@gmail.com .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its coast in the south lies on the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean.^ Ibibio [ ibb ] east and northeast, Ogoni [ ogo ] northwest, Ibani [ iby ] west, Atlantic Ocean south.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The three largest and most influential ethnic groups in Nigeria are the Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba.^ A citizen of Nigeria of a particular community, ethnic group, place of origin, sex, religion or political opinion shall not, by reason only that he is such a person:- .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nigeria irrespective of his place of origin, circumstance of birth, sex, religion or ethnic grouping; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ National or official languages: Edo, Efik, Adamawa Fulfulde, Hausa, Idoma, Igbo, Central Kanuri, Yoruba, English.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In terms of religion Nigeria is roughly split half and half between Muslims and Christians with a very small minority who practice traditional religions.
The people of Nigeria have an extensive history. Archaeological evidence shows that human habitation of the area dates back to at least 9000 BC.[4] The area around the Benue and Cross River is thought to be the original homeland of the Bantu migrants who spread across most of central and southern Africa in waves between the 1st millennium BC and the 2nd millennium.
.The name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country.^ South and west of Niger River, where Nigeria, Niger, and Benin meet, south to where a big tributary joins Niger River from the east, along Niger River south to the delta.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Niger state, Borgu LGA, Amboshidi and Tungan Bori, islands in Niger River; Kebbi state, Yauri LGA. Alternate names : Djiri, Kirikjir, Lopawa, Lupa.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This name was coined by Flora Shaw, the future wife of Baron Lugard, a British colonial administrator, in the late 19th century.
Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, the eighth most populous country in the world, and the most populous country in the world in which the majority of the population is black. It is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies, and is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. .The economy of Nigeria is one of the fastest growing in the world, with the International Monetary Fund projecting a growth of 9% in 2008 and 8.3% in 2009.[5][6][7][8] It is the second largest economy in Africa, and is a regional power that is also the hegemon in West Africa.^ Andrew Tweedie, International Monetary Fund IMF monetaryfunds@tlen.pl .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DR KAMBA intmfund@aim.com , INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND LONDON. Amina A. Bello, aminabello52@yahoo.com .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DR ADEMOLA JOHNSON, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, NIGERIA ademolajohnson@imff.info .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

History

Early history

The Nok people of central Nigeria produced the earliest terracotta sculptures ever to be found in the country.[9] A Nok sculpture resident at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, portrays a sitting dignitary wearing a "Shepherds Crook" on the right arm, and a "hinged flail" on the left. .These are symbols of authority associated with ancient Egyptian pharaohs, and the god Osiris, and suggests that an ancient Egyptian style of social structure, and perhaps religion, existed in the area of modern Nigeria during the late Pharonic period.^ Nigeria continuously for a period of twelve months, and during the period of twenty years immediately preceding that period of twelve months has resided in Nigeria for periods amounting in the aggregate to not less than fifteen years.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

[10]
In the northern part of the country, Kano and Katsina had recorded history dateing back to around 999. Hausa kingdoms and the Kanem-Bornu Empire prospered as trade posts between North and West Africa. At the beginning of the 19th century under Usman dan Fodio the Fulani leaded the centralized Fulani Empire which continued until 1903 when the Fulani population and land were divided into various European colonies. .Between 1750 and 1900, between one to two-thirds of the entire population of the Fulani jihad states consisted of slaves.^ Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the House of Representatives shall consist of three hundred and sixty members representing constituencies of nearly equal population as far as possible, provided that no constituency shall fall within more than one State.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ State is thereafter approved in a referendum by at least two-thirds majority of the people of the area where the demand for creation of the State originated; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Senate shall consist of three Senators from each State and one from the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

[11]
The royal Bini mask, one of Nigeria's most recognized products
The Yoruba kingdoms of Ifẹ and Oyo in the southwestern block of Nigeria became prominent around 700—900 and 1400 respectively. .However, Yoruba mythology states that Ile-Ife is the source of the human race and that it predates any other civilization.^ Secretary to the Government of the Federation, Head of the Civil service, Permanent Secretaries, Directors-Generals and all other persons in the civil service of the Federation or of the State.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ondo road, Osun State, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, < w.u._bidpay_confirmation@representative.com > .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ifẹ also produced terra cotta and bronze figures and Ọyọ once extended from western Nigeria to Togo. Arguably the most powerful and prominent kingdom in the whole of Nigeria's history was also located in southwestern Nigeria, the Kingdom of Benin. Benin's power lasted between the 15th and 19th century. Their dominance reached as far as the city of Eko (a Bini name later changed to Lagos by the Portuguese) and further.[12]
In southeastern Nigeria the Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people flourished from the controversial date of around the 10th century until 1911, making it the oldest kingdom in Nigeria. The Nri Kingdom was ruled by the Eze Nri. The city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture. Nri and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan, who trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure, Eri.[13]

Colonial era

Benin city in the 17th century with the Oba of Benin in procession. This image was pictured in a European book, Traduite du Flamand, in 1668.[14]
.Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin trade in Nigeria in the port they named Lagos and in Calabar.^ Traders soon find that they are charged back by the card company, but only after they have sent goods to Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria, for example.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kofa Musa, bruce junior < bruce_jnr2@yahoo.com > , Lagos Apapa sea port, Nigeria.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shola Scott 12 Trade fair complex, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria 23401.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Europeans traded with the ethnicities of the coast and also negotiated a trade in slaves, to the detriment and profit of many Nigerian ethnicities. Following the Napoleonic Wars, the British expanded trade with the Nigerian interior. .Consequently many of the citizens of the former slave nations of the British Empire are descended from a Nigerian ethnic group.^ A citizen of Nigeria of a particular community, ethnic group, place of origin, sex, religion or political opinion shall not, by reason only that he is such a person:- .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

In 1885 British claims to a West African sphere of influence received international recognition and in the following year the Royal Niger Company was chartered under the leadership of Sir George Taubman Goldie. .In 1900 the company's territory came under the control of the British government, which moved to consolidate its hold over the area of modern Nigeria.^ There shall be 768 Local Government Areas in Nigeria as shown in the second column of Part I of the First Schedule to this Constitution and six area councils as shown in Part II of that Schedule.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Federal Republic of Nigeria shall not be governed, nor shall any persons or group of persons take control of the Government of Nigeria or any part thereof, except in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this section, the entire property in and control of all minerals, mineral oils and natural gas in under or upon any land in Nigeria or in, under or upon the territorial waters and the Exclusive Economic Zone of Nigeria shall vest in the Government of the Federation and shall be managed in such manner as may be prescribed by the National Assembly.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.On January 1, 1901 Nigeria became a British protectorate, part of the British Empire, the foremost world power at the time.^ The National Assembly shall have power to make laws for the Federation or any part thereof with respect to university education, technological education or such professional education as may from time to time be designated by the National Assembly.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ BRITISH AIRWAYS WORLD CARGO, NIGERIA BRANCH, cargbrit@aol.com .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many wars against subjugation had been fought by the states of what later became Nigeria against the British Empire in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Notably of those were the British Conquest of Benin in 1897 and the Anglo-Aro War from 1901—1902. The restraint or complete destruction of these states opened up the Niger area to British rule.
In 1914, the Niger area was formally united as the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. Administratively, Nigeria remained divided into the northern and southern provinces and Lagos colony. .Western education and the development of a modern economy proceeded more rapidly in the south than in the north, with consequences felt in Nigeria's political life ever since.^ Southern boundary is east-west line below intersection of rivers to 75 km south in Benin-Nigeria border, to border bend from north-south, to 30 km east.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Classification : Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Koring-Kukele, Kukele More information.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Classification : Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Kohumono More information.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Slavery was not finally outlawed in northern Nigeria until 1936.[15]
.Following World War II, in response to the growth of Nigerian nationalism and demands for independence, successive constitutions legislated by the British Government moved Nigeria toward self-government on a representative and increasingly federal basis.^ Minister of the Government of the Federation responsible for defence; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There shall be a National Assembly for the Federation which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There shall be 768 Local Government Areas in Nigeria as shown in the second column of Part I of the First Schedule to this Constitution and six area councils as shown in Part II of that Schedule.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

By the middle of the 20th century, the great wave for independence was sweeping across Africa.

Post-independence

.On October 1, 1960, Nigeria gained its independence from the United Kingdom.^ In this section, "the date of independence" means the 1st day of October 1960.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

The new republic incorporated a number of people with aspirations of their own sovereign nations. .Newly independent, Nigeria's government was a coalition of conservative parties: the Nigerian People's Congress (NPC), a party dominated by Northerners and those of the Islamic faith, and the Igbo and Christian dominated National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC) led by Nnamdi Azikiwe, who became Nigeria's maiden Governor-General in 1960. Forming the opposition was the comparatively liberal Action Group (AG), which was largely dominated by the Yoruba and led by Obafemi Awolowo.^ State, except as may be required for the due discharge of my duties as Governor; and that I will devote myself to the service and well-being of the people of Nigeria.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There shall be 768 Local Government Areas in Nigeria as shown in the second column of Part I of the First Schedule to this Constitution and six area councils as shown in Part II of that Schedule.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Oluseyi S. Ogunsanya, 182 obafemi awolowo way, oke ado ibadan oyo state, 23402 Nigeria .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] The cultural and political differences between Nigeria's dominant ethnicities, the Hausa ('Northerners'), Igbo ('Easterners') and Yoruba ('Westerners'), were sharp.
An imbalance was created in the polity by the result of the 1961 plebiscite. Southern Cameroon opted to join the Republic of Cameroon while northern Cameroon chose to remain in Nigeria. The northern part of the country was now far larger than the southern part. .The nation parted with its British legacy in 1963 by declaring itself a Federal Republic, with Azikiwe as its first president.^ The National Assembly shall have power to make laws for the Federation or any part thereof with respect to university education, technological education or such professional education as may from time to time be designated by the National Assembly.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The National Assembly may make laws for the Federation or any part thereof with respect to the archives and public records of the Federation.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The legislative powers of the Federal Republic of Nigeria shall be vested in a National Assembly for the Federation, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.When elections came about in 1965, the AG was outmanoeuvred for control of Nigeria's Western Region by the Nigerian National Democratic Party, an amalgamation of conservative Yoruba elements backed heavily by the Federal Government amid dubious electoral circumstances.^ National Assembly for the distribution of all cadres of posts in the public service of the Federation and of the States, the armed forces of the Federation, the Nigeria Police Force and other government security agencies, government owned companies and parastatals of the states; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Provided that the provisions of this section shall not derogate from the powers conferred by this Constitution on the Independent National Electoral Commission with respect to political parties to which that Commission does not accord recognition.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Any citizen of Nigeria of full age who wishes to renounce his Nigerian citizenship shall make a declaration in the prescribed manner for the renunciation.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

Nigerian-Biafran War

The disequilibrium and perceived corruption of the electoral and political process led in 1966 to several back-to-back military coups. The first was in January and led by a collection of young leftists under Major Emmanuel Ifeajuna and Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu. It was partially successful; the coup plotters murdered the Prime Minister, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, the Premier of the Northern Region, Sir Ahmadu Bello, and the Premier of the Western Region, Sir Ladoke Akintola. .Despite this, the coupists could not set up a central government because of logistic reasons.^ Judicial Commission of Inquiry or an Administrative Panel of Inquiry or a Tribunal set up under the Tribunals of Inquiry Act, a Tribunals of Inquiry Law or any other law by the Federal or State Government which indictment has been accepted by the Federal or State Government; or .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Judicial Commission of Inquiry or an Administrative Panel of Inquiry or a Tribunal set up under the Tribunals of Inquiry Act, a Tribunals of Inquiry Law or any other law by the Federal and State Government which indictment has been accepted by the Federal or State Government, respectively; or .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Judicial Commission of Inquiry or an Administrative Panel of Inquiry or a Tribunal set up under the Tribunals of Inquiry Act, a Tribunals of Inquiry Law or any other law by the Federal or State Government which indictment has been accepted by the Federal or State Government, respectively; or .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.Sir Nwafor Orizu, the acting President was then pressured to hand over government to the Nigeria Army, under the Command of General JTU Aguyi-Ironsi.^ They have been known to manufacture exit problems so that the mark can be pressured to hand over money as a condition of being allowed to leave Nigeria.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President generally in discharge of his executive functions other than those functions with respect to which he is required by this Constitution to seek the advice or act on the recommendation of any other person or body.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In exercising his powers of appointment under this section, the President shall have regard to the federal character of Nigeria and the need to promote national unity.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.The coup was counter-acted by another successful plot, supported primarily by Northern military officers and Northerners who favoured the NPC, it was engineered by Northern officers, which allowed Lt Colonel Yakubu Gowon to become head of state.^ A public officer who does any act prohibited by this Code through a nominee, trustee, or other agent shall be deemed ipso facto to have committed a breach of this Code, .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There shall be an Attorney-General for each State who shall be the Chief Law Officer of the State and Commissioner for Justice of the Government of that State.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The President or Vice-President, Governor or Deputy Governor, Minister of the Government of the Federation or Commissioner of the Government of a State, or any other public officer who holds the office of a Permanent Secretary or head of any public corporation, university, or other parastatal organisation shall not accept - .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

This sequence of events led to an increase in ethnic tension and violence. The Northern coup, which was mostly motivated by ethnic and religious reasons was a bloodbath of both military officers and civilians, especially those of Igbo extraction.
The violence against the Igbo increased their desire for autonomy and protection from the military's wrath. .By May 1967, the Eastern Region had declared itself an independent state called the Republic of Biafra under the leadership of Lt Colonel Emeka Ojukwu in line with the wishes of the people.^ In this section, a " period of emergency" means any period during which there is in force a Proclamation of a state of emergency declared by the President in exercise of the powers conferred on him under section 305 of this Constitution.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Water from such sources as may be declared by the National Assembly to be sources affecting more than one state .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ President of the Senate or, as the case may be, the Speaker of the House of Representatives receives a certificate under the hand of the Chairman of the Independent National Electoral Commission stating that the provisions of section 69 of this Constitution have been complied with in respect of the recall of that member.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Nigerian Civil War began as the Nigerian (Western and Northern) side attacked Biafra (South-eastern) on July 6, 1967 at Garkem signalling the beginning of the 30 month war that ended in January 1970.[17] More than one million people died in the three-year civil war.^ The date mentioned in subsection (1) of this section shall not be earlier than sixty days before and not later than the date on which the House stands dissolved, or where the election to fill a vacancy occurring more than three months before such date; not later than one month after the vacancy occurred.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ States, so however that where there are more than one candidate with majority of votes in the highest number of States, the candidate among them with the highest total of votes cast at the election shall be the second candidate for the election.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A decision of a court consisting of more than one Judge shall be determined by the opinion of the majority of its members.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

[18]
.Following the war, Nigeria became to an extent even more mired in ethnic strife, as the defeated southeast and indeed southern Nigeria was now conquered territory for the federal military regime, which changed heads of state twice as army officers staged a bloodless coup against Gowon and enthroned Murtala Mohammed; Olusegun Obansanjo succeeded the former after an assassination.^ Nigeria shall be a Federation consisting of States and a Federal Capital Territory.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Federal Capital Territory and Nassarawa state, Nasarawa LGA. Alternate names : Gede.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Niger state, Suleija LGA; Federal Capital Territory; Kaduna state, Kachia LGA; Nassarawa state, Keffi, Lafia, Nasarawa, and Akwanga LGAs.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Military era

Nigerian troops, part of the United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur, embarking on a US Aircraft
.During the oil boom of the 1970s, Nigeria joined OPEC and billions of dollars generated by production in the oil-rich Niger Delta flowed into the coffers of the Nigerian state.^ Rivers state, Ogba-Egbema-Ndoni LGA, north Niger Delta.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Governor of the State where he is or he proposes to be resident, acceptable to the local community in which he is to live permanently, and has been assimilated into the way of life of Nigerians in that part of the Federation; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ South and west of Niger River, where Nigeria, Niger, and Benin meet, south to where a big tributary joins Niger River from the east, along Niger River south to the delta.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, increasing corruption and graft at all levels of government squandered most of these earnings.^ Government shall direct its policy towards ensuring that there are equal and adequate educational opportunities at all levels.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed] The northern military clique benefited immensely from the oil boom to the detriment of the Nigerian people and economy. .As oil revenues fuelled the rise of federal subventions to states and precariously to individuals, the Federal Government soon became the centre of political struggle and the centre became the threshold of power in the country.^ Federal grants-in-aid of State revenue.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Extent of Federal and State Legislative powers .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Federal and State Governments on fiscal efficiency and methods by which their revenue can be increased; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.As oil production and revenue rose, the Nigerian government created a dangerous situation as it became increasingly dependent on oil revenues and the international commodity markets for budgetary and economic concerns eschewing economic stability.^ An audit published in 2006 reveals that over a five year period there were huge discrepancies between the oil revenues declared by the Nigerian government and the amounts actually remitted by the international oil companies.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

That spelled doom to federalism in Nigeria.[19]
Beginning in 1979, Nigerians participated in a brief return to democracy when Obasanjo transferred power to the civilian regime of Shehu Shagari. The Shagari government was viewed as corrupt and incompetent by virtually all sectors of Nigerian society, so when the regime was overthrown by the military coup of Mohammadu Buhari shortly after the regime's fraudulent re-election in 1984, it was generally viewed as a positive development by most of the population.[20] Buhari promised major reforms but his government fared little better than its predecessor, and his regime was overthrown by yet another military coup in 1985.[21]
.The new head of state, Ibrahim Babangida, promptly declared himself President and Commander in chief of the Armed Forces and the ruling Supreme Military Council and also set 1990 as the official deadline for a return to democratic governance.^ The appointment of a person to the office of a Justice of the Supreme Court shall be made by the President on the National Judicial Council subject to confirmation of such appointment by the senate.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this section, a " period of emergency" means any period during which there is in force a Proclamation of a state of emergency declared by the President in exercise of the powers conferred on him under section 305 of this Constitution.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The functions to be conferred by Law upon local government council shall include those set out in the Fourth Schedule to this Constitution.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.Babangida's tenure was marked by a flurry of political activity: he instituted the International Monetary Fund's Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) to aid in the repayment of the country's crushing international debt, which most federal revenue was dedicated to servicing.^ Andrew Tweedie, International Monetary Fund IMF monetaryfunds@tlen.pl .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DR KAMBA intmfund@aim.com , INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND LONDON. Amina A. Bello, aminabello52@yahoo.com .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DR ADEMOLA JOHNSON, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, NIGERIA ademolajohnson@imff.info .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He also inflamed religious tensions in the nation and particularly the south by enrolling Nigeria in the Organization of the Islamic Conference.[22]
.After Babangida survived an abortive coup, he pushed back the promised return to democracy to 1992. When free and fair elections were finally held on the 12th of June, 1993, Babangida declared that the results showing a presidential victory for Moshood Kashimawo Olawale Abiola null and void, sparking mass civilian violence in protest which effectively shut down the country for weeks and forced Babangida to keep his shaky promise to relinquish office to a civilian run government.^ An election to the office of Governor of a State shall be held on a date to be appointed by the Independent National Electoral Commission.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An election to the office of President shall be held on a date to be appointed by the Independent National Electoral Commission.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An election to the said office shall be held on a date not earlier than sixty days and not later than thirty days before the expiration of the term of office of the last holder of that office.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

[23] Babangida's regime is adjudged to be at the apogee of corruption in the history of the nation as it was during his time that corruption became officially diluted in Nigeria.[24]
Babangida's caretaker regime headed by Ernest Shonekan survived only until late 1993 when General Sani Abacha took power in another military coup. Abacha proved to be perhaps Nigeria's most brutal ruler and employed violence on a wide scale to suppress the continuing pandemic of civilian unrest. .Money had been found in various western European countries banks traced to him.^ TIP: ask your bank for "express clearance" of cheques or drafts and be extremely suspicious if you are asked to send money by way of Western Union .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He avoided coup plots by bribing army generals. Several hundred millions dollars in accounts traced to him were unearthed in 1999.[25] The regime would come to an end in 1998 when the dictator was found dead amid dubious circumstances. Abacha's death yielded an opportunity for return to civilian rule.

Recent history

.Nigeria re-achieved democracy in 1999 when it elected Olusegun Obasanjo, the former military head of state, as the new President ending almost thirty three-years of military rule (from 1966 until 1999) excluding the short-lived second republic (between 1979 and 1983) by military dictators who seized power in coups d'état and counter-coups during the Nigerian military juntas of 1966-1979 and 1983-1998.^ In this section, the "former Constitution" refers to the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1979.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this section, a " period of emergency" means any period during which there is in force a Proclamation of a state of emergency declared by the President in exercise of the powers conferred on him under section 305 of this Constitution.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria 234-02, re HSBC Online Transfer, Mrs Jone Steve, jone.steve@yahoo.fr .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Although the elections which brought Obasanjo to power in 1999 and again in 2003 were condemned as unfree and unfair, Nigeria has shown marked improvements in attempts to tackle government corruption and to hasten development. While Obasanjo showed willingness to fight corruption, he was accused by others of the same.
.Umaru Yar'Adua, of the People's Democratic Party, came into power in the general election of 2007 – an election that was witnessed and condemned by the international community as being massively flawed.^ Alhaji Umaru Musa Yar'adua info@diamondb-ng.com (pipni.cz).
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ National Assembly or any House of Assembly, which does not require it, from abolishing any court which it has power to establish or which it has brought into being.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

[26]
Ethnic violence over the oil producing Niger Delta region (see Conflict in the Niger Delta) and inadequate infrastructures are some of the current issues in the country.

Government and politics

Nigerian National Assembly
.Nigeria is a Federal Republic modelled after the United States, with executive power exercised by the president and with overtones of the Westminster System model in the composition and management of the upper and lower houses of the bicameral legislature.^ "Federation" means the Federal Republic of Nigeria; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Extent of Federal and State Legislative powers .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The legislative powers of a State of the Federation shall be vested in the House of Assembly of the State.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.The current president of Nigeria is Umaru Musa Yar'Adua who was elected in 2007. The president presides as both Head of State and head of the national executive and is elected by popular vote to a maximum of two four-year terms.^ Any amount standing to the credit of the States in the Federation Account shall be distributed among the States on such terms and in such manner as may be prescribed by the National Assembly.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If the Federation is at war in which the territory of Nigeria is physically involved and the President considers that it is not practicable to hold elections, the National Assembly may by resolution extend the period of four years mentioned in subsection (2) of this section from time to time; but no such extension shall exceed a period of six months at any one time.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Where the Council of State advises the President to accept the report, the President shall accept the same and shall then lay the report on the table of each House of the National Assembly.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.The president's power is checked by a Senate and a House of Representatives, which are combined in a bicameral body called the National Assembly.^ National Assembly has power to make laws; and .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There shall be a National Assembly for the Federation which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ President of Senate shall preside, and in his absence the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall preside; and .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Senate is a 109-seat body with three members from each state and one from the capital region of Abuja; members are elected by popular vote to four-year terms.^ The Senate shall consist of three Senators from each State and one from the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The High Court of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja shall be duly constituted if it consists of at least one Judge of that court.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ States, so however that where there are more than one candidate with majority of votes in the highest number of States, the candidate among them with the highest total of votes cast at the election shall be the second candidate for the election.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.The House contains 360 seats and the number of seats per state is determined by population.^ The number of such Advisers and their remuneration and allowances shall be as prescribed by law or by resolution of the House of Assembly of the State.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The boundaries of each State constituency shall be such that the number of inhabitants thereof is as nearly equal to the population quota as is reasonably practicable.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, a House of Assembly of a State shall consist of three or four times the number of seats which that State has in the House of Representatives divided in a way to reflect, as far as possible nearly equal population: .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.Ethnocentrism, tribalism, religious persecution, and prebendalism have played a visible role in Nigerian politics both prior and subsequent to independence in 1960. Kin-selective altruism has made its way into Nigerian politics and has spurned various attempts by tribalists to concentrate Federal power to a particular region of their interests.^ State were references to the persons, offices and authorities of the Federation with like status, designations and powers, respectively; and in particular, as if references to the Attorney-General, Commissioners and the Auditor-General for a State were references to the Attorney-General, Ministers and the Auditor-General of the Federation with like status, designations and powers.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Governor of the State where he is or he proposes to be resident, acceptable to the local community in which he is to live permanently, and has been assimilated into the way of life of Nigerians in that part of the Federation; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In exercising his powers under this section, the Attorney-General of the Federation shall have regard to the public interest, the interest of justice and the need to prevent abuse of legal process.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

[27] Nationalism has also led to active secessionist movements such as MASSOB, Nationalist movements such as Oodua Peoples Congress, Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta and a civil war. .Nigeria's three largest ethnic groups (Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba) have maintained historical preeminence in Nigerian politics; competition amongst these three groups has fuelled corruption and graft.^ Nigeria or any such executive or administrative action, any privilege or advantage that is not accorded to citizens of Nigeria of other communities, ethnic groups, places of origin, sex, religions or political opinions.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nigeria or any executive or administrative action of the government, to disabilities or restrictions to which citizens of Nigeria of other communities, ethnic groups, places of origin, sex, religions or political opinions are not made subject; or .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A citizen of Nigeria of a particular community, ethnic group, place of origin, sex, religion or political opinion shall not, by reason only that he is such a person:- .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

[28]
Abuja, Capital City of Nigeria
.Because of the above issues, Nigeria's current political parties are pan-national and irreligious in character (though this does not preclude the continuing preeminence of the dominant ethnicities).^ In exercising his powers of appointment under this section, the President shall have regard to the federal character of Nigeria and the need to promote national unity.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Provided that the provisions of this section shall not derogate from the powers conferred by this Constitution on the Independent National Electoral Commission with respect to political parties to which that Commission does not accord recognition.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Independent National Electoral Commission for disbursement to political parties on a fair and equitable basis to assist them in the discharge of their functions; and .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

[29] .The major political parties at present include the ruling People's Democratic Party of Nigeria which maintains 223 seats in the House and 76 in the Senate (61.9% and 69.7% respectively) and is led by the current President Umaru Musa Yar'Adua; the opposition All Nigeria People's Party under the leadership of Muhammadu Buhari has 96 House seats and 27 in the Senate (26.6% and 24.7%).^ Constitution and rules of political parties.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The constitution and rules of a political party shall- .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ President of the senate and speaker of the House of Representatives.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

There are also about twenty other minor opposition parties registered. The immediate past president, Olusegun Obasanjo, acknowledged fraud and other electoral "lapses" but said the result reflected opinion polls. .In a national television address he added that if Nigerians did not like the victory of his handpicked successor they would have an opportunity to vote again in four years.^ Nigeria for a period of not less than fifteen years, from a list of not less than four persons so qualified and recommended by the Nigerian Bar Association; and .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They are also pretending to represent the Nigerian ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRIME COMMISSION (with a Yahoo address!
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also fraudsters that ask for a website address should be ignored straight away, if they don't know your website address how did they get your e-mail address?
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30]
Nigeria National Symbols of Nigeria
Flag Bicolour
Emblem Coat of arms of Nigeria
Anthem Arise, O Compatriots
Animal Eagle
Bird Black Crowned Crane
Flower Costus spectabilis
Sport Football
.Like in many other African societies, prebendalism and extremely excessive corruption continue to constitute major challenges to Nigeria, as vote rigging and other means of coercion are practised by all major parties in order to remain competitive.^ Except as otherwise provided by this Constitution, any question proposed for decision in a House of Assembly shall be determined by the required majority of the members present and voting; and the person presiding shall cast a vote whenever necessary to avoid an equality of votes but shall not vote in any other case.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Notwithstanding the provisions of Chapter III of this Constitution but subject to section 28 thereof, any person who became a citizen of Nigeria by birth, registration or naturalisation under the provisions of any other Constitution shall continue to be a citizen of Nigeria under this Constitution.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No association, other than a political party, shall canvass for votes for any candidate at any election or contribute to the funds of any political party or to the election expenses of any candidate at an election.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

In 1983, it was adjudged by the policy institute at Kuru that only the 1959 and 1979 elections witnessed minimal rigging.[31]

Law

There are four distinct systems of law in Nigeria:
.
  • English law which is derived from its colonial past with Britain;
  • Common law, a development of its post colonial independence;
  • Customary law which is derived from indigenous traditional norms and practice, including the dispute resolution meetings of pre-colonial Yorubaland secret societies and the Èkpè and Okónkò of Igboland and Ibibioland;
  • Sharia law, used only in the predominantly Muslim north of the country.^ High Court, the Sharia court of Appeal, the Customary Court of Appeal; or other courts established for a State by this Constitution or by a Law of a House of Assembly; .
    • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Nigeria and has been so qualified for a period of not less than ten years and, in the opinion of the National Judicial Council he has considerable knowledge and experience in the practice of Customary law; or .
    • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Subject to the provisions of any law by the House of Assembly of the State, the President of the Customary Court of Appeal of the State may make rules for regulating the practice and procedure of the customary Court of Appeal of the State.
    • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

    .It is an Islamic legal system which had been used long before the colonial administration in Nigeria but recently politicised and spearheaded in Zamfara in late 1999 and eleven other states followed suit.^ Judicial Commission of Inquiry or an Administrative Panel of Inquiry or a Tribunal set up under the Tribunals of Inquiry Act, a Tribunals of Inquiry Law or any other law by the Federal and State Government which indictment has been accepted by the Federal or State Government, respectively; or .
    • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Government of the Federation or of a State, members of the armed forces of the Federation or members of the Nigeria Police Force or other Government security services or agencies established by law.
    • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Judicial Commission of Inquiry or an Administrative Panel of Inquiry or a Tribunal set up under the Tribunals of Inquiry Act, a Tribunals of Inquiry Law or any other law by the Federal or State Government which indictment has been accepted by the Federal or State Government, respectively; or .
    • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

    .These states are Kano, Katsina, Niger, Bauchi, Borno, Kaduna, Gombe, Sokoto, Jigawa, Yobe, and Kebbi.^ Niger state, Chanchaga LGA; Plateau state, Nasarawa LGA. Alternate names : Basa Kuta, Basa-Kaduna, Bassa-Kaduna, Gwadara Basa.
    • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Kaduna state, Saminaka and Ikara LGAs; Kano state, Tudun Waya LGA. Alternate names : Akurmi, Akurumi, Azumu, Bagwama, Bukurumi, Tikurami.
    • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Bauchi state, Dukku, Alkaleri, and Darazo LGAs; Gombe state, Dukku LGA; Yobe state, Fika LGA; Plateau state, Wase LGA. Alternate names : Ampika, Bolanchi, Bolawa, Bolewa, Borpika.
    • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [32]
.The country has a judicial branch, the highest court of which is the Supreme Court of Nigeria.^ The Supreme Court of Nigeria shall consist of - .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There shall be a Supreme Court of Nigeria.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The appointment of a person to the office of a Justice of the Supreme Court shall be made by the President on the National Judicial Council subject to confirmation of such appointment by the senate.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

Foreign relations

.Upon gaining independence in 1960, Nigeria made the liberation and restoration of the dignity of Africa the centrepiece of its foreign policy and played a leading role in the fight against the apartheid regime in South Africa.^ The President shall cause the declaration made under subsection (1) of this section to be registered and upon such registration, the person who made the declaration shall cease to be a citizen of Nigeria.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

[33] .One notable exception to the African focus of Nigeria's foreign policy was the close relationship the country enjoyed with Israel throughout the 1960s, with the latter country sponsoring and overseeing the construction of Nigeria's parliament buildings.^ Provided that his membership of the latter political party is not as a result of a division in the political party of which he was previously a member or of a merger of two or more political parties or factions by one of which he was previously sponsored; or .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

[34]
Nigeria's foreign policy was soon tested in the 1970s after the country emerged united from its own civil war and quickly committed itself to the liberation struggles going on in the Southern Africa sub-region. .Though Nigeria never sent an expeditionary force in that struggle, it offered more than rhetoric to the African National Congress (ANC) by taking a committed tough line with regard to the racist regime and their incursions in southern Africa, in addition to expediting large sums to aid anti-colonial struggles.^ Water from such sources as may be declared by the National Assembly to be sources affecting more than one state .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nigeria, other than a court-martial, in respect of any offence created by or under any Act of the National Assembly; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nigeria and has so qualified for a period of not less than ten years and has obtained a recognised qualification in Islamic law from an institution acceptable to the National Judicial Council; or .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.Nigeria was also a founding member of the Organisation for African Unity (now the African Union), and has tremendous influence in West Africa and Africa on the whole.^ KING STREET TINUBU, LAGOS ISLAND, NIGERIA. OTISALES COMMERCAIL CO LTD, Ukiwo Otisi, Benin,West Africa, ukiwo24@yahoo.com .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FEDEX OR ROYALMAIL as i will be sending this unit to west africa somewere in lagos nigeria 23401, i will be expecting your reply.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nigeria, in West Africa, is the world's 8th largest petroleum exporter, the world capital of child trafficking (UN report, 2004) and the centre of a huge criminal web.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nigeria has additionally founded regional cooperative efforts in West Africa, functioning as standard-bearer for ECOWAS and ECOMOG, economic and military organizations respectively.^ Nigeria in execution of the sentence of a court of law in respect of a criminal offence of which he has been found guilty: .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ KING STREET TINUBU, LAGOS ISLAND, NIGERIA. OTISALES COMMERCAIL CO LTD, Ukiwo Otisi, Benin,West Africa, ukiwo24@yahoo.com .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FEDEX OR ROYALMAIL as i will be sending this unit to west africa somewere in lagos nigeria 23401, i will be expecting your reply.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With this African-centred stance, Nigeria readily sent troops to the Congo at the behest of the United Nations shortly after independence (and has maintained membership since that time); Nigeria also supported several Pan African and pro-self government causes in the 1970s, including garnering support for Angola's MPLA, SWAPO in Namibia, and aiding anti-colonial struggles in Mozambique, and Zimbabwe (then Rhodesia) military and economically.^ IYAMAH SYLVANIUS, ecobankplc_nig2007@yahoo.es ECO-BANK PLC, ECOBANK/UNITED NATIONS 2007 SCAM VICTIMS COMPENSATIONS, Abuja, Nigeria .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Frank Smith, De-facto Chief Compensation Officer, United Nations Compensation Committee United nations Anti-fraud Comm., < info.crimewatchagency@yahoo.com.vn > , processingagent@yahoo.com.tr , re Abuja, Nigeria, Wema Bank.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jim Ovia, mrjimovia001@yahoo.com re ZENITH BANK NIGERIA PLC, re Kofi Annan, UNITED NATIONS FIGHTING FRAUD claims_unitednations04@hotmail.com .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Nigeria retains membership in the Non-Aligned Movement, and in late November 2006 organized an Africa-South America Summit in Abuja to promote what some attendees termed "South-South" linkages on a variety of fronts.[35] Nigeria is also a member of the International Criminal Court, and the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was temporarily expelled in 1995 under the Abacha regime.
.Nigeria has remained a key player in the international oil industry since the 1970s, and maintains membership in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC which it joined in July, 1971. Its status as a major petroleum producer figures prominently in its sometimes vicissitudinous international relations with both developed countries, notably the United States and more recently China and developing countries, notably Ghana, Jamaica and Kenya.^ States, so however that where there are more than one candidate with majority of votes in the highest number of States, the candidate among them with the highest total of votes cast at the election shall be the second candidate for the election.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Bathurst Street, London, W2 2SD, re AFRI EXPORT NO. Engineer victor ugo, SHELL PETROLEUM DEVELOPMENT COMPANY NIGERIA, victor_ugo@yahoo.com , shellcom_plc@yahoo.com .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Provided that there is reciprocal agreement between Nigeria and such other country in relation to such matter.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

[36]
Millions of Nigerians have emigrated at times of economic hardship to Europe, North America and Australia among others. It is estimated that over a million Nigerians have emigrated to the United States and constitute the Nigerian American populace. Of such Diasporic communities include the "Egbe Omo Yoruba" society.[37]

Military

The frigate, NNS Aradu
.The Nigerian Military are charged with protecting The Federal Republic of Nigeria, promoting Nigeria's global security interests, and supporting peacekeeping efforts especially in West Africa.^ KING STREET TINUBU, LAGOS ISLAND, NIGERIA. OTISALES COMMERCAIL CO LTD, Ukiwo Otisi, Benin,West Africa, ukiwo24@yahoo.com .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FEDEX OR ROYALMAIL as i will be sending this unit to west africa somewere in lagos nigeria 23401, i will be expecting your reply.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nigeria, in West Africa, is the world's 8th largest petroleum exporter, the world capital of child trafficking (UN report, 2004) and the centre of a huge criminal web.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Nigerian Military consist of an Army, a Navy and an Air Force. The military in Nigeria have played a major role in the country's history since independence. Various juntas have seized control of the country and ruled it through most of its history. Its last period of rule ended in 1999 following the sudden death of former dictator Sani Abacha in 1998, with his successor, Abdulsalam Abubakar, handing over power to the democratically elected government of Olusegun Obasanjo in 1999.
.Taking advantage of its role as Africa's most populated country, Nigeria has repositioned its military as an African peacekeeping force.^ Ethnologue > Web version > Country index > Africa > Nigeria Languages of Nigeria .
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Since 1995, the Nigerian military through ECOMOG mandates have been deployed as peacekeepers in Liberia (1997), Ivory Coast (1997–1999), Sierra Leone 1997–1999,[38] and presently in Sudan's Darfur region under an African Union mandate.

Geography

Lagos famous Alpha Beach
.Nigeria is located in western Africa on the Gulf of Guinea and has a total area of 923,768 km2 (356,669 sq mi),[39] making it the world's 32nd-largest country (after Tanzania).^ There shall be 768 Local Government Areas in Nigeria as shown in the second column of Part I of the First Schedule to this Constitution and six area councils as shown in Part II of that Schedule.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The following is the supposed shipping agent that I was to Western Union the shipping money to: Femi Fowler, 39 McGuary Road, Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nigeria, in West Africa, is the world's 8th largest petroleum exporter, the world capital of child trafficking (UN report, 2004) and the centre of a huge criminal web.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is comparable in size to Venezuela, and is about twice the size of California. .It shares a 4,047 kilometres (2,515 mi) border with Benin (773 km), Niger (1497 km), Chad (87 km), Cameroon (1690 km), and has a coastline of at least 853 km.^ Southern boundary is east-west line below intersection of rivers to 75 km south in Benin-Nigeria border, to border bend from north-south, to 30 km east.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Germany, Ghana, Niger, Sudan, Togo.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] The highest point in Nigeria is Chappal Waddi at 2,419 m (7,936 ft). .The main rivers are the Niger and the Benue which converge and empty into the Niger Delta, one of the world's largest river deltas and the location of a large area of Central African Mangroves.^ Rivers state, Ogba-Egbema-Ndoni LGA, north Niger Delta.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South and west of Niger River, where Nigeria, Niger, and Benin meet, south to where a big tributary joins Niger River from the east, along Niger River south to the delta.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Niger state, Magama and Mariga LGAs, Auna and Wara areas, west of Kainji Lake on Niger River.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Nigeria is also an important center for biodiversity. .It is widely believed that the areas surrounding Calabar, Cross River State, contain the world's largest diversity of butterflies.^ Cross River state, Odukpani LGA, Calabar area.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cross River state, Akamkpa LGA. Alternate names : Begbungba, Iyongiyong, Iyoniyong, Uwet.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cross River state, Ikom LGA. Alternate names : Agbaragba, Ofutop.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The drill monkey is only found in the wild in Southeast Nigeria and neighboring Cameroon.
Nigeria has a varied landscape. The far south is defined by its tropical rainforest climate, where annual rainfall is 60 to 80 inches (1,524 to 2,032 mm) a year.[41] In the southeast stand the Obudu Hills. Coastal plains are found in both the southwest and the southeast.[42]. This forest zone's most southerly portion is defined as salt water swamp, also known as a mangrove swamp because of the large amount of mangroves in the area. North of this is fresh water swamp, containing different vegetation from the salt water swamp, and north of that is rain forest.[43][43]
.Nigeria's most expansive topographical region is that of the valleys of the Niger and Benue River valleys (which merge into each other and form a "y" shape).^ River Niger or River Benue and their affluents and on such other inland waterway as may be designated by any enactment to be an international waterway, all Federal ports, (including the constitution and powers of the ports authorities for Federal ports) and carriage by sea; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ River Niger and its affluents and on any such other inland waterway as may be designated by the National Assembly to be an international waterway or to be an inter-State waterway; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nigeria and other countries including import of commodities into and export of commodities from Nigeria, and trade and commerce between the states; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

[42]. To the southwest of the Niger there is "rugged" highland, and to the southeast of the Benue hills and mountains are found all the way to the border with Cameroon, this montane land is part of the Cameroonian Highlands forests ecoregion. .The area near the border with Cameroon close to the coast is rich rainforest and part of the Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests ecoregion, an important centre for biodiversity including the drill monkey which is only found in the wild in this area and across the border in Cameroon.^ Taraba state, near Cameroon border, Manga, Ekban, Konkom villages.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Borno state, Jilbe town, Cameroon border across from Dabanga town.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Borno state, Gwoza LGA; Adamawa state, Michika LGA; along Cameroon border, across from Tourou.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is widely believed that the areas surrounding Calabar, Cross River State, also in this forest, contain the world's largest diversity of butterflies.^ Cross River state, Odukpani LGA, Calabar area.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cross River state, Akamkpa LGA. Alternate names : Begbungba, Iyongiyong, Iyoniyong, Uwet.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cross River state, Ikom LGA. Alternate names : Agbaragba, Ofutop.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The area of southern Nigeria between the Niger and the Cross Rivers has seen its forest more or less disappear to be replaced by grassland (see Cross-Niger transition forests).
.Everything in between the far south and the far north, is savannah(insignificant tree cover, with grasses and flowers located between trees), and rainfall is between 20 and 60 inches (508 and 1,524 mm) per year.^ Niger state, Rafi LGA, Gumna and Tegina districts, between Kusheriki (north), Zungeru (south), and road southwest, with center in Sabon Gari Pangu.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41] The savannah zone's three categories are Guinean forest-savanna mosaic, plains of tall grass which are interrupted by trees and the most common across the country: Sudan savannah, similar but with "shorter grasses and shorter trees; and Sahel savannah, comprised patches of grass and sand, found in the northeast.[43]. .To the north is the Sahel with its almost desert-like climate, where rain is less than 20 inches (508 mm) per year and the Sahara Desert is encroaching.^ Nigeria for not less than ten years; and .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nigeria and has so qualified for a period of not less than ten years and has obtained a recognised qualification in Islamic law from an institution acceptable to the National Judicial Council; or .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nigeria for a period of not less than fifteen years, from a list of not less than four persons so qualified and recommended by the Nigerian Bar Association; and .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

[41] .In the dry north-east corner of the country lies Lake Chad, which Nigeria shares with Niger, Chad and Cameroon.^ Niger state, Borgu LGA; Kebbi state, Bagudo LGA, Senji north to Kenugbe and Kaoje, 150 km south and Demmo, 50 km east.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Niger state, Borgu and Agwara LGAs, west of Niger River and north of Kainji Lake National Park; Kebbi state, east of Niger River from Yelwa area south to Ngaski and Nasko.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South and west of Niger River, where Nigeria, Niger, and Benin meet, south to where a big tributary joins Niger River from the east, along Niger River south to the delta.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Environmental issues

Nigeria's Delta region, home of the large oil industry, experiences serious oil spills and other environmental problems. .See Environmental issues in the Niger Delta for more details, and Conflict in the Niger Delta about strife which has arisen in connection with those issues.^ Classification : Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Usaghade More information.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Classification : Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ilue More information.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Classification : Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Oro More information.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Waste management including sewage treatment, the linked processes of deforestation and soil degradation, and climate change or global warming are the major environmental problems in Nigeria.
.Waste management presents problems in a mega city like Lagos and other major Nigerian cities which are linked with economic development, population growth and the inability of municipal councils to manage the resulting rise in industrial and domestic waste.^ Population numbers are unknown but Lagos vies with Mexico City for the title of largest city in the world.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Haphazard industrial planning, increased urbanization, poverty and lack of competence of the municipal government are seen as the major reasons for high levels of waste pollution in major Nigerian cities. Some of the 'solutions' have been disastrous to the environment, resulting in untreated waste being dumped in places where it can pollute waterways and groundwater.[44]
In terms of global warming, Africans contribute only about one metric ton of carbon dioxide per person per year. It is perceived by many climate change experts that food production and security in the northern sahel region of the country will suffer as semi-arid areas will have more dry periods in the future.[45]

Subdivisions

.Nigeria is divided into thirty-six states and one Federal Capital Territory, which are further sub-divided into 774 Local Government Areas (LGAs).^ Nigeria shall be a Federation consisting of States and a Federal Capital Territory.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Federal Capital Territory and Nassarawa state, Nasarawa LGA. Alternate names : Gede.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Local government area" or "local government council" includes an area council; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

The plethora of states, of which there were only three at independence, reflect the country's tumultuous history and the difficulties of managing such a heterogeneous national entity at all levels of government.
.Nigeria has six cities with a population of over 1 million people (from largest to smallest: Lagos, Kano, Ibadan, Kaduna, Port Harcourt, and Benin City).^ Population numbers are unknown but Lagos vies with Mexico City for the title of largest city in the world.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lagos is the largest city in sub-Saharan Africa, with a population of over 10 million in its urban area alone.^ Population numbers are unknown but Lagos vies with Mexico City for the title of largest city in the world.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Population of Nigeria's cities over a million include Lagos (7,937,932), Kano (3,848,885), Ibadan (3,078,400), Kaduna (1,652,844), Port Harcourt (1,320,214), Benin City (1,051,600), Maiduguri (1,044,497) and Zaria (1,018,827), however, these figures are regularly disputed in Nigeria.^ Population numbers are unknown but Lagos vies with Mexico City for the title of largest city in the world.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kano-Katsina, Kano, Katsina, Zaria, Jos Plateau and southeast to Bauchi, Gombe is center; Bororro in Bornu state, Maiduguri is center; Sokoto in Sokoto state.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46]
States of Nigeria, there are a total of 36 states in Nigeria and then Abuja, the federal capital territory.
States:
  1. Abuja
  2. Anambra
  3. Enugu
  4. Akwa Ibom
  5. Adamawa
  6. Abia
  7. Bauchi
  8. Bayelsa
  9. Benue
  10. Borno
  11. Cross River
  12. Delta
  13. Ebonyi
  1. Edo
  2. Ekiti
  3. Gombe
  4. Imo
  5. Jigawa
  6. Kaduna
  7. Kano
  8. Katsina
  9. Kebbi
  10. Kogi
  11. Kwara
  12. Lagos
  13. Nasarawa
  1. Niger
  2. Ogun
  3. Ondo
  4. Osun
  5. Oyo
  6. Plateau
  7. Rivers
  8. Sokoto
  9. Taraba
  10. Yobe
  11. Zamfara
Federal Capital Territory: Abuja

Economy

Lagos Central Business District, Lagos State, Nigeria
.Nigeria is classified as an emerging market, and is rapidly approaching middle income status[citation needed], with its abundant supply of resources, well-developed financial, legal, communications, transport sectors and stock exchange (the Nigerian Stock Exchange), which is the second largest in Africa.^ Central Bank of Nigeria arising from banking, foreign exchange, coinage, legal tender, bills of exchange, letters of credit, promissory notes and other fiscal measures: .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nigeria, in West Africa, is the world's 8th largest petroleum exporter, the world capital of child trafficking (UN report, 2004) and the centre of a huge criminal web.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nigeria is ranked 37th in the world in terms of GDP (PPP) as of 2007. Nigeria is the United States' largest trading partner in sub-Saharan Africa and supplies a fifth of its oil (11% of oil imports).^ IYAMAH SYLVANIUS, ecobankplc_nig2007@yahoo.es ECO-BANK PLC, ECOBANK/UNITED NATIONS 2007 SCAM VICTIMS COMPENSATIONS, Abuja, Nigeria .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LTD < smooth_industries@yahoo.com > , Smooth Tradings Industrial Co Ltd, 180 Jubilee Raod Aba Abia State Nigeria.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No 11 oyo road mokola round about, mokola, ibadan, oyo state, Nigeria, 23402.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It has the seventh-largest trade surplus with the U.S. of any country worldwide. .Nigeria is currently the 50th-largest export market for U.S. goods and the 14th-largest exporter of goods to the U.S. The United States is the country's largest foreign investor.^ Nigeria, in West Africa, is the world's 8th largest petroleum exporter, the world capital of child trafficking (UN report, 2004) and the centre of a huge criminal web.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47] The bulk of economic activity is centred in 4 main cities: Lagos, Kaduna, Port Harcourt, and Abuja. Beyond these three economic centers, development is marginal.[citation needed]
Previously, economic development had been hindered by years of military rule, corruption, and mismanagement, the restoration of democracy and subsequent economic reforms have successfully put Nigeria back on track towards achieving its full economic potential as one of the Major Economies in Africa.[citation needed] According to the Economist Intelligence Unit and the World Bank, Nigerian GDP at purchasing power parity has nearly doubled from $170.7 billion in 2005 to 292.6 billion in 2007. The GDP per head has jumped from $692 per person in 2006 to $1,754 per person in 2007.[48]
During the oil boom of the 1970s, Nigeria accumulated a significant foreign debt to finance major infrastructural investments. With the fall of oil prices during the 1980s oil glut Nigeria struggled to keep up with its loan payments and eventually defaulted on its principal debt repayments, limiting repayment to the interest portion of the loans. Arrears and penalty interest accumulated on the unpaid principal which increased the size of the debt.
However, after negotiations by the Nigeria authorities, in October 2005 Nigeria and its Paris Club creditors reached an agreement in which Nigeria repurchased its debt at a discount of approximately 60%. .Nigeria used part of its oil profits to pay the residual 40%, freeing up at least $1.15 billion annually for poverty reduction programmes.^ Every citizen of Nigeria is entitled to move freely throughout Nigeria and to reside in any part thereof, and no citizen of Nigeria shall be expelled from Nigeria or refused entry thereby or exit therefrom.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ United Parcel Service Nigeria LTD (UPS), Plot 15, Oworonski Expressway, Gbagada Industrial Estate, Lagos, Nigeria upsdeliverydepty@live.com .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apparently, for at least part of the five year period, a previous president of Nigeria was the oil minister!
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nigeria made history in April 2006 by becoming the first African Country to completely pay off its debt (estimated $30 billion) owed to the Paris Club.^ Constitution, he has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of a country other than Nigeria or, except in such cases as may be prescribed by the National Assembly, he has made a declaration of allegiance to such other country; or .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitution, he has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of a country other than Nigeria or, except in such cases as may be prescribed by the National Assembly, has made a declaration of allegiance to such a country; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

Key sectors

Obafemi Awolowo University Palm farm, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
.Nigeria is the 12th largest producer of petroleum in the world and the 8th largest exporter, and has the 10th largest proven reserves.^ Nigeria, in West Africa, is the world's 8th largest petroleum exporter, the world capital of child trafficking (UN report, 2004) and the centre of a huge criminal web.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(The country joined OPEC in 1971). Petroleum plays a large role in the Nigerian economy, accounting for 40% of GDP and 80% of Government earnings. However, agitation for better resource control in the Niger Delta, its main oil producing region, has led to disruptions in oil production and currently prevents the country from exporting at 100% capacity.[49]
.Nigeria has one of the fastest growing telecommunications markets in the world, major emerging market operators (like MTN, Etisalat, Zain and Globacom) basing their largest and most profitable centres in the country.^ Nigeria, in West Africa, is the world's 8th largest petroleum exporter, the world capital of child trafficking (UN report, 2004) and the centre of a huge criminal web.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nominees are: MTN Nigeria, Pank Shin Nigeria, BBCom Benin, Globacom Nigeria, Vodafone Espana.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50] The government has recently begun expanding this infrastructure to space based communications. Nigeria has a space satellite which is monitored at the Nigerian National Space Research and Development Agency Headquarters in Abuja.
.The country has a highly developed financial services sector, with a mix of local and international banks, asset management companies, brokerage houses, insurance companies and brokers, private equity funds and investment banks.^ INTERCONTINENTAL TRUST FUND & INVESTMENT SERVICES, enquiry@itfsonline.com , info@itfsonline.com (hosted: Microsoft).
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tip: to check if a financial company is registered with Britain's Financial Services Authority you can search the Register at www.fsa.gov.uk .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HARRY PETER, 60 lREWOLE AVENUE IKEJA LAGOS NIGERIA, htpceo@gmail.com re HARRY FINANCIAL PRIVATE INHERITANCE SECURITY SERVICES COMPANY .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51]
.Nigeria also has a wide array of underexploited mineral resources which include natural gas, coal, bauxite, tantalite, gold, tin, iron ore, limestone, niobium, lead and zinc.^ Mines and minerals, including oil fields, oil mining, geological surveys and natural gas.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

[52] .Despite huge deposits of these natural resources, the mining industry in Nigeria is still in it infancy.^ Despite many abuse reports to Microsoft, they are still allowing these fake FedEx accounts .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Agriculture used to be the principal foreign exchange earner of Nigeria.^ Central Bank of Nigeria arising from banking, foreign exchange, coinage, legal tender, bills of exchange, letters of credit, promissory notes and other fiscal measures: .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

[53] .At one time, Nigeria was the world's largest exporter of groundnuts, cocoa, and palm oil and a significant producer of coconuts, citrus fruits, maize, pearl millet, cassava, yams and sugar cane.^ Nigeria, in West Africa, is the world's 8th largest petroleum exporter, the world capital of child trafficking (UN report, 2004) and the centre of a huge criminal web.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

About 60% of Nigerians work in the agricultural sector, and Nigeria has vast areas of underutilized arable land.[54]
It also has a manufacturing industry which includes leather and textiles (centred Kano, Abeokuta, Onitsha, and Lagos), car manufacturing (for the French car manufacturer Peugeot as well as for the English truck manufacturer Bedford, now a subsidiary of General Motors), t-shirts, plastics and processed food.
The country has recently made considerable amount of revenue from home made Nigerian Movies which are sold locally and Internationally. These movies are popular in other African countries and among African immigrants in Europe.

Demographics

Population density in Nigeria
.Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa but exactly how populous is a subject of speculation.^ Ethnologue > Web version > Country index > Africa > Nigeria Languages of Nigeria .
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The United Nations estimates that the population in 2009 was at 154,729,000, distributed as 51.7% rural and 48.3% urban, and with a population density of 167.5 people per square kilometer. National census results in the past few decades have been disputed. The results of the most recent census were released in December 2006 and gave a population of 140,003,542. The only breakdown available was by gender: males numbered 71,709,859, females numbered 68,293,08.
.According to the United Nations, Nigeria has been undergoing explosive population growth and one of the highest growth and fertility rates in the world.^ IYAMAH SYLVANIUS, ecobankplc_nig2007@yahoo.es ECO-BANK PLC, ECOBANK/UNITED NATIONS 2007 SCAM VICTIMS COMPENSATIONS, Abuja, Nigeria .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jim Ovia, mrjimovia001@yahoo.com re ZENITH BANK NIGERIA PLC, re Kofi Annan, UNITED NATIONS FIGHTING FRAUD claims_unitednations04@hotmail.com .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UNITED NATIONS / WORLD BANK COMPENSATION UNIT jim.ovia78@live.com .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By their projections, Nigeria will be one of the countries in the world that will account for most of the world's total population increase by 2050.[55]
According to current data, one out of every four Africans is Nigerian.[56] .Presently, Nigeria is the eighth most populous country in the world, and even conservative estimates conclude that more than 20% of the world's black population lives in Nigeria.^ A July '05 report in the Christian Science Monitor noted that "According to the World Bank, corruption has meant that 80 percent of Nigeria's oil and gas revenues goes to 1 percent of the population, while 70 percent of the country's 133 million people still live on less than $1 a day".
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.2006 estimates claim 42.3% of the population is between 0–14 years of age, while 54.6% is between 15–65; the birth rate is significantly higher than the death rate, at 40.4 and 16.9 per 1000 people respectively.^ National Electoral Commissioners, who shall be persons of unquestionably integrity and not less than fifty years and forty years of age, respectively.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

[57]
Health, health care, and general living conditions in Nigeria are poor. .Life expectancy is 47 years (average male/female) and just over half the population has access to potable water and appropriate sanitation; the percentage is of children under five has gone up rather than down between 1990 and 2003 and infant mortality is 97.1 deaths per 1000 live births.^ Code of Conduct Bureau a written declaration of all his properties, assets, and liabilities and those of his unmarried children under the age of eighteen years.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

[57] .HIV/AIDS rate in Nigeria is much lower compared to the other African nations such as Kenya or South Africa whose prevalence (percentage) rates are in the double digits.^ Nigeria on such terms and conditions as the National Assembly may prescribe; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nigeria Police Force shall be organised and administered in accordance with such provisions as may be prescribed by an act of the National Assembly; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nigeria, other than a court-martial, in respect of any offence created by or under any Act of the National Assembly; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

In 2003, the HIV prevalence rate among 20 to 29 year-olds was 5.6%.[58] About Nigeria, like many developing countries, suffers from a polio crisis as well as periodic outbreaks of cholera, malaria, and sleeping sickness. As of 2004, there has been a vaccination drive, spearheaded by the W.H.O., to combat polio and malaria that has been met with controversy in some regions.[59]
Education is also in a state of neglect. After the 1970s oil boom, tertiary education was improved so that it would reach every subregion of Nigeria. Education is provided free by the government, but the attendance rate for secondary education is only 29% (32% for males, 27% for females). The education system has been described as "dysfunctional" largely because of decaying institutional infrastructure. 68% of the population is literate, and the rate for men (75.7%) is higher than that for women (60.6%).[57]
.Nigeria's largest city is Lagos.^ Population numbers are unknown but Lagos vies with Mexico City for the title of largest city in the world.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lagos has grown from 300,000 in 1950[60] to an estimated 15 million today, and the Nigerian government estimates that city will have expanded to 25 million residents by 2015.[61]

Ethno-linguistic groups

Hausa harpist.jpg Igbo hat and Isiagu.jpg Kwarastatedrummers.jpg
A Hausa harpist Igbo men Yoruba drummers
.Nigeria has more than 250 ethnic groups, with varying languages and customs, creating a country of rich ethnic diversity.^ Nigeria other than a court-martial in respect of any offence created by or under any law of the House of Assembly; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nigeria, other than a court-martial, in respect of any offence created by or under any Act of the National Assembly; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A citizen of Nigeria of a particular community, ethnic group, place of origin, sex, religion or political opinion shall not, by reason only that he is such a person:- .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

The largest ethnic groups are the Fulani/Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo, accounting for 68% of population, while the Edo, Ijaw, Kanuri, Ibibio, Ebira Nupe and Tiv comprise 27%; other minorities make up the remaining 7 percent.[62] The middle belt of Nigeria is known for its diversity of ethnic groups, including the Pyem, Goemai, and Kofyar. .The official population count of each of Nigeria's ethnicities has always remained controversial and disputed as members of different ethnic groups believe the census is rigged to give a particular group (usually believed to be northern groups) numerical superiority.^ A citizen of Nigeria of a particular community, ethnic group, place of origin, sex, religion or political opinion shall not, by reason only that he is such a person:- .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nigeria irrespective of his place of origin, circumstance of birth, sex, religion or ethnic grouping; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nigeria only if the members thereof belong to different states not being less in number than two-thirds of all the states of the Federation and the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

[46][63][64]
There are small minorities of British, American, East Indian, Chinese (est. 50,000),[65] white Zimbabwean,[66] Japanese, Greek, Syrian and Lebanese immigrants in Nigeria. .Immigrants also include those from other West African or East African nations.^ National Assembly or any House of Assembly from establishing courts, other than those to which this section relates, with subordinate jurisdiction to that of a High Court; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No moneys shall be withdrawn from any public fund of the Federation, other than the Consolidated Revenue Fund of the Federation, unless the issue of those moneys has been authorised by an Act of the National Assembly.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

These minorities mostly reside in major cities such as Lagos and Abuja, or in the Niger Delta as employees for the major oil companies. A number of Cubans settled in Nigeria as political refugees following the Cuban Revolution.
.In the middle of the nineteenth century, a number of ex-slaves of Afro-Cuban and Afro-Brazilian descent[67] and emigrants from Sierra Leone established communities in Lagos and other regions of Nigeria.^ KALEEM RIZVI, LAGOS, NIGERIA, 18/109 OKPEBI AVE, SUIT:67/100, kaleemrizvi11@gmail.com .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Government of the Federation or of a State, members of the armed forces of the Federation or members of the Nigeria Police Force or other Government security services or agencies established by law.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There shall be a police force for Nigeria, which shall be known as the Nigeria Police Force, and subject to the provisions of this section no other police force shall be established for the Federation or any part thereof.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

Many ex-slaves came to Nigeria following the emancipation of slaves in the Americas. Many of the immigrants, sometimes called Saros (immigrants from Sierra Leone) and Amaro (ex-slaves from Brazil)[68] later became prominent merchants and missionaries in these cities.

Language

Linguistic map of Nigeria, Cameroon, and Benin
.The number of languages currently estimated and catalogued in Nigeria is 521. This number includes 510 living languages, two second languages without native speakers and nine extinct languages.^ Of those, 514 are living languages, 2 are second languages without mother-tongue speakers, and 11 have no known speakers.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The number of individual languages listed for Nigeria is 527.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nigeria only if the members thereof belong to different states not being less in number than two-thirds of all the states of the Federation and the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.In some areas of Nigeria, ethnic groups speak more than one language.^ Ethnic population: Much more than 7,000 (Storch 1999).
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iko is more similar to other Lower Cross languages than to Obolo.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Joshua Project - Ethnic People Groups of Nigeria Start View People Profiles View by Country View by People Group View by Language View by Religion All Data Views Unreached Unreached Listings Profiles User Selected Sample Queries Photos Articles Global Progress Unreached of the Day What is it?
  • Joshua Project - Ethnic People Groups of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The official language of Nigeria, English, was chosen to facilitate the cultural and linguistic unity of the country.^ Ethnologue > Web version > Country index > Africa > Nigeria Languages of Nigeria .
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ National or official languages: Edo, Efik, Adamawa Fulfulde, Hausa, Idoma, Igbo, Central Kanuri, Yoruba, English.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The choice of English as the official language was partially related to the fact that a part of the Nigerian population spoke English as a result of British colonization that ended in 1960.
.The major languages spoken in Nigeria represent three major families of African languages – the majority are Niger-Congo languages, such as Yoruba, Igbo, the Hausa language is Afro-Asiatic; and Kanuri, spoken in the northeast, primarily Borno State, is a member of the Nilo-Saharan family.^ Borno state, northeast LGAs.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A member of the Igbo language subgroup.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Niger state, Mariga LGA, northeast of Kontagora.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Even though most ethnic groups prefer to communicate in their own languages, English, being the official language, is widely used for education, business transactions and for official purposes. .English as a first language, however, remains an exclusive preserve of a small minority of the country's urban elite, and it is not spoken at all in some rural areas.^ The business of a House of Assembly shall be conducted in English, but the House may in addition to English conduct the business of the House in one or more other languages spoken in the State as the House may by resolution approve.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.With the majority of Nigeria's populace in the rural areas, the major languages of communication in the country remain indigenous languages.^ Ethnologue > Web version > Country index > Africa > Nigeria Languages of Nigeria .
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of the largest of these, notably Yoruba and Igbo, have derived standardized languages from a number of different dialects and are widely spoken by those ethnic groups.^ Dialect subgroup within the Igbo language subgroup.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A dialect subgroup within the Igbo language subgroup.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The standard literary form is developing based on the dialects of Owerri and Umuahia, omitting the nasality and aspiration found in those dialects.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Nigerian Pidgin English, often known simply as 'Pidgin' or 'Broken' (Broken English), is also a popular lingua franca, though with varying regional influences on dialect and slang. The pidgin English or Nigerian English is widely spoken within the Niger Delta Regions, predominately in Warri, Sapele, Port Harcourt, Agenebode, and Benin City.[69]

Culture

Literature

Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe is Nigeria's most popular and best selling literary piece ever, translated into over 40 languages[70]
Nigerian citizens have authored many influential works of post-colonial literature in the English language. Nigeria's best-known writers are Wole Soyinka, the first African Nobel Laureate in Literature, and Chinua Achebe, best known for the novel, Things Fall Apart and his controversial critique of Joseph Conrad. Other Nigerian writers and poets who are well known internationally include John Pepper Clark, Ben Okri, Cyprian Ekwensi, Buchi Emecheta, Helon Habila, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, and Ken Saro Wiwa, who was executed in 1995 by the military regime. Nigeria has the second largest newspaper market in Africa (after Egypt) with an estimated circulation of several million copies daily in 2003.

Music and film

Nigeria has been called "the heart of African music"[citation needed] because of its role in the development of West African highlife and palm-wine music, which fuses native rhythms with techniques imported from the Congo, Brazil, Cuba and elsewhere.
Many late 20th century musicians such as Fela Kuti have famously fused cultural elements of various indigenous music with American Jazz and Soul to form Afrobeat.[71] .JuJu music which is percussion music fused with traditional music from the Yoruba nation and made famous by King Sunny Adé, is also from Nigeria.^ The appointment of a person to the office of Chief Justice of Nigeria shall be made by the President on the recommendation of the National Judicial Council subject to confirmation of such appointment by the Senate.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitution, he has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of a country other than Nigeria or, except in such cases as may be prescribed by the National Assembly, he has made a declaration of allegiance to such other country; or .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitution, he has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of a country other than Nigeria or, except in such cases as may be prescribed by the National Assembly, has made a declaration of allegiance to such a country; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

There is also fuji music, a Yoruba percussion style, created and popularized by Mr. Fuji, Alhaji Sikiru Ayinde Barrister.
There is a budding hip hop movement in Nigeria. Kennis Music, the self proclaimed "No 1 Record Label in Africa" and one of Nigeria's biggest record labels, has a roster almost entirely dominated by hip hop artists.
Some famous musicians that come from Nigeria are Fela Kuti, Adewale Ayuba, Ezebuiro Obinna, Alhaji Sikiru Ayinde Barrister, King Sunny Adé, Ebenezer Obey, Femi Kuti, Lagbaja, Dr. Alban, Sade Adu, Wasiu Alabi, Bola Abimbola and Tuface Idibia.
.In November 2008, Nigeria's music scene (and that of Africa) received international attention when MTV hosted the continent's first African music awards show in Abuja.^ Data Map > All Regions / Continents > All Countries > Region: West and Central Africa > Country: Nigeria .
  • Joshua Project - Ethnic People Groups of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[72]
The Nigerian film industry is known as Nollywood. Many of the film studios are based in Lagos and Enugu and the industry is now a very lucrative income for these cities.

Religion

Nigeria is home to a variety of religions which tend to vary regionally. This situation accentuates regional and ethnic distinctions and has often been seen as a source of sectarian conflict amongst the population.[73] The largest religions of Nigeria are Islam and Christianity,[74] including few followers of indigenous religions. Based on a 2003 survey, 50.5% were Muslim, 48.2% were Christian (15% Protestant, 13.7% Catholic, and 19.6% other Christian), and followers of other religions were 1.4%.[75] .The north is predominantly Muslim, there are large numbers of both Muslims and Christians in in the Middle Belt, including the Federal Capital Territory.^ Minister of Federal Capital territory, Abuja.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Administration of the Federal Capital territory, Abuja.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The High Court of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja shall be duly constituted if it consists of at least one Judge of that court.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

In the southwest, Christians and Muslims reside equally, southern regions are predominantly Christian, in the east, Catholics, Anglicans, and Methodists are the majority with few traditional beliefs, while the Niger Delta region is mainly Christian.[74]
The majority of Nigerian Muslims are Sunni (95%), but a significant Shia minority exists (see Shia in Nigeria). .Some northern states have incorporated Sharia law into their previously secular legal systems, which has brought about some controversy.^ High Court, the Sharia court of Appeal, the Customary Court of Appeal; or other courts established for a State by this Constitution or by a Law of a House of Assembly; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For the purpose of exercising any jurisdiction conferred upon it this Constitution or any law, a sharia Court of Appeal of a State shall be duly constituted if it consists of at least three kadis of that Court.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

[76] Kano State has sought to incorporate Sharia law into its constitution.[77]
Christian Nigerians are about evenly split between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. Leading Protestant churches are the Church of Nigeria, of the Anglican communion, and the Nigerian Baptist Convention. The Yoruba area contains a large Anglican population, while Igboland is predominantly Catholic.
Across Yorubaland in the west many people are adherents to Yorubo/Irunmole spirituality with its philosophy of divine destiny that all can become Orisha (ori, spiritual head; sha, is chosen: to be one with Olodumare (oni odu, the God source of all energy; ma re, enlighthens / triumphs).
Other minority religious and spiritual groups in Nigeria include Hinduism,[78] Judaism, The Bahá’í Faith, and Chrislam (a syncretic faith melding elements of Christianity and Islam).[79] Further, Nigeria has become an African hub for the Grail Movement[80] and the Hare Krishnas.[81]

Cuisine

Nigerian cuisine, like West African cuisine in general, is known for its richness and variety. Many different spices, herbs and flavourings are used in conjunction with palm oil or groundnut oil to create deeply flavoured sauces and soups often made very hot with chili peppers. Nigerian feasts are colourful and lavish, while aromatic market and roadside snacks cooked on barbecues or fried in oil are plentiful and varied.[82]

Sport

Nigerian fans at a football match between Nigeria and Cote d'Ivoire.
football (soccer) is Nigeria's national sport and the country has its own Premier League of football. Nigeria's national football team, known as the Super Eagles, has made the World Cup on three occasions 1994, 1998, and 2002, won the African Cup of Nations in 1980 and 1994, and also hosted the Junior World Cup. .They won the gold medal for football in the 1996 Summer Olympics (in which they beat Argentina) and have reached the finals of the U-20 World Championship in 2005. In September 2007, Nigeria won the U-17 World cup for the third time, becoming the first African nation to have achieved that feat and the second nation (after Brazil) to do so.^ IYAMAH SYLVANIUS, ecobankplc_nig2007@yahoo.es ECO-BANK PLC, ECOBANK/UNITED NATIONS 2007 SCAM VICTIMS COMPENSATIONS, Abuja, Nigeria .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Nigeria had previously won the very first U-17 tournament in 1985 (China '85), 1993 (Japan '93) and in 2007 (Korea '07).
.The nation's cadet team to Japan '93 produced some of the world's finest players notably Nwankwo Kanu, a two-time African Footballer of the year who won the European Champions League with Ajax Amsterdam and later played with Inter Milan (Italy), Arsenal FC (London, UK), West Bromwich Albion (UK) and Portsmouth F.C. (UK).^ National Visa Center, 32 Rochester Ave, Portsmouth , NH 03801-2909, George Graham, 15 Elder flower way, stratford London Uk.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the time the forgery is recognised, usually two to three days later during the clearing phase, the car has been released.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "Fortune Trust Bank" (www.fortunetrust.com) of Amsterdam and the Cayman Islands and The "Bromwich Albion Bank" (?
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other players that graduated from the Junior teams are Celestine Babayaro (of Newcastle United, UK), Wilson Oruma and Taye Taiwo (of Marseille, France).
.According to the official September 2007 FIFA World Rankings, Nigeria was the top-ranked football nation in Africa and the 19th highest in the world.^ Nigeria, in West Africa, is the world's 8th largest petroleum exporter, the world capital of child trafficking (UN report, 2004) and the centre of a huge criminal web.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PRESENTLY I HAVE FIVE(5) TOP GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS OF NIGERIA WHO ARE LOOKING TOWARDS ACQUIRING RESIDENTIAL PROPERTIES IN THE COSTA RICA" , < cosopia200@yahoo.com > .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Nigeria is also involved in other sports such as basketball, cricket and track and field.[83] Boxing is also an important sport in Nigeria; Dick Tiger and Samuel Peter are both former World Champions.

Societal issues

.Despite its vast government revenue from the mining of petroleum, Nigeria is faced by a number of societal issues due primarily to a history of inefficiency in its governance.^ Al-riga road, Derra, Dubai, my teliphone number is 971504244136, but is not working for now due to the fact we are facing a windy atmostphere here.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Human rights

.Nigeria's human rights record remains poor and government officials at all levels continue to commit serious abuses.^ PRESENTLY I HAVE FIVE(5) TOP GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS OF NIGERIA WHO ARE LOOKING TOWARDS ACQUIRING RESIDENTIAL PROPERTIES IN THE COSTA RICA" , < cosopia200@yahoo.com > .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[84]
.According to the U.S. Department of State,[84] the most significant human rights problems are: extrajudicial killings and use of excessive force by security forces; impunity for abuses by security forces; arbitrary arrests; prolonged pretrial detention; judicial corruption and executive influence on the judiciary; rape, torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment of prisoners, detainees and suspects; harsh and life‑threatening prison and detention center conditions; human trafficking for the purpose of prostitution and forced labor; societal violence and vigilante killings; child labor, child abuse and child sexual exploitation; female genital mutilation (FGM); domestic violence; discrimination based on sex, ethnicity, region and religion; restrictions on freedom of assembly, movement, press, speech and religion; infringement of privacy rights; and the abridgement of the right of citizens to change the government.^ State Department Religious Freedom Report .
  • Joshua Project - Ethnic People Groups of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WORLD YOUTH ORGANIZATION FOR HUMAN WELFARE (WYOFHW), International Conference on Racism and Child Abuse, DISNEYLAND CONVENTION CENTER, ANAHEIM, (?
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under the Shari'a penal code that applies to Muslims in twelve northern states, offenses such as alcohol consumption, homosexuality, infidelity and theft carry harsh sentences, including amputation, lashing, stoning and long prison terms.^ The Bureau shall establish such offices in each state of the Federation as it may require for the discharge of its functions under this Constitution.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Any amount standing to the credit of the States in the Federation Account shall be distributed among the States on such terms and in such manner as may be prescribed by the National Assembly.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The amount standing to the credit of Local Government Councils of a State shall be distributed among the Local Government Councils of that State on such terms and in such manner as may be prescribed by the House of Assembly of the State.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

[85]

Strife and sectarian violence

Because of its multitude of diverse, sometimes competing ethno-linguistic groups, Nigeria prior to independence has been faced with sectarian tensions and violence. .This is particularly a major issue in the oil-producing Niger Delta region, where both state and civilian forces employ varying methods of coercion in attempts gain control over regional petroleum resources.^ Rivers state, Ogba-Egbema-Ndoni LGA, north Niger Delta.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rivers state, Opobo-Nkoro LGA, Niger Delta, Nkoro town.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rivers state, Eleme LGA. Classification : Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, West More information.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some of the ethnic groups like the Ogoni, have experienced severe environmental degradation due to petroleum extraction.
Since the end of the civil war in 1970, some ethnic violence has persisted. There has subsequently been a period of relative harmony since the Federal Government introduced tough new measures against religious violence in all affected parts of the country.
.In 2002, organizers of the Miss World Pageant were forced to move the pageant from the Nigerian capital, Abuja, to London in the wake of violent protests in the Northern part of the country that left more than 100 people dead and over 500 injured.^ More Than Gold - Part 3 .

^ More Than Gold - Part 4 .

^ More Than Gold - Part 2 .

The rioting erupted after Muslims in the country reacted in anger to comments made by a newspaper reporter. Rioters in Kaduna killed an estimated 105 men, women, and children with a further 521 injured taken to hospital.

Health issues

.Nigeria has been reorganizing its health system since the Bamako Initiative of 1987 formally promoted community-based methods of increasing accessibility of drugs and health care services to the population, in part by implementing user fees.^ KRISTAL .L. MOORE C.G.B.B. HEALTH CARE, PO BOX 6019, CANADIAN BASE, CAMEROON COMMISSION, dr.kristalmoore@yahoo.ca .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[86] The new strategy dramatically increased accessibility through community-based healthcare reform, resulting in more efficient and equitable provision of services. A comprehensive approach strategy was extended to all areas of health care, with subsequent improvement in the health care indicators and improvement in health care efficiency and cost.[87]
.The Nigerian health care system is continuously faced with a shortage of doctors known as 'brain drain' due to the fact that many highly skilled Nigerian doctors emigrate to North America and Europe.^ Al-riga road, Derra, Dubai, my teliphone number is 971504244136, but is not working for now due to the fact we are facing a windy atmostphere here.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1995, It was estimated that 21,000 Nigerian doctors were practicing in the United States alone, which about the same as the number of doctors working in the Nigerian public service.^ Sincere Regards, (US Company) what do you mean from my region?are you talking about united states or what?
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Retaining these expensively trained professionals has been identified as one of the goals of the government.[88]

Education

Children at school in Ile-Ife, Nigeria
.Nigeria provides free, government-supported education, but attendance is not compulsory at any level, and certain groups, such as nomads and the handicapped, are under-served.^ Government shall direct its policy towards ensuring that there are equal and adequate educational opportunities at all levels.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Provided that where functions have been transferred under this Constitution from the Government of the Federation to the States and from the States to local government councils the appropriations in respect of such functions shall also be transferred to the States and the local government councils, as the case may require.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The system of local government by democratically elected local government councils is under this Constitution guaranteed; and accordingly, the Government of every State shall, subject to section 8 of this Constitution, ensure their existence under a Law which provides for the establishment, structure, composition, finance and functions of such councils.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

The education system consists of six years of primary school, three years of junior secondary school, three years of senior secondary school, and four years of university education leading to a bachelor’s degree. The rate of secondary school attendance is 32 percent for males and 27 percent for females. .In 2004 the Nigerian National Planning Commission described the country’s education system as “dysfunctional.” Reasons for this characterization included decaying institutions and ill-prepared graduates.^ Independent National Electoral Commission (including the appointment of members of that Commission); .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Independent National Electoral commission, shall in every year prepare and submit to the National Assembly a report on the accounts and balance sheet of every political party.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ National Population Commission (including the appointment of members of that Commission); and .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

[89]

Happiness survey

In 2003, Nigerians were reported to be the happiest people in a scientific survey carried out in 65 nations in 1999–2001.[90] The research was reported by one of the world's top science magazines, New Scientist, and was picked up by a number of news outlets. .See Nigeria tops happiness survey. The report considered that the country's family life and culture were more important than its problems and material wealth in determining happiness.^ A decision of a court consisting of more than one Judge shall be determined by the opinion of the majority of its members.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

Crime

.Nigeria is infamous for a crime dubbed 419, a type of advance fee fraud (named after Section 419 of the Nigerian Penal Code) along with the "Nigerian scam", a form of confidence trick practiced by individuals and criminal syndicates.^ The inclusion of a cantv.net address is a strong indicator of a Nigerian 419 fraud attempt.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ANTI NIGERIA SCAMS REFUND FORM, Internet Anti Fraud Department, 12 Alan Street Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria investigation.department@scamswatch.org , scamsrefund1@gmail.com .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Could there be any relationship between this august financial institution and the advance fee fraud criminals?
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The confidence trickster persuades the target to advance relatively small sums of money (the advance fee) in the hope of realizing a much larger gain (usually touted as millions).[91] .In 2003, the Nigerian Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (or EFCC) was created to combat this and other forms of organized financial crime.^ ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRIME COMMISSION (EFCC) revdanielparker@efccstaffmails.com .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are also pretending to represent the Nigerian ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRIME COMMISSION (with a Yahoo address!
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SVEN MODEL , IGBO1 FUNDS RECOVERY AGENCY, ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRIMES COMMISSION (EFCC) < svenmodel@yahoo.co.jp > .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[92] It has succeeded in bringing several "419" crime bosses to justice and in some cases has been able to return the stolen money to victims.[93]

Media representation

Documentary

See also

References

  1. ^ Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (.PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Nigeria". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=694&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=83&pr.y=11. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  3. ^ "Human Development Report 2009. Human development index trends: Table G". The United Nations. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-31. 
  4. ^ McIntosh, Susan Keech, Current directions in west African prehistory. Palo Alto, California: Annual Reviews Inc., 1981. 215–258 p.: ill.
  5. ^ "IMF Survey: Nigeria Needs Sustained Reforms to Build on Success". Imf.org. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/2008/CAR021508A.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  6. ^ Aminu, Ayodele. "allAfrica.com: Africa: IMF Forecasts 9 Percent Growth for Nigeria (Page 1 of 1)". Allafrica.com. http://allafrica.com/stories/200804140655.html. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  7. ^ Godwin, Atser. "The Punch: IMF predicts 9% GDP growth rate for Nigeria". Punchng.com. http://www.punchng.com/Articl.aspx?theartic=Art20080229153046. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  8. ^ ": Welcome to Independent Newspapers Limited - A voice of your own". Independentngonline.com. http://www.independentngonline.com/news/head/article08. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  9. ^ Shaw, Thurstan, Nigeria: Its Archaeology and early history. Retrieved February 22, 2007.
  10. ^ "artsmia.org : viewer". Artsmia.org. http://www.artsmia.org/viewer/detail.php?id=5368&i=20&v=12&dept=8&op=1449. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  11. ^ Slavery. Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Black History.
  12. ^ The Slave Trade. Source: U.S. Library of Congress.
  13. ^ Uzukwu, E. Elochukwu (1997). Worship as Body Language. Liturgical Press. p. 93. ISBN 0814661513. http://books.google.com/books?id=9hhmzVrYPHAC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0#PPA93,M1. 
  14. ^ Traduite du Flamand (Amsterdam,1686; 1st ed., 1668), between pp. 320 and 321. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-30841).
  15. ^ The end of slavery, BBC World Service | The Story of Africa.
  16. ^ Udofia, Nigerian Political Parties: Their Role in Modernizing the political System, 1920-1966, Journal of Black Studies, June 1981. Retrieved February 22, 2007, pp. 437–447.
  17. ^ "Background Paper on Nigeria and Biafra, Declassified Documents reference System.
  18. ^ Reopening Nigeria's civil war wounds. BBC News. May 30, 2007.
  19. ^ Watts Michael, State, Oil and Agriculture in Nigeria, Berkeley, 1987. Retrieved February 22, 2007.
  20. ^ Nigeria, Military Faces Daunting Challenges, AP Press International, March 3, 1984. Retrieved February 22, 2007.
  21. ^ Nigeria stays calms as leader toppled in bloodless coup, The Globe and Mail, August 28, 1985. Retrieved February 22, 2007.
  22. ^ Michael Holman, Nigeria, Politics; Religious Differences Intensify, Financial Times, February 24, 1986.
  23. ^ Bilski Andrew, "Broken Promises" Maclean, September 6, 1993.
  24. ^ Diamond, Larry, Kirk-Greene Anthony, Oyeleye Oyediran, Transition without End: Nigerian Politics and Civil Society Under Babangida.
  25. ^ "Nigerian Lawyer: Abacha accounts apparently in Switzerland, Luxembourg, France, and Germany", AP press, January 10, 2000.
  26. ^ "Final Report" (PDF). EU Election Observation Mission Nigeria 2007. http://www.eueom-ng.org/Files/final_report.pdf. Retrieved 2008-01-24. 
  27. ^ Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi, who served briefly as Nigeria's second president, devoted his government to combating this phenomenon with Decree 33, which banned 81 political parties and 26 tribal and cultural organizations in the name of national unity. See Osaghae, The Crippled Giant: Nigeria Since Independence, Indiana University Press, 1998, p. 57. ISBN 0-253-21197-2.
  28. ^ See, for instance, Rashid, Khadijat K. "Ethnicity and Sub-Nationalism in Nigeria: Movement for a Mid-West State/Ethnic Politics in Kenya and Nigeria/Federalism and Ethnic Conflict in Nigeria", in African Studies Review, September, 2003.
  29. ^ Ibid. See also, Lancia, Nicole. "Ethnic Politics in Nigeria: The Realities of Regionalism" in Capitol Scholar.
  30. ^ McGreal, Chris. "Ruling party named winner in disputed Nigerian election | World news | The Guardian". Guardian.co.uk. http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,2064068,00.html. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  31. ^ Jibrin Ibrahim, Legislation and the Electoral Process: The Third Term Agenda and the Future of Nigerian Democracy. Paper for Centre for Democracy and Development (CDD) Nigeria Roundtable, 2006.
  32. ^ Sharia Law in the Northern States of Nigeria: To Implement or Not to Implement, the Constitutionality is the Question.
  33. ^ "Collins Edomaruse, how Obasanjo cut UK, US to size", by Andrew Young, This Day (Nigeria) -, July 20, 2006.
  34. ^ Golda. Elinor Burkett, p. 202.
  35. ^ See, e.g., the African Union website, at http://www.africa-union.org/root/au/Conferences/Past/2006/November/SummitASA/summit.htm
  36. ^ Shaw Timothy, The State of Nigeria: Oil Prices Power Bases and Foreign Policy, Canadian Journal of African Studies, Vol 18, no 2, 1984.
  37. ^ "Egbe Omo Yoruba, National Association Of Yoruba descendants in North America", yorubanation.org, May 19, 2007.
  38. ^ Ed O'Loughlin, Nigerians outshine the British brass, The Independent (London), March 11, 1998.
  39. ^ Rank Order - Area.
  40. ^ CIA World Factbook. Note that coastlines, and borders based on rivers or natural features, are fractals, the length of which is imprecise and depends on the measurement convention adopted.
  41. ^ a b c "Regions Used to Interpret the Complexity of Nigeria". Geographical Alliance of Iowa. University of Northern Iowa. http://www.uni.edu/gai/Nigeria/Background/Standard5.html. Retrieved 2007-07-19. 
  42. ^ a b "Nigeria". Encarta. Microsoft Corporation. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761557915/Nigeria.html. Retrieved 2007-07-19. 
  43. ^ a b c "The Human and Physical Characteristics of Nigeria". Geographical Alliance of Iowa. University of Northern Iowa. http://www.uni.edu/gai/Nigeria/Background/Standard4.html. Retrieved 2007-08-13. 
  44. ^ D. N. Ogbonna, I. K. E. Ekweozor, F. U. Igwe (2002). "Waste Management: A Tool for Environmental Protection in Nigeria." A Journal of the Human Environment, 31, (1) (February 2002).
  45. ^ Fields, Scott (2005). "Continental Divide: Why Africa’s Climate Change Burden Is Greater". Environmental Health Perspectives 113 (8), August 2005. Retrieved May 15, 2007.
  46. ^ a b Onuah, Felix (29 December 2006). "Nigeria gives census result, avoids risky details". Reuters. http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L29819278.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-23. 
  47. ^ "Nigeria (07/08)". State.gov. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2836.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  48. ^ Economist.com | Country Briefings: Nigeria at www.economist.com.
  49. ^ Williams, Lizzie (2008). accessdate=2008-12-26 Nigeria: The Bradt Travel Guide. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 26. ISBN 1-841-62239-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=fwuQ71ZbaOcC&pg=PA26 accessdate=2008-12-26. 
  50. ^ DeRouen, Karl R.; Paul Bellamy (2008). International Security and the United States: An Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 546. ISBN 0-275-99253-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=tSLeN4U_C6kC&pg=PA546. Retrieved 2008-12-26. 
  51. ^ Lewis, Peter (2007). Growing Apart: Oil, Politics, and Economic Change in Indonesia and Nigeria. University of Michigan Press. p. 168. ISBN 0-472-06980-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=T4-rlVeb1n0C&pg=PA168. Retrieved 2008-12-26. 
  52. ^ The New York Times Guide to Essential Knowledge: A Desk Reference for the Curious Mind. Macmillan. 2007. p. 1093. ISBN 0-312-37659-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=-BIGv9vIoqcC&pg=PA1093. Retrieved 2008-12-26. 
  53. ^ Ake, Claude (1996). Democracy and Development in Africa. Brookings Institution Press. p. 48. ISBN 0-815-70220-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=bs5rTH7GClgC&pg=PA48. Retrieved 2008-12-26. 
  54. ^ Levy, Patricia (2004). Nigeria. Marshall Cavendish. p. 14. ISBN 0-761-41703-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=Q_lCFcabj0MC&pg=PA14. Retrieved 2008-12-26. 
  55. ^ "WORLD POPULATION TO INCREASE BY 2.6 BILLION OVER NEXT 45 YEARS, WITH ALL GROWTH OCCURRING IN LESS DEVELOPED REGIONS". Un.org. http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2005/pop918.doc.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  56. ^ "What do you think of Nigeria?". BBC. 2006-06-16. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/5072244.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 
  57. ^ a b c United States Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. Country Profile-Nigeria (2006).
  58. ^ Country Profile – Nigeria. Cdc.gov.
  59. ^ "Nigerian state thwarts polio push". BBC News. March 22, 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3556777.stm. Retrieved 2006-09-07. 
  60. ^ Lagos, Nigeria facts - National Geographic.
  61. ^ Lagos, the mega-city of slums, irinnews.org, September 5, 2006.
  62. ^ Geographica: The complete Atlas of the world, "Nigeria", (Random House, 2002).
  63. ^ Lewis, Peter (2007). Growing Apart: Oil, Politics, and Economic Change in Indonesia and Nigeria. University of Michigan Press. p. 132. ISBN 0-472-06980-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=T4-rlVeb1n0C&pg=PA132. Retrieved 2008-11-23. 
  64. ^ Suberu, Rotimi T. (2001). Federalism and Ethnic Conflict in Nigeria. US Institute of Peace Press. p. 154. ISBN 1-929-22328-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=WKeUMmDlPkEC&pg=PA154. Retrieved 2008-12-18. 
  65. ^ China and Africa: Stronger Economic Ties Mean More Migration, By Malia Politzer, Migration Information Source, August 2008.
  66. ^ Why white Zimbabwean farmers plan to stay in Nigeria, By Sarah Simpson, csmonitor.com, May 2, 2008.
  67. ^ Toyin Falola; The History of Nigeria, Greenwood Press, 1999. pp. 41,47.
  68. ^ Abiola Dosumu Elegbede-Fernandez, Lagos A Legacy of Honour. Spectrum Books, 1992. pp. 19,27.
  69. ^ Adegbija, Efurosibina E. (2003). Multilingualism: A Nigerian Case Study. Last paragraph: Africa World Press. p. 55. ISBN 1-592-21173-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=auI_WuBrWncC&pg=PA55. Retrieved 2008-12-26. 
  70. ^ The Standard on Chinua Achebe: "That Things Fall Apart, published in 1958, would sell about 11 million copies in about 45 languages?" (14 March 2008)
  71. ^ Adams, S. Black President: The Art and Legacy of Fela Anikulapo-Kuti: New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York, New York; This Is Lagos: Yabis Night, Music and Fela: Skoto Gallery, New York, New York [Exhibit]. African Arts v. 37 no. 1 (Spring 2004 Country .
  72. ^ "AP/CNN: MTV launches first-ever African music award show". CNN.com. 2008-11-22. http://www.cnn.com/2008/SHOWBIZ/Music/11/22/MTV.Africa.ap/index.html. Retrieved 2008-11-26. 
  73. ^ Osita Agbu; Ethnic Militias and the Threat to Democracy in Post-Transition Nigeria, Nordic African Institute, 2004, p. 6.
  74. ^ a b International Religious Freedom Report 2009 - Nigeria U.S. Department of State.
  75. ^ Religious Demographic Profile - Nigeria Pew Forum (Pew Research Center). Retrieved on 2010-01-04.
  76. ^ Owobi Angrew, Tiptoeing Through A Constitutional Minefield: The Great Sharia Controversy in Nigeria, Journal Of African law, Vol 48, No 2, 2002.
  77. ^ "Kano Seeks Supremacy of Sharia Over Constitution", wwrn.org, Accessed May 19, 2007.
  78. ^ "Adherents by Location", Adherents.com, Accessed May 19, 2007.
  79. ^ "In African, Islam and Christianity are growing - and blending", csmonitor.com, Accessed May 19, 2007.
  80. ^ "Grail Movement - Nigeria", grailmovementnigeria.org, Accessed May 19, 2007.
  81. ^ "Day Hare Krishna Came to Town", wwrn.org, Accessed May 19, 2007.
  82. ^ H.O. Anthonio & M. Isoun: "Nigerian Cookbook". Macmillan, Lagos, 1982.
  83. ^ AFRICABASKET, "Nigerian Basketball", Africabasket.com, Accessed April 29, 2007.
  84. ^ a b "2008 Human Rights Report: Nigeria". 2008 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. United States, Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2009-02-25. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2008/af/119018.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  85. ^ "Sub Saharan Africa, Nigeria". Travel advice by country. United Kingdom, Foreign & Commonwealth Office. 2009-03-20. http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/travelling-and-living-overseas/travel-advice-by-country/sub-saharan-africa/nigeria?ta=lawsCustoms&pg=3. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  86. ^ "User fees for health: a background". http://www.eldis.org/healthsystems/userfees/background.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-28. 
  87. ^ "Effect of the Bamako-Initiative drug revolving fund on availability and rational use of essential drugs in primary health care facilities in south-east Nigeria". http://heapol.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/17/4/378. Retrieved 2006-12-28. 
  88. ^ Mike Chinedu Anekwe: "Brain Drain: The Nigerian Experience." Niger Delta Congress website accessed April 8, 2007.
  89. ^ Nigeria country profile. Library of Congress Federal Research Division (June 2006). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  90. ^ BBC: Nigeria tops happiness survey, Thursday, October 2, 2003. Website accessed March 26, 2007.
  91. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20050115001333/http://www.haverford.edu/pols/faculty/glickman/Articles/CJAS_Text_final_1-35.pdf
  92. ^ http://www.efccnigeria.org
  93. ^ "Economic and Financial Crimes Commission – EFCC". Efccnigeria.org. http://www.efccnigeria.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=686&Itemid=2. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 

External links

Government
General information
News media
Tourism


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Africa : West Africa : Nigeria
noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:ni-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Abuja
Government Republic transitioning from military to civilian rule
Currency Naira ₦ (NGN)
Area total: 923,768 km2
water: 13,000 km2
land: 910,768 km2
Population 131,859,731 (July 2006 est.)
Language English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani
Religion Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
Electricity 230V/50Hz (UK plug)
Calling Code +234
Internet TLD .ng
Time Zone UTC+1
.Nigeria [1] is a country in equatorial West Africa.^ The eight countries being evaluated are Algeria, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa and Uganda .

^ KING STREET TINUBU, LAGOS ISLAND, NIGERIA. OTISALES COMMERCAIL CO LTD, Ukiwo Otisi, Benin,West Africa, ukiwo24@yahoo.com .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consulate General (Johannesburg, South Africa) Has a country profile, investor information, info on visas to work in Nigeria, etc.

It is the continent's most populous nation. .It has a southern coastline on the Gulf of Guinea, and has Benin to the west, Cameroon to the southeast, Chad to the northeast, and Niger to the north.^ Bulletin Régional de suivi des échanges transfrontaliers Academic bulletin, in French, on trade, economic relations between Benin, Cameroun, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria .

^ Covers Nigeria, Gabon, Angola, Congo-Brazzaville, Equatorial Guinea, Chad, Cameroon.

It is the largest oil producer and second largest economy in Africa.
  • Kainji National Park
  • Yankari National Park
  • Obudu Cattle Ranch
Map of Nigeria
Map of Nigeria

Climate

Varies; equatorial in the south, tropical in the center, arid in the north. Natural hazards include periodic droughts and flooding. Tornadoes and hurricanes are rare because they typically are weak at this stage and travel west of the Atlantic.

Terrain

.Southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in the southeast, plains in the north.^ Adamawa state, Ganye LGA; Tiba Plateau, between Garba Sbege and Jada, north of Shebshi Mountains.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Classification : Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, North-Central More information.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Niger river enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea.^ He is said to have proclaimed that the oil reservoirs in the Niger-Delta are fed by underground tributaries with sources in North Africa, and that if Northern Nigerians were greedy that they could stanch this flow since the tributaries run through the Northern part Nigeria as they course southward to fill the reservoirs in the Niger-Delta.

^ Rivers state, Ogba-Egbema-Ndoni LGA, north Niger Delta.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South and west of Niger River, where Nigeria, Niger, and Benin meet, south to where a big tributary joins Niger River from the east, along Niger River south to the delta.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Highest point 
Chappal Waddi 2,419 m.

History

Nigeria is a former British colony and a member of the British Commonwealth.
Independence 
1 October 1960 (from Great Britain)
National holiday 
Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
.On 12 December 1991, the capital was officially transferred from Lagos to Abuja; most federal government offices have now made the move to Abuja.^ Administration of the Federal Capital territory, Abuja.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Minister of Federal Capital territory, Abuja.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A person shall not be qualified to hold the office of a Chief Judge or a Judge of the High Court of the Federation Capital Territory, Abuja unless he is qualified to practice as a legal practitioner in Nigeria and has been so qualified for a period of not less than ten years.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in May 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed.^ Constitution 1999 Part of the new constitution.

^ Citing the 1999 constitution as its locus, the PDP National Executive Committee made the demand of Obasanjo yesterday to appoint a new VP to replace Atiku.

^ Expensive as it may be, replacing these compromised 16 legislators by new ones will afford the constitution of a panel to hear the case against the governor from a full house of 24 members.

The president faces the daunting task of rebuilding a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. .In addition, the Yar'adua administration must defuse longstanding ethnic and religious tensions, if it is to build a sound foundation for economic growth and political stability.^ Over the past 16 years we have emerged from a difficult history to build a country that has political stability, economic stability, and social cohesion.

^ The symbolism of this is that Yar’Adua is in cahoots with the various criminal elements that continue to bog down the Nigerian political landscape.

^ Chile has had its own experience—combining political stability, sound macroeconomic policies, and social cohesion—and we believe you cannot have one without considering the other.

Rainy day at Murtala Muhammed International Airport, Lagos
Rainy day at Murtala Muhammed International Airport, Lagos
Most travellers will need a visa, this can be obtained at any of the Nigerian embassies worldwide.
  • International airports in Lagos, Abuja, Kano, and Port Harcourt.
.Arik and Bellview Airlines make local and international flights (to other African countries and London), Virgin Nigeria and Aero to other African countries.^ The Institute is "an independent South African based non- profit organisation with the purpose of promoting international co-operation between South Africa and the countries of the developing South and the developed North."

^ Nigeria Human Rights Page - Lacabe Reports on the current situation in Nigeria and other countries.

^ Features the work of other African cartoonists (Ghana, Tanzania, Nigeria).

.Virgin Nigeria has ceased operations to the United Kingdom and South Africa.^ The Institute is "an independent South African based non- profit organisation with the purpose of promoting international co-operation between South Africa and the countries of the developing South and the developed North."

^ [KF] http://www.timbuktuchronicles.blogspot.com/ Transition to Democracy in Nigeria: How Can South Africa Assist?

^ "Nigeria: challenges on the road to democracy and economic recovery" (1999), "South Africa and Nigeria: a strategic partnership" (1999), "South Africa and Nigeria: Hegemose or Strategic Partners?"

Arik Air now plies these routes quite successfully.
  • Several European airlines fly to Nigeria: British Airways (London Heathrow - Abuja, Lagos), Virgin Atlantic (London Heathrow - Lagos), KLM (Amsterdam - Abuja, Lagos, Kano), Air France (Paris-Charles de Gaulle - Lagos), Alitalia (Milan-Malpensa - Abuja, Lagos), Turkish Airline (Istanbul - Lagos), Lufthansa (Frankfurt - Abuja, Lagos), Iberia Airlines (Madrid - Lagos)
  • US Based Delta Airlines operates 5X per week non-stop service from Atlanta to Lagos using a Boeing 777-200 aircraft since 1 July 2009.
.On 6/09/2009 Delta started direct service from New York to Abuja three times (Wednesday, Thursday, and Saturday) a week.^ Article in the New York Times , September 20, 1999, page A4 Super Eagles Site of Nigeria's national soccer team.

^ Special Advertising Supplement to the New York Times , May 6, 2003, Part 1 Investment information, First Bank of Nigeria, etc.

^ Time Difference: GMT - 4 hours & 1 hour ahead of New York .

Delta uses the narrow, single-aisle Boeing 757-200 to fly from New York to Abuja. Hopefully Delta will use a widebody soon. This flight makes a stop in Dakar and then continues on to Abuja. The nonstop New York to Lagos service has yet to materialize.
  • Other inter-continental airlines fly to Lagos. They include: China Southern Airlines (Beijing, Dubai), Emirates (Dubai), Middle East Airlines (Beirut), Qatar Airways (Doha).
  • There are African companies: South African Airlines from Johannesburg, Ethiopian Airlines from Addis Abbeba, Kenya Airways from Nairobi, Afriqya from Tripoli, Hewa Bora from Kinshasa.
  • Currently Port Harcourt international is closed for rehabilitation works.
  • There are also airports in most states of the federation and local air travel is widespread.
  • Most of the trains in Nigeria are for transporting cargo.
  • The new president, Yar'adua, however, says that he plans to invest and aggressively pursue a nationwide train network which should be ready by 2011.
  • At the moment it is not advisable to travel on train especially if you are foreign national.

By bus

.Getting around is relatively easy, except that there could be delays due to traffic jams within most major cities.^ But pls be advised that upon receiving the fax confirmation from there, you will have to ship the items so as not to Delay the items for shipment due to the holidays.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are multitudes of coaches and buses that will take you to any part of Nigeria you wish (ABC Transport Services is well known for its services among others).^ State, except as may be required for the due discharge of my duties as Governor; and that I will devote myself to the service and well-being of the people of Nigeria.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There shall be 768 Local Government Areas in Nigeria as shown in the second column of Part I of the First Schedule to this Constitution and six area councils as shown in Part II of that Schedule.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There shall be for the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, a Judicial Service Committee of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, the composition and functions of which shall be as provided in Part III of the Third Schedule to this Constitution.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

Lagos state government also operates a transit system (BRT buses) which serves the Lagos metropolis.

By boat

Transport by boat isn't widespread unless you venture into the riverine areas of Nigeria.

Get around

.It would be best to travel around in your own car or a hired one but there are various other modes of transport.^ Chile has had its own experience—combining political stability, sound macroeconomic policies, and social cohesion—and we believe you cannot have one without considering the other.

The road systems in Nigeria are relatively poor compared with North American and European countries. The "okada" (motorcycle) is not for the faint-hearted (no helmets) and should only be used for short distance journeys. "Okadas" will get you to where you want to go quickly and you will get there in one piece. In Lagos, there are lots of buses and taxis. There are two main types of buses, the molue and the danfo. .Most smaller cities have more taxis than buses, and they are quite affordable.^ Nigerian police arrested more than 30 people and "closed down what they described as torture centres belonging to the group known as the Bakassi Boys....

For travelling from one city to another, you go to the "motor park", find the taxi that's going to your destination, and wait until it "fills up". The price is fixed, you don't have to negotiate. Some drivers may have a risky driving style however.

By car

Lots of street sellers surround the car when you get to crossroads. You shouldn't have a problem if you keep the windows and doors locked however. Armed ambushes are rare since the security is getting tighter.
  • Lagos: Bar Beach, Badagary Beach, Tarkwa bay Beach
  • Lekki: Lekki Beach, Eleko Beach
Languages 
English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, Efik, Ejagham, Urhobo, Edo [Bini]
  • Nigeria's currency is the naira. On January 22, 2009, there were 150.00 naira to the US dollar.
.It is advised to cash all your naira back into another currency at the airport before you leave Nigeria.^ I will like to make an inquiry on some of your products but firstly i will like to know, if you can be able to ship to nigeria,if you can i will like you to email me asap so that we can proceed with the transaction and also i will like you to include your website address.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You then need to cut/copy all the text and paste it into your forwarding email."
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the style: "i want you to no that i cant just pay all the money for your travel like that you too will have to pay out of the money and as soon as you are here in uk i will give you back the money you pay out of your travel for me to trust you so if is okay by you contact the agency but if is not okay by you and you dont have any money to pay out of your travel to uk dont contact the agency okay i want you to no that i have pay all the money before but the nanny get away with my money so that why you too will have to pay out of it for trust in you and me I will like to know ....".
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The rate is irrelevant, as the naira is not that much outside Nigeria. .Naira bills/coins may be of interest to currency collectors, but other than that, they will be nothing more than colorful souvenirs of your trip.^ Water from such sources as may be declared by the National Assembly to be sources affecting more than one state .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nigerian police arrested more than 30 people and "closed down what they described as torture centres belonging to the group known as the Bakassi Boys....

^ A House of Assembly may make Laws for the State with respect to statistics and on any matter other than that referred to in paragraph 23 .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.Be warned that some of the dollar bills you'll get from street vendors will likely be counterfeit, so stick with established banks for your currency exchange needs.^ Banks, banking, bills of exchange and promissory notes.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Includes a Quicktime movie clip for which you'll need a Quicktime viewer.

^ I will like to make an inquiry on some of your products but firstly i will like to know, if you can be able to ship to nigeria,if you can i will like you to email me asap so that we can proceed with the transaction and also i will like you to include your website address.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If you have a VISA card, you can withdraw money from Standard Chartered Bank ATM Machine's in Lagos - Aromire St., off Adeniyi Jones, Ikeja & Ajose Adeogun St. in Victoria Island Branch, Abuja and Port Harcourt (in Naira) and ATM Machines of some other banks with "Visa" stickers on them. This will save you a lot of stress carrying large sums of money and it is secured.
MasterCard / Maestro users can also withdraw Money from ATMs at several branches of Zenith Bank. Some ATM machines of Ecobank, First Bank and Intercontinental Bank also allow for MasterCard / Maestro cards. Look for the red ATM sign outside, or ask the on-site security officer at any branch. Also look for Ecobank, they have a branch within the premises of the Murtala Muhammed International Airport.
.It is advisable that you know where to buy things well in advance of your going out.^ I will like to make an inquiry on some of your products but firstly i will like to know, if you can be able to ship to nigeria,if you can i will like you to email me asap so that we can proceed with the transaction and also i will like you to include your website address.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I will like you to know that I am intrested in renting your room for 3months" ednaroll_2000@yahoo.com .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A good time to point out that you should never send money in that way, unless you know the recipient personally.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This can save you exposure to hoodlums who can attack based on your lack of knowledge of places. .Nigerian Yellow Pages [3] provides list of businesses, contact addresses and phone numbers.^ Nigeria First - Senate http://www.nigeriafirst.org/the_senators.html Nigeria Gallery A very large Nigerian yellow pages / business directory .

^ If this is acceptable, please provide the ship to address here in the U.S. For express shipping I will also require a phone number that the person at the destination can be reached (not a voice mail).
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For each company provides, if available, Nature of Business, Head Office Address, Telephone, Fax, Telex, Email, Website, Date of Incorporation, Date Listed on the Lagos Stock Exchange, Auditors, and a Five-Year Financial Summary.

The best thing to do is to locate the business, call their representative, who can give you detailed information on how to locate them.

Bargaining

.On the market, you are supposed to haggle for your goods (a notable exception is bread: its price is fixed).^ If you accept an order, process the credit card and send goods, the items will appear in the markets of Lagos or Accra at around the same time that the card company calls back the transaction amount from your account.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As a general rule, the real price is about half the price that was first asked. The seller may exaggerate the price when he or she thinks that you are a rich tourist ignorant of the real price. After agreeing on a price, don't walk away without buying, this is considered very rude.

Eat

There are many types of traditional cuisine to enjoy. For example: Okra soup, plantain (fried, boiled, roasted), pepper soup, amala, eba, efo, pounded yam (iyan - Yoruba for "pounded yam"), jollof rice, ground nut soup, ogbono soup, isi ewu (goat's head stew), egusi soup, suya (kebab), moi moi, ewedu, edikangikong, ground-rice, puff-puff, chin chin, ikokore, owerri soup (ofe owerri), which is the most expensive African soup in Nigeria. .Not to forget 404 pepper soup - it will make you act like Oliver Twist.^ The criminals are likely to make you an offer!
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I will like to make an inquiry on some of your products but firstly i will like to know, if you can be able to ship to nigeria,if you can i will like you to email me asap so that we can proceed with the transaction and also i will like you to include your website address.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

You must realise that 404 means "dog meat".
  • Nigeria is one of the places where Guinness is brewed outside of Ireland. And they do it pretty well, although it's not the same product. .The Guinness-brand (with logo and copyrights where they should be) is also used to brew both an alcohol-free malt version of the black stuff, and an extra strong (about 7.5%) version of Guinness in Kenya (in the case of the latter) and Tanzania (in the case of the former).
  • Beer is actually big business in Nigeria, although the move toward evangelism and islamic law is making its mark.^ Full text articles on Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, with photographs, statistics.

    ^ They used to fax but they have now discovered e-mail and can reach more potential marks.
    • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If he really wants to prevent them from "tarnishing Nigeria's image" he should attend to them when they return home on their periodic visits.
    • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Lagos is relatively unaffected due to its cosmopolitan nature. .Heineken, Star, Harp, Gulder and other international beers are available.
  • Malt beverages (non alcoholic) are very common in Nigeria.
  • The other cheap drink of choice is gin, which is locally made.^ Constitution, he has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of a country other than Nigeria or, except in such cases as may be prescribed by the National Assembly, he has made a declaration of allegiance to such other country; or .
    • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Constitution, he has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of a country other than Nigeria or, except in such cases as may be prescribed by the National Assembly, has made a declaration of allegiance to such a country; .
    • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

    Some locals will swear to it making their step uncle's dog blind, though, so be careful.
  • Never drink the water sold in plastic bags. It probably hasn't been boiled, and may carry some nasty diseases. The bottled water and other soft drinks are safe.
Other drinks to consider include: palm wine, wine, zobo (red soft drink, is a tea of dried roselle flowers), kunun, kai kai (also called ogogoro).
.The northern states have implemented sharia (islamic) law, which means that alcohol is prohibited.^ High Court, the Sharia court of Appeal, the Customary Court of Appeal; or other courts established for a State by this Constitution or by a Law of a House of Assembly; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Has the full text of the 5 volumes of Sharia Implementation in Northern Nigeria 1999-2006: A Sourcebook .

^ For the purpose of exercising any jurisdiction conferred upon it this Constitution or any law, a sharia Court of Appeal of a State shall be duly constituted if it consists of at least three kadis of that Court.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.Ironically, the only places where you can drink a beer in these states are the police staff bars and the army barracks, because these are institutions under federal law.^ The Bureau shall establish such offices in each state of the Federation as it may require for the discharge of its functions under this Constitution.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nothing in subsection (1) of this section shall invalidate any law by reason only that the law imposes restrictions with respect to the appointment of any person to any office under the State or as a member of the armed forces of the Federation or member of the Nigeria Police Forces or to an office in the service of a body, corporate established directly by any law in force in Nigeria.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Provided that where functions have been transferred under this Constitution from the Government of the Federation to the States and from the States to local government councils the appropriations in respect of such functions shall also be transferred to the States and the local government councils, as the case may require.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

Beer is available in Kano, in restaurants managed by foreign or christian people, Chinese restaurant, French cafe. For a real night out go to the Sabongari area of the old town. Plenty of bars around that stay open till very late. Many do decent food as well. Try the Prince Entertainment Centre. Sabongari is also the place to buy alcoholic drinks and there are plenty stores open late into the night. .Some hotels in Kano are "dry", however in Tahir Guest Palace the staff will be quite happy to buy you a few bottles of beer for in your room (all rooms have large fridges).^ I will like you to know that I am intrested in renting your room for 3months" ednaroll_2000@yahoo.com .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You then need to cut/copy all the text and paste it into your forwarding email."
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sleep

.Important notice. Almost all hotels in Nigeria require you to pay before you get your key.^ You will not normally see full headers when you read your mail but these can be important in investigating Internet fraud.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I will like to make an inquiry on some of your products but firstly i will like to know, if you can be able to ship to nigeria,if you can i will like you to email me asap so that we can proceed with the transaction and also i will like you to include your website address.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It appears she makes enquiries about renting a property, attempts to build a relationship with you on line and then requests your bank details for paying in the rent agreed.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This applies even to the Sheraton and the Hilton. .Typically you are requested to pay 125% of the room rate and you will be refunded when settling the bill at your departure.^ It appears she makes enquiries about renting a property, attempts to build a relationship with you on line and then requests your bank details for paying in the rent agreed.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I will like you to know that I am intrested in renting your room for 3months" ednaroll_2000@yahoo.com .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If you stay more than one night you need to keep the credit up.
  • The Nicon Hilton in Abuja is "5 star" and a top ranked hotel in Nigeria. .It's comparable to nice hotels in other developing countries, although well below the standard of European or North American four- or five-star hotels.^ The Institute is "an independent South African based non- profit organisation with the purpose of promoting international co-operation between South Africa and the countries of the developing South and the developed North."

    However, if you decide to visit the hotel bar, be warned that the single women who seem so interested in you are almost certainly "working." This is true of many hotels that cater to international clients.
  • In Port Harcourt, the Meridian is quite decent. .It's a tad bit expensive but your money's worth is guaranteed.
  • In Lagos, the Sheraton Hotel and the Kuramo Lodge on Victoria Island are ranked 4 star.^ Clara Johnson, Mr Demurin Oyekan, 19, Docey Street, victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria, Zip code: 23401.
    • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Gary William , Continental Bank Plc < paymentoffice@continentalcreditbank.info > , Plot 270 Herbert Macaulay Way, Victoria Island, Lagos Nigeria .
    • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Bailey & Dr Akin Davis, 65,water carrington road victoria island lagos state, Nigeria.23401.
    • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    You can also try the Eko Hotel & Suites adjacent to Kuramo Lodge. It's definitely a favourite for tourists and foreigners.
  • In Kano, you can have a aircond room in Tahir Guest Palace, Prince hotel, or one of many small hotels.

Learn

.There are lots of private and public primary (elementary) and secondary (high) schools.^ Has National School Census Data and indicators for Year 1999 to 2003 ( primary school enrollment by class, state, gender, secondary school statistics , teacher qualifications, etc.

^ Has National School Census Data and indicators (primary school enrollment by class, state, gender, secondary school statistics, teacher qualifications, etc.

.It is worth it to organize a trip to whatever institution of learning you are interested in as this would give you a personal perspective on what facilities are available in your school of interest.^ If you have given out personal details, you should tell your bank that your accounts may be subjected to theft attempts.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you would like us to ship the items U.S. destination, you can then forward using whatever service you like.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is a nationwide, standardized common entrance exam for students wishing to go into secondary schools, after they have completed their primary schooling.^ Has National School Census Data and indicators for Year 1999 to 2003 ( primary school enrollment by class, state, gender, secondary school statistics , teacher qualifications, etc.

^ Has National School Census Data and indicators (primary school enrollment by class, state, gender, secondary school statistics, teacher qualifications, etc.

.To gain admission into the universities (both public and private universities are in every state of the federation including the FCT), a prospective student has to sit for and successfully pass the UME(Universities Matriculation Examination) which is administered by JAMB(Joint Admission and Matriculation Board).^ Provided that where a person has been appointed from a public service of the Federation or a State, he shall be entitled to return to the public service of the Federation or of the State when the Governor ceases to hold office.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ State of the Federation into three Senatorial districts for purposes of elections to the Senate; and .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Provided that where a person has been appointed from a public service of the Federation or a State, he shall be entitled to return to the public service of the Federation or of the State when the President ceases to hold office.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

Also individual universities regularly screen prospective candidates to make sure they are up to par for university level work.

Work

Working in Nigeria can be a very positive experience. .Nigerian organizations tend to operate like small families, taking in newcomers with open arms and avoiding the coolness and sterility that often characterize the Western professional work environment.^ From the FAS Military Analysis Network, Washington, D.C. "FAS is the oldest organization dedicated to ending the worldwide arms race, achieving complete nuclear disarmament, and avoiding the use of nuclear weapons, and much of its work has been in nuclear arms control and disarmament."

^ [KF] http://www.yorku.ca/nhp/ Nigerian Information Technology Professionals in the Americas (NITPA) Events, conference, related organizations.

For instance, don't even think about coming into the office in the morning without greeting each of your colleagues. .Even if you don't, be sure that they will go out of their way to greet you and inquire about your well-being.^ They are sending out mail purporting to come from e-Bay and asking you to send money via Western Union .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It appears she makes enquiries about renting a property, attempts to build a relationship with you on line and then requests your bank details for paying in the rent agreed.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A good time to point out that you should never send money in that way, unless you know the recipient personally.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is hard to make generalizations about a country with 140 million inhabitants, but some Nigerians have a work ethic that would put most Westerners to shame. An eight-hour day (not including lunch) seems to be the norm, though it's not uncommon for people to stay late into the night and even come in for a few hours on weekends. .Depending on the organization, a foreigner may be able to avoid this, but one should be prepared to work beyond the standard 35-40 hr work week.^ A non-profit advocacy organization which works to "democratize foreign policy debates that determine the U.S. role in Africa."

.On the other hand, it's not unusual to arrive in an office during working hours and find staff members fast asleep on or under their desks, sitting around a TV in a staff lounge, or simply not there, without explanation.^ The powers conferred on the Commission under subsection (4) of this section may be exercised by it through any member of its staff or any person who is an auditor by profession, and who is not a member of a political party.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There shall be a Clerk to a House of Assembly and such other staff as may be prescribed by a Law enacted by the House of Assembly, and the method of appointment of the Clerk and other staff of the House shall be as prescribed by that Law.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Chairman and members of the Boards or other governing bodies and staff of statutory corporations and of companies in which the Federal or State Governments or local governments councils.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.The notion of "African time" applies very much to the work environment in Nigeria.^ Features the work of other African cartoonists (Ghana, Tanzania, Nigeria).

.Meetings are regularly held later than scheduled and often take longer than necessary.^ An election to the said office shall be held on a date not earlier than sixty days and not later than thirty days before the expiration of the term of office of the last holder of that office.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An election to the office of Governor of a State shall be held on a date not earlier than sixty days and not later than thirty days before the expiration of the term of office of the last holder of that office.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

Although Nigerians will unabashedly admit to their habitual tardiness, rarely does one see efforts to correct this behavior. .Because punctuality is not strictly enforced, there is no incentive to arrive at a meeting on time if one knows that his time will be wasted waiting for the other participants.^ The National Assembly may by law make provisions for the establishment of a Contingencies Fund for the Federation and for authorising the President, if satisfied that there has arisen an urgent and unforeseen need for expenditure for which no other provision exists, to make advances from the Fund to meet the need.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A House of Assembly may by Law make provisions for the establishment of a Contingencies Fund for the State and for authorising the Governor, if satisfied that there has arisen an urgent and unforeseen need for expenditure for which no other provision exists, to make advances from the Fund to meet that need.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There shall be a police force for Nigeria, which shall be known as the Nigeria Police Force, and subject to the provisions of this section no other police force shall be established for the Federation or any part thereof.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.The higher ones position, the later one may arrive at a meeting.^ A member of such a body shall be entitled to one vote, and a decision of the meeting may be taken and any act or thing may be done in the name of that body by a majority of the members present at the meeting.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A member of such a body shall be entitled to one vote and a decision of the meeting may be taken and any act or thing may be done in the name of that body by a majority of the members present at a meeting.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

On top of that, starting the meeting before the important people arrive is very rude. The phenomenon of African time is therefore a cyclical problem and one that is bound by a severe degree of inertia. .One should note, however, that when dealing with foreign organizations, Nigerians will often make some efforts to correct this behavior, for some Nigerians are aware that their conception of punctuality is not shared by all.^ This decree established NNPC, a public organization that would, on behalf of Government, adequately manage all government interests in the Nigerian Oil industry ."

.Those who are used to the strict North American conception of political correctness at the office may be shocked by the more liberal inter-sexual relations in the Nigerian workplace.^ Association of Nigerian Scholars for Dialogue "...founded by expatriate Nigerian scholars who are currently resident in North America.

^ The powers conferred on the Commission under subsection (4) of this section may be exercised by it through any member of its staff or any person who is an auditor by profession, and who is not a member of a political party.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ijaw_National_Congress/ Ijaw Resource Center News from Nigerian news sites, community events in the U.S., links to related sites (Ijaw American Caucus - Minnesota,etc) .

Mild sexual jokes are common in meetings and in the office in general, though usually good natured and harmless. Anyone working in the area of gender politics should also be prepared to suffer through tongue-in-cheek comments that one wouldn't dare utter in a professional setting in North America. Nevertheless, so long as one is not too militant in their conception of political correctness, this form of Nigerian humor should not be a problem. In many cases it is even refreshing and adds a measure of healthy immaturity to otherwise strictly business-oriented meetings.
.A white person working in an all-Nigerian workplace should also be prepared to frequently be reminded of their skin tone, though never in a nasty way.^ A good time to point out that you should never send money in that way, unless you know the recipient personally.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This can become tiresome, but Nigerians are generally very friendly. .They use the term "Oyibo" (white man in Yoruba) or "Bature" (white man in Hausa) as a form of affection.^ [KF] http://www.africamigration.com/ Jaghbub Font Package (Yoruba on a Mac) Fonts designed for typing Arabic on a Macintosh; but they can also be used to type Yoruba on a Mac .

The use of professional titles in written and verbal form is very common in Nigeria. .Expect to address your boss as Sir, Doctor, Colonel, etc., and avoid using the first name of a superior unless given permission to do so.^ I notice that the registrant of the domain name uses an American address and an anonymous yahoo.com e-mail contact address.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Str., Hackney - London, UK, E5 0EB and using the names MICHAEL BENSON, Lenny Barnes and Anna Fedde and the address globalshippers@deliveryman.com .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Being a foreigner, you will be forgiven for any faux pas, but it is always best to err on the side of caution and politeness.
The mobile phone (cell phone) is an essential tool for virtually all urban - and most rural - Nigerians. Because of the instability of local networks, many people have two or even three "handsets", each on a different network. .Anyone doing business in the country for more than a few days should consider having a mobile phone.^ House of Assembly for a period amounting in the aggregate to more than one-third of the total number of days during which the House meets in any one year; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ House of which he is a member for a period amounting in the aggregate to more than one-third of the total number of days during which the House meets in any one year; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

Stay safe

Nigeria is a fairly dangerous destination. .Crime levels are high, particularly in Lagos.^ Levels of crime and violence in the region remained high."

The Niger delta area is unsafe for tourists. .There is continual low-level violence between government and separatist groups, and there have been several kidnappings of foreign oil workers.^ Government shall direct its policy towards ensuring that there are equal and adequate educational opportunities at all levels.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An audit published in 2006 reveals that over a five year period there were huge discrepancies between the oil revenues declared by the Nigerian government and the amounts actually remitted by the international oil companies.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The waters outside Nigeria is one of the most likely places to be attacked by modern day pirates.^ Any funds or other assets remitted or sent to a political party from outside Nigeria shall be paid over or transferred to the Commission within twenty-one days of its receipt with such information as the Commission may require.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Restoration of Shariah in Nigeria - The Benefits and Challenges A one day conference, 14 April 2001.

Be aware of street salesmen. Actually, you could buy a lot of stuff while you drive your car but it's not recommended. Most of the merchandise will be Chinese copies of known brands like "Duracell" batteries and such.
If you have family that live in Nigeria, we advise that you do not stay with them during the tenure. .The reason is because once robbers (usually armed) find out that someone from Western countries (America, England, France) is arriving, they rampage the homes and possibly injure or kill the inhabitants of the home, with a general aim of stealing what they can.^ They are sending out mail purporting to come from e-Bay and asking you to send money via Western Union .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Stay healthy

.As is expected all around the world, do not risk unprotected sex with strangers or even with the person you think you know.^ A good time to point out that you should never send money in that way, unless you know the recipient personally.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Please DO NOT send money by this method to a person you do not know well.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Travellers to Nigeria are also required to vaccinate themselves against yellow fever, preferably 10 days before arrival in Nigeria. As malaria is prevalent, malaria pills and mosquito nets are also recommended. .Polio vaccination in Nigeria is intermittent and there is currently a high rate of infection in the north of the country.^ Nigeria Human Rights Page - Lacabe Reports on the current situation in Nigeria and other countries.

^ Provided that there is reciprocal agreement between Nigeria and such other country in relation to such matter.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

Swan water is the safe drinking water to look for approx 80 naira for a big bottle. The cheap "pure water" sold in plastic bags is cheaper but not as "pure" as SWAN. EVA water, a brand by Coca Cola Company, is also recommended.
It is advisable to purchase bottled water from convenience stores rather than by the road side. These upscale convenience stores usually purchase their supplies directly from the suppliers, along with soft drinks such as Coca Cola and other bottled beverage products.

Respect

.If you are speaking the language, some of the languages have different ways of addressing those older than you, from those younger than you.^ I will like to make an inquiry on some of your products but firstly i will like to know, if you can be able to ship to nigeria,if you can i will like you to email me asap so that we can proceed with the transaction and also i will like you to include your website address.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

You do not hand things over to people, especially adults and elders older than you, with your left hand. It's considered an insult.
You don't cross or jump over someone's legs if they are sitting with the legs extended out. It's considered bad luck.
Avoid shaking hands with elders and older people in non Igbo villages. It's disrespectful to do that. Can you bow down a little? Kneeling for women or prostrating by men is the normal thing to do. .You may not need to do it either, but just show some form of respect when greeting older people.^ I'm not familiar with e-mail headers - show me what you need ...
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

You can get away with not doing that in big cities or urban areas, they are less traditional there.
.When entering a house in the predominantly Muslim North, you have to let them know in advance that you are visiting so that the women can prepare (cover themselves up).^ If this is not a problem, let me know and I will provide you with a quote.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Let the writer know if you are in doubt, but a request for movement of funds via Western Union will strongly indicate a fraud attempt .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you have been approached by the criminals, and have then asked for WU payment, please let us know how the criminals respond .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Islam requires women to cover their hair & bodies to other men and this is practiced in the North.^ Governor generally in the discharge of his executive functions, other than those functions with respect to which he is required by this Constitution to seek the advice or act on the recommendation of any other person or body.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ President generally in discharge of his executive functions other than those functions with respect to which he is required by this Constitution to seek the advice or act on the recommendation of any other person or body.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

Knock the door and wait to be answered before going in. .They will ask you to wait while the women are informed.^ They will ask you to send money (for imaginary hospital bills etc.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are sending out mail purporting to come from e-Bay and asking you to send money via Western Union .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Do not be offended by the wait.

Contact

The country code for Nigeria is 234.
Dialing out from Nigeria: you will need to dial +9 (followed by the) International Code (followed by the) phone digit numbers.
Dialing into Nigeria: callers use +234 (followed by the) phone digit numbers. There is also a company in Nigeria Elixir Communication Worldwide [4] that offers mobile phones for the blind and visually challenged. .All the mobile operators have a roaming agreement with other mobile operators around the world.^ Nigeria Police Force and all other matters relating thereto (not being matters relating to the use and operational control of the Force or the appointment, disciplinary control and dismissal of members of the Force); .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

  • Travel north to Niger, and into the Sahara desert.
  • Travel east to Cameroon, for some mountain climbing.
This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Resources

Crystal Clear app kaddressbook.png
Please help develop this page
This page was created, but so far, little content has been added. Everyone is invited to help expand and create educational content for Wikiversity. .If you need help learning how to add content, see the editing tutorial and the MediaWiki syntax reference.^ If you are not sure how to do this, check the help file of your mail software, see the note below or visit www.haltabuse.org/help/headers/ for instructions on revealing headers in e-mail.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ESCROW. If you see the word " escrow " you need to be very cautious.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

To help you get started with content, we have automatically added references below to other Wikimedia Foundation projects. .This will help you find materials such as information, media and quotations on which to base the development of "Nigeria" as an educational resource.^ Raw Materials Research and Development Council "an agency of the Federal Government of Nigeria vested with the mandate to promote the development and utilization of Nigeria’s industrial raw materials ."

^ Nigeria-Stanford Educational Resources Organization, NS-ERO Student organization founded at Stanford University in 1998.

^ Shell Nigeria Full text of People and Environment Report 2003 and 2002, other reports (women's development, agriculture, education, etc.

However, please do not simply copy-and-paste large chunks from other projects. .You can also use the links in the blue box to help you classify this page by subject, educational level and resource type.^ Some notes on current fraud techniques follow but check the linked pages for more detail on the false names, company titles and methods used by the criminals: .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Wikipedia-logo.png Run a search on Nigeria at Wikipedia.
Commons-logo.svg Search Wikimedia Commons for images, sounds and other media related to: Nigeria
Wikimedia-logo.svg Search for Nigeria on the following projects:
Smiley green alien whatface.svg Lost on Wikiversity? Please help by choosing project boxes to classify this resource by:
  • subject
  • educational level
  • resource type

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

NIGERIA, a British protectorate in West Africa occupying the lower basin of the Niger and the country between that river and Lake Chad, including the Fula empire (i.e. the Hausa States) and the greater part of Bornu. .It embraces most of the territory in the square formed by the meridians of 3° and 14° E. and the parallels of 4° and 14° N., and has an area of about 338,000 sq.^ Nigeria covers an area of 356,669 square miles (923,768 square kilometers), or about twice the size of California.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At about 345 people per square mile, it is also the most densely populated country in Africa.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

m. .The protectorate is bounded W., N. and N.E. by French possessions (Dahomey, Upper Senegal and Niger colony, and Chad territory), S.E. by the German colony of Cameroon and S. by the Atlantic.^ It is bordered on the west by Benin, on the north by Niger and Chad, and on the east by Cameroon.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Classification : Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Agoi-Doko-Iyoniyong More information.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Classification : Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Koring-Kukele, Kukele More information.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Table of contents

Physical Features

.The country is divisible, broadly, into three zones running parallel with the coast: (I) the delta, (2) forest region, giving place to (3) the plateau region.^ The Niger and Benue Rivers come together in the center of the country, creating a "Y" that splits Nigeria into three separate sections.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The earliest occupants of Nigeria settled in the forest belt and in the Niger Delta region.Today there are estimated to be more than 250 ethnic groups in Nigeria.
  • Embassy of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeriaembassyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The savannah zone's three categories are divided into "Guinea patches of grass and sand, and is found in the northeast.
  • Top20Nigeria.com - Your Top20 Guide to Nigeria! 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC top20nigeria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The coast line, some Soo m. in length, extends along the .Gulf of Guinea from 2° 46' 55" E. to 8° 45' E. ending at the Rio del Rey, the point where the great bend eastwards of the continent ceases and the land turns south.^ Nigeria is bordered to the north by Niger , to the east by Chad and Cameroon , to the south by the Gulf of Guinea of the Atlantic Ocean , and to the west by Benin .
  • Nigeria -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It borders on the Gulf of Guinea (an arm of the Atlantic Ocean) in the south, on Benin in the west, on Niger in the northwest and north, on Chad in the northeast, and on Cameroon in the east.
  • Nigeria News - Breaking World Nigeria News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean in the south, plateaus and plains cover much of the country.
  • Nigerians – FREE Nigerians information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Nigerians research 20 November 2009 11:011 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Niger (q.v.), which enters the protectorate at its N.W. corner and flows thence S.E. to the Atlantic, receives, 250 m. from the sea, the .Benue, which, rising in the mountains of Adamawa south of Lake Chad, flows west across the plateau.^ Nigeria is bordered to the north by Niger , to the east by Chad and Cameroon , to the south by the Gulf of Guinea of the Atlantic Ocean , and to the west by Benin .
  • Nigeria -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It borders on the Gulf of Guinea (an arm of the Atlantic Ocean) in the south, on Benin in the west, on Niger in the northwest and north, on Chad in the northeast, and on Cameroon in the east.
  • Nigeria News - Breaking World Nigeria News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adamawa state, Ganye LGA; Tiba Plateau, between Garba Sbege and Jada, north of Shebshi Mountains.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Into the huge delta of the Niger several other rivers (the " Oil Rivers ") empty themselves; the chief being, on the west, the Benin, and on the east the Brass.^ It is bordered on the west by Benin, on the north by Niger and Chad, and on the east by Cameroon.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Resolving Conflicts President Carter visited the Niger River delta in February 1999 to meet with activists, who had grown more confrontational in protesting policies and practices of the government and major oil companies operating in the area.
  • International Peacemaking and Human Rights Programs - Nigeria - CarterCenter.org 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.cartercenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Niger Delta - Communities Insist On Managing 10 Percent Oil Equity Warri — The association of oil and gas Host Communities of Nigeria (HOSTCON) has decried insinuations in certain quarters that its members are incapable of successfully managing the huge funds f...
  • NigerianHotspot.com - News & Information about Nigeria, Videos, Shopping, Real Estate, Tourism, Car Hire, Apartment, Shortlet 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigerianhotspot.com [Source type: News]

.East of the Niger delta is that formed by the Imo or Opobo, Bonny and other streams, and still farther east is the Calabar estuary, mainly formed by the Cross river.^ Rivers state, Opobo-Nkoro LGA, Niger Delta, Nkoro town.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this cesspool of corruption, it is not out of place to have the kind of chaos expressed in the form of piracy, kidnapping, extortion, arson and sabotage that we have in the Niger-Delta.

^ Attacks on oil facilities and pipelines became ever more relentless, and the Niger River delta was an increasingly bloody place.

.West of the Niger delta are several independent streams discharging into lagoons, which here line the coast.^ And now, British MPs are claiming racism because a Nigerian boat carrier will not take white MPs into the Niger Delta for fear of a kidnapping situation...
  • NIGERIANS & DISCRIMINATION ~ NIGERIAN CURIOSITY 20 November 2009 11:011 UTC www.nigeriancuriosity.com [Source type: General]

^ There is a high risk of kidnappings and other armed attacks in the Niger Delta to ships and oil rigs at sea off the coast of the Delta.
  • Nigeria travel advice 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

^ Reports on the political transition, ECOMOG, Niger Delta events, the economy, status of the independent media by Mark Frohardt and Eric Johnson.

.The most westerly of these streams, the Ogun, enters the Lagos lagoon, which is connected by navigable waterways with the Niger (see Lagos).^ Most of Oyo, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Kwara, and Lagos states; Kogi state, west LGAs.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These minorities mostly reside in major cities such as Lagos and Abuja , or in the Niger Delta as employees for the major oil companies.
  • Top20Nigeria.com - Your Top20 Guide to Nigeria! 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC top20nigeria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See Environmental issues in the Niger Delta for more details, and Conflict in the Niger Delta about strife which has arisen in connection with those issues.
  • Top20Nigeria.com - Your Top20 Guide to Nigeria! 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC top20nigeria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

D E 12° F
Budu
Nassarawa
3
F?? ` \Kemello??
? ???
? ? Godabawao ?r
W
? Wurnu
o ?
P ER
? Chibiri
Sabot ? Q
$ irn f l (oMaradi
.
Sansan ne AM,,
° Aisa unkam'a?
?;?
??
° A N D ?
t;r" N I G E
Z nder .,, Galdabuni
Gurselik
'??` =? Zumba
;Gushi ^dain
Kollema °Wacha ?
Din as ? ????` ? ? " "'o
° g ° iVlachena Bidere?
Daura .
Basso --
R ?;?? ?
^l° f
? - e, ?
< `
I: 3br y° :'_?
° i'-'r_-
p?? Kaddai a - C
?': ???-.
t 15
?
.t
Dosso Iblri
0
? °t° oGandi ? ^,:k.,-
I.? ? S okoto ??Ql?Katsona o
?. Ka c helari Alan erori Kaua°
'Zan go ?; Karaguao o
o:
Old Bornu

y
Beibel
? °,.Argirngu `e
YanEuna?? ? NeBi lamgar i o Kuka
?eAmbru
"' 4" Gando ' -"'” t
Gum el ` o ?`
? Damjiri
'..:
? ?..... ?+
? Knric
Gorgoram oBargo Ngornu
o 0
?`'.,
Yellu l
° F
,. ..; l o t o
Jegga
ki Hadeija o ?^+/
Tofa ti. Guer 4'.i-- ?
., oBedi ana? Gumsa
g
'
° :
° ?
tz°
° ?
Karimana .? ^
'
.
- ?- ,:4-
w. :.oSuru ?.,?.a F,
E ? t
:;o N ® 3 R
°
j jad'J
-
o ..
q ?
T :-GaiyaHo ?
Gabai Kalinta
K tagum' ?,
.. ..
::,,+ .' "5
E ?. `LR.,,,,.,
y Dallw
Kubdi
??
6taldugarf?'
?ikwa
Maironi °
N
t °
G. a'
y ?
Gar? ' '` ?
;Giru
Banaga
t .? ,'n .H; .:
o d'O r
;ale°
... ? '
-
Gombe ?,-',<
o
°, ?f.
? itan<3. t „?, r.; r ri u
t,,a
o
y '=
W °Kand
?? ..,. C
Naganzt o
" 9 e ,
05ar¦a ib i
B
Kungt ? irnin N Za?
Kotonkoro r Gwari ` ' r {a
n 5 _
ti s; ? i 1
Yelwa ? Z i i
Kori a'? a.
< ? o' ... OJ, r^ r.
x .?': Mes? an oia' ..., .., a„Bunyi o? oM unyt;' 0
j " a /Guara m on 9,? / , ° A l a gil '. i. ?„ :
(;' .-. dgo .Naf ads tiAslt aka ICobshl ° ??u'... ?^ Naf ads tiAslt aka ICobshl ° ??u'...

; j J ?r?-?
?' ? ' '
< ?r` Kwong ?c
.,? h i k ° Dille - u.,?i r:
B, U :' " U.
T
°
S
Nikki ltr
?
Fori B Y .,. -
.? ?: i_
? g ? ?

y
be d Bua o
)o
i" 9 Aoko ...Crazi?' ? ?i .f,?
, ?e us s a .to ? ? o p :, ° s ? `? ? ? Y ?
° ' a A ", Guss ? ?,?? K a, ? Goram Y`,, O 1 e? IvI l?
..`.,
°n ?. ? ? r.a ? .?,,,',?"'` ISor .:bo ,
?. a ? .?? ° Kuta-°"` ? Shlllen / ? c(?.
4 r j?
0
o Bor;/ .C` 1 -
B ??°?) ?
ungeru
^ I? :,,: °.Z ,. KachiaA' .., K ' ?n? ? Gw a ?ti % ` ?
.Gui aguru Yashikira ?'^ Gui aguru Yashikira ?'

., n °, -, L ?.

? ? r, `' .Wushishi "'` ,6,,', '° Bil'ashi ?^ Wushishi "'` ,6,,', '° Bil'ashi ?

° ? Kia ma° "L"eaba c °Bart,{uko rd° °j"' ? 41 ' `
r Kanam oGatari '?" `l Numan° i t' e e ? ? ` e` 4 ,(K "

,G .,.. o ? F ?9? °0 j h,,
? ..,,., 1?T;,, .r? ?
? r-. E "A ti.0 rlaRa? ?`r ?°'!'?^
t Goldle: Palko „im - ?
. .,,/
? S araku C i eshi
?
/ ?'
e:Okuta ,,
?.?. C ?a
3F'
? y,°R?bba_rj?
o l
1 V
^
o .< Sura °
1g°k f 'r. x ?c... B as h a r e
La a> `, o
Darroro,, o d
Lau a?

Biaa p ?
Abuja)Vase e t
e ° Murchison 'i '.T g ?
?,?
?Tablra .
' Kishi honga° P o "Pundar.ri r i^ Ran e '
, ?Y`

rvy Garua
Yol a t o ?....... P
i"? ?,
h W,,,"
". L 'N -,
,,
? ? Je bba
.? N
? ?
?l(-
-t,'
M rep A ate ' K ffi ,,9 ?_ - Bakorg?j

'° I boh o - ' ? o.,ly - ? ,..?^ 5:. Jalmgu .; <.
.Ile sha g Patgro 1n...^ Ile sha g Patgro 1n...

o AmaT ?'
,,.. ?) `? '. i i o t.. .z ?.
` o :, t E g ga. a: Yelual ,, r
? ° (f ? 1 ,. l i n ? a ? ";... ?
.1- _ ?
?j
? y r' '
o? r ? i.+
?y??. ?.. ,,, r.:
Nas w .;
? .,
?
rf
? ` % Saki, ' ` Lgbete.. ° t y. :i °Baro .:` Nassaraw ° ? ~4 Gassol Z ??
r Illorin, .?.n.?;? Lafa:Berebere','.., ti„r
e ` Suku; ?v ?. K: A? r o Gonkusa?
..
n
S

r offa ?.: ? N a s sfa w ` a ? ? ?, urlo;.:a ? ?
? r:
' c :Ck
fS ?
,m L
°
Q b om oSh a o ,. o r
? (g, ? `- ?
Y i 'a?l, Awton: F, Pa
` r .
?
.LaCianGissen lbu ?;.: a r KP ?@?~ ?^ LaCianGissen lbu ?;.: a r KP ?@?~ ?

Romash o, - Loko ?b
? I b l? 1 `` Bakund i d Dirrim ?? ?`p
(
a? rIIl ? a. ^ wr a ? ?
e
o
Alec31o. 4? ? ,
? Isey, if)
I a t i a q ?Osho bo)'? °I:ok o ao ?
???'Q ? g o g + ?Kabba ?
G?
-
"t Akwanela '"+o _ t?. ? .0 ,
"(Be11 >'
B°f u #Wukan o: o y ?
o ,Crbebe A urach a 8 e ?
uiam g ° ., .?? v r??6
e
?., ?,: ?
? ??' ? ?
+
, r
?e9
(I
Iw (o ° odaka le
ntwa keer
Ikor am
,

: ° dan ,, °- ?? °? ofs e, foAa?: re '..?
?-pr
. L o s en? t} i 1° S ? (
?" °o, 1Z 1 '? O v ?I? l an l
I ' gPe
G Ishoya y ? ? ?: i¢?. - - -? -:- _ _ _
?i t? °Dekina
i ° ^'?oAnyangba
,.,, ?a ? S
)
p _ ^` "
.PG. 4,n se R;" Kache l a ? ?^ PG. 4,n se R;" Kache l a ?

.`.? h
?akuC ?? ?.: Gasbaka; `
I?SI ?
c ? r..?
r o u " `??>

aundere
'S Aroo Abeokuta
P ° c.
? Onrlo,Y o;?O wo., ia ..
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _Katse 'a? „
S o '
?? ?.?.
t ? % ?. ?..; '?m der
? ...
Q ro ? ?
7t ? ltato oQ o ti f o f
ooo
? t
e Ishoka
° Cc y a
,?{
?
?2 .
°Iddah i
O ril ru
Ekperr,o ro g K
r H?(
Mudt?, T
??
?
? e ' a ?w
?
? M n
?
- ?r ? ..,
n ?
E- N 3
F ? *t
R ? 0.':,,,?'iV
?,
,
1'pokia ' .'? p
,? y °. ? ?' m'G21
,Le
- o
?Lagoon Aro ? a„5.,
?,.
? b o ` ? O Benin
_ '? -
II ?' o i ti i ?y
?Illushiw' r ? .?.
j ? Mr. y?
r -1e, o
Adttem
, ^ ?

Asaba s,Glorialbo .._--? J lfakum ? t
?
- -
afut ? ?(1f??S ? :,
Balt ?? ,,,: r,
? .?, ,. < a ?
9??? A ??i ?. tM1ba?
v
?
M
t e?':.
J
,r
?y /er ,

o
? T i batl
?-.%tc`r, i'.
??- y? ?;
dp - Oy= ° -? - _
=?, 4p O o -o-Rm ?-
a'a'
?? y
o rAmutu..,.
°
° o Onitsha Opotoko°. key :
`
4 r

+.?.


?
_ y
4 - ti!?_ ?a
6
__
--? - a
?1?? 'C i
t
° ?
- Benrn ? ?1? Wa
S R F.. o - ,
el e ° o
C ? Ebom
Oguta o Qhsldinge
(e ' ? s akp'e^
? b o ' f °? °Oweri Bende ? T ? r ?? w
3
LlIIt00
z Bamenda
:
f p
B? pp h??0 OPn? i i - N:P
y - J
f I ? c ?i 1?0° R4 Y'??°Ok un { oF19ntemK
Z - ?
. c 1 ? 1? V. Itd ?Mt htanen9uba
? °
= T L =AN -T7
C_ ti ? ??,,l?T
For.cadns
Rorc tss?,t l ?
%j?OS -' ' '46th
?
So„, ?. `r'
y o r? t? Lr' V
oQ7 s okpa ` oCa1- ar??;y ?_?s?
2 000
I:? 2J,
?'
_
?] r .
--_ _
/?
- =?ennn on 7 ?-
?
`Okrnka5 Idea' '*i° a l
? J
Degama ' '? ` ?eru ° - ° ? ?
i ?I. f
i ? ? ???,
a
V - E - A
-
l
' ?ir?leton ?'
?s + ? "
?r j a ? 7/
?
MIJ¢N-p ?Ai/?,
.vu(em l ?trr,?^ MIJ¢N-p ?Ai/?, vu(em l ?trr,?

y
r T l? ? 1 ?_`-
?, ? f il l -
?
? oo i ._
o ro
? ? ?
?,
i -
_
- Sen4
s s
S _ =? °._. t.
-... -
- - S oco,
o r
9' e '
° ?n? ?8_.u?
-?
?
?..
A 0
z6.
Longitude East $ of t E
.The delta region is swampy, and forms, for a distance of from 40 to 70 m.^ The delta region is swampy, and forms, for a distance of from 40 to 70 m.

inland, a network of interlacing creeks and broad sluggish channels fringed with monotonous mangrove forests. .The main rivers are navigable for ocean-going steamers for a distance of from 15 to 40 m.^ The main rivers are navigable for ocean-going steamers for a distance of from 15 to 40 m.

^ From the Forcados mouth of the Niger steamers can ascend the main stream as far as Jebba, a distance of 530 m.

from their mouths. .Beyond the delta firm ground takes the place of mud and the mangroves disappear.^ Beyond the delta firm ground takes the place of mud and the mangroves disappear.

.The land rises gradually at first, becoming, however, in many districts very hilly, and is covered with dense forests.^ The land rises gradually at first, becoming, however, in many districts very hilly, and is covered with dense forests.

^ The Speaker of the House of Assembly shall give effect to subsection (1) of this section, so however that the Speaker or a member shall first present evidence satisfactory to the House that any of the provisions of that subsection has become applicable in respect of the member.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Niger at its confluence with the Benue is not more than 250 ft.^ The Niger at its confluence with the Benue is not more than 250 ft.

^ From the edge of the coast belt to near the confluence of the Benue and Niger they are overlain by unfossiliferous sandstones, lying undisturbed and possibly of the age of the sandstones of the Congo basin.

^ These territories, with the exception of Zaria, were all in the more or less immediate neighbourhood of the valleys of the Niger and the Benue, and Zaria bordered upon the Kaduna.

above the sea. .North of this point are hills forming the walls of the plateau which extends over the centre of the protectorate and is part of the great plateau of North Africa.^ North of this point are hills forming the walls of the plateau which extends over the centre of the protectorate and is part of the great plateau of North Africa.

^ The north-eastern part of the country drains to Lake Chad by the Waube or Yo, an intermittent stream, which in its lower course forms the Anglo-French boundary.

.This plateau, broken only by the valleys of the rivers, does not attain an elevation approaching that of the plateaus of the southern half of the continent, the culminating point (apart from particular mountain districts), situated in about 10 N., reaching a height of 3000 ft.^ This plateau, broken only by the valleys of the rivers, does not attain an elevation approaching that of the plateaus of the southern half of the continent, the culminating point (apart from particular mountain districts), situated in about 10 N., reaching a height of 3000 ft.

^ In view of the approaching unification of Southern and Northern Nigeria, the money needed, about £1,250,000, was raised as a loan by Southern Nigeria.

^ In the districts of Illorin and Borgu , west of the Niger, the inhabitants are also negroes and pagan, but of a more advanced type than the tribes of the river valleys.

only. .The valleys of the Niger and Benue, especially the latter, are very much lower, the town of Yola on the Benue, some 400 m.^ The valleys of the Niger and Benue, especially the latter, are very much lower, the town of Yola on the Benue, some 400 m.

^ These territories, with the exception of Zaria, were all in the more or less immediate neighbourhood of the valleys of the Niger and the Benue, and Zaria bordered upon the Kaduna.

^ Steamers can also ascend the Benue to Yola, 480 m., above the confluence of that river with the Niger at Lokoja.

inland, lying at an altitude of little over 600 ft. .The surface is generally undulating, with isolated " table mountains " of granite and sandstone often rising abruptly from the plain.^ The surface is generally undulating, with isolated " table mountains " of granite and sandstone often rising abruptly from the plain.

.It is clothed largely with thin forest, but becomes more open to the north until, near the French frontier, the arid steppes bordering the Sahara are reached.^ It is clothed largely with thin forest, but becomes more open to the north until, near the French frontier, the arid steppes bordering the Sahara are reached.

^ Terrain: Ranges from southern coastal swamps to tropical forests, open woodlands, grasslands, and semi-desert in the far north.
  • Nigeria (12/09) 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was not until 1909 that the whole of the frontier between Nigeria and the French and German possessions had been definitely demarcated.

.Much of the country north of Zaria (r i° N.) is covered with heavy loose sand.^ Much of the country north of Zaria (r i° N.) is covered with heavy loose sand .

.The most mountainous districts are northern Bauchi (a little north of io°), where heights of 6000 to 7000 ft.^ The most mountainous districts are northern Bauchi (a little north of io°), where heights of 6000 to 7000 ft.

^ This plateau, broken only by the valleys of the rivers, does not attain an elevation approaching that of the plateaus of the southern half of the continent, the culminating point (apart from particular mountain districts), situated in about 10 N., reaching a height of 3000 ft.

^ Northern Mandaras Site for ethnographers, on the northern Mandara mountains of North Cameroon and North East Nigeria .

occur; parts of .Muri, along the north bank of the Benue; and the southern border of the Benue basin, where the hills (consisting of ironstone, quartz and granite) appear rich in minerals.^ Muri , along the north bank of the Benue; and the southern border of the Benue basin, where the hills (consisting of ironstone, quartz and granite) appear rich in minerals.

^ Thus along the banks of the Niger, Benue and other streams, the inhabitants are negro and pagans, and generally of a purely savage though often rather fine type.

^ Nigeria has a long-running border dispute with Cameroon over the mineral-rich Bakasi Peninsula, and the two nations have engaged in a series of cross-boarder skirmishes.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The mountainous area covers some 50,000 sq. m. .On the east the plateau sinks to the plains of Bornu (q.v.^ On the east the plateau sinks to the plains of Bornu (q.v.

), which extend to Lake Chad. .Tributaries of the Niger traverse the western portion of the country, the most noteworthy being the Gulbin Kebbi or Sokoto river and the Kaduna, which flows through a valley not more than 500 ft.^ The Niger at its confluence with the Benue is not more than 250 ft.

^ Tributaries of the Niger traverse the western portion of the country, the most noteworthy being the Gulbin Kebbi or Sokoto river and the Kaduna, which flows through a valley not more than 500 ft.

^ Most ethnic groups traditionally allow more than one wife.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

above the sea. .The north-eastern part of the country drains to Lake Chad by the Waube or Yo, an intermittent stream, which in its lower course forms the Anglo-French boundary.^ The north-eastern part of the country drains to Lake Chad by the Waube or Yo, an intermittent stream, which in its lower course forms the Anglo-French boundary.

^ At this period the nights are cold, and in the north January and February are cold even in the day-time, while frosts are experienced in the neighbourhood of Lake Chad.

^ The first recorded empire in present-day Nigeria was centered in the north at Kanem-Borno, near Lake Chad.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The western portion of Lake Chad (q.v.^ The western portion of Lake Chad (q.v.

) belongs to the protectorate, which contains no other large lake. .The water parting between the Chad and Niger systems runs N.W. and S.E. from about Katsena in 13° N. to the Bauchi hills.^ The water parting between the Chad and Niger systems runs N.W. and S.E. from about Katsena in 13° N. to the Bauchi hills.

^ NIGERIA, a British protectorate in West Africa occupying the lower basin of the Niger and the country between that river and Lake Chad, including the Fula empire (i.e.

^ Bulletin Régional de suivi des échanges transfrontaliers Academic bulletin, in French, on trade, economic relations between Benin, Cameroun, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria .

.Of the tributaries of the Benue the most important is the Gongola.^ Of the tributaries of the Benue the most important is the Gongola.

.During the dry season most of the small rivers cease running and the water in the larger streams is low.^ During the dry season most of the small rivers cease running and the water in the larger streams is low.

.The great rise of the Niger within the protectorate takes place in August and September and there is a second rise about the beginning of the year.^ The great rise of the Niger within the protectorate takes place in August and September and there is a second rise about the beginning of the year.

^ Perhaps there was a pact that Atiku will take over from his boss after the second term.

^ In August of that year the British government, on administrative, strategic and commercial grounds, came to a decision to build a railway which should place the important cities of Zaria and Kano in direct communication with the perennially navigable waters of the Lower Niger.

Geology

.The fundamental formation consists of crystalline rocks.^ The fundamental formation consists of crystalline rocks.

.From the edge of the coast belt to near the confluence of the Benue and Niger they are overlain by unfossiliferous sandstones, lying undisturbed and possibly of the age of the sandstones of the Congo basin.^ From the edge of the coast belt to near the confluence of the Benue and Niger they are overlain by unfossiliferous sandstones, lying undisturbed and possibly of the age of the sandstones of the Congo basin.

^ Macgregor Laird first organized in 1832 the navigation of the river Niger from its mouth to a point above the Benue confluence.

^ Steamers can also ascend the Benue to Yola, 480 m., above the confluence of that river with the Niger at Lokoja.

.Limestones, with fossils indicating a Tertiary age, have been found near Sokoto.^ Limestones, with fossils indicating a Tertiary age, have been found near Sokoto.

.Superficial deposits occupy the coast belt.^ Superficial deposits occupy the coast belt.

.Recent alluvium and a thick deposit of black earth border the upper reaches of the Benue and cover wide areas around Lake Chad.^ Recent alluvium and a thick deposit of black earth border the upper reaches of the Benue and cover wide areas around Lake Chad.

^ Benue , which, rising in the mountains of Adamawa south of Lake Chad, flows west across the plateau.

^ People also cover the body with black earth during burial because many believe that red earth will result in skin blemishes in the next life.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Climate

.The country lies wholly within the tropics.^ The country lies wholly within the tropics.

.The climate of the coast-lands is moist and hot, and extremely unhealthy, malarial fever being prevalent and deadly.^ The climate of the coast-lands is moist and hot, and extremely unhealthy, malarial fever being prevalent and deadly.

^ The direction of the prevailing wind is S.W. Though unfavourable for the permanent residence of white men, the interior is much less deadly than the coast-lands.

.The annual rainfall in the delta regions varies between Too and 140 or more inches; the mean temperature is over 80° F. The heat does not vary greatly, rarely sinking below 70°, and not often exceeding 100 0 in the shade.^ The annual rainfall in the delta regions varies between Too and 140 or more inches; the mean temperature is over 80° F. The heat does not vary greatly, rarely sinking below 70°, and not often exceeding 100 0 in the shade.

^ The temperature in the central part of the protectorate is much the same average as at the coast, but the range is far greater, varying from a shade minimum of 59° to a shade maximum of 107 0.1 The rainfall is much scantier on the plateaus than in the maritime regions, averaging in Northern Nigeria about 50 in.

^ A positive sentiment usually means more de mand, which often jump-starts production to increase supply to meet the demand.

.The direction of the prevailing wind is S.W. Though unfavourable for the permanent residence of white men, the interior is much less deadly than the coast-lands.^ The direction of the prevailing wind is S.W. Though unfavourable for the permanent residence of white men, the interior is much less deadly than the coast-lands.

^ The Efiks, a coast tribe which has come much into contact with white men, have adopted several European customs, and educated Efiks are employed in government service.

^ The climate of the coast-lands is moist and hot, and extremely unhealthy, malarial fever being prevalent and deadly.

.The northern part is a land of tornadoes.^ The northern part is a land of tornadoes.

.At the close of the dry season (end of February) cyclones from the N.E., usually accompanied by rain and thunder, burst over the land.^ At the close of the dry season (end of February) cyclones from the N.E., usually accompanied by rain and thunder , burst over the land.

.They increase in frequency until they merge in the heavy rains which last from July to October.^ They increase in frequency until they merge in the heavy rains which last from July to October.

.Then the " hamattan," or hot, dry wind from the Sahara, begins and brings with it clouds of impalpable dust.^ Then the " hamattan," or hot, dry wind from the Sahara, begins and brings with it clouds of impalpable dust .

.At this period the nights are cold, and in the north January and February are cold even in the day-time, while frosts are experienced in the neighbourhood of Lake Chad.^ At this period the nights are cold, and in the north January and February are cold even in the day-time, while frosts are experienced in the neighbourhood of Lake Chad.

^ The first recorded empire in present-day Nigeria was centered in the north at Kanem-Borno, near Lake Chad.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The north-eastern part of the country drains to Lake Chad by the Waube or Yo, an intermittent stream, which in its lower course forms the Anglo-French boundary.

.The temperature in the central part of the protectorate is much the same average as at the coast, but the range is far greater, varying from a shade minimum of 59° to a shade maximum of 107 0.1 The rainfall is much scantier on the plateaus than in the maritime regions, averaging in Northern Nigeria about 50 in.^ Nigeria inspects all imports on arrival, rather than at ports of origin; as a result, about 95% of containers are physically examined.
  • Nigeria (12/09) 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These various ethnic groups never considered themselves part of the same culture.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Independence Nigeria gained full independence in October 1960, as a federation of three regions (northern, western, and eastern) under a constitution that provided for a parliamentary form of government.
  • Nigeria (12/09) 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

a year. .There is evidence of the increasing desiccation of the whole country north of the forest belt.^ There is evidence of the increasing desiccation of the whole country north of the forest belt.

^ In fighting them there was no question of fighting the whole country.

^ The whole country was divided into seventeen provinces, in each of which there was a provincial court presided over by the resident in charge, whose assistants were commissioners of the court.

.This desiccation is partly attributable to the unrestricted felling of wood practised for many centuries by the inhabitants.^ This desiccation is partly attributable to the unrestricted felling of wood practised for many centuries by the inhabitants.

.Along the northern border of the protectorate this has resulted in the encroachment of the Saharan desert over once fertile districts.^ Along the northern border of the protectorate this has resulted in the encroachment of the Saharan desert over once fertile districts.

.The natives of the northern regions do not suffer to any extent from fever unless they move to a part of the country some distance from their home.^ The natives of the northern regions do not suffer to any extent from fever unless they move to a part of the country some distance from their home.

^ In the northern parts of Nigeria the inhabitants are of more mixed blood, the negro substratum having been to a great extent driven out by the northern races of the continent.

^ Female genital mutilation (FGM) remained widely practiced in some parts of the country, and child abuse and child prostitution were common.
  • Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Leprosy is common, especially in the inland towns; while ophthalmia is prevalent in the north, especially among the poorer classes, who are compelled to expose themselves to the blinding dust from the deserts and the excessive glare of the sun reflected from the burning sand.^ Leprosy is common, especially in the inland towns; while ophthalmia is prevalent in the north, especially among the poorer classes, who are compelled to expose themselves to the blinding dust from the deserts and the excessive glare of the sun reflected from the burning sand.

Fauna and Flora

.The animals of Nigeria include the elephant, lion, leopard, giraffe, hyena, West-African buffalo, many kinds of antelope and gazelle and smaller game.^ The animals of Nigeria include the elephant , lion , leopard , giraffe , hyena , West-African buffalo , many kinds of antelope and gazelle and smaller game.

^ Nigeria and the West African sub-region.

^ Reuters and AP wire stories on West African countries, includes also Congo-Brazzaville, Zaire, and Angola.

.Monkeys are numerous in the forests, and snakes are common.^ Monkeys are numerous in the forests, and snakes are common.

.The camel is found in the northern regions bordering the Sahara.^ The camel is found in the northern regions bordering the Sahara.

.In the rivers are rhinoceros, hippopotamus and crocodile.^ In the rivers are rhinoceros , hippopotamus and crocodile .

The manatus is also found. .The birds include the ostrich, marabout, vultures, kites, hawks, ground hornbill, great bustard, guinea fowl, partridge, lesser bustard, quail, snipe, duck, widgeon, teal, geese of various kinds, paraquets, doves, blue, bronze and green pigeons, and many others.^ The birds include the ostrich , marabout , vultures, kites, hawks, ground hornbill , great bustard , guinea fowl , partridge , lesser bustard, quail , snipe , duck , widgeon, teal , geese of various kinds, paraquets, doves, blue, bronze and green pigeons, and many others.

.Domestic animals include the horse and donkey in the plateaus, but baggage animals are rare in the coast-lands, where the tsetse fly is found.^ Domestic animals include the horse and donkey in the plateaus, but baggage animals are rare in the coast-lands, where the tsetse fly is found.

.Mosquitoes are also abundant throughout the delta.^ Mosquitoes are also abundant throughout the delta.

.Herds of cattle and flocks of sheep and goats are numerous throughout the country.^ Herds of cattle and flocks of sheep and goats are numerous throughout the country.

.The mangrove is the characteristic tree of the swamps.^ The mangrove is the characteristic tree of the swamps.

.North of the swamps the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) flourishes abundantly.^ North of the swamps the oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis ) flourishes abundantly.

.It is common as far as about 7° N. Rubber vines, mahogany, ebony and many valuable timber trees are found in the forest zone.^ It is common as far as about 7° N. Rubber vines, mahogany , ebony and many valuable timber trees are found in the forest zone.

^ Rubber, ebony and other timber, cocoa and gum copal , come next in importance.

.Other trees, found chiefly on the plateaus, are the baobab, the shea-butter tree, the locust tree, gambier, palms, including the date and dum palm (Hyphaene), the tamarind, and, in the arid regions, the acacia and mimosa.^ Other trees, found chiefly on the plateaus, are the baobab , the shea- butter tree, the locust tree , gambier , palms, including the date and dum palm (Hyphaene), the tamarind , and, in the arid regions, the acacia and mimosa .

^ The shea-butter tree supplies an excellent oil for lamps, and also for cooking, though it is only used by the poorer classes.

Inhabitants

.The population of Nigeria is estimated at 15,000,000. The Europeans (mostly British) number about a thousand, and are civil servants, soldiers, traders or missionaries.^ The Europeans (mostly British) number about a thousand, and are civil servants, soldiers, traders or missionaries.

^ The population of Nigeria is estimated at 15,000,000.

^ As part of a 15-month economic emergency, he announced stringent pay cuts for the military, police, and civil servants and enacted similar cuts for the private sector.
  • Nigeria (12/09) 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the delta district and the forest zone the inhabitants are typical negroes.^ In the delta district and the forest zone the inhabitants are typical negroes.

^ The country is divisible, broadly, into three zones running parallel with the coast: (I) the delta , (2) forest region, giving place to (3) the plateau region.

^ In the districts of Illorin and Borgu , west of the Niger, the inhabitants are also negroes and pagan, but of a more advanced type than the tribes of the river valleys.

.Besides the people of Benin, the coast tribes include the Jekri, living on the lower part of the Benin river and akin to the Yoruba, the Ijos, living in the delta east of the main mouth of the Niger, and the Ibos, occupying a wide tract of country just above the delta and extending for loo m.^ Besides the people of Benin, the coast tribes include the Jekri, living on the lower part of the Benin river and akin to the Yoruba, the Ijos, living in the delta east of the main mouth of the Niger, and the Ibos, occupying a wide tract of country just above the delta and extending for loo m.

^ Each tribe has a different ju-ju, and each speaks a separate language or dialect , the most widely diffused tongues being the Ibo and Efik, which have been reduced to writing.

^ At the Berlin Conference held in1884-1885the British representative was able to state that Great Britain alone possessed trading interests on the Lower Niger, and in June 1885 a British protectorate was notified over the coast lands known as the Oil Rivers.

east from the .Niger to the Cross river.^ Niger to the Cross river.

^ East of the Niger delta is that formed by the Imo or Opobo, Bonny and other streams, and still farther east is the Calabar estuary , mainly formed by the Cross river .

^ Niger Delta Development Commission Covers Abia, Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Imo, Ondo, and Rivers States.

.South of the Ibos live the Aros, a tribe of relatively great intelligence, who dominated many of the surrounding tribes and possessed an oracle or ju-ju of reputed great power.^ South of the Ibos live the Aros, a tribe of relatively great intelligence, who dominated many of the surrounding tribes and possessed an oracle or ju-ju of reputed great power.

^ Each tribe has a different ju-ju, and each speaks a separate language or dialect , the most widely diffused tongues being the Ibo and Efik, which have been reduced to writing.

^ The interior was held by powerful Mahommedan rulers who had imposed a military domination upon the indigenous races and were not prepared to open their territories to European intercourse.

.On the middle Cross river live the Akuna-kunas, an agricultural race, and in the Calabar region are the Efiks, Ibibios and Kwas.^ Cross River state, Odukpani LGA, Calabar area.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cross River state, northeast of Efik, south of Idere.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EPZs in Calabar, Cross River State, and Onne Port, Rivers State, operated during the year.
  • Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.All these tribes are fetish worshippers, though Christian and Moslem missionaries have made numerous converts.^ All these tribes are fetish worshippers, though Christian and Moslem missionaries have made numerous converts.

^ Under these officials peace was gradually established between various tribes, trade routes opened and progress made in civilization.

.The Efiks, a coast tribe which has come much into contact with white men, have adopted several European customs, and educated Efiks are employed in government service.^ The Efiks, a coast tribe which has come much into contact with white men, have adopted several European customs, and educated Efiks are employed in government service.

^ While the government aims to provide universal education for both boys and girls, the number of girls in class is usually much lower than the number of boys.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The direction of the prevailing wind is S.W. Though unfavourable for the permanent residence of white men, the interior is much less deadly than the coast-lands.

.The great secret society called Egbo is an Efik institution.^ The great secret society called Egbo is an Efik institution.

.Each tribe has a different ju-ju, and each speaks a separate language or dialect, the most widely diffused tongues being the Ibo and Efik, which have been reduced to writing.^ Dialects : A separate language from Bole [ bol ].
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each tribe has a different ju-ju, and each speaks a separate language or dialect , the most widely diffused tongues being the Ibo and Efik, which have been reduced to writing.

^ South of the Ibos live the Aros, a tribe of relatively great intelligence, who dominated many of the surrounding tribes and possessed an oracle or ju-ju of reputed great power.

In general little clothing is worn, but none of the tribes go absolutely nude. .In colour the majority are dark chocolate, others are coal-black (a tint much admired by the natives themselves) or dark yellow-brown.^ In colour the majority are dark chocolate , others are coal -black (a tint much admired by the natives themselves) or dark yellow-brown.

.Cannibalism, human sacrifices and other revolting practices common to the tribes, are being gradually stamped out under British control.^ Cannibalism , human sacrifices and other revolting practices common to the tribes, are being gradually stamped out under British control.

^ In Bornu the extension of British authority was very willingly accepted as a guarantee against other European encroachments, and the legitimate Shehu was restored to the throne under British protection.

^ In the exercise of his functions under this Constitution, the Auditor-General for a State shall not be subject to the direction or control of any other authority or person.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

1 Returns at Zungeru for 1903.
.Trial by ordeal and domestic slavery are still among the recog nized institutions.^ Trial by ordeal and domestic slavery are still among the recog nized institutions.

^ Civil questions arising from the institution of domestic slavery remained justiciable by the native courts; which in this matter were very carefully supervised by the British administration.

.In the northern parts of Nigeria the inhabitants are of more mixed blood, the negro substratum having been to a great extent driven out by the northern races of the continent.^ In the northern parts of Nigeria the inhabitants are of more mixed blood, the negro substratum having been to a great extent driven out by the northern races of the continent.

^ The natives of the northern regions do not suffer to any extent from fever unless they move to a part of the country some distance from their home.

^ The most important race in Northern Nigeria is that of the Hausa (q.v.

.The most important race in Northern Nigeria is that of the Hausa (q.v.^ The most important race in Northern Nigeria is that of the Hausa (q.v.

^ In the northern parts of Nigeria the inhabitants are of more mixed blood, the negro substratum having been to a great extent driven out by the northern races of the continent.

^ Hausa Bakwai "News worthy events from Northern Nigeria collected from various Nigerian sources sent by e-mail.

), among whom the superior classes adopted Mahommedanism in the 13th and 14th centuries. .While the lower classes remained pagan, a fairly civilized system of administration, with an efficient judicial and fiscal organization, was established in the Hausa territories.^ While the lower classes remained pagan , a fairly civilized system of administration, with an efficient judicial and fiscal organization, was established in the Hausa territories.

^ It remained to organize the territories for British rule, to institute a reformed system of taxation, to establish courts of justice, and to open the country to civilized occupation.

^ For all these territories an initial system of administration was organized, and British residents were appointed to each province.

.The Hausa are keen traders and make ex cellent soldiers.^ The Hausa are keen traders and make ex cellent soldiers.

.At the beginning of the 19th century the Hausa territories were conquered by another dominant Mahommedan race, the Fula (q.v.^ At the beginning of the 19th century the Hausa territories were conquered by another dominant Mahommedan race, the Fula (q.v.

^ The interior was held by powerful Mahommedan rulers who had imposed a military domination upon the indigenous races and were not prepared to open their territories to European intercourse.

), who form a separate caste of cattle-rearers. .Arab merchants are settled in some of the larger Hausa towns.^ Arab merchants are settled in some of the larger Hausa towns.

.In general the people living in the river valleys have been unaffected by Moslem propaganda either in blood or religion.^ In general the people living in the river valleys have been unaffected by Moslem propaganda either in blood or religion.

.Thus along the banks of the Niger, Benue and other streams, the inhabitants are negro and pagans, and generally of a purely savage though often rather fine type.^ Thus along the banks of the Niger, Benue and other streams, the inhabitants are negro and pagans, and generally of a purely savage though often rather fine type.

^ East of the Niger delta is that formed by the Imo or Opobo, Bonny and other streams, and still farther east is the Calabar estuary , mainly formed by the Cross river .

^ South of the Benue, near the Niger confluence, dwell the savage and warlike Okpotos, Bassas and other tribes.

.Of these the Munshi, who inhabit the district nearest the junction of the Benue with the Niger, were long noted for their intractability and hostility to strangers, whom they attacked with poisoned arrows.^ Of these the Munshi , who inhabit the district nearest the junction of the Benue with the Niger, were long noted for their intractability and hostility to strangers, whom they attacked with poisoned arrows.

^ From the edge of the coast belt to near the confluence of the Benue and Niger they are overlain by unfossiliferous sandstones, lying undisturbed and possibly of the age of the sandstones of the Congo basin.

^ It follows therefore that these reservoirs in the Niger-Delta were in place long before the existence of the entity called Nigeria and certainly long before the very first human settlers in the Niger-Delta.

The Yoraghums, their neighbours, were cannibals. .Nearer Yola live the Battas, who also had a bad reputation.^ Nearer Yola live the Battas , who also had a bad reputation.

^ South of the Ibos live the Aros, a tribe of relatively great intelligence, who dominated many of the surrounding tribes and possessed an oracle or ju-ju of reputed great power.

.These tribes, under British influence, are turning to trade and agricultural pursuits.^ These tribes, under British influence, are turning to trade and agricultural pursuits.

^ Under these officials peace was gradually established between various tribes, trade routes opened and progress made in civilization.

^ Small military expeditions had constantly to be employed to break up slave-raiding gangs or reduce to order tribes which blocked trade routes or made war on other tribes living peaceably under British protection.

.In the central hilly region of Kachia are other pagan tribes.^ In the central hilly region of Kachia are other pagan tribes.

.They wear no clothes and their bodies are covered with hair.^ They wear no clothes and their bodies are covered with hair.

.South of the Benue, near the Niger confluence, dwell the savage and warlike Okpotos, Bassas and other tribes.^ South of the Benue, near the Niger confluence, dwell the savage and warlike Okpotos, Bassas and other tribes.

^ From the edge of the coast belt to near the confluence of the Benue and Niger they are overlain by unfossiliferous sandstones, lying undisturbed and possibly of the age of the sandstones of the Congo basin.

^ Thus along the banks of the Niger, Benue and other streams, the inhabitants are negro and pagans, and generally of a purely savage though often rather fine type.

.In the districts of Illorin and Borgu, west of the Niger, the inhabitants are also negroes and pagan, but of a more advanced type than the tribes of the river valleys.^ In the districts of Illorin and Borgu , west of the Niger, the inhabitants are also negroes and pagan, but of a more advanced type than the tribes of the river valleys.

^ Further west at the Forcados mouth of the Niger is a town of the same name, which is the principal port of entry for the river.

^ In the northern parts of Nigeria the inhabitants are of more mixed blood, the negro substratum having been to a great extent driven out by the northern races of the continent.

.To attempt any complete list of the tribes inhabiting Northern Nigeria would be vain.^ To attempt any complete list of the tribes inhabiting Northern Nigeria would be vain.

^ In the northern parts of Nigeria the inhabitants are of more mixed blood, the negro substratum having been to a great extent driven out by the northern races of the continent.

.In the one province of Bauchi as many as sixty native languages are spoken.^ In the one province of Bauchi as many as sixty native languages are spoken.

^ The business of a House of Assembly shall be conducted in English, but the House may in addition to English conduct the business of the House in one or more other languages spoken in the State as the House may by resolution approve.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

In Bornu (q.v.) the population consists of .(1) Berberi or Kanuri, the ruling race, containing a mixture of Berber and negro blood, with many lesser indigenous tribes; (2) so-called Arabs, and (3) Fula.^ Berberi or Kanuri , the ruling race, containing a mixture of Berber and negro blood, with many lesser indigenous tribes; (2) so-called Arabs , and (3) Fula.

^ In the northern parts of Nigeria the inhabitants are of more mixed blood, the negro substratum having been to a great extent driven out by the northern races of the continent.

.The country to the back of Lagos is largely inhabited by Yorubas, and the people of Borgu according to some native traditions claim to have had a Coptic origin.^ The country to the back of Lagos is largely inhabited by Yorubas , and the people of Borgu according to some native traditions claim to have had a Coptic origin.

^ The natives of the northern regions do not suffer to any extent from fever unless they move to a part of the country some distance from their home.

^ N. of Benin city, is an important trade centre for the Yoruba country, in which are the large cities of Abeokuta , Ibadan and Illorin, all separately noticed.

Towns. - .A large proportion of the population dwells in towns.^ A large proportion of the population dwells in towns.

^ N.W. of Calabar, were noted ju-ju towns and have large populations.

.The chief ports are Lagos (q.v.^ The chief ports are Lagos (q.v.

), capital of .Southern Nigeria, with a population of about 50,000; Calabar (q.v.^ More than 50 percent of Nigeria's population works in the agriculture sector.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In view of the approaching unification of Southern and Northern Nigeria, the money needed, about £1,250,000, was raised as a loan by Southern Nigeria.

^ The population of Nigeria is estimated at 15,000,000.

), pop. about .15,000, known as Old Calabar and Duke Town, on the Calabar river; Opobo, Bonny Town and Brass Town, all on the rivers of the same name.^ Old Calabar and Duke Town, on the Calabar river; Opobo, Bonny Town and Brass Town, all on the rivers of the same name.

^ Further west at the Forcados mouth of the Niger is a town of the same name, which is the principal port of entry for the river.

^ Population total all countries: 15,000.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Brass Town contains a fine church, the gift of a native chief.^ Brass Town contains a fine church, the gift of a native chief.

^ Native courts were established by warrant at all the chief native towns with varying powers.

.These places are east of the Nun or main mouth of the Niger, where, on the western bank, is Akassa.^ These places are east of the Nun or main mouth of the Niger, where, on the western bank, is Akassa.

^ In these circumstances it was judged advisable to place the territories of the Royal Niger Company, to which the general name of Nigeria had been given, under the direct control of the crown.

^ The Benin influence does not seem to have reached east of the Forcados mouth of the Niger.

.Here are important engineering works and a slip for repairing ships.^ Here are important engineering works and a slip for repairing ships.

.Further west at the Forcados mouth of the Niger is a town of the same name, which is the principal port of entry for the river.^ Further west at the Forcados mouth of the Niger is a town of the same name, which is the principal port of entry for the river.

^ The Benin influence does not seem to have reached east of the Forcados mouth of the Niger.

^ NIGERIA, a British protectorate in West Africa occupying the lower basin of the Niger and the country between that river and Lake Chad, including the Fula empire (i.e.

Benin (q.v.), about 60 m. inland from the mouth of the .Benin river, and Bende, about 50 m.^ Benin river, and Bende, about 50 m.

.N.W. of Calabar, were noted ju-ju towns and have large populations.^ A large proportion of the population dwells in towns.

^ N.W. of Calabar, were noted ju-ju towns and have large populations.

.Wari and Sapele are towns in the Benin district.^ Wari and Sapele are towns in the Benin district.

.Owo, some 50 m.^ Owo, some 50 m.

.N. of Benin city, is an important trade centre for the Yoruba country, in which are the large cities of Abeokuta, Ibadan and Illorin, all separately noticed.^ N. of Benin city, is an important trade centre for the Yoruba country, in which are the large cities of Abeokuta , Ibadan and Illorin, all separately noticed.

^ The bronzework of the ancient cities of Ife and Benin can be found in museums all over the world.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The country to the back of Lagos is largely inhabited by Yorubas , and the people of Borgu according to some native traditions claim to have had a Coptic origin.

.On the Niger at the head of the delta are Asaba (west bank) and Onitsha (east bank); Iddah (Ida), in the palm-oil zone; Lokoja on the west bank opposite the confluence with the Benue, and the headquarters of the protectorate's military force; Baro, on the east bank, 70 m.^ On the Niger at the head of the delta are Asaba (west bank) and Onitsha (east bank); Iddah (Ida), in the palm-oil zone; Lokoja on the west bank opposite the confluence with the Benue, and the headquarters of the protectorate's military force; Baro, on the east bank, 70 m.

^ From the edge of the coast belt to near the confluence of the Benue and Niger they are overlain by unfossiliferous sandstones, lying undisturbed and possibly of the age of the sandstones of the Congo basin.

^ Police and the armed forces were instructed to use lethal force against suspected criminals and suspected vandals near oil pipelines in the Niger Delta Region.
  • Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

above .Lokoja, the river terminus of the Northern Nigeria railway; Egga, Mureji (at the Kaduna confluence), Jebba and Bussa.^ Adamawa state, Numan and Guyuk LGAs; Kaduna state, northeast of Kaduna town; Kogi state, confluence of Benue and Niger rivers.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The administrative headquarters of Northern Nigeria are at Zungeru, on the Kaduna river, in 6° 09' 40" E., 9 0 48' 32" N.
.Apart from the sea and river ports and the towns in Yorubaland, the chief centres of population are in the open plains east of the Niger.^ Apart from the sea and river ports and the towns in Yorubaland, the chief centres of population are in the open plains east of the Niger.

^ Further west at the Forcados mouth of the Niger is a town of the same name, which is the principal port of entry for the river.

^ Into the huge delta of the Niger several other rivers (the " Oil Rivers ") empty themselves; the chief being, on the west, the Benin , and on the east the Brass .

.They are the capitals of various states founded by the Hausa.^ They are the capitals of various states founded by the Hausa.

.Of these cities the most important is Kano, the great emporium of trade for the central Sudan, where Tuareg and Arab from the north meet merchants from the Niger, Lake Chad and the far southern regions.^ Bulletin Régional de suivi des échanges transfrontaliers Academic bulletin, in French, on trade, economic relations between Benin, Cameroun, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria .

^ The first recorded empire in present-day Nigeria was centered in the north at Kanem-Borno, near Lake Chad.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is bordered on the west by Benin, on the north by Niger and Chad, and on the east by Cameroon.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is situated in 12° N. and 8° 32' E. Some 220 m.^ It is situated in 12° N. and 8° 32' E. Some 220 m.

.W.N.W. of Kano is Sokoto, on a tributary of the Niger of the same name.^ Further west at the Forcados mouth of the Niger is a town of the same name, which is the principal port of entry for the river.

^ At the same time the decision was taken to continue the Lagos railway till it effected a junction with the Kano line near Zungeru, the Niger being bridged at Jebba.

^ W.N.W. of Kano is Sokoto, on a tributary of the Niger of the same name.

.Sokoto is the religious and political centre of the Fula.^ Sokoto is the religious and political centre of the Fula.

.Next in importance among the Hausa towns are Bauchi (or Yakoba), pop.^ Next in importance among the Hausa towns are Bauchi (or Yakoba), pop.

over 50,000, 140 m. S.E. of Kano; Zaria (q.v.), pop.
about 60,000, 82 m. S.S.W. of Kano; Katsena (q.v.), 84 m. N.W. of Kano; Hadeija, near the N. eastern frontier; Gando, 60 m. .S.W. of Sokoto; Bida, 25 m.^ S.W. of Sokoto; Bida , 25 m.

.N.W. of Egga on the Niger; and Yola (q.v.^ N.W. of Egga on the Niger; and Yola (q.v.

) on the .Benue near the German frontier.^ Benue near the German frontier.

Jegga, 85 m. .S.W. of Sokoto, is an important entrepot for trade from the hinterland of the Guinea coast and the Hausa states.^ S.W. of Sokoto, is an important entrepot for trade from the hinterland of the Guinea coast and the Hausa states.

^ The important Mahommedan states of Sokoto, Gando, Kano and Katsena remained independent.

^ There was also a very considerable caravan trade in native goods which the industrious Hausa population carried for great distances through the western and central states of the Sudan.

.The chief towns of Bornu are Kuka on Lake Chad, and Maidugari, some 70 m.^ The chief towns of Bornu are Kuka on Lake Chad, and Maidugari, some 70 m.

S.W. of that lake. Most of these towns are capitals of provinces and residences of native princes subordinate to the British administration. .They are nearly all surrounded by strong mud walls and outer dry moats.^ For example, though the textile industry is very strong, nearly all the cloth produced in Nigeria goes to clothing the large Nigerian population.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Their interior is divided into a series of compounds, each entered through a flat-roofed audience chamber. Inside are the beehive-shaped huts of the household. The gateways are strongly fortified. .In addition to the towns mentioned there are many others containing populations of from 10,000 to 20,000, the bulk of the inhabitants of the Hausa countries being town dwellers.^ Ethnic population: 20,000.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Population total all countries: 5,000.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many parts of the country, there was no functioning system of bail, so suspects were held in investigative detention for prolonged periods of time.
  • Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Communications

.The rivers are the great highways of communication, but, in consequence of the lowness of the water between October and May, navigation is then only possible for shallow draught stern-wheel steamers and launches.^ That way, not only will the issue of constitutionality not arise, it will also mitigate any bias or malafide intentions that may exist between the governor and the 8 legislator who are not in complicity with the governor in his indictment.

^ For example, a tribe's water spirit may have a specific pond or river designated as its holy place.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From the Forcados mouth of the Niger steamers can ascend the main stream as far as Jebba, a distance of 530 m. and, at some risk, to Fort Goldie, 30 m. farther up at the foot of the Bussa rapids. .Steamers can also ascend the Benue to Yola, 480 m., above the confluence of that river with the Niger at Lokoja.^ The Niger and Benue Rivers come together in the center of the country, creating a "Y" that splits Nigeria into three separate sections.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adamawa state, Numan and Guyuk LGAs; Kaduna state, northeast of Kaduna town; Kogi state, confluence of Benue and Niger rivers.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Classification : Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Usaghade More information.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is also possible by this route to proceed by small boat via the Shari system to Lake Chad. .The Kaduna from its confluence with the Niger can be ascended by steamer 50 m.^ Adamawa state, Numan and Guyuk LGAs; Kaduna state, northeast of Kaduna town; Kogi state, confluence of Benue and Niger rivers.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

to Barijuko, which is 22 m. by rail from Zungeru. The Gongola is navigable at high water for 130 m. from its junction with the Benue.
In the delta region every place of importance is easily reached by river steamers, and there is a regular service between Forcados and Lagos by the lagoons. The Cross river is navigable 240 m. up to and beyond the frontier of Cameroon.
A 3 ft. 6 in. gauge railway from the port of Lagos to Ibadan was completed in 1900, the distance by rail being 123 m. Only about half that distance intervenes between Ibadan and the sea. This line was, during 1906-1910, extended via Oshogbo, Illorin and Jebba to Zungeru, whence it is continued to She, 40 m. E. of Zungeru and about 450 m. from Lagos, where a junction is effected with the BaroKano line. A small light surface line 22 m. long, 2 ft. 6 in. gauge was built (1901-1902)in Northern Nigeria between Barijuko on theKaduna and the capital, Zungeru, and proved most successful and lucrative. In 1907 the construction was begun of a 3 ft. 6 in. railway from Baro on the Niger via Bida and Zaria to Kano - a distance of about 400 m.
Good roads connect some of the great Hausa cities, and Kano and Kuka are starting-points for caravans across the Sahara to the Mediterranean. There are also old established caravan routes from Kano to Ashanti and neighbouring countries.
.Regular communication is maintained with Europe by steamers running between Liverpool and Forcados, Bonny and Calabar, the steamers calling at other West African ports en route. The time occupied between Liverpool and Forcados is about seventeen days.^ The country was a destination country for children trafficked for forced labor from other West African countries, primarily Benin.
  • Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ [KF] http://www.nigeria-aids.org Nigeria and West African Bush " The function of this website is to inform Nigerians and others about what Nigeria has to offer ecologically, before its all gone.

Other steamers ply between the ports named (and others in the protectorate) and London and Hamburg. .There is telegraphic communication between Brass and Bonny and Europe by submarine cable, and land lines from Calabar to Lagos and from Lagos to Jebba, Lokoja, Zungeru, Kano, &c., a connexion being also effected with the telegraph system of French West Africa.^ Communal violence between members of the Ogori and Ekpedo ethnic groups in Kogi and Edo states continued over boundary and land disputes.
  • Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ KING STREET TINUBU, LAGOS ISLAND, NIGERIA. OTISALES COMMERCAIL CO LTD, Ukiwo Otisi, Benin,West Africa, ukiwo24@yahoo.com .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hyperia - International Network Communication, Africa Limited Nigerian internet service provider in Lagos.

Agriculture.

The natives of the coast region cultivate yams and other food plants, but in that district agriculture proper scarcely exists, the fruit of the oil-palm supplying an easy means of obtaining almost everything that the natives require. In the plains of the north, inhabited by Hausa and by agricultural pagan tribes, and in the fertile river valleys, agriculture is regularly carried on. Rice and wheat are cultivated in many parts, though the staple food is guinea corn. .Sweet potatoes, ground nuts, yams, onions and other vegetables are largely grown.^ In the south, crops such as corn, yams, and sweet potatoes form the base of the diet.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Of fruits, dates, pomegranates, citrons and bananas abound in certain areas. The shea-butter tree supplies an excellent oil for lamps, and also for cooking, though it is only used by the poorer classes. The most important vegetable products are cotton and indigo, which are universally grown. Tobacco and kola nuts are also grown.

Mineral Products

Tin ore of excellent quality is found in the province of Bauchi, alkali salts are abundant in Kano province, iron ore and red and yellow ochres are found in Kontagora and other provinces, kaolin (china clay) and limestone in the west central regions. Silver and lead have been found in the Benue area.' Trade. - .Throughout Nigeria local trade is active and has shown rapid increase under British rule.^ There shall be 768 Local Government Areas in Nigeria as shown in the second column of Part I of the First Schedule to this Constitution and six area councils as shown in Part II of that Schedule.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

Its further development will be fostered by the improvement of communications which is taking place. .Export trade in the delta and forest regions is almost entirely confined to " jungle produce," the most important articles being palm oil and palm kernel.^ Police and the armed forces were instructed to use lethal force against suspected criminals and suspected vandals near oil pipelines in the Niger Delta Region.
  • Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Multinational oil companies and domestic oil producing companies often hired private security forces and subsidized living expenses for police and soldiers from area units assigned to protect oil facilities in the volatile Niger Delta region.
  • Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Ethnic groups claimed environmental degradation and government indifference to their status in the oil-producing Niger Delta region.
  • Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Rubber, ebony and other timber, cocoa and gum copal, come next in importance. Cotton is also grown for export. .The quantity of palm oil exported annually exceeds 12.000,000 gallons, and is worth over £600,000. Of palm kernels 1 See Colonial Office Reports, Northern Nigeria Mineral Survey 1906-1907; Southern Nigeria Mineral Survey 1905-1907 (Miscellaneous, Nos.^ See also the 2002 Report on Nigeria, in Adobe pdf .

^ Includes the full text of - Slavery Question in Colonial Northern Nigeria, 1900-1906 , by Paul Lovejoy and Jan Hogendorn Robin Law (ed.

^ [KF] http://emeagwali.com/ Energy Information Services Nigeria Produces business intelligence, sells reports on the oil and gas industry and investment opportunities.

59, 67, 68) .
.50,000 to 70,000 tons are shipped yearly, with an average value of £500,000 a year.^ Imprisonment terms range from 12 months to life, while fines range from $375 (50,000 naira) to $1,500 (200,000 naira).
  • Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The principal imports are cotton goods (nearly all from the United Kingdom), and in the southern region spirits - gin and geneva - almost wholly from Holland and Germany, salt, rice and other provisions, tobacco, hardware, cutlery and building material, &c., mostly from the United Kingdom.^ Publishing "team with a combined experience of almost 50 years in the book business in Nigeria, the United Kingdom and the United States."

The value of the trade (imports and exports) of Southern Nigeria (exclusive of Lagos) increased from £1,566,000 in1894-1895to £3,464,000 in 1905. In 1906 the total trade, inclusive of Lagos, was valued at £6,299,000 - imports, £3,148,000; exports, £3,151,000.
.In Northern Nigeria up to the moment of the British occupation the foreign trade was chiefly in the hands of Tripoli Arabs whose caravans crossed the desert at great risk and expense, and carried to the markets of Kuka and Kano tea, sugar and other European goods, taking away the skins and feathers which constituted the principal articles of export to the Mediterranean coast.^ Nigeria is a large-scale importer, depending on other countries for things such as machinery, chemicals, transportation equipment, and manufactured goods.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similarly, ex-head of state, Ibrahim Babangida is a moslem Northerner whose wife, Mariam is from Southeastern Nigeria, and who were both married in a church.

^ A bride price can take the form of money, cattle, wine, or other valuable goods paid to the woman's family, but it also can take a more subtle form.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There was also a very considerable caravan trade in native goods which the industrious Hausa population carried for great distances through the western and central states of the Sudan.^ LTD < smooth_industries@yahoo.com > , Smooth Tradings Industrial Co Ltd, 180 Jubilee Raod Aba Abia State Nigeria.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, though the textile industry is very strong, nearly all the cloth produced in Nigeria goes to clothing the large Nigerian population.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its very educative and its great to know that there are sites that provides accurate information about the Nigerian Culture...Keep up the good work.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The principal articles of this trade are salt, kola nuts, ivory, leather, sodium carbonates and spices. The centre of the cloth manufacture is Kano. The cloth is made of the cotton grown in the country, woven on small handlooms and dyed either with indigo or with a magenta dye obtained from the bark of a tree. If the Hausa history, which exists in written form, be correct, the manufacture of this cloth has been carried on in Kano since the 9th century. Kano and the district around it clothes half the population of the Sudan. The kola nut, chewed by almost every native of the country, is brought from west of the Niger, traders from Ashanti, Accra and Yorubaland frequenting the markets of Jegga. Salt and " potash " are imported from Absen in the Sahara; and ivory, ostrich feathers and leather goods are exported to Tripoli. The principal exports to Great Britain have come hitherto from the forest regions, and are of the same class as the forest products of the south. Rubber constitutes at present the most important export. The cultivation of cotton is however indigenous to the country. .Inquiries made under the auspices of the British Cotton Growing Association have led to the conclusion that Northern Nigeria offers the most promising field contained within the empire for the growth of cotton required to render Lancashire looms independent of foreign supplies.^ The educated elite became some of the most outspoken proponents of an independent Nigeria.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The manufacturing industry had its own spate of mismanagement too, which led to many of the multinational firms and foreign partners divesting their interests in Nigeria.

^ The lack of universities providing quality education equal to that in Britain was a major component of the social reforms that led to Nigeria's independence.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Steps have been taken to stimulate the native industry, and it is hoped that cotton may take the place in Northern Nigeria which palm oil and kernels occupy in the coast zone.^ It seems Nigeria has taken several steps back and reversed the gains (however contentious) made during the more dynamic Obasanjo regime.

^ [KF] http://emeagwali.com/ Energy Information Services Nigeria Produces business intelligence, sells reports on the oil and gas industry and investment opportunities.

^ It is a shame that a band of bandits who are self-confessed criminals can hold Nigeria and indeed the entire global oil industry to ransom the way these individuals have.

Any great expansion in the cotton trade is however dependent on the development of cheap and efficient means of transport - hence the importance, commercially, of the Baro-Kano railway, with its base on the navigable Niger. With the increase of transport facilities it is probable that the trade with the Mediterranean coasts will also be diverted to the south, and profitable minor branches of trade would be formed in leather, ostrich feathers, gums, fibres, &c. The imports from Great Britain, which come via Forcados, are mostly cotton goods, provisions and hardware. The importation of spirits is prohibited north of 7° N.

Currency and Banking

The legal currency, and that in general use, is British sterling. .There is a subsidiary coinage (introduced in 1908) consisting of a nickel penny and a nickel tenth of a penny (the last-named was first coined in aluminium, but this metal proved unsuitable and was withdrawn).^ My brethren and sisters make no mistake I shall blog as is true to my name until the dawn of time or my last breath whichever comes first.

^ Since this note first appeared the street name has been corrected but there is still no building number (and guys - Berkely Street is not in the W1J postcode area!
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each state of Nigeria, named in the first column of Part I of the First Schedule to this Constitution, shall consist of the area shown opposite thereto in the second column of that Schedule.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

Cowries (moo =3d.) are still occasionally employed, and on the coast, accounts are sometimes kept in gallons of palm oil. .Banking is in the hands of the Bank of British West Africa and the Bank of Nigeria.^ Nigeria is in West Africa, along the eastern coast of the Gulf of Guinea, and just north of the equator.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ KING STREET TINUBU, LAGOS ISLAND, NIGERIA. OTISALES COMMERCAIL CO LTD, Ukiwo Otisi, Benin,West Africa, ukiwo24@yahoo.com .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [KF] http://www.nigeria.gov.ng/ Nigeria AIDS.org (Lagos, Nigeria) An NGO, covers West Africa as well.

There is also a government savings bank.
History. Of the early history of the races inhabiting the coast lands little is known. .The Beni appear to have been the most powerful race at the time of the discovery of the coast by the Portuguese in the 15th century, and the kings of Benin in the 17th century ruled a large part of the south-western portion of the existing British protectorate (see Benin).^ The National Assembly shall have power to make laws for the Federation or any part thereof with respect to university education, technological education or such professional education as may from time to time be designated by the National Assembly.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Along the coast, the Edo people established the Benin Empire (not to be confused with the present-day country of Benin to the west), which reached its height of power in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the south, the Oyo Empire grew to become the most powerful Yoruban society during the sixteenth century.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Benin influence does not seem to have reached east of the Forcados mouth of the Niger.^ It is bordered on the west by Benin, on the north by Niger and Chad, and on the east by Cameroon.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He does not seem to have a grasp of the problem facing the Niger Delta.

.In the greater part of the delta region each town owned a different chief and there was no one dominant tribe.^ Without security, no one, expatriate or indigenous, would feel safe to conduct business in the Niger Delta; without economic activities, there will be poverty, illiteracy, diseases, socio-cultural decay and increased crime rate.

^ In many parts of the country, there was no functioning system of bail, so suspects were held in investigative detention for prolonged periods of time.
  • Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Kalabari, Okrika, and Ikwerre tribes of the Niger Delta region all have festivals in honor of water spirits sacred to their peoples.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among these people, who occupied a low position even among the degenerate coast negroes, and who were constantly raided by the more virile tribes of the interior, trading stations were established by the Portuguese, and later on by other Europeans, British traders appearing as early as the 17th century.^ These environmental regions greatly affect the cultures of the people who live there.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These businesses account for 70 to 80 percent of employment here, but we can do much more: if you look at Sweden and other European countries, the export capability of these enterprises is much higher.

^ Lesser allegations than these have been known to end people’s pol itical careers in more developed societies.

.There was no assertion of political rights by the white men, who were largely at the mercy of the natives, and who rarely ventured far from their ships or the " factories " established on the various rivers and estuaries.^ There were no reports of political prisoners.
  • Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ He has also cultivated a grassroots and populist following and so belongs to that rare breed of Nigerian political elites who enjoy the sincere patronage and trust of the common-folk.

^ There is a common feeling in many rural areas that the average person cannot affect the politics of the country, so there is no reason to try.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the end of the 18th century British enterprise had almost entirely displaced that of other nations on the Niger coast.^ River Niger and its affluents and on any such other inland waterway as may be designated by the National Assembly to be an international waterway or to be an inter-State waterway; .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

But the principal trade of all Europeans was still in slaves.
.After the abolition of the slave-trade in the 19th century palm oil formed the staple article of commerce, and the various streams which drain the Niger coast near the mouth of the great river became known as the " Oil Rivers."^ Police and the armed forces were instructed to use lethal force against suspected criminals and suspected vandals near oil pipelines in the Niger Delta Region.
  • Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ While oil is Nigeria's largest industry in terms of output and revenue, oil reserves are found only in the Niger Delta region and along the coast.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The opening up of the interior was in the meantime promoted, chiefly by the efforts of British travellers and merchants. Mungo Park traced the Niger from Segu to Bussa, where he lost his life in 1805. From Bussa to the sea the course of the river was first made known in 1830 by the [brothers Richard and John Lander. .Major Dixon Denham and Captain Hugh Clapperton entered the country now known as Northern Nigeria from the north in 1823, crossing the desert from Tripoli.^ Northern Mandaras Site for ethnographers, on the northern Mandara mountains of North Cameroon and North East Nigeria .

Clapperton in 1826-1827 made a second journey, approaching the same territory from the Guinea coast. .Dr Barth, travelling under the auspices of the British government, entered the country from the north and made the journeys, lasting over two years between 1852 and 1855, of which he has left the record that still remains the principal standard work for the interior.^ The Government's human rights record remained poor, and the Government continued to commit serious abuses.
  • Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ International broadcasting, principally Voice of America and British Broadcasting Corporation, as well as Deutsche Welle and others, broadcast in English and Hausa and were an important source of news in the country.
  • Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In most sectors, the minimum work age is 15 years, which is consistent with the age for completing educational requirements; however, child labor remained a problem.
  • Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Macgregor Laird first organized in 1832 the navigation of the river Niger from its mouth to a point above the Benue confluence.^ The Niger and Benue Rivers come together in the center of the country, creating a "Y" that splits Nigeria into three separate sections.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adamawa state, Numan and Guyuk LGAs; Kaduna state, northeast of Kaduna town; Kogi state, confluence of Benue and Niger rivers.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Classification : Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Enwang-Uda More information.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the next twenty-five years expeditions were despatched into the interior, and a British consul was posted at Lokoja.^ The next five years saw violent protests and mass migrations as ethnic groups again retreated to their traditional homelands.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though there is archaeological evidence that societies have been living in Nigeria for more than twenty-five hundred years, the borders of modern Nigeria were not created until the British consolidated their colonial power over the area in 1914.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nigeria continuously for a period of twelve months, and during the period of twenty years immediately preceding that period of twelve months has resided in Nigeria for periods amounting in the aggregate to not less than fifteen years.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

Possession was also taken, in 1861, of Lagos island, with the object of checking the slave trade still being carried on in that region. .But the deadly climate discouraged the first efforts of the British government, and, after the parliamentary committee of 1865 had recommended a policy which would render possible the ultimate withdrawal of British official influence from the coast, the consulate of Lokoja was abandoned.^ This culture spilled over to the first term of the Obasanjo presidency, when we saw various government officials continuing to illicitly enrich themselves through acts of graft.

^ The recommendations of the 1993 Esho Panel, set up to investigate corruption in the judiciary, called for the "withdrawal" of 47 judicial officials.
  • Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1861 the British government had annexed the city and established its first official colony in Nigeria.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was re-established a few years later to meet the still steadily growing requirements of British trade upon the river.^ After more than 350 years of slave trading, the British decided that the slave trade was immoral and, in 1807, ordered it stopped.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1880 the influence of the international " scramble for Africa " made itself felt by the establishment under the recognized protection of the French government of two French firms which opened upwards of thirty trading stations on the Lower Niger.^ We also signed two additional free-trade agreements with Colombia and Peru and opened negotiations with Malaysia.

^ Bulletin Régional de suivi des échanges transfrontaliers Academic bulletin, in French, on trade, economic relations between Benin, Cameroun, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria .

^ The law provides for the granting of asylum and refugee status to persons in accordance with the 1951 U.N. Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, and the Government has established such a system for providing protection to refugees.
  • Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

The establishment of these firms was admittedly a political move which coincided with the extension of French influence from Senegal into the interior. Nearly at the same time a young Englishman, George Goldie-Taubman, afterwards better known as Sir George Goldie (q.v.), having some private interests on the Niger, conceived the idea of amalgamating all local British interests and creating ' a British province on the Niger. .To effect this end the United African Company was formed in 187 9, and trade was pushed upon the river with an energy which convinced the French firms of the futility of their less united efforts.^ Reporting a 2007 fraud attempt to us, a European firm wrote "For our company the African continent is dead.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They yielded the field and allowed themselves to be bought out by the United African Company in 1884. At the Berlin Conference held in1884-1885the British representative was able to state that Great Britain alone possessed trading interests on the Lower Niger, and in June 1885 a British protectorate was notified over the coast lands known as the Oil Rivers.^ They have been known to manufacture exit problems so that the mark can be pressured to hand over money as a condition of being allowed to leave Nigeria.
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Multinational oil companies and domestic oil producing companies often hired private security forces and subsidized living expenses for police and soldiers from area units assigned to protect oil facilities in the volatile Niger Delta region.
  • Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Granted, there are grave environmental issues and injustice meted out to the indigenes of the Niger Delta, but these Nihilist militants it seems perpetrate their nefarious acts with self-serving intent as is evident in the many ransoms they demand of the government and oil companies in exchange for their staff abducted by these militants.

.Germany had in the meantime established itself in Cameroon, and the new British protectorate extended along the Gulf of Guinea from the British colony of Lagos on the west to the new German colony on the east, where the Rio del Rey marked the frontier.^ Nigeria is in West Africa, along the eastern coast of the Gulf of Guinea, and just north of the equator.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1861 the British government had annexed the city and established its first official colony in Nigeria.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It seems as if Yar'Adua is only in the news when he goes to Germany or the Middle East for a medical checkup or vacation.

.In the following year, 1886, the United African Company received a royal charter under the title of the Royal Niger Company.^ Some notes on current fraud techniques follow but check the linked pages for more detail on the false names, company titles and methods used by the criminals: .
  • Interfraud - exposing the British and Irish connection. 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.data-wales.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The territories which were placed by the charter under the control of the company were those immediately bordering the Lower Niger in its course from the confluence at Lokoja to the sea.^ Nigeria, Cameroon, Niger, and Chad also have a long-running border dispute over territory in the Lake Chad region, which also has led to some fighting across the borders.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On the coast they extended from the Forcados to the .Nun mouth of the river. Beyond the confluence European trade had not at that time penetrated to the interior. .
.The interior was held by powerful Mahommedan rulers who had imposed a military domination upon the indigenous races and were not prepared to open their territories to European intercourse.^ In 1884, as European countries engaged in a race to consolidate their African territories, the British Army and local merchant militias set out to conquer the Africans who refused to recognize British rule.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The President may, in exercise of the powers conferred upon him by section 147 of this Constitution, appoint for the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja a Minister who shall exercise such powers and perform such functions as may be delegated to him by the President, from time to time.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.To secure British political influence, and to preserve a possible field for future development, the Niger Company had negotiated treaties with some of the most important of these rulers, and the nominal extension of the company's territories was carried over the whole sphere of influence thus secured.^ But perhaps for some political reasons, and maybe out of respect for the sovereignty of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, the British and Americans have opted to stand down for now.

^ State broadcasters and journalists remained important tools for governors; these officials used the state-owned media to showcase the state's accomplishments and to promote their own political goals.
  • Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The most tendered reservation people have of the commission is that it has gone after some highly placed members of the society, and that these folks do not deserve to be investigated and interrogated.

.The movements of Germany from the south-east, and of France from the west and north, were thus held in check, and by securing international agreements the mutual limits of the three European powers concerned were definitely fixed.^ Ibibio [ ibb ] east and northeast, Ogoni [ ogo ] northwest, Ibani [ iby ] west, Atlantic Ocean south.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is bordered on the west by Benin, on the north by Niger and Chad, and on the east by Cameroon.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South Kebbi state, Yauri LGA; west Niger state, Borgu LGA; banks of Niger River, north of Busa.
  • Ethnologue report for Nigeria 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The principal treaties relating to the German frontiers were negotiated in 1886 and 1893: the Anglo-French treaties were more numerous, those of 1890 and 1898, which laid down the main lines of division between French and British possessions on the northern and western frontiers of Nigeria, having been supplemented by many lesser rectifications of frontier.^ In northern Nigeria many people who are not ethnic Hausas speak both Hausa and their own tribal language.
  • Culture of Nigeria - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, wedding, tribe, population, religion 28 January 2010 1:34 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is highly likely to lead to violent and prolonged civil strife between those for and against the bid, in which several tens of thousands, possibly hundreds of thousands, of Nigerians would lose their lives and many more their livelihood and homes.

^ On British colonial policy re northern Nigeria, Islam, the Fulani, Christian missionaries.

.(See Africa, § 5.) It was not until 1909 that the whole of the frontier between Nigeria and the French and German possessions had been definitely demarcated.^ Bulletin Régional de suivi des échanges transfrontaliers Academic bulletin, in French, on trade, economic relations between Benin, Cameroun, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria .

.Thus, mainly by the action of the Royal Niger Company, a territory of vast extent, into which the chartered company itself was not able to carry either administrative or trading operations, was secured for Great Britain.^ Essential Action - Boycott Shell About Shell and other oil companies operating in the Niger Delta.

^ The tussle to control the vast wealth that spews from beneath the mangroves of the Niger Delta and surrounding territorial waters has been central to all the conflicts that have befallen the country.

In 1897, at a time when disputes with France upon the western frontier had reached a very active stage, the company entered upon a' campaign against the Mahommedan sovereign of Nupe. .This campaign would, no doubt, have led to important results had the company retained its administrative powers.^ No doubt, all the ardent Obasanjo men and apologists would be relieved of their positions, shooed from the Rock and replaced with the new president’s men and apologists.

^ Those interests may well be stability in Africa among others and the Obama administration, no doubt, would do anything in its power to achieve this if the American pe ople so desire it.

.In the expedition a force of 500 Hausa, drilled and trained by the company, and led by thirty white officers - of whom some were lent for the occasion by the War Office - decisively defeated a force of some thousands of native troops, led by the emir of Nupe himself.^ A well-trained, adequately-kited and properly equipped force of 7,500 to 10,000 troops should be able to secure the Niger Delta.

^ Some companies did not divest their interests; instead they fired erring key officers.

The capital town of Bida was taken and the emir deposed. From Bida the expedition marched to Illorin, where again the whole district submitted to the authority of the company. In Illorin the campaign had some lasting effect. In Nupe, on the northern side of the river, as the company was unable to occupy the territory conquered, things shortly reverted to their previous condition. When the company's troops were withdrawn the deposed emir returned and reoccupied the throne, leaving the situation to be dealt with after the territories of the company had been transferred to the crown.
The complications to which the pressure of foreign nations, and especially of France, on the frontiers of the territories gave rise, became at this period so acute that the resources of a private company were manifestly inadequate to meet the possible necessities of the to position, Relations with. .France on the western crown. border became so strained that in 1897 Mr Chamberlain, who was then secretary of state for the colonies, thought it necessary to raise a local force, afterwards known as the West African Frontier Force, for the special defence of the frontiers of the West African dependencies.