|Night on the Galactic Railroad|
|Translator||Roger Pulvers, Sarah Strong, John Bester, Joseph Sigrist|
|Genre(s)||Children's, Fantasy, Philosophical|
|Publication date||October 1934|
Night on the Galactic Railroad (銀河鉄道の夜 Ginga Tetsudō no Yoru ), sometimes translated as Milky Way Railroad, Night Train to the Stars, or Fantasy Railroad In The Stars, is a classic Japanese novel by Kenji Miyazawa written around 1927. The nine-chapter novel was posthumously published in 1934 as part of Complete Works of Kenji Miyazawa Vol. 3 (『宮沢賢治全集』第三巻) published by Bunpodō (文圃堂). Four versions are known to be in existence, with the last one being the most famous among Japanese readers.
Giovanni is a boy from a poor family, working hard to feed his sick mother. His kind friend Campanella cares for him. At school in a science class, the teacher asks Giovanni what the Milky Way really is. Giovanni knows that they are stars but cannot answer. The teacher asks Campanella, but he intentionally does not answer to save Giovanni's face.
On the day of a large festival, Giovanni meets his classmate Zanelli. He makes fun of Giovanni and runs away to the festival. Giovanni can not go to the festival because he has to take care of his mother.
Tired, Giovanni lies down on top of a hill. He hears a strange sound, and he realizes he is sitting in a train with Campanella. The train travels through the Northern Cross and other stars in the Milky Way. Along the way, the two see fantastic sights and meet various people—scholars excavating a fossil from the white sands of crystal and a man who catches herons to make candies from them.
Children who were on a ship that crashed into an iceberg (possibly Titanic) get on the train at Aquila, suggesting to the readers that the train is transporting its passengers to their afterlife. The train arrives at the Southern Cross and all the other passengers get off the train, leaving only Giovanni and Campanella in the train. Giovanni promises Campanella to go on forever, together. But as the train approaches the Coalsack, Campanella disappears, leaving Giovanni behind.
Giovanni wakes up on top of the hill. He heads to the town, and finds out that Zanelli fell into the river from a boat. He was saved by Campanella who went into the water, but Campanella had not come up since then and is missing.
The Northern Cross and Southern Cross are representations of Christianity, and the Southern Cross has been described as Heaven. "天気輪の柱（Pillar of the Wheel）" is a Buddhistic symbol. This story contains a religious question by Kenji Miyazawa. The main theme of this story is "what is true happiness?"
After Kenji's most beloved sister Toshi died in 1922, Kenji, in sorrow, went on a railroad trip to Sakhalin. He started working on this novel soon afterwards in 1924, and this trip is said to be the basis of the story. He kept on polishing the work steadily until his death in 1933. The middle part of the novel was never completed but was published as it is nevertheless.
A tribute to those who give themselves to others is a recurring theme throughout the storyline, and according to Hasebe (2000), they are reflections of Kenji's philosophy of self-sacrifice, a view appearing in many other juvenile novels of his such as Yodaka no Hoshi and Gusukōbudori no Denki. Meanwhile, Suzuki (2004) interprets them as representing a "holistic thought of Ecosystem".
|Night on the Galactic Railroad|
Poster for Night on the Galactic Railroad
(Ginga Tetsudō no Yoru)
|Genre||Fantastic, Juvenile, Philosophical|
The most prominent but controversial alteration made in the anime is that the main two characters (and their classmates) are depicted as cats. Some other characters such as the children from the ship are humans.
Many members of the anime staff ultimately went on to high-profile careers as directors or as studio founders, such as Kōichi Mashimo, then a storyboard artist, who more than ten years later would go on to form the famed studio Bee Train.
The captions throughout the film are in Esperanto, paying homage to Kenji Miyazawa who was strongly interested in the language. In the language, the film is called Nokto de la Galaksia Fervojo. Texts appearing in various scenes are also written in Esperanto, such as writings on the blackboard in the classroom. An apparent extra at press in the printing house—where Giovanni works—tells the shipwreck of a passenger ship, carrying the Esperanto lyric of "Nearer, My God, to Thee".
Playwright Sō Kitamura made the story into a drama titled Sōkō: Night on the Galactic Railroad (想稿・銀河鉄道の夜). Note that 想稿 could be a play on the word sōkō (草稿, "rough draft") and the character 想 (sō) carrying meanings such as "conception" or "idea". Premièred in 1986, the play was performed by Kitamura's theatrical company Project Navi.
A part in a 2002 play consisting of various works by Kenji The Account of Kenji Island Exploration (賢治島探検記 Kenji-tō Tankenki ) written by Yutaka Narui for a theatrical company Caramelbox, features the story by the name of Night on the Light Speed Galactic Rairoad (光速銀河鉄道の夜 Kōsoku Ginga Tetsudō no Yoru ). It follows through the episodes in the novel rather briefly. The play also includes some lines by Professor Burukaniro, which appear only in the first three versions of the novel.
Warabiza, a performing arts company in Akita Prefecture, made a musical version of the story. The musical premièred in April 2004 and toured around Japan until March 2007.
The idea of a steam locomotive running through the stars inspired Leiji Matsumoto to create his famous manga, Galaxy Express 999 (whose literal Japanese title is Ginga Tetsudō 999, possibly in reference to the Japanese title of the novel).
In the Tōhoku region of Japan where Kenji Miyazawa grew up, there exists a real-life train line of similar name: Iwate Galaxy Railway Line (いわて銀河鉄道線 Iwate Ginga Tetsudō sen ), running from Morioka Station to Metoki Station.
This book is also heavily mentioned and referenced in the anime Hanbun no Tsuki ga Noboru Sora (Looking up at the half-moon), as a book that Akiba Rika's father gave to her.
A character in the light novel .hack//AI buster remarks that he took his online handle, Albireo, because he was so affected by Miyazawa's description of the binary star Albireo. The book is referenced once more during a discussion on how much stories can change from the first draft to the final draft, due to the various different versions of Night on the Galactic Railroad.
In the manga Aria by Kozue Amano, a human character, Akari, imagines that a nighttime train is the Galaxy Express from the novel. The next night she is given a ticket to ride it by a cat, and nearly gets on it but donates the ticket to a kitten that has lost its. Aside from Akari, the conductor and all the passengers are cats, similar to the movie.
Yakitate!! Japan, a popular manga and anime series also has short mention of the work as illustrated in the reaction of the judge pierrot, the world class clown after eating the bread of shadow whom promised it would send him across the galaxy to see his mother. It is also portrayed that the characters mother's favorite book is the same piece of literature; she is shown in a painting holding the book.
In the manga and anime Doraemon, Nobita Nobi once mistook the novel for being Leiji Matsumoto's manga, since both contain "Ginga Tetsudō" in the title.
Kashiwa Daisuke's song "Stella" is program music based on the novel.
As copyright for the novel has expired in Japan (and most of the world), Aozora Bunko distributes full text of the novel for free.