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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A nightmare is a dream that can cause a strong negative emotional response from the sleeper, typically fear and/or horror. The dream may contain situation(s) of danger, discomfort, or psychological or physical distress. Sufferers are usually woken in a state of distress, and might be unable to go back to sleep for a prolonged period.

Nightmares can have physical causes such as sleeping in an uncomfortable or awkward position, or having a fever; and psychological causes, such as stress or anxiety. Eating before bed, which triggers an increase in the body's metabolism and brain activity, is a potential stimulus for nightmares.[1]

Occasional nightmares are commonplace, but recurrent nightmares can interfere with sleeping patterns and cause insomnia, and may require medical help. A recently proposed treatment consists of imagery rehearsal.[2] This approach appears to reduce the effects of nightmares and other symptoms in acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.[3]


Medical investigation

Studies of dreams have found that about three quarters of dream content or emotions are negative.[4]

One definition of "nightmare" is a dream which causes one to wake up in the middle of the sleep cycle and experience a negative emotion, such as fear. This type of event occurs on average once per month. They are not common in children under 5, but they are more common in young children (25% experiencing a nightmare at least once per week), most common in adolescents, and less common in adults (dropping in frequency about one- third from age 25 to 55).[4]

Fearfulness in waking life is correlated with the incidence of nightmares.[4]

One frequent cause of nighmares is watching a scarry movie before bed, usually contributing to some of the nightmare that young child and adloescents obtain.

See also


  • Max Eastman visited Sigmund Freud's apartment in Vienna in 1926. He saw a print of Füssli's The Nightmare next to Rembrandt's The Anatomy Lesson. Ernest Jones chose another version of Füssli's painting as the frontispiece of his book On the Nightmare; however, neither Freud nor Jones mentioned those paintings in their writings about the classic nightmare.
  • Recent exhibits: Gothic Nightmares: Füssli, Blake and the Imagination. 15 February – 1 May (2006); Tate Britain, Millbank, London SW1P 4RG.
  • When considered a disease, nightmares are classified as follows:
    • ICD-10 code = F51.5
    • ICD-9 code = 307.47


  1. ^ Stephens, Laura. (2006). "Nightmares.". 
  2. ^ Davis JL, Wright DC (2005). "Case series utilizing exposure, relaxation, and rescripting therapy: impact on nightmares, sleep quality, and psychological distress". Behavioral sleep medicine 3 (3): 151–7. doi:10.1207/s15402010bsm0303_3. PMID 15984916. 
  3. ^ Krakow B, Hollifield M, Johnston L, et al (2001). "Imagery rehearsal therapy for chronic nightmares in sexual assault survivors with post traumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial". JAMA 286 (5): 537–45. doi:10.1001/jama.286.5.537. PMID 11476655. 
  4. ^ a b c The Science Behind Dreams and Nightmares, Talk of the Nation, national Public Radio. 30 October 2007.
  • Anch, A.M., & Browman, C.P., & Mitler, M.M., & Walsh, J.K. (1988). Sleep: A scientific perspective. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  • Harris J.C. (2004). Arch Gen Psychiatry. May;61(5):439-40. The Nightmare. (PMID 15123487)
  • Jones, Ernest (1951). On the Nightmare (ISBN 0-87140-912-7) (pbk, 1971; ISBN 0-87140-248-3).
  • Forbes, D. et al. (2001) Brief Report: Treatment of Combat-Related Nightmares Using Imagery Rehearsal: A Pilot Study, Journal of Traumatic Stress 14 (2): 433-442
  • Siegel, A. (2003) A mini-course for clinicians and trauma workers on posttraumatic nightmares.
  • Burns, Sarah (2004). Painting the Dark Side : Art and the Gothic Imagination in Nineteenth-Century America. Ahmanson-Murphy Fine Are Imprint, 332 pp, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-23821-4.
  • Davenport-Hines, Richard (1999). Gothic: Four Hundred Years of Excess, Horror, Evil and Ruin. North Point Press, p160-61.
  • Hill, Anne (2009). What To Do When Dreams Go Bad: A Practical Guide to Nightmares. Serpentine Media, 68 pp, ISBN 1-88759-004-8
  • Simons, Ronald C and Hughes, Charles C (eds.)(1985). Culture-Bound Syndromes. Springer, 536pp.
  • Sagan, Carl (1997). The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark.

External links

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

by Clark Ashton Smith

As though a thousand vampires, from the day
Fleeing unseen, oppressed that nightly deep,
The straitening and darkened skies of sleep
Closed on the dreamland dale in which I lay.

Eternal tensions numbed the wings of time
While through unending narrow ways I sought
Awakening; up precipitous gloom I thought
To reach the dawn, far-pinnacled sublime.

Rejected at the closen gates of light
I turned, and down new dreams and shadows fled,
Where beetling shapes of veiled, colossal dread
With Gothic wings enormous arched the night.

PD-icon.svg This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923. It may be copyrighted outside the U.S. (see Help:Public domain). Flag of the United States.svg


Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!


Game Series Soul series
1st Appearance Soul Edge
Alter Ego:
Japanese Name:
Age: unknown
Blood Type: AB
Birthdate: unknown
Family: No Family
Servant, Tira
Fighting Style: Self Taught
Weapon(s): Soul Edge (Male) (Soulcalibur, Soulcalibur II, & Soulcalibur IV)
Soul Edge (Phantom) (Soulcalibur III)
Special Skill(s):
Voice Actor(s): English:
Ted D' Agostino (Soul Calibur II)
Patrick Ryan (Soul Calibur III)
Nobuyuki Hiyama
This page is about the Soul Calibur character Nightmare For other uses of Nightmare see Nightmare (disambiguation)

The Soulcalibur series
Soul Edge | Soul Blade | Soulcalibur | Soulcalibur II | Soulcalibur III | Soulcalibur Legends | Soulcalibur IV | Soulcalibur: Broken Destiny
Main:Amy | Astaroth | Cassandra Alexandra | Cervantes | Charade | Edge Master | Hwang | Ivy | Kilik |

Li Long | Lizardman | Maxi | Mitsurugi | Necrid | Nightmare | Olcadan | Raphael | Rock | Seong Han-myeong | Seong Mi-na | Setsuka | Siegfried | Sophitia | Taki | Talim | Tira | Voldo | Xianghua | Yoshimitsu | Yun-seong | Zasalamel
Bonus: Arthur | Revenant | Greed | Miser | Valeria | Hualin | Lynette | Abelia | Girardot | Luna | Aurelia | Demuth | Chester | Strife

Abyss | Inferno | Night Terror
Soul Weapons
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Simple English

File:John Henry Fuseli - The
The Nightmare is a painting by Johann Heinrich Füssli (who was also known as John Henry Fuseli). He painted it in 1781

The term nightmare refers to very powerful dreams that the sleeper finds disturbing. They usually have either physiological causes, such as a high fever, or psychological ones, such as trauma or stress in the sleeper's life. Nightmares are common, but nightmares that happen very often can cause problems with sleep. They may cause people to get medical help.

Nightmares usually occur in REM sleep.

In earlier times

In earlier times, people thought that such nightmares were really the work of demons. They thought people were having nightmares because an Incubus was sitting on the chest of the sleeper. This can also be seen on the image. Sometimes people also thought magic and demonic possession were involved.

In the 19th century, people made the diet responsible. When Ebenezer Scrooge sees a ghost in A Christmas Carol, by Charles Dickens, he makes "... an undigested bit of beef, a blot of mustard, a crumb of cheese, a fragment of an underdone potato..." responsible for the apparition. Similarly, the Household Cyclopedia (1881) offers the following advice about nightmares:

"Great attention is to be paid to regularity and choice of diet. Intemperance of every kind is hurtful, but nothing is more productive of this disease than drinking bad wine. Of eatables those which are most prejudicial are all fat and greasy meats and pastry... Moderate exercise contributes in a superior degree to promote the digestion of food and prevent flatulence; those, however, who are necessarily confined to a sedentary occupation, should particularly avoid applying themselves to study or bodily labor immediately after eating... Going to bed before the usual hour is a frequent cause of night-mare, as it either occasions the patient to sleep too long or to lie long awake in the night. Passing a whole night or part of a night without rest likewise gives birth to the disease, as it occasions the patient, on the succeeding night, to sleep too soundly. Indulging in sleep too late in the morning, is an almost certain method to bring on the paroxysm, and the more frequently it returns, the greater strength it acquires; the propensity to sleep at this time is almost irresistible."[1]



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